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Variations In Phase Comparison Schemes; Phase Comparison Excitation - GE L60 Instruction Manual

Line phase comparison system, ur series.
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9.1 OVERVIEW
Of course, the output from the receiver will depend on the keying of the remote transmitter. The transmitters at all line termi-
nals are keyed in the same manner. They are keyed ON by an output from FDL (Fault Detector Low-set) and keyed OFF by
the squaring amplifier via AND2 during the positive half cycles of current. The FDL function is required at all terminals in all
phase comparison blocking schemes to initiate a blocking signal from the associated transmitter. This is received at the
remote receiver and blocks tripping via the comparer during external faults. FDL has a more sensitive setting and therefore
operates faster than the remote FDH function. It is obvious from Figure 9–4 that if an external fault occurred, and FDL did
not operate at least as fast as the remote FDH, false tripping could occur because of the lack of receiver output. In general
FDL is set so as not to pick up on load current but still with a lower pick up than FDH so that it will operate before FDH. For
an internal fault, the currents entering both ends of the line are in phase with each other. Thus, during the half cycle that the
SQ AMP is providing an input to AND1, the associated receiver is producing no output, and so tripping will take place at
both ends of the line.
For an external fault, the current entering one terminal is 180° out of phase with the current entering the other terminal.
Under these conditions, during the half cycles when the SQ AMP is producing outputs, the associated receiver is also pro-
viding an output thus preventing an AND1 output. No tripping will take place.
There are a number of different phase comparison schemes in general use today and while all of these employ the same
basic means of comparison described above, significant differences do exist. These differences relate to the following:
Phase comparison excitation (component or current to be compared).
Pure phase comparison vs. combined phase and directional comparison.
Blocking vs. tripping schemes.
Single vs. dual phase comparison.
a) DESCRIPTION
Before discussing this subject, it is well to consider what takes place in terms of the currents that are available for compari-
son when a fault occurs on a power system. The table below lists the sequence components of fault current that are pres-
ent during the various different kinds of faults while Figure 9–6 illustrates the relative phase positions of the sequence
components of fault current for the different kinds of faults and the different phases involved.
Table 9–1: FAULT TYPES
TYPE OF FAULT
Single-Phase-to-Ground
Phase-to-Phase
Double-Phase-to-Ground
Three-Phase
Figure 9–6 shows the relative phase positions of the outputs of a positive sequence network, a negative sequence network,
and a zero sequence network all referenced to phase A. The transfer functions of these three networks are given by the fol-
lowing equations.
9
9-6

9.1.3 VARIATIONS IN PHASE COMPARISON SCHEMES

SEQUENCE COMPONENTS
POSITIVE
NEGATIVE
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
1
-- - I
I
(
I
120°
I
=
+
+
1
a
b
c
3
1
I
-- - I
(
I
120
°
I
=
+
+
2
a
b
c
3
1
I
-- - I
(
I
I
)
=
+
+
0
a
b
c
3
L60 Line Phase Comparison System
9 THEORY OF OPERATION

9.1.4 PHASE COMPARISON EXCITATION

ZERO
yes
no
yes
no
120°
)
120°
)
(EQ 9.1)
GE Multilin

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