5.5 GROUPED ELEMENTS
Figure 5–73: GROUND DISTANCE ZONES 2 AND HIGHER SCHEME LOGIC
GROUND DIRECTIONAL SUPERVISION:
A dual (zero-sequence and negative-sequence) memory-polarized directional supervision applied to the ground distance
protection elements has been shown to give good directional integrity. However, a reverse double-line-to-ground fault can
lead to a maloperation of the ground element in a sound phase if the zone reach setting is increased to cover high resis-
Ground distance zones 2 and higher use an additional ground directional supervision to enhance directional integrity. The
element's directional characteristic angle is used as a maximum torque angle together with a 90° limit angle.
The supervision is biased toward operation in order to avoid compromising the sensitivity of ground distance elements at
low signal levels. Otherwise, the reverse fault condition that generates concern will have high polarizing levels so that a cor-
rect reverse fault decision can be reliably made.
The supervision for zones 2 and 3 is removed during open pole conditions.
L60 Line Phase Comparison System