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Phase Selection - GE L60 Instruction Manual

Line phase comparison system, ur series.
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9.2 SINGLE-POLE TRIPPING
The L60 uses phase relations between current symmetrical components for phase selection. First, the algorithm validates if
there is enough zero-sequence, positive-sequence, and negative-sequence currents for reliable analysis. The comparison
is adaptive; that is, the magnitudes of the three symmetrical components used mutually as restraints confirm if a given com-
ponent is large enough to be used for phase selection. Once the current magnitudes are validated, the algorithm analyzes
phase relations between the negative-sequence and positive-sequence currents and negative-sequence and zero-
sequence currents (when applicable) as illustrated below.
BC,
BCG
Due to dual comparisons, the algorithm is very secure. For increased accuracy and to facilitate operation in weak systems,
the pre-fault components are removed from the analyzed currents. The algorithm is very fast and ensures proper phase
selection before any of the correctly set protection elements operates.
Under unusual circumstances such as weak-infeed conditions with the zero-sequence current dominating during any
ground fault, or during cross-country faults, the current-based phase selector may not recognize any of the known fault pat-
tern. If this is the case, voltages are used for phase selection. The voltage algorithm is the same as the current-based algo-
rithm; for example, phase angles between the zero-sequence, negative-sequence, and positive-sequence voltages are
used. The pre-fault values are subtracted prior to any calculations.
The pre-fault quantities are captured and the calculations start when the disturbance detector (50DD) operates. When an
open pole is declared, the phase selector resets all its outputs operands and ignores any subsequent operations of the dis-
turbance detector.
The phase selector runs continuously. When there is no disturbance in the power system, and the disturbance detector
(50DD) from the source assigned as the
set and all other phase selector operands are reset. All current and voltage sequence components are memorized and con-
tinuously updated.
When the disturbance detector (50DD) operates, memory stops being updated and retains two cycles of old current and
voltage values. First, purely fault components of current and voltage are calculated by removing the pre-fault (memory)
quantities from presently calculated values. A series of conditions are checked with respect to magnitudes and phase
angles of current and voltage symmetrical components in order to detect the fault type. Secondly, currents are used to iden-
tify the fault type (AG, BG, CG, AB, BC, CA, ABG, BCG or CAG) according to the Phase selection principle figure above. If
the currents fail to identify the fault type, and voltages are available, then voltages are used. If any of the above types is
determined, then the corresponding FlexLogic™ operand below is asserted.
9
9-36
AB,
ABG
BG
AG
I
2F
CG
CA,
CAG
Figure 9–29: PHASE SELECTION PRINCIPLE (ABC PHASE ROTATION)
DISTANCE SOURCE
L60 Line Phase Comparison System
CG,
ABG
I
1F
BG,
CAG
is reset, then the
PHASE SELECT VOID
9 THEORY OF OPERATION

9.2.2 PHASE SELECTION

AG,
BCG
I
2F
I
0F
837725A1.CDR
FlexLogic™ operand is
GE Multilin

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