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Intel Quark SoC X1000 Design Manual

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Intel
Quark™ SoC X1000
Platform Design Guide (PDG)
Revision 002US
June 2014
Order Number: 330258-002US

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  Summary of Contents for Intel Quark SoC X1000

  • Page 1 ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 Platform Design Guide (PDG) Revision 002US June 2014 Order Number: 330258-002US...
  • Page 2 Customers, licensees and other third parties are not authorized by Intel to use code names in advertising, promotion or marketing of any product or services and any such use of Intel's internal code names is at the sole risk of the user.
  • Page 3: Table Of Contents

    ® Contents—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 Contents Introduction ......................15 Terminology ..................... 16 Stack-Up and PCB Considerations ................17 Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Considerations ............17 Low Halogen Flame Retardant Stack-Up Considerations .......... 19 2.2.1 Low Halogen Background ................ 19 2.2.2 Choosing a Low Halogen Material..............
  • Page 4 ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—Contents 4.1.3 PCI Express* Lane Polarity Inversion ............41 4.1.4 PCI Express* Port Lane Reversal...............42 4.1.5 PCH PCIe* Disabling and Termination Guidelines.........42 4.1.6 Length Matching Guidelines..............42 4.1.7 Impedance Compensation and Voltage Reference........42 4.1.8 Reference Documents................43 PCIe* Signal Descriptions ...................43 4.2.1...
  • Page 5 ® Contents—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 General Introduction..................63 8.1.1 Description .................... 63 General Purpose Signal Descriptions ..............63 8.2.1 Signal Groups ..................63 UART Topology Guidelines .................. 63 Additional Guidelines ..................64 Terminating Unused UART Signals ............... 64 General Purpose SPI Interface Design Guidelines............ 67 General Introduction..................
  • Page 6 ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—Contents 13.1.1 Description ....................93 13.2 Asynchronous Signal Descriptions ................93 13.2.1 Signal Groups ..................93 13.3 Asynchronous Signals Topology Guidelines ............93 13.4 General GPIO Topology Guidelines ...............94 14.0 Platform Power Delivery Requirements..............97 15.0 Platform Reset Considerations ................101 15.1...
  • Page 7 ® Contents—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 17.4.8 Signal Scrambling ................122 17.4.9 Memory Down ..................123 17.4.9.1 Layer Transition..............123 17.4.9.2 Clustered Signal Vias............... 123 17.4.10Cable/Adaptor Shielding ................ 124 17.5 Design Checklist Items..................125 18.0 Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) ................127 18.1 Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) General Introduction ..........
  • Page 8 ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—Contents 21.6 Guidelines for Component Placement..............152 21.6.1 PHY Placement Recommendations............152 21.7 MDI Differential-Pair Trace Routing for LAN Design ..........154 21.8 Signal Trace Geometry ..................154 21.9 Trace Length and Symmetry ................157 21.10 Impedance Discontinuities ................157 21.11 Reducing Circuit Inductance ................
  • Page 9 A Schottky Diode Circuit to Connect RTC External Battery..........90 RTCRST# External Circuit for the SoC RTC..............91 Example GPIO[7:0] Topology level shifted Guideline ............. 94 Generic GPIO[7:0] Topology Guideline ................ 94 Intel® Galileo Platform Power Delivery ............... 98 ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 Power-up Sequence ............99 platform_s5_pwrok generation.................
  • Page 10 ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—Contents Current Loop Radiation of a Transmission Line............109 Radiation Cancellation of a Differential Line ..............110 An Example of VR EMI Noise ..................111 VR Noise Can Result In Both SI and EMI Issues ............111 Simplified Voltage Regulator Module Circuit and VRM EMI Noise ........
  • Page 11 ® Contents—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 104 Recommended Thermal Via Patterns................. 183 105 Stencil Design Recommendation ................184 106 Assembly Flow....................... 184 107 Typical Profile Band ....................185 ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 June 2014 Order Number: 330258-002US...
  • Page 12 ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—Contents Tables Platform Stack-up Parameter Values (Microstrip) ............18 Electrical Limits of LH Material Properties ..............20 Breakout Geometries for Various I/O Interfaces ............23 Max Root Square Sum (RSS) Length vs. Transfer Speed ..........25 This Guideline Supports the Following Configurations.............29 DDR3 Channel Signal Groups ..................30...
  • Page 13 ESD Checklist ......................138 JTAG PullUp / PullDown Requirements............... 140 Bead Parameters ....................142 ® MDIO Data Signals on the Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 ..........146 RMII Signals......................146 Clock and Reset Signals ..................146 Integrated Magnetics Recommended Qualification Criteria ........... 148 MDI Routing Summary....................
  • Page 14: Revision History

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—Revision History Revision History Revision Description Date Removed Section 4.1.7 Difference Between PCIe Ports and Lanes Updated Figure 35 Clock Integration Distribution Diagram Removed Section 11.3.2 Dual SPI Devices + Bootflash Topology Guidelines Removed Section 21.17 Considerations for Layout...
  • Page 15: Introduction

    X1000 Platform Design Guide has been developed to ensure maximum flexibility for board designers while reducing the risk of board related issues. Design recommendations are based on Intel’s simulations and lab experience and are strongly recommended, if not necessary, to meet the timing and signal quality specifications.
  • Page 16: Terminology

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—Introduction ® Figure 1. Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 Block Diagram Intel® Quark Core Clock eSRAM Host Bridge JTAG DDR3 Memory Controller AMBA Fabric Legacy Bridge Terminology Term Description Dynamic Platform & Thermal Framework; includes configurable TDP and DPFT Low Power Mode.
  • Page 17: Stack-Up And Pcb Considerations

    ® Stack-Up and PCB Considerations—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 Stack-Up and PCB Considerations Note: Metric units are used in some sections in addition to the standard use of U.S. customary system of units (USCS). If there is a discrepancy between the metric and USCS units, assume the USCS unit is most accurate.
  • Page 18: Single-Ended Microstrip Diagram

    • The parameter values for internal and external traces are the final thickness and width after the motherboard materials are laminated, conductors plated, and etched. Intel uses these exact values to generate the associated electrical models for simulation. Figure 2.
  • Page 19: Low Halogen Flame Retardant Stack-Up Considerations

    ® Stack-Up and PCB Considerations—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 Table 1. Platform Stack-up Parameter Values (Microstrip) (Sheet 2 of 2) - Manufac- - Design/ + Design/ + Manufac- Typical Microstrip Units turing Material Material turing Value Value Value Tolerance Tolerance Tolerance...
  • Page 20: Reference Planes

    FR4. However, if the limits are adhered to, then the risk of signal integrity problems due to the LH material is greatly reduced. Intel bases signal integrity analysis and validation on these ranges. Designers should also ensure the LH dielectric materials chosen meet all applicable thermal, mechanical and UL flammability requirements.
  • Page 21: Backward Coupling Coefficient

    Calculating and comparing backward coupling coefficients is recommended to choose proper trace spacing in cases where the selected stack-up varies from the Intel recommendation. The coupling coefficients represent the source voltage percentage that is coupled to victim lines.
  • Page 22: Single-Ended And Differential-Impedance Transmission Line Specifications

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—Stack-Up and PCB Considerations Figure 6. Single-ended Kb Diagram Figure 7. Differential Kb Diagram Single-Ended and Differential-Impedance Transmission Line Specifications Table 3 lists breakout trace geometries for various I/O interfaces. Breakout topologies are mainly decided by package ballout patterns and pitches. So similar geometries will be used for various stack-ups.
  • Page 23: Minimizing The Effect Of Fiber Weave

    ® Stack-Up and PCB Considerations—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 Table 4 lists examples of single-ended and differential impedances specified for different interfaces. The microstrip single-ended impedance tolerance is ±15%. The stripline and dual-stripline single-ended impedance and differential impedance tolerance is ±10%. The microstrip differential-impedance tolerance is ±15%.
  • Page 24: Common Glass Cloths Used In Pcb Manufacture

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—Stack-Up and PCB Considerations Figure 8. Common Glass Cloths Used in PCB Manufacture 1080 1080 2113 2113 2116 2116 1652 1652 7628 7628 Note: Weave types above are for illustration purposes only Figure 9. Inhomogeneous Nature of a PCB as Shown in this Cross-Section...
  • Page 25: Fiber Weave Effect Versus Transfer Rate And Trace Length

    ® Stack-Up and PCB Considerations—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 Figure 10. Effect of Skew on Differential and Common Mode Signals Figure 11. Cross-Section of PCB Indicating Effect of PCB Fiber Weave Etching / Plating Impacts on Trace Geometries Resin Rich Dielectric...
  • Page 26: Specific Routing Configurations

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—Stack-Up and PCB Considerations edge of the board. Those lengths should not be considered in this analysis. The total length is the Root Square Sum of total vertical and horizontal lengths that run parallel to the weave: ...
  • Page 27: Image Rotation

    ® Stack-Up and PCB Considerations—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 Figure 13. An Example of Zig-Zag Routing Figure 14. An Example of Slanted Routing 2.6.6 Image Rotation Another solution is to maintain an angle between the trace and the fiber weave pattern...
  • Page 28: Using Alternate Pcb Materials

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—Stack-Up and PCB Considerations Figure 15. An Example of a PCB Cut Such That Its Edges are Rotated Relative to the Fiber Weave Pattern > Glass bundle alignment HVM variation 2.6.7 Using Alternate PCB Materials The fiber weave effect can also be minimized by using PCB material that exhibits less variation in the dielectric coefficient E between the epoxy and glass materials.
  • Page 29: Ddr3 Memory Design Guidelines

    ® DDR3 Memory Design Guidelines—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 DDR3 Memory Design Guidelines Memory General Introduction ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 Customer Reference Board (codename Kips Bay) platforms support DDR3 memory technology. The CRB’s SoC memory interface supports a single- channel of DDR3 memory with 8-bit wide data and up to 2 ranks per channel at 800 MT/s.
  • Page 30: Memory Signal Description

    It is recommended that all of the signals have solid GND referencing planes on both sides. Minimize the size of void if there are voids on reference planes. Memory Topology Guidelines ® This chapter presents the various DDR3 topologies possible with Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 platforms and associated constraints for PCB layout. Note: The SoC package length is labeled as "P1"...
  • Page 31: Single Rank Fly-By Topology With Active Vtt Termination

    ® DDR3 Memory Design Guidelines—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 3.3.1 Single Rank Fly-by Topology with Active VTT Termination The topology presented in this chapter is the basic DDR topology for 4 Layer PCB designs. For PCB stack-up information please refer to Chapter 2.0.
  • Page 32 ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—DDR3 Memory Design Guidelines Table 8. DQ/DQS Routing Guidelines and Settings for a Single Rank 4L Fly-by Design— PCB Type 3 (Sheet 2 of 2) Parameter Routing Guideline / Setting Trace Spacing (S2): Between adjacent data min = 10.0 mils...
  • Page 33: Odt/Cke/Cs - Control Routing Topology For A Single Rank 4L Fly-By Design - Pcb Type

    ® DDR3 Memory Design Guidelines—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 Figure 18. ODT/CKE/CS - Control Routing Topology for a Single Rank 4L Fly-by Design - PCB Type 3 DRAM DRAM Breakin Breakin Package Breakout Breakin Breakout Breakout Main Main Breakin Breakin Termination...
  • Page 34: Design-Pcb Type 3

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—DDR3 Memory Design Guidelines Table 9. Control - Routing Guidelines and Settings for a Single Rank 4L Fly-by Design— PCB Type 3 (Sheet 2 of 2) Parameter Routing Guideline / Setting Length matching between point-to-point CTRL signals and all CTRL = (CLK/CLKB - 50 mils) ±...
  • Page 35: Clock Routing Topology For A Single Rank 4L Fly-By Design—Pcb Type 3

    ® DDR3 Memory Design Guidelines—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 Table 10. Command Routing Guidelines and Settings for a Single Rank 4L Fly-by Design—PCB Type 3 (Sheet 2 of 2) Parameter Routing Guideline / Setting Trace Spacing (S1): min = min =...
  • Page 36: Memory Stackup Guidelines

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—DDR3 Memory Design Guidelines Table 11. Clock Routing Guidelines and settings for a Single Rank 4L Fly-by Design—PCB Type 3 Parameter Routing Guideline / Setting Transmission Line Segment Stackup Layer (Microstrip / Stripline/ Dual Stripline) Characteristic Impedance 66 Ω...
  • Page 37: Memory Configurations And Connectivity

    3.3.3.1 ODT Signal Connectivity and Support For DDR3 memory-down design, Intel recommends ODT signals to be routed between SoC and DRAM devices on platform. This way, ODT timings at DRAM device can be fully controlled by the SoC.
  • Page 38: Via Stitching And Placement

    3.4.1 SoC DDR Reference Voltage ® The Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 uses an internal circuitry to adjust the reference voltage used to qualify the logic levels on incoming DDR data bits. This capability is used to perform a vertical read data eye training. The DDR_VREF input allows supplying an external reference voltage, but in normal circumstances the internal reference voltage shall be used and DDR_VREF input shall be connected to GND.
  • Page 39: Dram Reference Voltage

    In this case the ZQ calibration is performed in series - one ® rank at the time. The savings for Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 dual rank platforms by using this approach is 4 -> 2 precision resistors with four x8 DRAM devices, and is not as significant as for the products with wider data buses and more ranks.
  • Page 40 ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—DDR3 Memory Design Guidelines ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 June 2014 Order Number: 330258-002US...
  • Page 41: Pci Express* Design Guidelines

    ® PCI Express* Design Guidelines—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 PCI Express* Design Guidelines PCIe* General Introduction 4.1.1 Description ® The Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 SoC provides two PCI Express* root ports. The PCIe* root ports consist of one lane each configured as a 2x1 port. Each Root Port is PCIe* 2.0 compliant.
  • Page 42: Pci Express* Port Lane Reversal

    • Pull-up Wake# to VCC_SUS 3.3 via a 10-k? resistor. Note: If used, check with latest version of the Intel® Quark SoC x1000 Datasheet for maximum leakage specification on PCIE_WAKE# pin while selecting a pull up resistor in order to ensure Vih at SOC pin is satisfied.
  • Page 43: Reference Documents

    ® PCI Express* Design Guidelines—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 Table 15. SoC PCI Express* Compensation and Voltage Reference Guidelines Signal Trace Width Isolation Spacing Resistor Value Length 4.2 mils min (breakout) 12-15 mils (trace) At least 12 mils to 7.5k ohm ±1%...
  • Page 44: Expansion Card Connector Topology

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—PCI Express* Design Guidelines 4.3.1 Expansion Card Connector Topology The Design Guide recommendations are based on surface mount connectors that meet the insertion loss and return loss characteristics as specified in PCI Express* CEM 2.0 Specification. These guidelines include all trace routing on the board and the breakout region.
  • Page 45: Pci Express* Expansion Card Routing Pet To Connector

    ® PCI Express* Design Guidelines—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 Table 19. PCI Express* Expansion Card Routing PET to Connector Transmission Line Segment P1/L0 PCB Routing Layer(s) 4 Layer 4 Layer 4 Layer 4 Layer 4 Layer Optional Stackup Layer (Microstrip / Stripline/ Dual Stripline) 90 Ω...
  • Page 46: Pci Express* Expansion Card Routing Per To Connector

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—PCI Express* Design Guidelines Place the caps for P and N of a diff pair at exact same location Symmetrically route the P and N from SOC to the Cap. Symmetrically route the P and N from cap to the Connector Stagger the caps of different differential pairs Table 20.
  • Page 47: Universal Serial Bus 2.0 Design Guidelines

    ® Universal Serial Bus 2.0 Design Guidelines—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 Universal Serial Bus 2.0 Design Guidelines USB 2.0 General Introduction 5.1.1 Description ® The Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 supports up to 2 USB 2.0 Host ports that can be used to connect to high-speed, full-speed, and low-speed USB devices via an EHCI controller and/or a OHCI USB controller.
  • Page 48: Usb 2.0 Signal Descriptions

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—Universal Serial Bus 2.0 Design Guidelines USB 2.0 Signal Descriptions 5.2.1 Signal Groups Table 21. Signal Groups Group Signal Name Description USBH0_DP, USBH0_DN DATA USBH1_DP, USBH1_DN Universal Serial Bus Port Differential Pairs USBD_DP, USBD_DN USBH0_OC_B OVERCURRENT...
  • Page 49: Usb 2.0 Topology Guidelines

    USB port is protected by only one overcurrent pin. Operation with more than one overcurrent pin mapped to a port is undefined. See the ® Intel Quark SoC X1000 Datasheet for more details. USB 2.0 Topology Guidelines 5.3.1 External Topologies The external topology refers to the routing of USB signals to a microUSB connector.
  • Page 50: Usb 2.0 External Routing Guidelines Microusb

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—Universal Serial Bus 2.0 Design Guidelines Table 22. USB 2.0 External Routing Guidelines MicroUSB Breakout 1 PCB Routing Layer(s) optional 4 Layer 4 Layer 4 Layer 4 Layer Transmission Line Segment Routing Layer (Microstrip / Stripline / Dual Stripline) 90 Ω...
  • Page 51: Usb 2.0 Mini Pcie Topology

    ® Universal Serial Bus 2.0 Design Guidelines—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 Figure 27. USB 2.0 Mini PCIe Topology Breakout Mini PCIe* Conn B’ C’ D’ Table 23. USB 2.0 External Routing Guidelines Mini PCIe* Breakout PCB Routing Layer(s) Optional 4 Layer...
  • Page 52: Usb Connector Recommendations

    USB Connector Recommendations ® Proper connector choice is critical to ensure adequate USB signal quality. For the Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 the initial recommendation is the use of single USB connectors, empirical data has shown that quad-stack USB connectors may add interference causing poor USB signal quality.
  • Page 53: Daughter Card

    ® Universal Serial Bus 2.0 Design Guidelines—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 5.3.3 Daughter Card The best way to provide internal support for USB is to use a daughter card and cable assembly. This allows the placement of the EMI/ESD suppression components right at the USB connector where they will be the most effective.
  • Page 54: Port Power Delivery

    (droop) and dynamic detach flyback protection. These two types require both bulk capacitance (droop) and filtering capacitance (for dynamic detach flyback voltage filtering). Intel recommends the following: • Minimize the inductance and resistance between the coupling capacitors and the USB ports.
  • Page 55: I2C* Interface Design Guidelines

    ® I2C* Interface Design Guidelines—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 C* Interface Design Guidelines C* General Introduction 6.1.1 Description ® There is a single I C* controller in Intel Quark™ SoC X1000. The interface is a two- wire I C serial interface consisting of a serial data line and a serial clock, only 3.3v operation is supported.
  • Page 56: I2C* Topology Guidelines

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—I2C* Interface Design Guidelines C* Topology Guidelines 6.3.1 General Design Considerations • I C clock and data signals require pull-up resistors. The pull-up resistor size is dependent on the bus capacitive load (this includes all device leakage currents).
  • Page 57: I2C* Connectivity

    ® I2C* Interface Design Guidelines—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 C* Connectivity The I C interface is primarily to support various sensors which may have different bandwidth requirements on the platform. Figure 30. Example of Devices on I C* Bus Sensor Sensors ®...
  • Page 58: I2C* Additional Guidelines

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—I2C* Interface Design Guidelines C* Additional Guidelines System designers must consider the total bus capacitance, which includes both SoC and device pin capacitance and board trace length capacitance when designing I C bus. The total bus capacitance must not exceed 400 pF.
  • Page 59: Sdio Interface Design Guidelines

    ® SDIO Interface Design Guidelines—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 SDIO Interface Design Guidelines SDIO General Introduction 7.1.1 Description ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 implements a single SDIO interface that is only intended for general-purpose connections, such as SD cards. It supports SDIO card specification 3.0 and the MMC specification 3.31, 4.2, and 4.41.
  • Page 60: Sdio Topology Guidelines

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—SDIO Interface Design Guidelines SDIO Topology Guidelines This section contains information and details for layout and routing guidelines for the SDIO interfaces. Figure 31. SDIO Topology with Connector Connector Breakout CFIOHVTEW NO RCOMP Table 29. SDIO Layout Guideline...
  • Page 61: Soc Sdio Pull Up/Down

    ® SDIO Interface Design Guidelines—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 Table 30. SOC SDIO Pull Up/Down Status External Weak Pull Up or Pull Down as appropriate for SD_CLK strapping SD_DATA_0, SD_DATA_1,SD_DATA_2, SD_DATA_3,SD_DATA_4, Internal 20K Pull Up SD_DATA_5,SD_DATA_6, SD_DATA_7 SD_CMD Internal 20K Pull Up...
  • Page 62 ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—SDIO Interface Design Guidelines ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 June 2014 Order Number: 330258-002US...
  • Page 63: Uart Interface Design Guidelines

    ® UART Interface Design Guidelines—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 UART Interface Design Guidelines General Introduction 8.1.1 Description ® The Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 SoC integrates two UART controllers. Each supports up to a max 2.76 Mbit/s. The interfaces support 3.3V only. The controllers can be used in the low-speed, full-speed, and high-speed modes.
  • Page 64: Additional Guidelines

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—UART Interface Design Guidelines Figure 32. UART Topology UART Device SOC UART Device Data & Data & Control Control Signals Signals Table 32. UART Routing Guideline Routing Stackup Recommendation Parameter Units (MS/SL/DSL) M - Trace Length...
  • Page 65 ® UART Interface Design Guidelines—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 Table 33. UART Internal Pull Up/Down Direction Pull Up/Down SIU0_DSR_B Input Internal 20K Pull Up SIU0_DTR_B Output No Internal Pull up or Pull Down SIU0_RI_B Input Internal 20K Pull Up § §...
  • Page 66 ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—UART Interface Design Guidelines ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 June 2014 Order Number: 330258-002US...
  • Page 67: General Purpose Spi Interface Design Guidelines

    ® General Purpose SPI Interface Design Guidelines—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 General Purpose SPI Interface Design Guidelines General Introduction 9.1.1 Description The two general-purpose SPI interfaces support various devices which use serial protocols for transferring data such as sensors on the platform.
  • Page 68: Topology Guidelines

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—General Purpose SPI Interface Design Guidelines Topology Guidelines This section contains preliminary information and details for layout and routing guidelines for the general-purpose SPI interfaces. Figure 33. SPI0 Topology Breakout SPI Slave Table 35. SPI0_MOSI, SPI0_SCK...
  • Page 69: Spi1 Topology

    ® General Purpose SPI Interface Design Guidelines—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 Table 36. SPI0_MISO Breakout Trace Spacing(S3): Between GPIO 4.2 mil 10 mil 10 mil 4.2 mil and other signals Trace Segment Length 0.5" max 0.1" - 3.0" 0.1" - 0.8"...
  • Page 70: Spi1_Miso

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—General Purpose SPI Interface Design Guidelines Table 38. SPI1_MISO Breakout PCB Routing Layer(s) Optional 4 Layer 4 Layer 4 Layer 4 Layer Transmission Line Segment Routing Layer (Microstrip / Stripline / Dual Stripline) Characteristic Impedance 50 Ω +/- 15%...
  • Page 71: Terminating Unused Spi Signals

    ® General Purpose SPI Interface Design Guidelines—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 Terminating Unused SPI Signals If the SPI functionality is not utilized, the signals should be terminated properly with external pull-up or pull-down resistors. Table 39. SOC SPI Internal Pull Up/ Pull Down...
  • Page 72 ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—General Purpose SPI Interface Design Guidelines ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 June 2014 Order Number: 330258-002US...
  • Page 73: Platform Clocks Design Guidelines

    In the full-clock integration mode, a 25 MHz crystal oscillator ® provides the input clock to the Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 integrated clock controller and SoC generates the output clocks that are required by all the platform components.
  • Page 74: Platform Reference Clock Signal Descriptions

    It is critical that this XTAL clock is of good quality and has minimal interference to ensure correct locking of the internal PLL. Intel is not validating use of an external clock buffer oscillator connection to XTAL pins.
  • Page 75: Platform Clocks Topology Guidelines

    ® Platform Clocks Design Guidelines—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 10.3 Platform Clocks Topology Guidelines 10.3.1 Differential Clock Routing Topology The following SoC clock outputs utilize the guidelines in this section: • Differential reference clocks, e.g., REF0_CLK_P/N Figure 36. Differential Clock Topology for SoC to Clock Receiver...
  • Page 76: Differential Routing Considerations

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—Platform Clocks Design Guidelines 10.3.1.1 Differential Routing Considerations When routing differential clocks, note the following recommendations: • Ground referencing is preferred. However, differential clocks can be routed referenced to other planes through the use of stitching capacitors to provide the appropriate decoupling where the signal crosses planes.
  • Page 77: 25 Mhz Crystal And Associated Rc Components

    ® Platform Clocks Design Guidelines—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 Table 42. iClock (Single-ended Clocks) ® For the Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 use case, one of the flex clocks, RMII_REF_CLK_OUT clock, is used as a reference to the RMII. This clock is routed to the PHY and also back the SoC integrated MAC.
  • Page 78: Crystal External Load Capacitor Requirements

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—Platform Clocks Design Guidelines 10.4.1 Crystal External Load Capacitor Requirements The 25 MHz crystal is physically tuned to operate within the specified frequency range and ppm tolerance with a certain expected capacitive load present. The expected external capacitive load to be used (Ce) consists of the crystal capacitive load plus the pin and trace capacitances.
  • Page 79: 25 Mhz Crystal Routing Considerations

    ® Platform Clocks Design Guidelines—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 Figure 38. 25 MHz Crystal External Load Capacitor Parameters S O C D river O scillator P in 2-3pF 1M B ias R esistor 25M H z T ra ce 2 -1 0p F...
  • Page 80 ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—Platform Clocks Design Guidelines ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 June 2014 Order Number: 330258-002US...
  • Page 81: Spi Flash Design Guidelines

    ® Legacy SPI serial output data from Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 to LSPI_MOSI Data the SPI flash device. ® Legacy SPI serial input data from the SPI flash device to Intel LSPI_MISO Data Quark™ SoC X1000. ® LSPI_CLK Clock Legacy SPI Clock output from Intel Quark™...
  • Page 82: Serial Peripheral Interface (Spi) Topology Guidelines

    Quark™ SoC X1000 SPI interface. The Legacy SPI flash must be ® directly connected to the Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 Legacy SPI bus in all SKUs. Also, refer to the Serial Flash vendor documentation for additional Serial Flash specific design considerations.
  • Page 83: Spi Single Flash Device Length Matching Requirement

    OEMs must fully validate any SPI flash device to ensure compatibility with their platforms. This should not be considered a complete list of SPI vendors and is not an indication of Intel approved devices or vendors. Please contact your preferred flash vendor directly to determine if they have a compatible device.
  • Page 84 ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—SPI Flash Design Guidelines ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 June 2014 Order Number: 330258-002US...
  • Page 85: Rtc Design Guidelines

    ® RTC Design Guidelines—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 12.0 RTC Design Guidelines 12.1 Real Time Clock General Introduction 12.1.1 Description ® the Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 contains a real time clock (RTC) with 256 bytes of battery-backed SRAM. The internal RTC module provides two key functions: keeping date and time and storing system data in its RAM when the system is powered down.
  • Page 86: State Power Good Indicators

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—RTC Design Guidelines Table 45. RTC Signals Section Group Signals Description Section 12.2.2 Status S5_PG (I_2PAD) Platform S5 Power Good. RTC_EXT_CLKEN_B External RTC Clock source Status (I_4_PAD) enable Status S0_PG (I_5PAD) Platform S0 Power Good 12.2.2...
  • Page 87: Real Time Clock Topology Guidelines

    VCC3P3_S5 is active whenever the system is plugged-in. Vbatt is voltage provided by the battery and is optional. VccRTC, RTCX1, and RTCX2 are Intel SoC pins. VccRTC powers SoC RTC well. RTCX1 is the input to the internal oscillator. RTCX1 can be driven by external clock generator to desired frequency.
  • Page 88: General Rtc Layout Considerations

    RTC circuit. Some recommendations are: • Reduce trace capacitance by minimizing the RTC trace length. Intel SoC recommends a trace length less than 1 inch on each branch (from crystal’s terminal to RTCXn ball).
  • Page 89: Rtc External Battery Connection

    ® RTC Design Guidelines—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 The following example illustrates the use of the practical values C1, C2 in the case that theoretical values cannot guarantee the accuracy of the RTC in low temperature condition: Example: According to a required 12 pF load capacitance of a typical crystal that is used with the SoC, the calculated value of C1 = C2 is 10 pF at room temperature (25 °C) to yield an...
  • Page 90: Rtc Holdup Calculation

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—RTC Design Guidelines Figure 43. A Schottky Diode Circuit to Connect RTC External Battery 1.4V drop 0.5V drop Schottky Diodes VCC3P3_S5 VCCRTC 0.1uF 240  1K  The ESR limits the charge 3.6K  current and is negligible for the RTC input current.
  • Page 91: Rtc External Rtcrst# Circuit

    ® RTC Design Guidelines—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 12.5 RTC External RTCRST# Circuit Figure 44. RTCRST# External Circuit for the SoC RTC Schottky Diodes VCC3P3_S5 VCCRTC 0.1uF 240 RTCRST# 1K 3.6K 0.22F/5.5V Vbatt 3V Lithium Battery (Optional Use) SoC RTC requires some additional external circuitry. The RTCRST# signal is used to reset the RTC well.
  • Page 92: Rtc-Well Input Strap Requirements

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—RTC Design Guidelines 12.6 RTC-Well Input Strap Requirements All RTC-well inputs must be either pulled up to VCCRTC3P3 or pulled down to ground while in the G3 state. RTCRST_B, when configured as shown in Figure 44 meets this requirement.
  • Page 93: Asynchronous Signals Design Guidelines

    Asynchronous Signals General Introduction 13.1.1 Description This section describes the topologies and layout recommendations for the ® asynchronous signals. Refer to the Intel Quark SoC X1000 Datasheet for more details. 13.2 Asynchronous Signal Descriptions 13.2.1 Signal Groups Table 48. Asynchronous Legacy Signal Group...
  • Page 94: General Gpio Topology Guidelines

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—Asynchronous Signals Design Guidelines 13.4 General GPIO Topology Guidelines This section describes the layout recommendations for GPIO signals [7:0]. Figure 45. Example GPIO[7:0] Topology level shifted Guideline SCHOTTKY_4P ESD Diode Breakout Connector CFIOHVTEW NO RCOMP Figure 46.
  • Page 95 ® Asynchronous Signals Design Guidelines—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 Number of vias 2 via 33 ohm +/- 1% Reference Plane Solid Ground Reference § § ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 June 2014 Order Number: 330258-002US...
  • Page 96 ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—Asynchronous Signals Design Guidelines ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 June 2014 Order Number: 330258-002US...
  • Page 97: Platform Power Delivery Requirements

    14.0 Platform Power Delivery Requirements ® This chapter provides the recommended way to power up the Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 from the platform. It is assumed the platform provides a single input voltage (5v) from which we derive three primary platform voltages (1.0v, 3.3v, and 1.5v). Each of these primary platform voltages are split and subsequently enabled in a specific sequence to ensure proper SoC functioning.
  • Page 98: Intel® Galileo Platform Power Delivery

    Figure 48. At ® each step after the S5_PG signal asserts, the Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 internal power management block enables the subsequent power rails through a process of handshaking. These enable signals are utilized on the platform to control the FET switches which control the S3 and S0 power rails.
  • Page 99: Intel ® Quark™ Soc X1000 Power-Up Sequence

    ® Platform Power Delivery Requirements—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 ® Figure 48. Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 Power-up Sequence Intel® Quark SoC X1000 rails (platform implementation may vary) VCC3P3_S5 ALWAYS ON (**when VCC1P0_S5 platform (Externally derived) power available) VCC1P8_S5 (internal-derived using SLDO)
  • Page 100 ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—Platform Power Delivery Requirements ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 June 2014 Order Number: 330258-002US...
  • Page 101: Platform Reset Considerations

    ® Platform Reset Considerations—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 15.0 Platform Reset Considerations 15.1 Platform Reset General Introduction 15.1.1 Description Platform reset signals is a group of reset signals that control power on sequence, power management, and provide proper reset to all components on the platform. This chapter provides detailed guideline on how to generate and use platform reset signal to ensure functionality of the platform.
  • Page 102: Additional Guidelines

    15.3.6 PWRBTN# Usage Model ® The Power Button signal (PWRBTN#) on the Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 can be connected directly to the power button on the system’s front panel header. When system power button is pressed, PWRBTN# should be pulled low. The SoC has 2.5ms or more of internal debounce logic on this pin, external debouncing circuit is not required.
  • Page 103: Power-Well Isolation Control Signal Requirements

    ® Platform Reset Considerations—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 15.3.8 Power-well Isolation Control Signal Requirements 15.3.9 platform_s5_pwrok Generation The platform_s5_pwrok signal is generated from the platform regulator V1P5 or equivalent detection logic. The signal should be generated based on the v1p5 rail achieving 90% of its nominal value Figure 49.
  • Page 104: 14Additional Power Sequencing Considerations

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—Platform Reset Considerations 15.3.14 Additional Power Sequencing Considerations It is possible that on rare occasions, wake events can cause the system to immediately wake after entering in S3 power state. In such circumstances it is possible that the SoC will generate the same duration pulse widths on the v3p3_s0_en, v1p5_s0_en and v1p0_s0_en as during normal cold boot.
  • Page 105: Critical Low Speed Signals Design Guidelines

    Description ® Critical Low Speed Signals are identified as critical input signals from the Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 that are low frequency but have huge impact to system functionality or stability. Glitches on these signals may cause system to behave in unpredicted manners or cause unpredicted system shutdown or reset.
  • Page 106: Additional Guidelines

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—Critical Low Speed Signals Design Guidelines 16.3 Additional Guidelines All critical signals must stay away from potential glitch or noise sources on the platform. It is recommended to keep all critical signal traces a minimum of 15 mils away from any clock or high speed differential signals with >...
  • Page 107: Electromagnetic Interference

    ® Electromagnetic Interference—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 17.0 Electromagnetic Interference 17.1 Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) General Introduction 17.1.1 Description The main component of EMI is a radiated electromagnetic wave, which consists of both electric (E-fields) and magnetic (H-fields) waves traveling together and oriented perpendicular to each other.
  • Page 108: Time Domain Capture Of Exerciser Operation

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—Electromagnetic Interference Figure 51. Time Domain Capture of Exerciser Operation It is recommended to use a write-read-erasure sequence with a random data pattern. While a repeated pattern is very reproducible, it will produce far worse and unrealistic EMI levels than a typical real-world application.
  • Page 109: Emi Source

    ® Electromagnetic Interference—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 17.3 EMI Source 17.3.1 Current Loop Radiation Current loop radiation is formed by the forward current and return current. For example, the current loop of signals travelling on a microstrip line is shown in the following figure.
  • Page 110: Voltage Regulator Module Current Loop Radiation

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—Electromagnetic Interference Figure 53. Radiation Cancellation of a Differential Line 17.3.2 Voltage Regulator Module Current Loop Radiation The noise from voltage regulator module (VRM) is typically around 50~300MHz.The two noise peaks at 125 and 250 MHz shown in Figure 54 are an example.
  • Page 111: An Example Of Vr Emi Noise

    ® Electromagnetic Interference—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 Figure 54. An Example of VR EMI Noise P latform noise Figure 55. VR Noise Can Result In Both SI and EMI Issues Figure 56. Simplified Voltage Regulator Module Circuit and VRM EMI Noise It is also found that the EMI noise is correlated with the ringing at the phase node(Vx).
  • Page 112: Common Mode Radiation

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—Electromagnetic Interference Figure 57. The Vx Ripples with/without Gate Resistors (Left: without gate resistor/ Right: with gate resistor) Besides the 50 to 300MHz EMI noise, the hundreds kHz switching noise can result in signal integrity issues if the noise is coupled to IO nets in proximity. It is critical to trap the noise within the input loop and minimize the noise propagation.
  • Page 113: Emi Optimization Guideline

    ® Electromagnetic Interference—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 Figure 58. Emission from a Differential line with Various Skews As much as 35dB of As much as 35dB of increased radiation increased radiation can been seen with can been seen with 150ps of skew...
  • Page 114: Avoid Signal Traces Too Close To The Edges Of Planes

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—Electromagnetic Interference Figure 59. Changing Referencing, Lack of Referencing, Void-crossing, and Split-crossing are Not Recommended 17.4.2 Avoid Signal Traces Too Close to the Edges of Planes Signal traces routed too close to the edges of referencing planes excite edge radiations.
  • Page 115: Emi Mitigation Through Stitching And Decoupling Capacitors

    ® Electromagnetic Interference—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 Figure 61. Keep-out Zone Determined Around IO and Other Connectors 17.4.4 EMI Mitigation through Stitching and Decoupling Capacitors EMI emission can be mitigated with capacitors, which create low-impedance paths for signals or noises to pass through. These paths could minimize current loop areas or change plane resonant frequencies.
  • Page 116: Stitching Capacitors

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—Electromagnetic Interference 17.4.4.1 Stitching Capacitors Stitching capacitors are used to create return current path for signal traces with different references. Using stitching capacitors for split-crossing is one example. The separated reference planes have different voltages. They are, therefore, not able to be merged.
  • Page 117: Stitching Capacitors Mitigate Emi (Simulated Results)

    ® Electromagnetic Interference—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 Figure 64. Stitching Capacitors Mitigate EMI (Simulated Results) ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 June 2014 Order Number: 330258-002US...
  • Page 118: Decoupling Capacitors

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—Electromagnetic Interference Figure 65. Stitching Capacitors Should be Close to Traces 17.4.4.2 Decoupling Capacitors Decoupling capacitors are used to mitigate the noise on power rails or planes. Noise sources on power rails or planes are mainly from voltage regulators and IC chipsets.
  • Page 119: Decoupling Capacitors With Vias

    ® Electromagnetic Interference—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 Figure 67. Decoupling Capacitors with Vias Other noise sources are from the signal traces adjacent to power planes. Power plane could be considered as an antenna radiating noises coupled from these traces. Populating decoupling capacitors around the planes is a way of mitigation.
  • Page 120: Common Mode Filter

    IO for maximum effect. 17.4.5.1 USB Common Mode Choke Recommendation Intel recommends implementing a common-mode choke (CMC) footprint for each USB 2.0 pair. Please refer to Section 17.4.6 for USB 2.0 common mode choke recommendations.
  • Page 121: Spread Spectrum Clocking

    ® Electromagnetic Interference—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 means that the signal quality must be checked for low-speed, full-speed, and high- speed USB operation. • Further common mode choke information can be found on the high-speed USB Platform Design Guides available at www.usb.org.
  • Page 122: Signal Scrambling

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—Electromagnetic Interference The frequency modulation in the time-domain results in a frequency-domain energy redistribution of the constant-frequency clock harmonics. The shape of the spectral energy distribution of the SSC is determined by the time-domain modulation profile, while the energy distribution width is determined be the modulation amount ( ...
  • Page 123: Memory Down

    Quark™ SoC X1000 17.4.9 Memory Down Memory down PCB layout may be challenging to minimize EMI/RFI. Intel recommends the following guidance: • Place DRAMs closest to CPU. • Clocks should be at least 3X the trace width away from other traces.
  • Page 124: 10Cable/Adaptor Shielding

    17.4.10 Cable/Adaptor Shielding During EMI measurement, one may find some EMI violations are from the IOs such as USB and HDMI. Intel recommend check the cable/adaptor shielding quality before implementing a PCB solution, common mode choke for example. Figure 73 shows an example.
  • Page 125: Design Checklist Items

    ® Electromagnetic Interference—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 17.5 Design Checklist Items This section provides a checklist that should be reviewed during the design process. This checklist has been developed over time and experience to reduce the possibility of unwanted emissions. The checklist is shown below. Not every suggestion is 100% effective;...
  • Page 126: I/O Routing Review Checklist

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—Electromagnetic Interference Table 58. I/O Routing Review Checklist ITEM DESCRIPTION All I/O connectors have been provided with a low impedance bond to chassis for their 171-1 shield structure. 171-2 All non-ground nets routed externally, should have a filter present.
  • Page 127: Electrostatic Discharge (Esd)

    ® Electrostatic Discharge (ESD)—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 18.0 Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) 18.1 Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) General Introduction 18.1.1 Description All electronic equipment that is sold into the European Union and mutually recognized countries, must possess the CE mark which designates it has passed a required set of test standards;...
  • Page 128: Reference Specifications

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Figure 74. IEC 61000-4-2 ESD Waveform 18.1.2 Reference Specifications Title Location http://www.iec.ch/ IEC 61000-4-2 18.2 ESD Protection Selection criteria for discreet ESD protection devices must include consideration for the electrical constraints of the interface needing protection. Many discreet semiconductor ESD manufacturers now manufacturer devices for specific low- and high-speed interfaces.
  • Page 129: Esd Ground-Fill

    18.2.1 ESD Ground-Fill Reducing sensitivity to Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) to ensure Intel products comply with ESD standards can be a time and cost intensive effort. This section recommends changes to the printed circuit board design that will reduce ESD sensitivity by implementing a low impedance ESD current path to ground, thereby, reducing the coupling to sensitive circuitry.
  • Page 130: Usb Esd Diode Recommendation

    300 mils apart, close to the board’s edge. 18.2.3 USB ESD Diode Recommendation Intel recommends placing ESD protection devices for each USB 2.0 data pair. Selection of USB 2.0 ESD diode should be particularly careful and should be different due to different speeds. Please refer to Section 18.3.1...
  • Page 131: Series Rc Filter For Esd Mitigation On Asynchronous Nets

    ESD noise even when ESD diodes are not activated. The peak voltage and current may be significantly reduced. Due to the low-pass nature of this filter, Intel does not recommend applying this filter to high-speed links. This filter may degrade signal integrity of high speed signaling.
  • Page 132: Esd Noise Suppression Using Series Rc Filters

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) The effectiveness of this series RC-filter is shown in Figure 79. The magnitude of the sharp peak is effectively reduced by 75% with the series RC filter. The filter has significant impacts on ESD robustness, since this sharp peak contains huge amounts of high-frequency components and is typically the origination of most problematic symptoms in the system.
  • Page 133: Sensitive Nets

    ESD injections. This significantly reduces the required time and cost to solve ESD-related issues. A test approach to assess net sensitivities on Intel platforms has been developed. In this approach, Transmission line pulser (TLP) is employed to generate a sharp and short pulse to emulate ESD noise.
  • Page 134: Usb Esd Component Selection Guidelines

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Figure 81. Circuit Diagram of Direct Injection Method Table 60. Tested Sensitive Nets Net Name From Typical Symptoms Rtc_Rst Xtal Reboot 25M Xtal_Out Xtal Reboot platform_s5_pwrok Reboot Dram_Rst# DDR3 Reboot platform_s3_pwrok Reboot platform_s0_1p0_pwrok...
  • Page 135: Usb 2.0 Esd Protection Devices

    ® Electrostatic Discharge (ESD)—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 Figure 82. USB 2.0 ESD Protection Devices + 5 V D i o d e D i o d e D u a l R a i l C l a m p D i o d e / D i o d e A r r a y Figure 83.
  • Page 136: Usb 2.0 Esd Protection Diode Vendors

    18.3.2 USB 2.0 ESD Protection Diode Vendors ESD suppression is always recommended by Intel. However Intel does not recommend a specific part/device or circuit for ESD suppression because each solution is board/ chassis/usage model specific.The following vendors manufacture ESD protection Diode for USB2.0 which conform to the IEC 61000-4-2 standard.
  • Page 137: Differential S-Parameters From Ceramic 1-Line, Si 4-Line And Si 6-Line

    ® Electrostatic Discharge (ESD)—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 CalMicro: http://www.calmicro.com ONSemi: http://www.onsemi.com Philips: http://www.philips.com Protek Devices: http://www.protekdevices.com SEMTECH: http://www.semtech.com STMicro: http://www.st.com Note: This is not an extensive list. There may be others. Please check with your preferred vendor to determine if a compatible device is available.
  • Page 138: Design Checklist Items

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) 18.4 Design Checklist Items This section provides a checklist that should be reviewed during the design process. This checklist has been developed over time and experience to reduce the possibility of unwanted ESD risk. The checklist is shown below. Not every suggestion is 100% effective;...
  • Page 139: Platform Debug And Test Hooks

    Platform Debug and Test Hooks General Introduction 19.1.1 Description Intel is committed to reducing debug time and cost for OEMs and system integrators. Many debug features and test hooks can be designed into the platform to help reduce ® these factors. The following section provides an overview of the Intel Quark™...
  • Page 140: Additional Debug Support Guidelines

    19.4.1 Test Points Requirements Intel recommends users at least provide through-hole vias in a location that is probe accessible (avoid location that is blocked by thermal solutions or other mechanical components) and/or pull-up/pull-down resistors, for all the test points so that Intel would be able to access them when debug by Intel is required.
  • Page 141: Design For Testability (Dft)

    VREG Controller’s data sheet https://commu- nities.intel.com/ ® community/makers/ Intel Quark SoC X1000 Datasheet documentation/ quarkdocuments 20.2 DFT Configuration, Connectivity, Block Diagram DFT probe points can be placed anywhere on the trace. It is preferred to place test beads directly on the trace or vias. However, if beads can not be placed directly on the trace, the stub to the bead should be less than 50 mils (1.27 mm), shown in...
  • Page 142: Example Of Test Bead On A Stub (Not Preferred)

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—Design for Testability (DFT) Figure 86. Example of Test Bead on a Stub (Not Preferred) Stub Stub <50 <50 mils mils Figure 87. Example of Differential Test Bead with Matched Placement Table 63. Bead Parameters (Sheet 1 of 2)
  • Page 143: Bead Formed Over Solder-Mask Opening

    ® Design for Testability (DFT)—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 Table 63. Bead Parameters (Sheet 2 of 2) Recommendation Parameter Units Beads formed over Beads placed on solder-mask-openings existing vias Typical Bead-to-Component Pitch mils requirement Typical flying probe diameter mils Notes: Bead-to-Bead pitch and bead-to-component requirements are based on the bed-of-nails or probe capabilities.
  • Page 144: Bead Placed On Existing Via

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—Design for Testability (DFT) Figure 89. Bead Placed on Existing Via § § ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 June 2014 Order Number: 330258-002US...
  • Page 145: Lan Design Considerations And Guidelines

    ® LAN Design Considerations and Guidelines—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 21.0 LAN Design Considerations and Guidelines ® The Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 incorporates an integrated 10/100 Mbps MAC controller that can be used with an external PHY shown in Figure 90. Its bus master capabilities...
  • Page 146: Phy Overview

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—LAN Design Considerations and Guidelines ® Table 64. MDIO Data Signals on the Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 Group PHY Signal Name SOC Signal Name Description MAC_0 Data MDIO MAC0 MDIO MDIO data MAC_1 Data MDIO MAC1_MDIO MDIO data Table 65.
  • Page 147: Rmii Interface

    21.2 Platform LAN Design Guidelines These sections provide recommendations for selecting components and connecting ® special pins. For Ethernet designs, the main elements are Intel Quark™ SoC X1000, PHYs, a magnetics modules, RJ-45 connectors and a clock source. 21.2.1 General Design Considerations for PHYs...
  • Page 148: Clock Source

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—LAN Design Considerations and Guidelines 21.2.1.1 Clock Source All designs require a 50 MHz clock source. The PHY uses the 50 MHz source to generate internal clocks for both the PHY circuits and the RMII interface. SoC generates this 50Mhz reference clock internally and is passed out of the SoC for routing to the PHY and back to the MAC reference clock port.
  • Page 149: Nvm Configuration For Phy Implementations

    More details may be obtained from the Datasheet. Intel has a software utility called EEupdate that is used to program the SPI Flash images in development or production line environments. A copy of this program can be obtained through your Intel representative.
  • Page 150: Rbias

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—LAN Design Considerations and Guidelines Figure 91. LED Hardware Configuration Yellow 330 ohm LED2 Green LED1 Green VCC3P3 330 ohm LED0 21.2.3.1 RBIAS RBIAS requires external resistor connection to bias the internal analog section of the device.
  • Page 151: Intel ® Quark™ Soc X1000 - Mdio/Rmii Lom Design Guidelines

    ® LAN Design Considerations and Guidelines—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 ® 21.3 Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 – MDIO/RMII LOM Design Guidelines This section contains guidelines on how to implement a SoC/PHY single solution on a system motherboard. It should not be treated as a specification, and the system designer must ensure through simulations or other techniques that the system meets the specified timings.
  • Page 152: General Layout Guidelines

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—LAN Design Considerations and Guidelines 21.4 General Layout Guidelines PHY interface signals must be carefully routed on the motherboard to meet the timing and signal quality requirements of their respective interface specifications. The following are some general guidelines that should be followed in designing a LAN solution.
  • Page 153: Plc Placement: At Least One Inch From I/O Backplane

    ® LAN Design Considerations and Guidelines—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 Figure 93. PLC Placement: At Least One Inch from I/O Backplane Figure 94. Effect of LAN Device Placed Too Close To a RJ-45 Connector or Chassis Opening ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000...
  • Page 154: Mdi Differential-Pair Trace Routing For Lan Design

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—LAN Design Considerations and Guidelines 21.7 MDI Differential-Pair Trace Routing for LAN Design Trace routing considerations are important to minimize the effects of crosstalk and propagation delays on sections of the board where high-speed signals exist. Signal traces should be kept as short as possible to decrease interference from other signals, including those propagated through power and ground planes.
  • Page 155: Maximum Trace Lengths Based On Trace Geometry And Board Stack-Up

    Refer to Table 69 for examples of microstrip trace geometries for common circuit board materials. Intel® Quark™ SoC designs without LAN switch can range up to ~8 inches. Refer to Table 69 for trace length information.
  • Page 156: Mdi Trace Geometry

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—LAN Design Considerations and Guidelines Figure 95. MDI Trace Geometry ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 June 2014 Order Number: 330258-002US...
  • Page 157: Trace Length And Symmetry

    ® LAN Design Considerations and Guidelines—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 21.9 Trace Length and Symmetry The differential traces should be equal in total length to within 10 mils (0.254 mm) per segment within each pair and as symmetrical as possible. Asymmetrical and unequal length traces in the differential pairs contribute to common mode noise.
  • Page 158: Reducing Circuit Inductance

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—LAN Design Considerations and Guidelines 21.11 Reducing Circuit Inductance Traces should be routed over a continuous reference plane with no interruptions. If there are vacant areas on a reference or power plane, the signal conductors should not cross the vacant area.
  • Page 159: Trace Transitioning Layers And Crossing Plane Splits

    ® LAN Design Considerations and Guidelines—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 If the transition is from power-referenced layer to a ground-referenced layer or from one voltage-power referenced layer to a different voltage-power referenced layer, then stitching capacitors should be used within 40 mils of the transition.
  • Page 160: Via Connecting Gnd To Gnd

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—LAN Design Considerations and Guidelines Figure 98. Via Connecting GND to GND Layers Layers Coupling <40 mils MDI Trace Figure 99. Stitching Capacitor between Vias Connecting GND to GND Layers 10 pF Stitching <40 mils Capacitor and Vias...
  • Page 161: Traces For Decoupling Capacitors

    ® LAN Design Considerations and Guidelines—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 21.14 Traces for Decoupling Capacitors Traces between decoupling and I/O filter capacitors should be as short and wide as practical. Long and thin traces are more inductive and reduce the intended effect of decoupling capacitors.
  • Page 162: Capacitor Stuffing Option Recommended Values

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—LAN Design Considerations and Guidelines Table 70. Capacitor Stuffing Option Recommended Values Capacitors Value C3, C4 4.7 µF or 10 µF C1, C2, C5, C6 470 pF to 0.1 µF The placement of C1 through C6 may also differ for each board design (in other words, not all of the capacitors may need to be populated).
  • Page 163: Light Emitting Diodes

    ® LAN Design Considerations and Guidelines—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 21.16 Light Emitting Diodes The device has three high-current outputs to directly drive LEDs for link, activity and speed indication. Since LEDs are likely to be integral to a magnetics module, take care to route the LED traces away from potential sources of EMI noise.
  • Page 164 ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—LAN Design Considerations and Guidelines 5. Using a low-quality magnetics module. 6. Reusing an out-of-date physical layer schematic in a Ethernet silicon design. The terminations and decoupling can be different from one PHY to another. 7. Incorrect differential trace impedances. It is important to have about a 100-...
  • Page 165: Power Delivery

    ® LAN Design Considerations and Guidelines—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 21.21 Power Delivery In general planes should be used to deliver 3.3 Vdc and the Core voltage. Not using planes can cause resistive voltage drop and/or inductive voltage drop (due to transient or static currents).
  • Page 166 ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—LAN Design Considerations and Guidelines Table 72. MAC0_RXDATA<1:0>; MAC0_RXDV Breakout Trace Spacing(S2): Between 4.2 mil 10 mil 10 mil 4.2 mil RMII Signals Trace Spacing(S3): Between 4.2 mil 10 mil 10 mil 4.2 mil RMII and other signals Trace Segment Length 0.5"...
  • Page 167: Wireless Modules And Antenna Design Guidelines

    There are a broad range of Wireless modules available suited to different regulatory, performance and user requirements. This chapter shall discuss choice of antenna ® materials, placement options and coexistence considerations for Intel Quark™ SoC X1000-based designs. Co-existence of multiple wireless modules and their antennas, among themselves and with the other systems and parts in the device can become a major problem if not considered in the initial stages of design.
  • Page 168: Antenna Coexistence

    22.2.3 WiFi Module There is a broad offering of Intel and third-party WiFi modules supporting various 802.11 standards. Offerings are also differentiated by the number of inputs and outputs. In addition to cost, system integrators can keep in mind antenna placement options and wireless performance/quality requirements while making choices.
  • Page 169: Wifi Module Connector Types

    ® Wireless Modules and Antenna Design Guidelines—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 22.2.4 WiFi Module Connector Types As WiFi modules are mounted on the platform, connectors plugging into them will add to the total z-height. OEM’s can select connectors of low z-heights to keep the total z- height down.
  • Page 170: Antenna Cabling

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—Wireless Modules and Antenna Design Guidelines 22.2.7 Antenna Cabling The antenna cable is a lossy structure and hence needs to be as short as possible. Design choices can help reduce the cable length to the absolute minimum achievable.Studies have shown that acceptable performance metrics (loss/VSWR) can...
  • Page 171: General Differential Signals Design Guidelines

    ® General Differential Signals Design Guidelines—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 Appendix A General Differential Signals Design Guidelines Introduction The guidelines in this chapter are to improve routing for differential signals, such as PCIe* or USB. The signal routing, via placement and bend optimization examples below apply to all high speed interfaces.
  • Page 172 ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—General Differential Signals Design Guidelines before transitioning to a different layer. At any via transition the n/p mismatch for the entire route preceding the via cannot exceed 15mils. • When trace length matching occurs, the matching should be made as close as...
  • Page 173 ® General Differential Signals Design Guidelines—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 Figure A-3. Etch Located Within a Pad Example These Segments of Trace are These Segments of Trace are Considered to be Part of the Pad Considered to be Part of the Pad Figure A-4.
  • Page 174: General Differential Optimization Guidelines

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—General Differential Signals Design Guidelines General Differential Optimization Guidelines A.4.1 Breakout Example and Guidelines Maintain differential routing rules in package breakout areas. Figure A-5. SoC Package Breakout Example Guidelines are as follows: • Differential-pair pitch is measured from the center of each trace in the differential-pair.
  • Page 175: Via Placement And Via Usage Optimization

    ® General Differential Signals Design Guidelines—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 Figure A-6. Differential-Pair Spacing Diagram Pitch PTPS Figure A-7. Symmetrical and Non-Symmetrical Routing Example Avoid: Non-symmetrical Routing Preferred: Symmetrical Routing A.4.2 Via Placement and Via Usage Optimization • Vias impact the overall loss and jitter budget. Route signals with a minimal number of vias.
  • Page 176 ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—General Differential Signals Design Guidelines Figure A-8. Via Pair Example Figure A-9. Example - Via Placement 1 • The symmetric via pattern in Figure A-10 below minimizes crosstalk between 2 differential pair, therefore the recommendation is to implement the pattern according to area availability.
  • Page 177: Bend Optimization Guidelines

    ® General Differential Signals Design Guidelines—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 Figure A-10. Example - Via Placement 2 • For differential interfaces it is recommended 1:1 ratio of signal to GND via everywhere it is possible (Figure A-11). Figure A-11. Package Breakout Example - Via Placement 3 A.4.3...
  • Page 178: General Differential Reference Planes Guidelines

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—General Differential Signals Design Guidelines Figure A-12. Acceptable Bends vs. Tight Bends Example P referred - N o t C o nsid ered “T ight B en d s” A v o id ! - “T ig h t B en d s”...
  • Page 179 ® General Differential Signals Design Guidelines—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 • Differential signals should not cross any plane splits or voids. However, it may be necessary for a trace to be partially routed over a via anti-pad void in the chipset escape area.
  • Page 180 ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—General Differential Signals Design Guidelines ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 June 2014 Order Number: 330258-002US...
  • Page 181: Exposed Pad* (E-Pad*) Design And Smt Assembly Guide

    ® Exposed Pad* (e-Pad*) Design and SMT Assembly Guide—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 Appendix B Exposed Pad* (e-Pad*) Design and SMT Assembly Guide Overview This section provides general information about ePAD and SMT assemblies. Chip packages have exposed die pads on the bottom of each package to provide electrical interconnections with the printed circuit board.
  • Page 182: Typical Epad* Land Pattern

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—Exposed Pad* (e-Pad*) Design and SMT Assembly Guide Figure 102. Typical ePAD* Land Pattern Figure 103. Typical Thermal Pad and Via Recommendations Note: Encroached and uncapped via configurations have voids less than the maximum allowable void percentage. Uncapped via provides a path for trapped air to escape during the reflow soldering process.
  • Page 183: Board Mounting Guidelines

    ® Exposed Pad* (e-Pad*) Design and SMT Assembly Guide—Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 Figure 104. Recommended Thermal Via Patterns Board Mounting Guidelines The following are general recommendations for mounting a QFN-48 device on the PCB. This should serve as the starting point in assembly process development and it is recommended that the process should be developed based on past experience in mounting standard, non-thermally/electrically enhanced packages.
  • Page 184: Assembly Process Flow

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—Exposed Pad* (e-Pad*) Design and SMT Assembly Guide Figure 105. Stencil Design Recommendation Assembly Process Flow Figure 105 shows the typical process flow for mounting packages to the PCB. Figure 106. Assembly Flow ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000...
  • Page 185: Reflow Guidelines

    Time from 25 °C to Peak: 240 – 360 s Intel recommends a maximum solder void of 50% after reflow. Note: Contact your Intel representative for any designs unable to meet the recommended guidance for E-pad implementation. § § ®...
  • Page 186: Pdg June

    ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000—Exposed Pad* (e-Pad*) Design and SMT Assembly Guide ® Intel Quark™ SoC X1000 June 2014 Order Number: 330258-002US...