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Siemens siprotec 7SA522 User Manual

Distance protection
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SIPROTEC
7SA522
Distance Protection
Manual
Edition: 10.11.00
C53000-G1176-C119-2
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  Summary of Contents for Siemens siprotec 7SA522

  • Page 1 ,QWURGXFWLRQ +DUGZDUH DQG &RQQHFWLRQV ,QLWLDO ,QVSHFWLRQV SIPROTEC Š 6,3527(&  'HYLFHV 7SA522 Distance Protection &RQILJXUDWLRQ )XQFWLRQV Manual &RQWURO 'XULQJ 2SHUDWLRQ ,QVWDOODWLRQ DQG &RPPLVVLRQLQJ 5RXWLQH &KHFNV DQG 0DLQWHQDQFH 7HFKQLFDO 'DWD $SSHQGL[ $SSHQGL[ Edition: 10.11.00 C53000-G1176-C119-2...
  • Page 2: C53000-G1176-C119

    SIMATIC NET are registered trade- notice. marks of SIEMENS AG. All other product and brand names in this 2.00.02 manual may be trademarks, the use of which by third persons for their purposes may infringe the rights of their respective owners.
  • Page 3 (EMC Council Directive 89/336/EEC) and concerning electrical equip- ment for use within certain voltage limits (Low-voltage Directive 73/23/EEC). This conformity is proved by tests conducted by Siemens AG in accordance with Ar- ticle 10 of the Council Directive in agreement with the generic standards EN 50081 and EN 50082 for EMC directive, and with the standards EN 60255–6 for the low-volt-...
  • Page 4 4 devices, please contact your Siemens repre- sentative. Training Courses Individual course offerings may be found in our Training Catalog, or questions can be directed to our training center. Please contact your Siemens representative. Instructions and The following indicators and standard definitions are used: Warnings...
  • Page 5 Preface Within the meaning of safety precautions of this manual and the instructions, qualified personnel are those persons who are qualified to set up, install, place into service, and operate this device, and who possess the following qualifications: Training and instruction (or other qualification) for switching, grounding, and desig- nating devices and systems.
  • Page 6 , SINAUT , and SICAM ® and DIGSI 4 are registered trademarks of Siemens AG. Other desig- We reserve the right to make technical improvements nations in this manual may be trademarks that if used by third parties for without notice.
  • Page 7: Table Of Contents

    Table of contents Preface i Table of contents v Introduction ............Overall Operation .
  • Page 8: Table Of Contents

    Table of contents Inspections upon Receipt ........3.2.1 Inspection of Features and Ratings .
  • Page 9 Table of contents 4.10 Power System Data ......... . 4-26 4.11 Setting Groups .
  • Page 10 Table of contents 6.1.1.1 Settings ........... 6-12 6.1.2 Setting Groups .
  • Page 11 Table of contents Distance Protection Teleprotection Schemes ..... . 6-77 6.4.1 Method of Operation ......... 6-78 6.4.1.1 Permissive Underreach Transfer Trip with Zone Acceleration Z1B (PUTT) 6-78...
  • Page 12 Table of contents Weak-Infeed Tripping ......... 6-126 6.7.1 Method of Operation.
  • Page 13 Table of contents 6.12 Synchronism and Voltage Check (Dead-line / Dead-bus check) ..6-181 6.12.1 Method of Operation ......... 6-181 6.12.2 Applying the Function Parameter Settings .
  • Page 14 Table of contents 6.16.1.5 Response to Failures ......... 6-224 6.16.2 Applying the Function Parameter Settings .
  • Page 15 Table of contents Control During Operation ..........Read-out of Information .
  • Page 16 Table of contents Control of Switchgear ......... 7-36 7.4.1 Display Equipment Position and Control .
  • Page 17 Table of contents 8.3.6.1 Teleprotection with Distance Protection ......8-33 8.3.6.2 Teleprotection with Earth Fault Protection ......8-35 8.3.6.3 Signal Transmission for the Overvoltage Protection .
  • Page 18 Technical Data ........... . . 10-1 10.1 General Device Data .
  • Page 19 Table of contents 10.16 Monitoring Functions ......... 10-27 10.17 Supplementary Functions.
  • Page 20 7SA522 Manual C53000-G1176-C119-2...
  • Page 21: Introduction

    Introduction ® The SIPROTEC 4 devices 7SA522 are introduced in this chapter. An overview of the devices is presented in their application, characteristics, and scope of functions. Overall Operation Applications Features Scope of Functions 7SA522 Manual C53000-G1176-C119-2...
  • Page 22: Overall Operation

    Introduction Overall Operation ® The numerical Distance Protection SIPROTEC 7SA522 is equipped with a powerful 32 Bit microprocessor. This provides fully numerical processing of all functions in the device, from the acquisition of the measured values up to the output of commands to the circuit breakers.
  • Page 23 Introduction The input amplifier group IA ensures that there is high impedance termination for the measured signals and contains filters which are optimized in terms of band-width and speed with regard to the signal processing. The analogue/digital converter group AD has a multiplexor, analogue/digital convert- ers and memory modules for the data transfer to the microcomputer.
  • Page 24: Applications

    Introduction Applications ® The numerical Distance Protection SIPROTEC 7SA522 is a fast and selective pro- tection device for overhead lines and cables with single- and multi-ended infeeds in radial, ring or any type of meshed systems with an earthed system star-point. The device incorporates the functions which are normally required for the protection of an overhead line feeder and is therefore capable of universal application.
  • Page 25: Settings

    Introduction Messages and A series of operating messages provides information about conditions in the power Measured Values; system and the 7SA522 itself. Measurement quantities and values that are calculated Storage of Data for can be displayed locally and communicated via the serial interfaces. Fault Recordings Messages of the 7SA522 can be indicated by a number of programmable LEDs on the front panel, externally processed through programmable output contacts, and commu-...
  • Page 26: Features

    Introduction Features • Powerful 32-bit microprocessor system. • Complete digital processing of measured values and control, from the sampling of the analog input quantities to the initiation of outputs for, as an example, tripping or closing circuit breakers or other switch-gear devices. •...
  • Page 27: Scope Of Functions

    Introduction Scope of Functions ® The numerical Distance Protection SIPROTEC 7SA522 has the following functions: • Protection for all types of short-circuit in systems with earthed star point; Distance Protection • selectable polygonal tripping characteristic or MHO–circle characteristic; • reliable distinction between load and short-circuit conditions, also on long, heavily loaded lines;...
  • Page 28 Introduction • Blocking; • All teleprotection schemes are applicable to 2- and 3- terminal lines; • Transfer of phase-segregated transmission signals possible; • User specific applications can be implemented by way of the integrated CFC-Logic. • Earth fault overcurrent protection, with a maximum of three definite time stages Earth Fault Protection (DT) and one inverse time stage (IDMT) for high resistance earth faults in earthed...
  • Page 29 Introduction • fast tripping for switch-on-to-fault conditions; High Current Fast Switch-on-to-Fault • selectable for manual closure or following each closure of the circuit breaker; Protection • with integrated line energization detection. • for reclosure after single-pole, three-pole or single and three-pole tripping; Automatic reclosure •...
  • Page 30 • single or two stages • short drop off and overshoot times. • Freely programmable combination of internal and external signals for User Defined Logic Functions the implementation of user defined logic functions; • all common logic functions; • time delays and measured value set point interrogation. •...
  • Page 31: Hardware And Connections

    Hardware and Connections This chapter describes the construction and connection of the 7SA522. The different housing versions and available termination techniques are described. The recommended and permitted data for the wiring is stated and suitable accessories and tools are given. Version of 7SA522 for Panel Flush Mounting (Cubicle Mounting) Version of 7SA522 for Panel Surface Mounting 2-15...
  • Page 32: Version Of 7Sa522 For Panel Flush Mounting (Cubicle Mounting)

    Hardware and Connections Version of 7SA522 for Panel Flush Mounting (Cubicle Mounting) ® The numerical Distance Protection SIPROTEC 7SA522 for panel and cubicle flush mounting is enclosed in a 7XP20 housing. 2 housing sizes are available, namely (of 19 inch). Different termination techniques are available depending on the ordered version.
  • Page 33 Hardware and Connections View of Front Panel (Housing Size SIPROTEC SIEMENS ERROR 7SA522 H6DIÃH@IV  # 6ˆpvh‡v‚Ã Hrh†ˆ…r€r‡ Ã! MENU ENTER Figure 2-1 Front view of a 7SA522, housing size , for panel flush mounting or cubicle mounting Referring to the operating and display elements in Figure 2-1: 1.
  • Page 34 11.Coverings for the screws that secure the front panel. View of Front Panel The significance of the operating and display elements is the same as explained after (Housing Size Figure 2-1. SIPROTEC SIEMENS ERROR 7SA522 H6DIÃH@IVà  # 6ˆpvh‡v‚ Hrh†ˆ…r€r‡...
  • Page 35 Hardware and Connections View of Rear Panel Figure 2-3 is a simplified view of the rear panel of the version of the device with screw- (Housing Size type terminals and optical fiber ports for the service interface at location B. Rear view of a (terminal arrangement example Figure 2-3...
  • Page 36: Screw Terminal Connections

    Hardware and Connections 2.1.2 Screw terminal connections The following must be distinguished in the case of connection via screw terminals: terminal plugs for voltage connections and terminal plugs for current connections. The terminal screws have a slot head for tightening or loosening with a flat screw driv- er, sized 6 x 1 mm.
  • Page 37 Hardware and Connections 8 terminal Figure 2-7 Terminal block of screw terminals for current connections — rear view The correlation between terminals and connection numbers is the same for both the current connections and the voltage connections. Compare Figures 2-6 and 2-7. In the terminal block for current connections, the terminals are grouped in pairs.
  • Page 38 Hardware and Connections Connections to Ring-type and fork-type lugs may be used. To ensure that the insulation paths are Current Terminals maintained, insulated lugs must be used. Alternatively, the crimping area must be in- sulated with other methods, e.g. by covering with a shrink sleeve. The following must be observed: Connections with cable lugs: inner diameter of lugs, 5 mm;...
  • Page 39 Hardware and Connections There are two types of covering caps, as shown in Figure 2-9. Ordering information is provided in Section 1.1 in the Appendix. Covering cap for Covering cap for 18 terminal voltage 12 terminal voltage connection terminal block or 8 Terminal Current connection terminal block Figure 2-9...
  • Page 40: Connections To Plug-In Terminals

    Hardware and Connections 2.1.3 Connections to Plug-In Terminals Plug-in terminals are only available for voltage connections. Current connections are made with screw terminals on all 7SA522. Terminal Blocks for There are two versions of plug-in terminal blocks. They are shown in Figure 2-10. Voltage Connections 18 terminal...
  • Page 41 Hardware and Connections inside the 7SA522. Each common group can, for example, be used for signal multipli- cation or as a common point for a signal (independent of the signals on the pin “a” ter- minals). Depending on the version of the terminal block, 18 or 12 common connec- tions are available.
  • Page 42 Hardware and Connections Figure 2-13 2-pin connector and 3-pin connector Ordering information for the pin connectors is provided in Section A.1 of the Appendix. The design of the pin connectors is such that only correct connections can be made. For example, the design of the 2-pin connector allows connection only to pins “a” and “b”.
  • Page 43: Connections To Optical Communication Interfaces

    Hardware and Connections 2.1.4 Connections to Optical Communication Interfaces Optical The three available versions of optical communication interfaces are shown in Figure Communication 2-14. The ports are supplied with caps to protect the optical components against dust Interfaces or other contaminants. The caps can be removed by turning them 90° to the left. 2 channel 1 channel 1 channel...
  • Page 44: Connections To Electrical Communication Interfaces

    Hardware and Connections 2.1.5 Connections to Electrical Communication Interfaces Electrical 9-pin D-subminiature female socket connectors are provided for all electrical commu- Communication nication interfaces of the 7SA522. The connector is illustrated in Figure 2-15. The pin Interfaces assignments are described in Sub-section 8.2.1. front side rear side Figure 2-15...
  • Page 45: Version Of 7Sa522 For Panel Surface Mounting

    Hardware and Connections Version of 7SA522 for Panel Surface Mounting ® The numerical Distance Protection SIPROTEC 7SA522 for surface mounting is en- closed in a 7XP20 housing. 2 housing versions are available, (of 19 inch). The device is fitted into a surface mounting housing. 2.2.1 Housing The housing consists of a rectangular tube with a rear plate which is specific to the...
  • Page 46 Hardware and Connections View of Front Panel (Housing Size SIPROTEC SIEMENS ERROR 7SA522 H6DIÃH@IV  # 6ˆpvh‡v‚Ã Hrh†ˆ…r€r‡ MENU ENTER Meldungen Meßwerte 9 10 11 12 13 14 L+ L- 17 18 19 20 21 23 24 25 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35...
  • Page 47 11. Coverings for the screws that secure the front panel. View of Front Panel The significance of the operating and display elements is the same as explained after (Housing Size Figure 2-16. SIPROTEC SIEMENS ERROR 7SA522 H6DIÃH@IV  # 6ˆpvh‡v‚...
  • Page 48: Screw Terminal Connections

    Hardware and Connections 2.2.2 Screw terminal connections Terminal Blocks All connections to the device are by means of two-tier screw terminals located at the top and bottom of the surface mounting housing. For the housing size there are 100 such terminals and for the housing size there are 200 such terminals.
  • Page 49 Hardware and Connections , channel D and E Housing for optical communication interfaces , channel B and C Housing for optical communication interfaces Figure 2-18 Side view of 7SA522, panel surface mounting, possible optical communication interfaces A table indicating the available channel designations B to E is printed onto the inclined housing.
  • Page 50 Hardware and Connections The device version with a Profibus interface has a DSUB socket instead of the fibre optic channel B in the inclined housing located on the bottom side of the device (see Figure 2-20). Channel C Channel B Channel E Channel D Figure 2-20...
  • Page 51: Initial Inspections

    Initial Inspections This Chapter describes the first steps that should be taken upon receiving the ® SIPROTEC 4 7SA522. Unpacking and re-packing is explained. Visual and electrical checks that are appropriate for initial inspection are discussed. The electrical tests include navigating through the operating menus of the device us- ing the operator control panel on the front of the device, and the operator control win- ®...
  • Page 52: Unpacking And Re-Packing

    Initial Inspections Unpacking and Re-packing The 7SA522 is packaged at the factory to meet the requirements of IEC 60255–21. Unpacking and packing must be done with usual care, without using force, and with appropriate tools. Visually check the device immediately upon arrival for correct me- chanical condition.
  • Page 53: Inspections Upon Receipt

    Initial Inspections Inspections upon Receipt 3.2.1 Inspection of Features and Ratings Ordering Number Verify that the 7SA522 has the expected features by checking the complete ordering number with the ordering number codes given in Sub-section A.1 of the Appendix. Also check that the required and expected accessories are included with the device. The ordering number of the device is on the nameplate sticker attached to the top of the housing.
  • Page 54 Initial Inspections After no more than 15 seconds, the start-up messages must vanish from the display (in which the complete ordering number, the version of firmware implemented, and the factory number are shown), and the default display must appear. Depending on the assignment of the LEDs, some indicators may light up during and after power-up.
  • Page 55: User Interface

    Initial Inspections User Interface 3.3.1 Operation Using the Operator Control Panel Operator Control The device has a hierarchically structured operating tree, within which movements Panel and actions are made using the keys and the , and MENU ENTER CTRL keys on the front panel. The brief discussions below illustrate the navigation techniques using the integrated operations in the operator control panel.
  • Page 56 Initial Inspections 6(783(;75$6   'DWH7LPH ²! &ORFN 6HWXS ²! 6HULDO 3RUWV ²! 'HYLFH,' ²! !0/)%9HUVLRQ ²! 0/)%9(56,21  &RQWUDVW ²! 0/)% ;<²(3 +$ %)²1U  0/)%9(56,21  )LUPZDUH  %RRWV\VWHP  Figure 3-2 Display of device-specific data (example) Viewing Measured To view the measured values: Values key.
  • Page 57 Initial Inspections and the picture gets darker. If the contrast is too weak or too strong, there is a risk that the display will be unreadable and that no operation will be possible using the integrat- ed operator control panel. Therefore, the preset contrast value should only be changed in small steps (1 or 2 levels).
  • Page 58: Operation Using Digsi

    Initial Inspections ® 3.3.2 Operation Using DIGSI ® ® DIGSI 4 User DIGSI 4 has the typical PC application Windows operating environment to guide the Interface user. The software has a modern, intuitive, user-interface. Further details are found in ® Section 4, as well as in the DIGSI 4 handbook “Device Configuration”.
  • Page 59 Initial Inspections Figure 3-5 Window with selection of Plug and Play Enter the designation of the PC serial interface (COM 1,2, 3, or 4) and select in the dialogue box under )UDPH the transfer format, to be used in making the connection. Click on 2..
  • Page 60 Initial Inspections ® Figure 3-7 DIGSI 4 — online initial screen — example Viewing Measured As an example the procedure for viewing the measured values is described. Values Double click on 0HDVXUHPHQW in the navigation window (left). Double click on the subdirectory 6HFRQGDU\ 9DOXHV in the navigation window. Click on 2SHUDWLRQDO YDOXHV VHFRQGDU\.
  • Page 61 Initial Inspections ® Figure 3-9 DIGSI 4 — Table of secondary operating measured values – example Viewing Operation- The read-out of operating messages is described to serve as an additional example. al Messages Double click on $QQXQFLDWLRQ in the navigation window. Click on (YHQW /RJ in the function selection.
  • Page 62 Initial Inspections Setting Date and To enter the date and time: Time Click on 'HYLFH in the menu bar. See Figure 3-11. Select 6HW &ORFN. ® 4 — Selection of the option 6HW &ORFN Figure 3-11 DIGSI The dialog field 6HW FORFN GDWH LQ GHYLFH opens.
  • Page 63: Storage

    Initial Inspections Storage If the device is to be stored, note: ® SIPROTEC 4 devices and associated assemblies should be stored in dry and clean rooms, with a maximum temperature range of –25° C to +55° C (–12° F to 131° F). See Sub-section 10.1.7 under Technical Data.
  • Page 64 7SA522 Manual C53000-G1176-C119-2...
  • Page 65: Siprotec

    ® SIPROTEC 4 Devices ® This chapter provides an overview of the family of SIPROTEC 4 devices and the in- tegration of the devices into power plants and substation control systems. Principle procedures are introduced for setting the devices, controlling primary equipment with the devices, and performing general operations with the devices.
  • Page 66: General

    ® SIPROTEC 4 Devices General ® The SIPROTEC 4 family is an innovative product series of numerical protective and control devices with open communication interfaces for remote control and remote setting, ergonomically designed operator panels, and highly flexible functionality. 4.1.1 Protection and Control The devices utilize numerical measuring techniques.
  • Page 67: Communication

    ® SIPROTEC 4 Devices 4.1.2 Communication ® SIPROTEC 4 devices are completely suited for the requirements of modern commu- nication technology. They have interfaces that allow for integration into higher-level control centres, and user friendly operation through an on-site PC or via a modem con- nection.
  • Page 68: Settings

    ® SIPROTEC 4 Devices Note: ® All SIPROTEC 4 devices also operate with the proven star coupler (e.g. 7XV5). Thus, for simple applications, you can retrieve all information from your office or while on the road. 4.1.3 Settings ® The devices in the SIPROTEC 4 family are delivered with default settings.
  • Page 69: Operator Control Facilities

    The operating panel contains either a full graphical display or a four-line display, de- ® pending on the specific device of the SIPROTEC 4 family. Operating Panel with Four-Line Display SIPROTEC SIEMENS ERROR 7SA522 MAIN MENU 01/05 SIPROTEC SIEMENS ERROR...
  • Page 70: Measured Values

    ® SIPROTEC 4 Devices The functions of the operating and display elements on the operator control panel are described below. Display Process and device information are displayed in the LCD display. Commonly dis- played information includes circuit breaker status, measured values, counter values, binary information regarding the condition of the device, protection information, gen- eral messages, and alarms.
  • Page 71: Digsi ® 4 Tool

    ® SIPROTEC 4 Devices ® 4.2.2 DIGSI 4 Tool ® DIGSI 4 uses the familiar Windows operating environment. ® User Guide In DIGSI 4 only the settings that are available within a specific device are shown in the specific windows. If a protective feature is changed from disabled to enabled in the Device Configuration, then the settings relevant to that feature become available.
  • Page 72: Information Retrieval

    ® SIPROTEC 4 Devices Information Retrieval ® A SIPROTEC 4 device has an abundance of information that can be used to obtain an overview of the present and past operating conditions of the device and the portion of the power system being protected or controlled by the device. The information is represented in separate groups: Annunciations, Measurements,...
  • Page 73: Annunciations

    ® SIPROTEC 4 Devices 4.3.1 Annunciations The scope of the indication (messages) that are given under Annunciation is deter- ® mined when settings for the configuration of functions are applied to the SIPROTEC device. ® The messages are divided into the following categories, and displayed using DIGSI or the operator control panel of the device: Event Log: Operating messages: independent of network faults, e.g.
  • Page 74 ® SIPROTEC 4 Devices ® Display on To display messages in the operating field of the SIPROTEC 4 device: the Device • Select 0DLQ 0HQX → $QQXQFLDWLRQ → e.g. (YHQW /RJ or 7ULS /RJ. 0$,1 0(18   !$QQXQFLDWLRQ ²! !0HDVXUHPHQW ²! $1181&,$7,21...
  • Page 75: Measurements

    ® SIPROTEC 4 Devices 4.3.2 Measurements The measured values that are registered are divided into the following categories for ® display in DIGSI 4 or on the operating field of the device: Primary values, based on the measured secondary values and the settings entered for the current transformers and voltage transformers.
  • Page 76 ® SIPROTEC 4 Devices ® Display on To display the measured values in the operating field of the SIPROTEC 4 device: the Device • Select 0DLQ 0HQX → 0HDVXUHPHQW → e.g. 2SHUDWLRQ SUL. 0$,1 0(18   !$QQXQFLDWLRQ ²! !0HDVXUHPHQW ²! 0($685(0(17 ...
  • Page 77: Oscillographic Fault Records

    ® SIPROTEC 4 Devices 4.3.3 Oscillographic Fault Records ® As an option, SIPROTEC 4 devices can have waveform capturing and event record- ing. Furthermore, the elements that are shown in the fault records can be selected by the user. ® The fault record data are retrieved from the device memory by DIGSI 4 and are stored as oscillographic records in standard COMTRADE format.
  • Page 78: Control

    ® SIPROTEC 4 Devices Control ® The multiple application possibilities for SIPROTEC 4 devices allow an equally flex- ible concept for command processing and control. Remote If the device is integrated into a master control system, then command outputs can be remotely controlled via the system interface using telegrams from Higher-level control systems, or substation control devices such as SICAM SC.
  • Page 79 ® SIPROTEC 4 Devices The status of a primary switch can be read out on the display using %5($.(56:,7&+ → 'LVSOD\ (Figure 4-10). %5($.(56:,7&+   !'LVSOD\ ²! ',63/$<  !&RQWURO ²!  !%UHDNHU 23(1 'LVF6ZLW &/26 Determining primary switch status using the operator control panel Figure 4-10 ®...
  • Page 80: Manual Overwrite / Tagging

    ® SIPROTEC 4 Devices Manual Overwrite / Tagging Manual Overwrite If the breaker/switch position is not available from the switch-gear, the status of the switchgear device can be manually set to the actual present position using the opera- tor control panel: 0DLQ 0HQX → &RQWURO → %UHDNHU6ZLWFK → 0DQ 2YHU ZULWH.
  • Page 81: General About The Setting Procedures

    ® SIPROTEC 4 Devices General about the Setting Procedures ® The SIPROTEC 4 devices are delivered with standard default settings. Changes to ® the settings are done with DIGSI ® The setting procedure for a SIPROTEC 4 device consists of Overall Protection and Control Design: determining the functions that are to be used (device configuration), assigning the binary inputs, outputs, LEDs, buffers, system port, etc.
  • Page 82 ® SIPROTEC 4 Devices /2$' 3$5$0(7(5   'RZQORDG DFWLYH Screen of Device during Settings Transfer Figure 4-13 ® Setting Sequence When setting a SIPROTEC 4 device, adhere to the following sequence: Specify the interfaces, the device data, and the time synchronization, Determine the device functions to be used, Design the assignment of the inputs and outputs using the configuration matrix, Design all of the special logic that is to be employed using CFC (optional),...
  • Page 83 ® SIPROTEC 4 Devices Settings for Setting changes to individual protective elements and functions can be done using the ® Protective operator control panel on the SIPROTEC 4 device. Elements Other settings such as input/output and device configuration can be viewed from the front panel, but not changed.
  • Page 84: Configuration Of The Scope Of Device Functions

    ® SIPROTEC 4 Devices Configuration of the Scope of Device Functions ® The individual devices within the SIPROTEC 4 family can be supplied with various protective functions. The ordering number of the device determines the available func- tions. The functions are specified more precisely through the process of enabling and disabling in the Device Configuration area of the settings.
  • Page 85: Configuration Of Inputs And Outputs (Configuration Matrix)

    ® SIPROTEC 4 Devices Configuration of Inputs and Outputs (Configuration Matrix) A configuration matrix is used to determine processing of the binary inputs, outputs, LEDs, and indication buffers. ® Configuration is performed with DIGSI The configuration matrix is primarily divided into the following columns: Device functions Information, e.g.
  • Page 86 ® SIPROTEC 4 Devices k4111.gif ® Figure 4-17 DIGSI 4, Input/Output Masking with the Configuration Matrix, Example Filter Functions With the use of filters, either all information can be displayed or a selection can be done according to indications, commands, or measured values. Additionally, there is a filter setting that differentiates between information configured and not configured.
  • Page 87 ® SIPROTEC 4 Devices ® SIPROTEC 4 device information can be connected in a user-specified manner using ® the programmable logic components of the DIGSI 4 CFC. For example, the user can implement interlocking checks, create grouped messages, or derive limit value viola- tion messages.
  • Page 88: Programmable Logic Cfc

    ® SIPROTEC 4 Devices Programmable Logic CFC ® ® The CFC program in DIGSI 4 can be used to create additional logic in SIPROTEC 4 devices. For example, special interlocking conditions for controlled equipment can be designed. Limit checks for measured values can be created, and corresponding control can be designed.
  • Page 89 ® SIPROTEC 4 Devices Figure 4-20 CFC Logic — example 4-25 7SA522 Manual C53000-G1176-C119-2...
  • Page 90: Power System Data

    ® SIPROTEC 4 Devices 4.10 Power System Data Power System In the window for Power System Data 1, important settings are entered that relate to Data 1 the power system and primary equipment connected to the device. The settings in- clude: system data such as frequency, voltage, etc.
  • Page 91: Setting Groups

    ® SIPROTEC 4 Devices 4.11 Setting Groups ® A SIPROTEC 4 device has up to four setting groups A through D. The setting options for each group are the same; however, the applied settings can be, and are typically intended to be, different in each group. The active setting group can easily be changed while the device is in-service.
  • Page 92: Settings

    ® SIPROTEC 4 Devices Settings Double click on a protective function shown in the listbox of Figure 4-22 to obtain a dialogue box for entering the settings associated with this function (Figure 4-23). ® Figure 4-23 DIGSI 4, entering settings for a protective function — example ®...
  • Page 93: General Device Settings

    ® SIPROTEC 4 Devices 4.12 General Device Settings The settings of the display to show information of network faults on the LEDs and the ® ® LCD on the front of the SIPROTEC 4 device are defined in the DIGSI 4 window shown in Figure 4-25.
  • Page 94: Time Synchronization

    ® SIPROTEC 4 Devices 4.13 Time Synchronization ® Time tracking in a SIPROTEC 4 device can be implemented using: DCF77 Radio Receiver (Time Signal from PTB Braunschweig), IRIG-B Radio Receiver (Time Signal from the global positioning satellite (GPS) sys- tem), signals via the system interface from, for example, a substation control system, radio clock using a system-specific synchronizer box, minute impulses on a binary input.
  • Page 95: Serial Interfaces

    ® SIPROTEC 4 Devices 4.14 Serial Interfaces ® Devices in the SIPROTEC 4 family can be equipped with up to four serial interfaces. ® The operating interface is used for on-site connection of a PC, on which DIGSI ® is installed. All operations that are possible using DIGSI 4 can be done at this in- terface.
  • Page 96 ® SIPROTEC 4 Devices To set the framing and baud rate: • Double click on 6HULDO 3RUWV in the data window and enter the specific settings in the window that follows. ® Figure 4-28 DIGSI 4, Interface Settings Window • Read-out on the Operator Control Panel ®...
  • Page 97: Passwords

    ® SIPROTEC 4 Devices 4.15 Passwords ® Passwords are assigned to a SIPROTEC 4 device to protect against unintended changes to the device or unauthorized operations from the device, such as switching. The following access levels are defined: Switching/tagging/manual overwrite, Non-interlocked switching, Test and diagnostics, Hardware test menus,...
  • Page 98 At delivery all passwords are set to 000000. Note: If the password for setting group switching has been forgotten, a temporary password can be received from Siemens. The temporary password can be used to define a new password for this function. ®...
  • Page 99: Configuration

    Configuration Configuration is the process of customizing the relay for the intended application. To accomplish this, the following questions must be answered: • Which functions are needed? • Which data and measured quantities need to be retrieved via which inputs? •...
  • Page 100: Configuration Of Functions

    Configuration Configuration of Functions General The 7SA522 relay contains a series of protective and additional functions. The scope of hardware and firmware is matched to these functions. Furthermore, commands (control actions) can be suited to individual needs of the protected object. In addition, individual functions may be enabled or disabled during configuration, or interaction be- tween functions may be adjusted.
  • Page 101 Configuration ® Figure 5-1 Device Configuration dialogue box in DIGSI 4 — example Before closing the dialogue box, transfer the modified functional setting to the relay by clicking on the item ',*6, → 'HYLFH. The data is stored in the relay in a non-volatile memory buffer.
  • Page 102 Configuration overcurrent protection (DT), an inverse time overcurrent protection can be configured to either correspond to the IEC characteristics (72& ,(&), or to the ANSI characteris- tics (72& $16,). The various characteristics are shown in the technical data. The time delayed overcurrent protection may naturally also be disabled ('LVDEOHG).
  • Page 103: Settings

    Configuration fault detection signal for starting the action times, select the setting 7ULS ZLWKRXW 7DFWLRQ. Address  7ULS PRGH only applies for devices which can trip VLQJOHSROH or WKUHHSROH. Set single/three-pole if you also want single-pole tripping, i.e. if you want to work with single-pole or with single/three-pole automatic reclosure, provided that automatic reclosure is available or an external reclosure device is used.
  • Page 104 Configuration Addr. Setting Title Setting Options Default Setting Comments Teleprot. E/F Dir.Comp.Pickup Disabled Teleprotection for Earth fault UNBLOCKING overcurr. BLOCKING Disabled Auto Reclose Disabled Disabled Auto-Reclose Function 1 AR-cycle 2 AR-cycles 3 AR-cycles 4 AR-cycles 5 AR-cycles 6 AR-cycles 7 AR-cycles 8 AR-cycles AR control mode Pickup w/ Tact...
  • Page 105: Configuration Of The Binary Inputs And Outputs

    Configuration Configuration of the Binary Inputs and Outputs General Upon delivery, the display on the front panel of the relay, some of the function keys, the binary inputs and outputs (output contacts) are assigned to certain information. These assignments may be modified, for most information, allowing adaptation to the local requirements.
  • Page 106: Structure And Operation Of The Configuration Matrix

    Configuration e.g. Isoloation e.g. mcb switch Binary input Binary input (e.g. BI1) L– (e.g. BI 2) (Plant) (Plant) Binary input (e.g. BI 3) L– Double point indication (DP) Single point indication (SP) Figure 5-3 Input indications Additionally to the predefined input and output indications new customer specific indi- cations and even control commands for switching devices may be created.
  • Page 107 Configuration Filter Standard View Short view Information Catalog ® Figure 5-4 Extract from the configuration matrix in the DIGSI 4 user interface — example Information in the rows is assigned to appropriate interfaces in the columns via an en- try in the intersecting cell. This establishes which information controls which destina- tion, or from which source information is received.
  • Page 108 Configuration mands, indications and commands, or measured and metered values. The second menu allows to display only configured information, information configured to physical inputs and outputs, or non-configured information. A further reduction in the number of rows is possible, by compressing an information group to one row.
  • Page 109 Configuration • Annunciations: − SP Single Point Indication (binary input, e.g. LED reset, refer also to subsection 5.2.1) − DP Double Point Indication (binary input, refer also to subsection 5.2.1) − OUT Output Indication (protection output signals e.g. pickup, trip ...) −...
  • Page 110: Control Commands For Switching Devices

    Configuration − T Trip Log Buffer in the Device, − S System Interface, − C CFC, Information is processed by CFC Program of the User-definable Logic. − CM Control of switchgears if a switch plant is indicated in the Control Menu of the device 5.2.3 Control Commands for switching devices...
  • Page 111 Configuration CLOSE command Switching CLOSE device L– Matrix configuration: Figure 5-5 Single command with single contact CLOSE TRIP command command C– Switching CLOSE TRIP C– device L– Matrix configuration: Figure 5-6 Double command with single contacts CLOSE TRIP command command C–...
  • Page 112: Establishing Information Properties

    Configuration CLOSE TRIP command command C–1 Switching CLOSE TRIP device C–1 C–2 C–2 L– Matrix configuration: Figure 5-8 Double command with double contacts (with 4 relays) CLOSE TRIP command command C– Switching CLOSE TRIP device C– L– Matrix configuration: Figure 5-9 Double command with double and single contacts (with 3 relays) 5.2.4 Establishing Information Properties...
  • Page 113 Configuration Output Indication (OUT) Figure 5-10 Information properties — example for the information type “Output Indication” (OUT) Internal Single Point Indication (IntSP) Figure 5-11 Information properties — example for the information type “Internal Single Point Indication” (IntSP) Singe Point Indica- tion (SP) Figure 5-12 Information properties —...
  • Page 114 Configuration also be set (see margin heading “Filtering/Contact Chatter Suppression” below), is only effective for the intermediate (= undefined position) indication. Hence, briefly un- defined conditions or contact chattering will not lead to an alarm; however, defined changes in the condition (final positions) are immediately reported. Figure 5-13 Information properties —...
  • Page 115 Configuration Figure 5-14 Information Properties Example for Information Type “Transformer Tap Chang- er” (TxTap) If none of the available encoding formats are selected, each individual tap changer po- sition may be set in a table. The table is accessed after the pull-down menu 7DEOH for encoding is opened, by selecting the button to the side.
  • Page 116 Configuration Position change The three binary inputs used for this must have sequential numbers, such as BI 1, BI 2, and BI 3. User Defined Meas- For the information type “Measured Values User Defined” (098), the units, the conver- ured Values (MVU) sion factor, and the number of significant digits following the decimal point may be and Limit Values specified.
  • Page 117 Configuration Figure 5-16 Information Properties Example for Information Type “Pulsed Metered Value” (PMV) The available information in the configuration matrix is determined by the device type Entering Your Own and the configured functional scope. If necessary, you may extend the configuration Information matrix to information groups or individual information defined and entered by yourself.
  • Page 118 Configuration Information may be entered into the new information group using the information cat- alog (Figure 5-19). The information catalog is found in the menu bar under the 9LHZ option, or via an icon in the toolbar. User information may be entered into both the user defined groups and any other available information group.
  • Page 119: Performing Configuration

    Configuration Figure 5-20 Confirmation window before deleting a user defined group Click <HV if you actually want to delete the group. Note : When deleting a group, all information definitions within this group will be deleted. To delete individual entries, click under ,QIRUPDWLRQ in the line with the entry to be deleted.
  • Page 120 Configuration In addition, a single point indication cannot be configured to a binary input and to CFC as a source at the same time. In this case, an error message would be displayed. Click on 2., and select another configuration. Error message resulting from double configuration Figure 5-21 If a double point indication (DP) is configured to one binary input (e.g.
  • Page 121 Configuration Figure 5-22 Selecting a function key as an information source Configuring CFC as If certain information should be created as a result of the implementation of a user de- a Source fined logic function (CFC), this information must appear in the matrix as a source from CFC.
  • Page 122 Configuration Example: Double Command with 2 relays (acc. Table 5-1) Figure 5-23 Window information catalog (example for different command types) If a command with multiple outputs is configured, all binary outputs required in the ma- trix for the configuration are automatically defined. If one of these outputs is de-con- figured, all other binary outputs associated with the command will be automatically de- configured.
  • Page 123 Configuration Figure 5-24 Dialogue box: object properties for a command with feedback The conditional checks that should be conducted before execution of a switching com- mand can also be defined: • Device position (scheduled/actual): The switching command is ignored and a cor- responding indication is issued if the switching device is already in the intended po- sition.
  • Page 124 Configuration Table 5-2 Overview of Indication Buffers Information Type ↓ \Message Buffer → Single Point Indications (SP) Double Point Indications (DP) Output Indications (OUT) Internal Single Point Indications (IntSP) Internal Double Point Indications (DP) Select one of the following options for the named indication types: •...
  • Page 125: Preset Configurations

    Configuration Configuring the User defined pulse values derived from the measured values may be configured into Metered Value Win- the metered value window so that they may be displayed at the front relay panel. dow as a Destina- tion Retrieving Device Retrieving the configurations is also possible from the device front.
  • Page 126 Configuration Table 5-4 LED indication presettings LCD Text Function Remarks LED 1 Relay PICKUP L1 0503 Device (general) pick up phase L1, latched LED 2 Relay PICKUP L2 0504 Device (general) pick up phase L2, latched LED 3 Relay PICKUP L3 0505 Device (general) pick up phase L3, latched...
  • Page 127 Configuration Table 5-5 Binary input presettings Binary Input LCD Text Function Remarks BI 1 >Reset LED 0005 Reset of latched indications, H–active BI 2 >Manual Close 0356 Manual close of the circuit breaker, H–active BI 3 >FAIL:Feeder VT 0361 Voltage transformer secondary minia- ture circuit breaker, H–active >I-STUB ENABLE 7131...
  • Page 128: Transferring Metering Values

    Configuration Table 5-6 Output relay presettings Binary Out- LCD Text Function No. Remarks BO 8 DisTRIP3p. Z1sf 3823 Distance protection three-pole trip in DisTRIP3p.Z1Bsf 3825 zone Z1 or Z1B following a single- phase fault Dis.TripZ1/1p 3811 Distance protection single-pole trip in Dis.TripZ1B1p 3813 zone Z1 or Z1B...
  • Page 129 Configuration Cyclical Restora- Here, the user may specify the source of the cyclical trigger for the transfer. Also, the tion user may set the time interval and determine whether the metered value buffer should ® be deleted after transfer to the SIPROTEC -device has taken place.
  • Page 130: Settings For Contact Chatter Blocking

    Configuration 5.2.7 Settings for Contact Chatter Blocking Contact Chatter The contact chatter filter checks whether the number of condition changes at a binary Blocking input exceeds a preset value during a predetermined time interval. If this occurs, the binary input will be blocked for a certain time, so the event list does not contain a large number of unnecessary entries.
  • Page 131 Configuration The settings for the monitoring criteria of the chatter blocking feature are set only once for all binary inputs; however, the status of the chatter suppression can be set individ- ually for each binary input. See “Filtering / Contact Chatter Suppression” in Sub-sec- tion 5.2.3.
  • Page 132: Creating User Defined Functions With Cfc

    Configuration Creating User Defined Functions with CFC General The 7SA522 relay is capable of implementing user defined logic functions which may be processed by the relay. This CFC feature (Continuous Function Chart) is needed to process user defined supervision functions and logic conditions (e.g. interlocking conditions for switching devices) or to process measured values.
  • Page 133 Configuration task level Figure 5-29 Establishing the Within the Run Sequence menu, select (GLW, and then 3UHGHFHVVRU IRU ,Q VWDOODWLRQ, to ensure that the function modules selected from the library will be im- plemented into the desired task level (Figure 5-30). task level Figure 5-30 Assignment of function modules to the selected...
  • Page 134 Configuration task level Table 5-7 Selection guide for function modules and Run-Time Level Function Modules Description MW_BEARB PLC1_BEARB PLC_BEARB SFS_BEARB Meter processing Slow PLC Fast PLC Interlocking DI_TO_BOOL Double point to boolean – LIVE_ZERO Live-zero, non linear curve – – –...
  • Page 135 Configuration Configuring and The default run-time sequence is determined by the sequence of the insertion of the Connecting Func- logic modules. You may redefine the run-time sequence by pressing <CTRL> – <F11> tion Modules on the PC keyboard. Please refer to the CFC manual. The necessary function mod- ules (FM) are contained in a library located to the right of the configuration chart.
  • Page 136 Configuration Connector Figure 5-34 Connector Events Events (SP_Ev, DP_Ev) are not suitable for processing in CFC, and should therefore not be used as input signals. Consistency check In addition to the sample configuration chart 1, other configuration sheets may exist. ®...
  • Page 137 Configuration Table 5-9 Processing times in TICKS required by the individual elements Individual Element Amount of TICKS Module, basic requirement each input more than 3 inputs for generic modules Connection to an input Connection to an output signal Additional for each configuration sheet The utilized processor capacity which is available for the CFC can be checked under 2SWLRQ →...
  • Page 138 Configuration A few examples are given below. Example 1 (MW): A configuration for low-current monitoring alarm (see Figure 5-37) which can be pro- Low Current duced using CFC, should be a first example. This element may be used to detect op- Monitor eration without load, or to recognize open circuited conditions.
  • Page 139 Configuration • The number of inputs of the AND gate is increased to 7. • The CLOSE indications from the circuit breaker (CB) and from the grounding switch (GS) are supplied to the inputs of the NOR functions. • The OPEN indications from the circuit breaker (CB) and from the grounding switch (GS) are supplied to the inputs of the AND function.
  • Page 140 Configuration CB TRIP ≥1 Circuit Breaker Protection TRIP Operation >Test Oper. Test Oper. Additional logic as an example for a PLC_1 event-driven logic condition Figure 5-39 5-42 7SA522 Manual C53000-G1176-C119-2...
  • Page 141: Establishing A Default Display

    Configuration Establishing a Default Display Under normal conditions, the so-called default display is the default image in the relay display. It shows operating information and/or measured values of the protected equipment. Depending on the relay type, a number of predefined basic displays are available.
  • Page 142: Serial Interfaces

    Configuration Serial Interfaces The device contains one or more serial interfaces: an operator interface integrated into the front panel, and — depending on the model ordered — a rear service interface and a system interface for connection of a central control system. Certain standards are necessary for communication via these interfaces, which contain device identification, transfer protocol, and transfer speed.
  • Page 143 Configuration ® Figure 5-42 DIGSI 4, Settings for the rear port — example ® For the IEC communication, each SIPROTEC device must have a unique IEC ad- dress assigned to it. There is a total of 254 IEC addresses available. Select an address from the pull-down menu ,(&...
  • Page 144 Configuration ® Profibus For a Profibus connection — if available — between a SIPROTEC device and the ® ® Connection SICAM SAS or DIGSI 4, a minimum transfer rate of 500 kBaud is recommended for disturbance-free communication. Signal Idle State For optical connections, the signal idle state is preset for “light off.”...
  • Page 145 Configuration The type and number of system interface(s) is dependent on the device type and ver- sion and might be completely missing. The system interface data may be read at the device, but cannot be modified there, whereas the data for the operator and service interface can be modified.
  • Page 146: Date And Time Stamping

    Configuration Date and Time Stamping Integrated date and time stamping allows for the exact evaluation of sequence of events (e.g. operations or error messages, or limit violations). The following clock set- tings are available: • Internal RTC clock (Real Time Clock), •...
  • Page 147 Configuration ® Figure 5-47 Dialogue box for time synchronization and format in DIGSI Here you may select the time standard for internal time stamping by selecting from the following modes: Table 5-10 Operating modes for time synchronization Item Operating Mode Explanations Internal synchronization using RTC (pre-set) IQWHUQDO...
  • Page 148 Configuration When using radio clock signals, you must take into account that it can take up to three minutes after device start-up or restored reception for the received time signal to be decoded. The internal clock is not re-synchronized until then. With IRIG B, the year must be set manually, because this standard does not include a year value.
  • Page 149: Functions

    Functions ® This chapter describes the numerous functions available in the SIPROTEC 7SA522 relay. The setting options for each function are defined, including instructions for re- porting setting values and formulae where required. General Distance Protection 6-30 Measures to Be Taken in Case of Power Swings 6-72 Distance Protection Teleprotection Schemes 6-77...
  • Page 150: General

    Functions General A few seconds after the device is switched on, the initial display appears in the LCD. In the 7SA522 the measured values are displayed. The setting parameters can be entered via the keypad and display on the front of the device, or by means of a personal computer connected to the front or service interface ®...
  • Page 151 Functions Settings are selected using the keys. When the key is pressed, the ENTER user is prompted for a password. The user should enter Password No. 5 and then press the ENTER key. The current value of the setting appears in a text box, with a blink- ing text insertion cursor.
  • Page 152 Functions Exiting the If an attempt is made to exit setting modification mode using the key or the key, MENU the message $UH \RX VXUH" will be displayed followed by the responses <HV 1R Setting Mode and (VFDSH (see Figure 6-4). If the response <HV is selected, modification of settings can be confirmed by pressing the key.
  • Page 153 Functions A dialogue box associated with the selected function is displayed (e.g., if 3RZHU 6\V WHP 'DWD  function is selected, the dialogue box shown in Figure 6-6 will appear). If a function contains many settings, the dialogue box may include multiple windows. In this situation, the user can select individual windows via tabs located at the top of the dialogue box (e.g., in Figure 6-6, tabs exist for 3RZHU 6\VWHP, &7·V, 97·V, and %UHDNHU).
  • Page 154 Functions If the value entered is outside the allowable range, a message block appears on the screen describing the error and displaying the acceptable range of values. To ac- knowledge the message, click 2., and the original value reappears. A new entry can be made or another setting value can be modified.
  • Page 155: Power System Data 1

    Functions 6.1.1 Power System Data 1 Some system and plant data are required by the device, so that it may adapt its func- tions to these data, according to its mode of operation. Amongst others, the plant and instrument transformer ratings, polarity and termination of the measured values, pa- rameters of the circuit breaker, etc.
  • Page 156 Functions When connected to the e-n winding of a set of voltage transformers, the voltage transformation ratio of the voltage transformers is usually: ⁄ ⁄ Nprim Nsec Nsec ----------------- - --------------- - --------------- - In this case the factor 8SK  8GHOWD (address  matching ratio for the secon- dary nominal voltages of phase voltage transformer and open-delta voltage) must be set to 3/√3 = √3 ≈...
  • Page 157 Functions Busbar 400 kV (any voltage) 400 kV 110 V 400 kV/220 kV 220 kV/100 V V#ÃU…h†s‚…€r… VƒƒÃU…h†s‚…€r… VƒƒÃ8PII G ²G! VƒƒVyvr ϕ ° VyvrVƒƒÃX9G feeder 220 kV Figure 6-9 Busbar voltage, measured across a transformer • Connection of the U input to any other voltage signal U , which may be processed by the overvoltage protection function, refer to Appendix A, Figure 1-15:...
  • Page 158 Functions Phase current transformers 500 A/5 A Earth current transformer 60 A/1 A 60 1 ⁄ ⁄ ---------------- - 0.600 500 5 ⁄ ph CT • Connection of the I input to the earth current of the parallel line (for parallel line compensation of the distance protection and/or fault location function, refer to Ap- pendix A, Figure 1-11): Address  is then set to: , WUDQVIRUPHU = ,Q SDUDO OLQH and...
  • Page 159 Functions sidual) impedance factors is done in conjunction with the general protection data (refer to Section 6.1.3). The closing time of the circuit breaker 7&% FORVH (address 239) is necessary if the Closing time of the circuit breaker synchro-check function of the relay is used also for asynchronous switching. In this case, the relay calculates the ideal closing instant such that the two voltages (bus bar and feeder) are in synchronism at the instant when the breaker primary contacts close.
  • Page 160: Settings

    Functions 6.1.1.1 Settings Addr. Setting Title Setting Options Default Setting Comments CT Starpoint towards Line towards Line CT Starpoint towards Busbar Unom PRIMARY 1.0..1200.0 kV 400.0 kV Rated Primary Voltage Unom SECON- 80..125 V 100 V Rated Secondary Voltage (L-L) DARY CT PRIMARY 10..5000 A...
  • Page 161 Functions Addr. Setting Title Setting Options Default Setting Comments T-CBtest-dead 0.00..30.00 sec 0.10 sec Dead Time for CB test-auto reclosure The indicated current values for setting ranges and default settings refer to I = 1 A. For the nominal current 5 A these values are to be multiplied by 5. 6-13 7SA522 Manual C53000-G1176-C119-2...
  • Page 162: Setting Groups

    Functions 6.1.2 Setting Groups Purpose of Setting A setting group is a collection of setting values to be used for a particular application. Groups In the 7SA522 relay, four independent setting groups (A to D) are possible. The user can switch between setting groups locally, via binary inputs (if so configured), via the operator or service interface using a personal computer, or via the system interface.
  • Page 163 Functions The next step is to highlight the name of setting group in the list into which the setting values should be copied. Go to the menu bar, click on (GLW and select 3DVWH. A con- firmation box will appear (see Figure 6-11). Select <HV to copy the setting values. Note: All existing setting values in the setting group that has been copied to will be overwrit- ten.
  • Page 164: Information Overview

    Functions 6.1.2.1 Settings Addr. Setting Title Setting Options Default Setting Comments CHANGE Group A Group A Change to Another Setting Group B Group Group C Group D Binary Input Protocol 6.1.2.2 Information Overview F.No. Alarm Comments >Set Group Bit0 >Setting Group Select Bit 0 >Set Group Bit1 >Setting Group Select Bit 1 Group A...
  • Page 165: General Protection Data

    Functions 6.1.3 General Protection Data General protection data (3RZHU 6\VWHP 'DWD  36\VWHP 'DWD  ) includes settings associated with all functions rather than a specific protective or monitoring function. In contrast to the 3RZHU 6\VWHP 'DWD  36\VWHP 'DWD  as dis- cussed in Sub-section 6.1.1, these settings can be changed over with the setting groups.
  • Page 166 Functions The per unit length reactance X’ is entered as relative quantity [ , in address  in Ω/km, when for example the unit of length is given in NP (Address , refer to Sec- tion 6.1.1 under “8QLWV RI /HQJWK” or under address  in Ω/mile, when the unit of length is given in 0LOHV.
  • Page 167 Functions Earth Impedance When entering the resistance ratio R and the reactance ratio X the addresses  to  apply. These ratios are simply formally calculated and are not identical (Residual) Compensation with the real and imaginary part of Z .
  • Page 168 Functions Earth Impedance When the complex earth impedance (residual) compensation factor K is set, the ad- dresses  to  apply. These factors are defined with their magnitude and (Residual) Compensation with angle which may be calculated with the line data using the following equation: Magnitude and Angle (K –Factor)
  • Page 169 Functions When determining the angle, the quadrant of the result must be considered. The fol- lowing table indicates the quadrant and range of the angle which is determined by the signs of the calculated real and imaginary part of K Table 6-1 Quadrants and range of the angle of K tan ϕ(K0)
  • Page 170 Functions Resistance ratio: Reactance ratio: ⋅ ⋅ -- - ---------- - -- - ---------- ------- - ------- - with — mutual zero sequence resistance (coupling resistance) of the line — mutual zero sequence reactance (coupling reactance) of the line — positive sequence resistance of the line —...
  • Page 171 Functions x l ⁄ -- - ------------------------ - -------- ----------------- - 2 x l ⁄ – -------------- - ⁄ Current The 7SA522 contains a saturation detector which largely eliminates the measuring er- Transformer rors resulting from the saturation of the current transformers. The threshold above which it picks up can be set in address  ,&7VDW 7KUHV.
  • Page 172 Functions eration. The preset value is usually sufficient. This setting can only be modified with ® DIGSI 4 under “Additional Settings”. The switch-on-to-fault activation (seal-in) time 6, 7LPH DOO &O (address ) determines the activation period of the protection functions enabled during each ener- gization of the line (e.g.
  • Page 173 Functions Address  5HVHW 7ULS &0' determines which criteria allow for the reset of an issued trip command. The setting &XUUHQW2SHQ3ROH ensures that the trip command resets after the current disappears. The measured current must drop below the value set in address  3ROH2SHQ&XUUHQW before the trip command resets (see above). With the setting &XUUHQW $1' &% the circuit breaker auxiliary contact must addition- ally indicate that the circuit breaker has opened.
  • Page 174 Functions In some cases, however, a three-pole trip would be preferable for this fault scenario, e.g. if the double-circuit line is located next to a large generator unit (Figure 6-14). This is because the generator considers the two single-phase to ground faults as one dou- ble-phase ground fault, with correspondingly high dynamic load on the turbine shaft.
  • Page 175: Settings

    Functions 6.1.3.1 Settings Addr. Setting Title Setting Options Default Setting Comments 1103 FullScaleVolt. 1.0..1200.0 kV 400.0 kV Measurement: Full Scale Voltage (100%) 1104 FullScaleCurr. 10..5000 A 1000 A Measurement: Full Scale Cur- rent (100%) 30..89 ° 85 ° 1105 Line Angle Line Angle 1110 x’...
  • Page 176: Information Overview

    Functions Addr. Setting Title Setting Options Default Setting Comments 1135 Reset Trip CMD with Pole Open Current with Pole Open RESET of Trip Command Threshold only Current Threshold with CBaux AND Pole Open only Current 1140 I-CTsat. Thres. 0.2..50.0 A 10.0 A CT Saturation Threshold 1150...
  • Page 177 Functions F.No. Alarm Comments >Only 1ph AR >External AR programmed for 1phase only >Enable ARzones >Enable all AR Zones / Stages >Lockout SET >Lockout SET >Lockout RESET >Lockout RESET LOCKOUT LOCKOUT is active Relay PICKUP Relay PICKUP Relay PICKUP L1 Relay PICKUP Phase L1 Relay PICKUP L2 Relay PICKUP Phase L2...
  • Page 178: Distance Protection

    Functions Distance Protection Distance protection is the main function of the device. It distinguishes itself by high measuring accuracy and the ability to adapt to the given system conditions. It is sup- plemented by a number of additional functions. 6.2.1 Earth Fault Recognition 6.2.1.1 Method of Operation...
  • Page 179 Functions Negative Sequence On long, heavily loaded lines, the earth current measurement could be overstabilized Current 3I by large currents (ref. Figure 6-15). To ensure secure detection of earth faults in this case, a negative sequence comparison stage is additionally provided. In the event of a single-phase fault, the negative sequence current I has approximately the same magnitude as the zero sequence current I...
  • Page 180: Setting Of The Parameters For This Function

    Functions !" "D3 ≥1 earth fault 3V0> !# "V3 Figure 6-17 Logic of the earth fault recognition. Earth Fault The earth fault recognition is modified during the single-pole open condition with Recognition during single-pole automatic reclosure (Figure 6-18). In this case, the magnitudes of the cur- Single-Pole Open rents and voltages are monitored in addition to the angles between the currents.
  • Page 181: Calculation Of The Impedances

    Functions 6.2.2 Calculation of the Impedances 6.2.2.1 Method of Operation A separate measuring system is provided for each of the six possible impedance loops L1–E, L2–E, L3–E, L1–L2, L2–L3, L3–L1. The phase-earth loops are evaluated when an earth fault detection according to section 6.2.1 is recognized and the phase current exceeds a settable minimum value 0LQLPXP ,SK! (address ).
  • Page 182 Functions recognition (refer to Section 6.17) provides the corresponding block signal. A logic block diagram of the phase-phase measuring system is shown in Figure 6-20. Measur- ing syst. x–y x–y –L !! Dƒu3 > & > from state recogni- tion Figure 6-20 logic of the phase-phase measuring system Phase–Earth Loops For the calculation of the phase-earth loop, for example during a L3–E short-circuit...
  • Page 183 Functions L3–E Figure 6-21 Short circuit of a phase-earth loop The factor Z only depends on the line parameters and no longer on the fault dis- tance. The evaluation of the phase-earth loop does not take place as long as the affected phase is switched off (during single-pole dead time), to avoid an incorrect measure- ment with the undefined measured values existing in this state.
  • Page 184 Functions close-in short circuits may cause unfaulted loops to “see” the fault further away than the faulted loop, but still within the tripping zone. This would cause three-pole tripping and therefore void the possibility of single-pole automatic reclosure. As a result power transfer via the line would be lost.
  • Page 185 Functions Table 6-2 Evaluation of the measured loops during multiple loop fault detection Fault detection evaluated Setting Loops Loop(s) Parameter 1221 3K( IDXOWV L1–E, L2–E, L1–L2 L2–E, L1–L2 %ORFN OHDGLQJ ‘ L2–E, L3–E, L2–L3 L3–E, L2–L3 L1–E, L3–E, L3–L1 L1–E, L3–L1 3K( IDXOWV L1–E, L2–E, L1–L2 L1–E, L1–L2...
  • Page 186 Functions ground below the line. These line parameters are input to the device — along with all the other line data — during the parameterisation of the device. The line impedance is calculated with the equation below similar to the calculation shown earlier. L3–E -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ⁄...
  • Page 187: Applying The Function Parameter Settings

    Functions ENABLE Z1B 3611 ≥1 Z1B instantaneous. !"! TPUAÓ‚r Z2 instantaneous. Dhp‡v‰r a‚rÃa 7 „1“ Z3 instantaneous. ≥1 & QD8FVQ Z4 instantaneous. SOTF Op. mode & Z5 instantaneous. Figure 6-24 circuit breaker closure onto a dead fault 6.2.2.2 Applying the Function Parameter Settings The distance protection can be switched on or off with the parameter in address  General Function )&7 'LVWDQFH 212))
  • Page 188 Functions breaker. The setting 3LFNXS implies that the non-delayed tripping following line ener- gization is activated for all recognized faults in any zone (i.e. with general fault detec- tion of the distance protection). Load Area On long heavily loaded lines, the risk of encroachment of the load impedance into the tripping characteristic of the distance protection may exist.
  • Page 189: Settings

    Functions (address ) and j load (Ø-Ø) (ad- The spread angle of the load trapezoid j load (Ø-E) dress ) must be greater (approx. 5°) than the maximum arising load angle (cor- responding to the minimum power factor cos ϕ). Calculation example: minimum power factor cos ϕ...
  • Page 190: Information Overview

    Functions 6.2.2.4 Information Overview F.No. Alarm Comments 3603 >BLOCK Distance >BLOCK Distance protection 3611 >ENABLE Z1B >ENABLE Z1B (with setted Time Delay) 3613 >ENABLE Z1Binst >ENABLE Z1B instantanous (w/o T-Delay) 3617 >BLOCK Z4-Trip >BLOCK Z4-Trip 3618 >BLOCK Z5-Trip >BLOCK Z5-Trip 3651 Dist.
  • Page 191 Functions F.No. Alarm Comments 3707 Dis.Loop L1-E r Distance Loop L1E selected reverse 3708 Dis.Loop L2-E r Distance Loop L2E selected reverse 3709 Dis.Loop L3-E r Distance Loop L3E selected reverse 3710 Dis.Loop L1-2 r Distance Loop L12 selected reverse 3711 Dis.Loop L2-3 r Distance Loop L23 selected reverse...
  • Page 192 Functions F.No. Alarm Comments 3781 Dis.TimeOut Tfw DistanceTime Out Forward PICKUP 3782 Dis.TimeOut Trv DistanceTime Out Reverse/Non-dir. PICKUP 3801 Dis.Gen. Trip Distance protection: General trip 3802 Dis.Trip 1pL1 Distance TRIP command - Only Phase L1 3803 Dis.Trip 1pL2 Distance TRIP command - Only Phase L2 3804 Dis.Trip 1pL3 Distance TRIP command - Only Phase L3...
  • Page 193 Functions 6.2.3 Distance Protection with Polygonal Tripping Characteristic The Distance Protection 7SA522 may optionally be supplied with a polygonal tripping characteristic or with a circular MHO characteristic, or with both, depending on the ver- sion ordered. If both characteristics are available, they may be selected for phase– phase loops and phase–earth loops separately.
  • Page 194 Functions Line characteristic 1,05*X only for zone Z1 α ϕLoad ϕ Line Load area R 1,05*R RLoad Load area 1,05*RLoad directional characteristic Line characteristic Um 5 % vergrößertes Polygon, wenn im letzten Meßzyklus eine Reset values sichere Anregung vorlag Setting values Figure 6-25 Polygonal characteristic Direction For each loop an impedance vector is also used to determine the direction of the short-...
  • Page 195 Functions L3–L1 – U L1–L2 L3–L1 L1–L2 L2–L3 L2–L3 a) Phase–earth loop (L1–E) b) Phase–phase loop (L2–L3) Figure 6-26 Direction determination with quadrature voltages Table 6-3 Allocation of the measured values for the direction determination Measured current Short-circuit loop Quadrature Loop (direction) voltage...
  • Page 196 Functions A non-directional zone has no directional characteristic. The entire tripping region ap- plies here. „undefined“ „forward“ „reverse“ „undefined“ 1RQ'LUHFWLRQDO )also applies to “ ” Figure 6-27 Directional characteristic in the R–X–diagram Characteristics of The theoretical steady-state directional characteristic shown in Figure 6-27 applies to the Directional faulted loop voltages.
  • Page 197 Functions 7SA522 6-28a „forward“ „forward“ „reverse“ „reverse“ 6-28b 6-28c Figure 6-28 Directional characteristic with quadrature or memorized voltages Assignment to the The loop impedances calculated according to Sub-section 6.2.2 are assigned to the Polygons and set characteristics of each distance zone. To avoid unstable signals at the boundaries Zone Pick-up of a polygon, the characteristics have a hysteresis of approximately 5 % i.e.
  • Page 198: Applying The Function Parameter Settings

    Functions The zones and phases of such a valid fault detection are alarmed, e.g. “Dis. Z1 L1E” for zone 1 and phase L1 and further processed by the zone logic (refer to Sub-section 6.2.5) and the supplementary functions (e.g. teleprotection logic, section 6.4.1) In total the following zones are available: Independent zones: •...
  • Page 199 Functions Accordingly, the reach for any distance zone can be specified as follows: ⋅ ---------- X prim where — is the transformation ratio of the current transformers — is the transformation ratio of the voltage transformers Calculation example: 110 kV overhead line 150 mm with the following data: s (length) = 35 km = 0.19 Ω/km...
  • Page 200 Functions In the following example a maximum arc voltage of 6 kV is assumed for phase–phase faults (line data as above). If the minimum primary short-circuit current is assumed to be 1000 A this corresponds to 6 Ω primary. This results in the following setting for the resistance reach of the first zone: primary: ⋅...
  • Page 201 Functions For the first zone, Z1, an additional tilt α (figure 6-25) can be set by means of the pa- rameter in address  =RQH 5HGXFWLRQ. This setting is required if short circuits with a large fault resistance (e.g. overhead lines without earth/shield wire) are expect- ed on lines with an infeed at both ends and load transfer in the direction of the line (ex- port).
  • Page 202 Functions Zone Z1B is usually used in combination with automatic reclosure and/or teleprotec- tion systems. It can be activated internally by the teleprotection functions (see also section 6.4) or the integrated automatic reclosure (if available, see also section 6.1) or externally by a binary input.
  • Page 203 Functions Addr. Setting Title Setting Options Default Setting Comments 1356 T1B-multi-phase 0.00..30.00 sec 0.00 sec T1B-multi-ph, delay for multi ph. faults 1357 1st AR -> Z1B Z1B enabled before 1st AR (int. or ext.) 1311 Op. mode Z2 Forward Forward Operating mode Z2 Reverse Non-Directional...
  • Page 204 Functions Addr. Setting Title Setting Options Default Setting Comments 1343 X(Z5)+ 0.05..250.00 Ohm 12.00 Ohm X(Z5)+, Reactance for Forward direction 1344 RE(Z5) Ø-E 0.05..250.00 Ohm 12.00 Ohm RE(Z5), Resistance for ph-e faults 1345 T5 DELAY 0.00..30.00 sec 0.90 sec T5 delay 1346 X(Z5)- 0.05..250.00 Ohm...
  • Page 205 Functions 6.2.4 Distance Protection with MHO Characteristic The Distance Protection 7SA522 may optionally be provided with polygonal tripping characteristic or with a MHO circle characteristic, or with both depending on which ver- sion was ordered. If both characteristics are available, they may be selected separate- ly for phase–phase loops and phase–earth loops.
  • Page 206 Functions Polarized As is the case with all characteristics that pass through the origin of the coordinate sys- MHO Circle tem, the MHO circle boundary around the origin itself is also not defined as the meas- ured voltage is zero or too small to be evaluated in this case. For this reason, the MHO circle is polarized.
  • Page 207 Functions 7SA522 6-32a 6-32b 6-32c Figure 6-32 Polarized MHO circle with quadrature or memorized voltages Assignment to the The assignment of the loop impedances to the set characteristics of each distance Circles and zones carried out as follows: For each zone the angle between two difference phasors ∆Z and ∆Z Zone Pick-up...
  • Page 208 Functions = Impedance reach limit (set value) = Fault impedance = Source impedance k = Weighting factor for polarizing voltage ∆Z ∆Z Load k · Z Figure 6-33 Phasor diagram of the MHO circle measured values For each distance zone a MHO circle can be defined by means of the parameter Z .
  • Page 209: Applying The Function Parameter Settings

    Functions The zones and phases of such a valid fault detection are alarmed, e.g. Dis. Z1 L1E for zone Z1 and phase L1. The zone logic (refer to Sub-section 6.2.5) and supplementary functions (e.g. teleprotection logic, Sub-section 6.4.1) process these signals further. In total, the following zones are available: Independent zones: •...
  • Page 210 Functions Accordingly, the reach for any distance zone can be specified as follows: ⋅ ---------- - Z prim where — transformation ratio of the current transformers — transformation ratio of the voltage transformers On long, heavily loaded lines, the MHO circle may extend into the load impedance range.
  • Page 211 Functions For the remaining zones the following correspondingly applies: =5 = (address ); =5 = (address ); =5 = (address ); =5 = (address ); For the second zone it is also possible to set separate delay times for single- and multi- phase faults. In general the delay times are set the same. If stability problems are ex- pected during multiple-phase faults, a shorter time delay 7PXOWLSKDVH (address ) may be considered under the given circumstances while a higher setting for 7SKDVH (address ) for single-phase faults may be tolerated.
  • Page 212 Functions to a rapid automatic reclosure. Usually the overreaching zone Z1B is used for the first cycle (VW $5 ! =% = <HV). This may be suppressed by changing the setting to VW $5 ! =% equals 1R. In this case the overreaching zone Z1B is not released before and during the 1 automatic reclose cycle.
  • Page 213: Settings

    Functions 6.2.4.3 Settings Addr. Setting Title Setting Options Default Setting Comments 1401 Op. mode Z1 Forward Forward Operating mode Z1 Reverse Inactive 1402 ZR(Z1) 0.05..200.00 Ohm 2.50 Ohm ZR(Z1), Impedance Reach 1305 T1-1phase 0.00..30.00 sec 0.00 sec T1-1phase, delay for single phase faults 1306 T1-multi-phase...
  • Page 214 Functions The indicated secondary current values and values of impedance for setting ranges and default settings refer to I = 1 A. For the nominal current 5 A the current values are to be multiplied by 5. The values of impedance are divided by 5. 6-66 7SA522 Manual C53000-G1176-C119-2...
  • Page 215 Functions 6.2.5 Tripping Logic of the Distance Protection 6.2.5.1 Method of Operation General Fault De- As soon as any one of the distance zones has determined with certainty that the fault is inside its tripping range, the signal “'LV 3,&.83” (general fault detection of the tection distance protection) is generated.
  • Page 216 Functions 3771 Dis T1 exp. 3801 Dis G–trip "$ U  ƒuh†r 3802 Dis trip 1polL1 & ≥1 Dis FD Z1 L1 3803 Dis trip 1polL2 Dis Anr Z1 L2 Dis Anr Z1 L3 ≥1 Tripping logic 3804 Dis trip 1polL3 of the distance U €ˆy‡vƒuh†r "%...
  • Page 217 Functions ""$ U#Ã9@G6`Ã 3778 Dis T4 exp. Dis FD Z4 L1 ≥1 Dis FD Z4 L2 ≥1 3801 Dis G–trip Dis FD Z4 L3 Tripping logic & & 3805 Dis trip L123 of the distance Z4 undelayed protection (refer Fig. 6-24) 3821 Dis trip Z4 Dis bl Z4 trip Figure 6-38 Tripping logic for the 4th and 5th Zone, shown is zone Z4...
  • Page 218 Functions 3780 Dis T1B exp. "$$ U 7 ƒuh†r 3801 Dis G–trip ≥1 Dis FD Z1B L1 & Dis FD Z1B L2 Tripping logic 3802 Dis trip1polL1 Dis FD Z1B L3 of the distance ≥1 protection "$% U 7€ˆy‡vƒuh†r 3803 Dis trip1polL2 &...
  • Page 219: Applying The Function Parameter Settings

    Functions 6.2.5.2 Applying the Function Parameter Settings The trip delay times of the distance stages and intervention options which are also processed in the tripping logic of the distance protection were already considered with the zone settings (Sub-sections 6.2.3.2 and 6.2.4.2). The parameter in address  627) ]RQH which determines the response during switching onto a short-circuit was already set as part of the general data of the dis- tance protection (Sub-section 6.2.2.2).
  • Page 220: Method Of Operation

    Functions Measures to Be Taken in Case of Power Swings Following dynamic events such as load jumps, short-circuits, reclose dead times or switching actions it is possible that the generators must realign themselves, in an os- cillatory manner, with the new load balance of the system. The distance protection registers large transient currents during the power swing and, especially at the electri- cal centre, small voltages (Figure 6-40).
  • Page 221 Functions 1 A) or 1 Ω (at I = 5 A) in all directions from the fault detection range. In the event of a short-circuit (1), the impedance vector abruptly changes from the load condition into this fault detection range. However, in the event of a power swing, the apparent im- pedance vector initially enters the power swing range PPOL and only later enters the fault detection range APOL (2).
  • Page 222 Functions A power swing is detected, if during the last eight measuring cycles (corresponding to two periods), the continuity of the changing impedance vector is confirmed. In this way, slip frequencies of up to at least 7 Hz are detected. PPOL APOL Diff...
  • Page 223: Applying The Function Parameter Settings

    Functions Power Swing If tripping in the event of an instable power swing (out-of-step condition) is desired, the parameter 3RZHU6ZLQJ WULS = <HV is set. If the criteria for power swing detection Tripping are satisfied, the distance protection is initially blocked according to the configured program for power swing blocking, to avoid tripping by the distance protection.
  • Page 224 Functions F.No. Alarm Comments 4167 Pow. Swing L1 Power Swing detected in L1 4168 Pow. Swing L2 Power Swing detected in L2 4169 Pow. Swing L3 Power Swing detected in L3 6-76 7SA522 Manual C53000-G1176-C119-2...
  • Page 225: Distance Protection Teleprotection Schemes

    Functions Distance Protection Teleprotection Schemes Purpose of Signal Short-circuits which occur on the protected line, beyond the first distance zone, can Transmission only be cleared selectively by the distance protection after a delay time. On line sec- tions that are shorter than the smallest sensible distance setting, short-circuits can also not be selectively cleared instantaneously.
  • Page 226: Method Of Operation

    Functions 6.4.1 Method of Operation Switching The teleprotection function can be switched on and off by means of the parameter  )&7 7HOHS 'LV, or via the system interface (if available) and via binary input On and Off (if this is allocated). The switched state is saved internally (refer to Figure 6-43) and secured against loss of auxiliary supply.
  • Page 227 Functions Z1(A) Z1B(A) Z1B(B) Z1(B) transm. transm. ≥1 ≥1 & & trip trip further further zones zones rec.. rec.. Figure 6-44 Operation scheme of the permissive underreach transfer trip method via Z1B Sequence Figure 6-45 shows the logic diagram of the permissive underreach transfer trip scheme for one line end.
  • Page 228: Direct Underreach Transfer Trip

    Functions 4052 Dis.Telep.OFF Dis Telep. off ≥1 4003 >Dis.Telep. Blk TrqÃQ…‚y‚tà ! " Dis. forward & & 4057 Dis.T.SEND L1 Dis Z1 L1 & & 4058 Dis.T.SEND L2 Dis Z1 L2 & & Dis.T.SEND L3 4059 Dis Z1 L3 & 4056 Dis.T.SEND &...
  • Page 229: Permissive Overreach Transfer Trip (Pott)

    Functions The direct underreach transfer trip application is not provided by its own selectable tel- eprotection scheme setting, but implemented by setting the teleprotection supplement to operate in the permissive underreach transfer trip scheme (address  7HOH SURW 'LVW = 3877), and using the binary inputs for direct external trip at the re- ceiving end.
  • Page 230 Functions (settable under address  6HQG 3UR The transmit signal can be prolonged by T ORQJ). This extension of the transmit signal is only active when the protection has already issued a trip command. This ensures the release of the opposite line end, even when the short-circuit has been locally cleared very fast by the independent zone For all zones, except for Z1B, the tripping takes place without a release signal from the opposite line end.
  • Page 231 Functions This “Weak Infeed Function” (echo function) is referred to in Sub-section 6.4.1.7. It is activated when a signal is received from the opposite line end — in the case of three terminal lines from at least one of the opposite line ends — without the device having detected a fault.
  • Page 232: Unblocking With Z1B

    Functions 6.4.1.4 Unblocking with Z1B Principle The unblocking method uses a permissive release principle. It differs from the permis- sive overreach transfer scheme (Sub-section 6.4.1.3) in that tripping is possible also when no release signal is received from the opposite line end. It is accordingly mainly used on long lines, if the signal is transmitted via the protected line with power line car- rier (PLC), and the attenuation of the transmitted signals at the fault location can be so severe that the reception at the other line end cannot be guaranteed in all cases.
  • Page 233 Functions For all zones except Z1B, tripping results without release from the opposite line end, allowing the protection to function with the usual grading characteristic independent of the signal transmission. Sequence Figure 6-50 shows the logic diagram of the unblock scheme for one line end. The unblock scheme only functions for faults in the forward direction.
  • Page 234 Functions 4052 Dis.Telep.OFF Dis Telep. off ≥1 4003 >Dis.Telep. Blk & Transient blocking (section 6.4.1.6) ! " TrqÃQ…‚y‚t Trip command & & ≥1 Dis. forward Dis.T.SEND L1 4057 & Dis Z1B L1 & & ≥1 4058 Dis.T.SEND L2 & Dis Z1B L2 &...
  • Page 235: Blocking Scheme

    Functions 4032 >Dis.T.UB ub1L1 & ≥1 & Unblock L1 & 4033 >Dis.T.UB ub1L2 & ≥1 & Unblock L2 & 4034 >Dis.T.UB ub1L3 & ≥1 & Unblock L3 & 4030 >Dis.T.UB ub 1 & ≥1 & Unblock 1 & 4031 >Dis.T.UB bl 1 ≥1 4080 Dis.T.UBFail1...
  • Page 236 Functions attenuation of the transmitted signal could be so severe at the fault location, that re- ception at the other line end cannot necessarily be guaranteed. Figure 6-52 shows the operation scheme. Faults inside the overreaching zone Z1B, which is set to approximately 120% of the line length, will initiate tripping if a blocking signal is not received from the other line end.
  • Page 237 Functions 4052 Dis.Telep.OFF Dis Telep. off ≥1 ≥1 4003 >Dis.Telep. Blk & Transiente Block. (u,i) 4060 Dis.Jump Blocking 40 ms ! " TrqÃQ…‚y‚t & 4056 Dis.T.SEND Dis. PICKUP & Dis. forward & 4070 Dis.T.BL STOP & Dis.Pickup L1 Dis.T.SEND L1 4057 &...
  • Page 238: Transient Blocking

    Functions If there is a disturbance in the signal transmission path the overreaching zone can be blocked via a binary input. The distance protection operates with the usual time grad- ing characteristic (non delayed trip in Z1). The overreaching zone Z1B can then be ac- tivated by an automatic reclose function via the binary input “!(QDEOH $5]RQHV”...
  • Page 239: Measures For Weak And Zero Infeed

    Functions 6.4.1.7 Measures for Weak and Zero Infeed In cases where there is weak or no infeed present at one line end, the distance pro- tection will not pick up. Neither a trip nor a send signal can therefore be generated there.
  • Page 240: Settings

    Functions The echo impulse is then issued (event output “(&+2 6,*1$/”). It’s length is set with the parameter 7ULS (;7(16,21. Note: The “(&+2 6,*1$/” (F.No. 4246) must be separately assigned to the output relay(s) for signal transmission, as it is not contained in the transmit signals “'LV76(1'” or “'LV76(1' / ”.
  • Page 241 Functions The following teleprotection schemes are available: − 3877 = permissive underreach transfer trip, as referred to in Sub- section 6.4.1.1, − 3277 = permissive overreach transfer trip, as referred to in Sub- section 6.4.1.3, − 8QEORFNLQJ = Unblocking with Z1B, as referred to in Sub-section 6.4.1.4, −...
  • Page 242 Functions effect on the receive circuit of the teleprotection; conversely the permissive signal is not delayed by the set time delay T1B of the overreaching zone Z1B. The parameters 7U%ON :DLW 7LPH and 7U%ON %ORFN7LPH serve the transient Transient Blocking blocking with the permissive overreaching schemes PUTT and UNBLOCKING.
  • Page 243: Settings

    Functions 6.4.3 Settings Addr. Setting Title Setting Options Default Setting Comments 2101 FCT Telep. Dis. Teleprotection for Distance prot. 2102 Type of Line Two Terminals Two Terminals Type of Line Three Terminals 2103 Send Prolong. 0.00..30.00 sec 0.05 sec Time for send signal prolonga- tion 2107 Delay for alarm...
  • Page 244 Functions F.No. Alarm Comments 4052 Dis.Telep. OFF Dis. Teleprotection is switched OFF 4054 Dis.T.Carr.rec. Dis. Telep. Carrier signal received 4055 Dis.T.Carr.Fail Dis. Telep. Carrier CHANNEL FAILURE 4056 Dis.T.SEND Dis. Telep. Carrier SEND signal 4057 Dis.T.SEND L1 Dis. Telep. Carrier SEND signal, L1 4058 Dis.T.SEND L2 Dis.
  • Page 245: Method Of Operation

    Functions Earth Fault Protection in Earthed Systems General In earthed systems, where extremely large fault resistance may exist during earth faults (e.g. overhead lines without earth wire, sandy soil, or high tower footing resist- ance) the fault detection of the distance protection will often not pick up because the resulting earth fault impedance could be outside the fault detection characteristic of the distance protection.
  • Page 246 Functions Definite Time Very The earth current I is passed through a numerical filter and then compared with the set value ,!!!. If this value is exceeded and alarm is issued. After the correspond- High Set Current ing delay times 7 ,!!! have expired, a trip command is issued which is also Stage 3I >>>...
  • Page 247 Functions Inverse Time The logic of the inverse time stage in principle functions the same as the remaining Overcurrent stages. The operate delay time in this case is however determined by the set charac- teristic (Parameter /2* &XUYH), the magnitude of the earth current and the time mul- Stage 3I tiplier ,S 7LPH 'LDO (Figure 6-58).
  • Page 248 Functions The remaining setting options are the same as for the other curves. 1357 EF 3I0p Pickup " $# "DƒÃT‡h…‡ƒ‚v‡ " $" GPBÃ8ˆ…‰rà " # "DƒÃQD8FVQ "DƒÃUv€rÃ9vhy " #$ " #% "DƒÃHh‘U9@G6` & & & 1309 >EF BLOCK 3I0p " #& 6qqU9@G6` "...
  • Page 249 Functions Inrush Stabilization If the device is applied to a transformer feeder, large inrush currents can be expected when the transformer is energized; if the transformer star-point is earthed, also in the zero sequence path. The inrush current may be a multiple of the rated current and flow for several tens of milliseconds up to several minutes.
  • Page 250 Functions „forward“ = 3U α E = –3 β „reverse“ Figure 6-62 Directional characteristic using I as polarization quantity For the determination of direction a minimum current and a minimum polarization quantity is required. The minimum polarizing voltage set as 8!. If the displacement voltage is too small, the direction can only be determined if it is polarized with the transformer star-point current and this exceeds a minimum value corresponding to the setting ,<!.
  • Page 251: Applying The Function Parameter Settings

    Functions The instantaneous tripping following manual closure is blocked as long as the inrush- stabilization recognizes a rush current. This prevents instantaneous tripping by a stage which, under normal conditions, is sufficiently delayed during energization of a transformer. 6.5.2 Applying the Function Parameter Settings During the configuration of the device functions (refer to Section 5.1, address  (DUWK )DXOW 2&) it was determined which characteristics of the overcurrent time protection would be available.
  • Page 252 Functions  ,S 3,&.83 then determines the current pick-up threshold and address  ,S 0D[7'(/$< the definite time delay. The values for the time delay settings 7 ,!!! (address ), 7 ,!! (address ) and 7 ,! (address ) are derived from the earth fault grading coodination diagram of the system.
  • Page 253 Functions For the inverse time overcurrent stage 3I it is possible to select from a variety of curves depending on the version of the relay and the configuration (Section 5.1, ad- dress ) that was selected. If an inverse overcurrent stage is not required, the ad- dress  LV VHW WR (DUWK )DXOW 2&...
  • Page 254 Functions "DƒÃHh‘U9@G6` "DƒÃUv€rÃ9vhy "DƒÃHvU9@G6` "DƒÃT‡h…‡ƒ‚v‡ "DƒÃQD8FVQ Figure 6-63 Setting parameter characteristics in the logarithmic–inverse curve Direction The direction of each required stage was already determined when setting the differ- Determination rent stages. According to the requirements of the application, the directionality of each stage is in- dividually selected.
  • Page 255 Functions no critical, the pre-settings may be left unchanged. This setting can only be modified ® with DIGSI 4 under “Additional Settings”. Finally, the threshold values of the polarizing signals must be set. 8! (address ) determines the minimum operating voltage for direction determination with U If U is not used for the direction determination, this setting is of no consequence.
  • Page 256 Functions fault, whereas the most sensitive stage often also has to detect high resistance faults. Transient pick-up of the selected stage, during line energization, must be avoided. On the other hand, it does not matter if a selected stage may pick up due to inrush conditions on transformers (see “Inrush Stabilization”...
  • Page 257: Settings

    Functions 6.5.3 Settings Addr. Setting Title Setting Options Default Setting Comments 3101 FCT EarthFltO/C ON Earth Fault overcurrent function is 3102 BLOCK for Dist. with every Pickup with every Pickup Block E/F for Distance protec- with single-phase Pickup tion with multi-phase Pickup 3103 BLOCK Block E/F for 1pole Dead time...
  • Page 258 Functions Addr. Setting Title Setting Options Default Setting Comments 3131 3I0> 0.003..25.000 A 1.000 A 3I0> Pickup 3132 T 3I0> 0.00..30.00 sec 0.90 sec T 3I0> Time Delay 3133 3I0> Telep/BI Instantaneous trip via Tele- prot./BI 3134 3I0> SOTF-Trip Instantaneous trip after Swit- chOnToFault 3135 3I0>...
  • Page 259 Functions Addr. Setting Title Setting Options Default Setting Comments 0..360 ° 122 ° 3163 Dir. BETA BETA, upper angle for forward direction 3164 3U0> 0.5..10.0 V 0.5 V Min. zero seq.voltage 3U0 for polarizing 3165 IY> 0.05..1.00 A 0.05 A Min.
  • Page 260: Information Overview

    Functions 6.5.4 Information Overview F.No. Alarm Comments 1305 >EF BLK 3I0>>> >Earth Fault O/C Block 3I0>>> 1307 >EF BLOCK 3I0>> >Earth Fault O/C Block 3I0>> 1308 >EF BLOCK 3I0> >Earth Fault O/C Block 3I0> 1309 >EF BLOCK 3I0p >Earth Fault O/C Block 3I0p 1310 >EF InstTRIP >Earth Fault O/C Instantaneous trip...
  • Page 261: Earth Fault Protection Teleprotection Schemes

    Functions Earth Fault Protection Teleprotection Schemes With the aid of the integrated comparison logic, the directional earth fault protection according to Section 6.5 can be expanded to a directional comparison protection scheme. One of the stages which must be directional and set )RUZDUG is used for the direc- Teleprotection Methods tional comparison.
  • Page 262: Method Of Operation

    Functions 6.6.1 Method of Operation Switching On and The teleprotection function can be switched on and off by means of the parameter  )&7 7HOHS (), or via the system interface (if available) and via binary input (if this is allocated). The switched state is saved internally (refer to Figure 6-64) and secured against loss of auxiliary supply.
  • Page 263 Functions Sequence Figure 6-66 shows the logic diagram of the directional comparison scheme for one line end. The directional comparison only functions for faults in the “forward” direction. Accord- ingly the over current stage intended for operation in the direction comparison mode must definitely be set to )RUZDUG (, ',5(&7,21);...
  • Page 264: Directional Unblocking Scheme

    Functions 6.6.1.2 Directional Unblocking Scheme Principle The unblocking method is a permissive scheme. The difference to the Directional Comparison Scheme (Sub-section 6.6.1.1) lies in that tripping is also possible when no permissive signal from the opposite line end is received. Accordingly it is mainly used on long lines where the signal is transmitted via the protected feeder by means of power line carrier (PLC) and the attenuation in the signal transmission path at the fault location can be so severe that reception of the signal from the opposite line end...
  • Page 265 Functions Via the setting parameter /LQH &RQILJ (address ), the device is informed as to whether it has one or two opposite line ends. If the unblock frequency fu is received without interference, it is — in the case of three terminal lines both receive signals combined by AND —...
  • Page 266: Directional Blocking Scheme

    Functions 6.6.1.3 Directional Blocking Scheme Principle In the case of the blocking scheme, the transmission channel is used to send a block signal from one line end to the other. The signal transmission may be started immedi- ately after fault inception (jump detector) and is stopped as soon as the earth fault pro- tection recognizes a fault in the forward direction, alternatively the signal is only sent when the earth fault protection detects the fault in the reverse direction.
  • Page 267: Transient Blocking

    Functions allel lines, is neutralized by the “Transient Blocking”. It prolongs the blocking signal by the transient blocking time 7U%ON %ORFN7LPH (address ), if it has been present for the minimum duration equal to the waiting time 7U%ON :DLW 7LPH (address ).
  • Page 268: Measures For Weak Or Zero Infeed

    Functions case of permissive schemes, this is achieved by blocking of the transmit and receive circuit. Figure 6-71 shows the principle of the transient blocking for a directional comparison and directional unblocking scheme. If a fault in the reverse direction is detected within the waiting time 7U%ON :DLW 7LPH (address ) following fault detection, the transmit circuit and the trip release are inhibited.
  • Page 269 Functions The essential condition for an echo is the absence of an earth current (current stage ,R0LQ 7HOHSURW) with the simultaneous reception signal from the teleprotection scheme logic, as shown in the corresponding logic diagrams (Figure 6-66 or 6-68). To prevent the generation of an echo signal after the line has been tripped and the earth current stage ,R0LQ 7HOHSURW has reset, it is not possible to generate an echo if a fault detection by the earth current stage had already been present (RS flip- flop in Figure 6-72).
  • Page 270: Applying The Function Parameter Settings

    Functions 6.6.2 Applying the Function Parameter Settings General The teleprotection supplement for earth fault protection is only operational if it was set to one of the available modes during the configuration of the device (address ). Depending on this configuration, only those parameters which are applicable to the selected mode appear here.
  • Page 271 Functions A is distributed equally on the line ends B and C. The setting value ,R0LQ 7HOH SURW (address ), which is decisive for the echo or the blocking signal, must therefore be set smaller than one half of the setting value for the earth current stage used for teleprotection.
  • Page 272 Functions The transient blocking time 7U%ON %ORFN7LPH (address ) must definitely be set longer than the duration of severe transients resulting from the inception or clearance of external faults. The transmit signal is delayed by this time in the case of the permis- sive protection schemes 'LU&RPS3LFNXS and 81%/2&.,1* if the protection had initially detected a reverse fault.
  • Page 273: Settings

    Functions 6.6.3 Settings Addr. Setting Title Setting Options Default Setting Comments 3201 FCT Telep. E/F Teleprotection for Earth Fault O/ 3202 Line Config. Two Terminals Two Terminals Line Configuration Three Terminals 3203 Send Prolong. 0.00..30.00 sec 0.05 sec Time for send signal prolonga- tion 3207 Delay for alarm...
  • Page 274: Weak-Infeed Tripping

    Functions Weak-Infeed Tripping 6.7.1 Method of Operation In cases, where there is no or only weak infeed present at one line end, the distance protection does not pick up there during a short-circuit on the line. If there is no or only a very small zero sequence current at one line end during an earth fault, the earth fault protection can also not function.
  • Page 275 Functions A8UÃXrhxÃDsrrq ECHO only „1“ ECHO and TRIP & >BLOCK Weak Inf 4203 !$$ VI9@SWPGU & CB closed L1 PICKUP L1 & 4232 W/I Pickup L1 & !$$ VI9@SWPGU & ≥1 & CB closed L2 PICKUP L2 & 4233 W/I Pickup L2 &...
  • Page 276: Applying The Function Parameter Settings

    Functions To avoid a faulty pick up of the weak infeed function following tripping of the line and reset of the fault detection, the function cannot pick up any more once a fault detection in the affected phase was present (RS flip-flop in Figure 6-75). In the case of the earth fault protection, the release signal is routed via the phase seg- regated logic modules.
  • Page 277: Settings

    Functions 6.7.3 Settings Addr. Setting Title Setting Options Default Setting Comments 2501 FCT Weak Infeed Echo only Weak Infeed function is Echo only Echo and Trip 2502 Trip/Echo DELAY 0.00..30.00 sec 0.04 sec Trip / Echo Delay after carrier receipt 2503 Trip EXTENSION 0.00..30.00 sec...
  • Page 278: External Direct And Remote Tripping

    Functions External Direct and Remote Tripping 6.8.1 Method of Operation External Trip of the Any signal from an external protection or monitoring device can be coupled into the Local Circuit signal processing of the 7SA522 by means of a binary input. This signal may be de- Breaker layed, alarmed and routed to one or several output relays.
  • Page 279: Applying The Function Parameter Settings

    Functions 6.8.2 Applying the Function Parameter Settings A prerequisite for the application of the direct and remote tripping functions is that dur- ing the configuration of the scope of functions in the device (Section 5.1) the setting in address  '77 'LUHFW 7ULS = (QDEOHG was applied. In address  '77 'LUHFW 7ULS 21 or 2)), it is furthermore possible to switch the function on or off.
  • Page 280: Overcurrent Protection

    Functions Overcurrent Protection General Overcurrent protection is integrated in the 7SA522 device. This function may option- ally be used either as back-up time delayed overcurrent protection or as emergency overcurrent protection. Whereas the distance protection can only function correctly if the measured voltage signals are available to the device, the emergency overcurrent protection only requires the currents.
  • Page 281: Method Of Operation

    Functions 6.9.1 Method of Operation Measured Values The phase currents are fed to the device via the input transformers of the measuring input. The earth current 3·I is either measured directly or calculated from the phase currents, depending on the ordered device version and usage of the fourth current in- put I of the device.
  • Page 282 Functions I>> Anr L1 Dƒu33 !%  UÃDƒu33Ã I>> Pickup L1 I>> Pickup L2 I>> Pickup L3 & Iph> ≥1 I>> Trip L1 I>> Trip L2 I>> Trip L3 & !% ! "D33 !% " UÃ"D33 I>> Pickup E & 3I0>>...
  • Page 283 Functions D@8Ã8ˆ…‰r 2660 UÃDƒÃUv€rÃ9vhy !%# DQà 2642 Ip Pickup L1 Ip Pickup L2 Ip Pickup L3 & ≥1 Ip Trip L1 Ip Trip L2 Ip Trip L3 !%#% UÃDƒÃ6qq & !%$ "DƒÃQD8FVQà UÃ"DƒÃUv€rÃ9vhy 2652 3I0p Pickup & ≥1 3I0p Trip UÃ"DƒÃ6qq 2656 &...
  • Page 284 Functions Stub Protection A further overcurrent stage is the stub protection. It can however also be used as a normal additional definite time overcurrent stage, as it functions independent of the other stages. A stub fault is a short-circuit located between the current transformer set and the line isolator.
  • Page 285 Functions Dƒu3ÃTUV7 !%" UÃDƒuÃTUV7 !%" I-STUB Pickup L1 I-STUB Pickup L2 I-STUB Pickup L3 & ≥1 I-STUB Trip L1 I-STUB Trip L2 I-STUB Trip L3 & !%"! "D3ÃTUV7 !%"" UÃ"D3ÃTUV7 I-STUB Pickup E & ≥1 I-STUB Trip E 7131 >I-STUB ENABLE &...
  • Page 286 Functions Table 6-4 Fault detection annunciations of the overcurrent protection Internal event Figure Output alarm I>> Pickup L1 6-77 I> Pickup L1 2& 3LFNXS / 7162 Ip Pickup L1 6-78 I-STUB Pickup L1 6-80 I>> Pickup L2 6-77 I> Pickup L2 2&...
  • Page 287: Applying The Function Parameter Settings

    Functions 6.9.2 Applying the Function Parameter Settings General During the configuration of the device scope of functions (refer to Section 5.1, address ) it was determined which characteristics are to be available. Only those parame- ters that apply to the available characteristics, according to the selected configuration and the version of the device, are accessible in the procedures described below.
  • Page 288 Functions s (length) = 60 km = 0,19 Ω/km = 0,42 Ω/km Short circuit power at the beginning of the line: ’ = 2,5 GVA current transformer 600 A/5 A The line impedance Z and source impedance Z are calculated with these values as follows: /s = √0.19 Ω/km = 0.46 Ω/km...
  • Page 289 Functions The parameter ,!! 7HOHS%, (address ) determines whether the delay times 7 ,SK!! (address ) and 7 ,!! (address ) may be bypassed via the bi- nary input “!2& ,QVW75,3” (F.No. ) or via the automatic reclose ready state. The binary input (if assigned) is common to all stages of the overcurrent protection.
  • Page 290 Functions set to ∞. This does not suppress the pick-up annunciations, but merely prevents the timer from expiring. The setting parameter ,! 7HOHS%, (address ) determines if it is possible to use the binary input “!2& ,QVW75,3” to bypass the trip delay times 7 ,SK! (ad- dress ) and 7 ,! (address ).
  • Page 291 Functions Inverse Time Over- In the case of the inverse time overcurrent stages, various characteristics can be se- current Stages lected, depending on the version of the device and the configuration (Section 5.1, ad- dress ). For the IEC–curves (address  %DFN8S 2& = 72& ,(&) the fol- IP, 3I0P lowing are available in address  ,(&...
  • Page 292 Functions Inverse Time Over- In the case of the inverse overcurrent stages, various characteristics can be selected, current Stages depending on the version of the device and the configuration (Section 5.1, address ). For the ANSI–curves (address  %DFN8S 2& = 72& $16,) the follow- IP, 3I0P with ing are available in address  $16, &XUYH: ANSI–curves...
  • Page 293 Functions When using the I STUB protection the pick-up thresholds ,SK! 678% (address ) Stub Protection and ,! 678% (address ) are usually not critical, as this protection function is only activated when the line isolator is open which implies that every measured current should represents a fault current.
  • Page 294: Settings

    Functions 6.9.3 Settings Addr. Setting Title Setting Options Default Setting Comments 2601 Operating Mode Only Active with Operating mode Only Active with Loss of VT Loss of VT sec. cir- sec. circuit cuit 2680 SOTF Time DELAY 0.00..30.00 sec 0.00 sec Trip time delay after SOTF 2610 Iph>>...
  • Page 295: Information Overview

    Functions Addr. Setting Title Setting Options Default Setting Comments 2660 IEC Curve Normal Inverse Normal Inverse IEC Curve Very Inverse Extremely Inverse Long time inverse 2661 ANSI Curve Inverse Inverse ANSI Curve Short Inverse Long Inverse Moderately Inverse Very Inverse Extremely Inverse Definite Inverse 2662...
  • Page 296 Functions F.No. Alarm Comments 7162 O/C Pickup L1 Backup O/C PICKUP L1 7163 O/C Pickup L2 Backup O/C PICKUP L2 7164 O/C Pickup L3 Backup O/C PICKUP L3 7165 O/C Pickup E Backup O/C PICKUP EARTH 7171 O/C PU only E Backup O/C Pickup - Only EARTH 7172 O/C PU 1p.
  • Page 297: High-Current Switch-On-To-Fault Protection

    Functions 6.10 High-Current Switch-On-To-Fault Protection 6.10.1 Method of Operation General The high-current switch-on-to-fault protection is intended to trip immediately and in- stantaneously following energization of a feeder onto a fault with large fault current magnitude. It is primarily used as fast protection in the event of energizing the feeder while the earth switch is closed, but can also be used every time the feeder is ener- gized —...
  • Page 298: Applying The Function Parameter Settings

    Functions 6.10.2 Applying the Function Parameter Settings A prerequisite for the operation of the switch-on-to-fault protection is that in address  627) 2YHUFXUU = (QDEOHG was set during the configuration of the device scope of functions (Section 5.1). It is furthermore possible to switch the function, in ad- dress , 627) 2YHUFXUU 21 or 2)).
  • Page 299: Automatic Reclosure Function

    Functions 6.11 Automatic reclosure function Experience shows that about 85 % of the arc short-circuits on overhead lines extinguish automatically after being tripped by the protection. The line can therefore be reclosed. Reclosure is performed by an automatic reclosure circuit (ARC). An example of the normal time sequence of a double reclosure is shown in Figure 6-82.
  • Page 300: Function Description

    Functions 6.11.1 Function description The integrated automatic reclosure circuit allows up to 8 reclosure attempts. The first four interrupt cycles may operate with different parameters (action and dead times, single/three-pole). The parameters of the fourth cycle also apply for the fifth cycle and onwards.
  • Page 301 Functions Mixed lines On mixed lines with cables and overhead lines, it is possible to use the distance zone overhead line/cable signals for distinguishing between cable and overhead line faults to a certain extent. The automatic reclosure circuit can then be blocked by appropriate signals generated by means of the user-programmable logic functions (CFC) if there is a fault in the cable section.
  • Page 302 Functions be the first cycle that is executed) it is possible to determine which reclose cycles are executed depending on the time used by the protection function to trip. Example 1: 3 cycles are set. At least the first cycle is configured to start the recloser (allowed to be the first cycle that is carried out).
  • Page 303 Functions Each individual cycle may also be blocked via binary input. In this case the cycle con- cerned is declared as invalid and will is skipped in the sequence of permissible cycles. If blocking takes place while the cycle concerned is already running, this leads to aborting of the reclosure, i.e.
  • Page 304 Functions Processing the If the circuit-breaker auxiliary contacts are connected to the device, a plausibility check circuit breaker of the circuit-breaker response is also carried out. auxiliary contacts In the case of single pole tripping this applies to each individual breaker poles. A pre- condition for this is that the auxiliary contacts must be connected to the appropriate binary inputs ("!&% 3ROH /", F.No.
  • Page 305 Functions If the fault is not cleared (unsuccessful reclosure), the short-circuit protection issues a final trip with the protection stage that is selected to operate without reclosure. Any fault during the reclaim time leads to a final trip. After unsuccessful reclosure (final tripping), the automatic reclosure is blocked dynamically (see also page 154, "Reclose block").
  • Page 306 Functions The automatic reclosure function is started in the event of a trip. Depending on the type of fault the (adjustable) dead time for the single-pole reclose cycle or the (sepa- rately adjustable) dead time for the three-pole reclose cycle starts following the reset of the trip command or opening of the circuit-breaker (pole).
  • Page 307 Functions Detection of a sequential fault can be selected to occur either with a trip command of a protection function during the dead time or with every further fault detection . It is possible to select the desired response of the internal automatic recloser follow- ing the detection of a sequential fault.
  • Page 308 Functions the device detects this at position III, reclosure can take place immediately or in a shorter time (to ensure sufficient voltage measuring time). The healthy line B–C is then back in operation. Line A–B is tripped at both ends. There is therefore no voltage here, this identifies the line as the faulted one at both ends.
  • Page 309 Functions (defined pauses) (ADT) A, B, C busbars I, II, III relay locations tripped circuit-breaker Figure 6-85 Example of adaptive dead time (ADT) As is shown by the example, the adaptive dead time has the following advantages: • The circuit-breaker at position II is not reclosed at all if the fault persists and is there- for not unnecessarily stressed.
  • Page 310 Functions these stages do not operate. This input is not required if no overreaching stage is used (e.g. ddifferential protection or comparison mode with distance protection, see also above under subtitle "Selectivity before reclosure").  !S 7ULS 3HUP The external reclosure device allows 1-pole tripping (logic inversion of 3-pole coupling).
  • Page 311 Functions external 7SA522 reclosure–device Sryh’ÃQD8FVQ Sryh’ÃUSDQÃ"ƒu Sryh’ÃUSDQÃ ƒG Sryh’ÃUSDQÃ"ƒu Sryh’ÃUSDQÃ ƒG! Sryh’ÃUSDQÃ"ƒu Relay TRIP 1pL3 L– >Enable ARzones >1p Trip Perm >Only 1ph AR L– L– 3-pole 1-pole 1-/3-pole Selector switch Figure 6-86 Connection example with external reclosure device for 1-/3-pole reclosure with mode selector switch external 7SA522...
  • Page 312 Functions The binary inputs and outputs provided for this functionality must be considered in this case. It must be decided whether the internal automatic reclosure function is to be con- trolled by the starting or by the trip command of the external protection (see also above under "Operating modes of the automatic reclosure function“...
  • Page 313 Functions If only three-pole reclose cycles are to be executed, it is sufficient to assign the binary input "!7ULS SROH $5“ (F.No ) for the trip signal. Figure 6-89 shows an example. The overreaching stages of the external protection are again enabled by "$5 &\F=RQH5HO"...
  • Page 314 Functions external 7SA522 protection device 3QvpxˆƒÃG Ã6S Pick-up L1 3QvpxˆƒÃG!Ã6S Pick-up L2 3QvpxˆƒÃG"Ã6S Pick-up L3 3U…vƒÃs‚…Ã6S Tripping L– AR 1.CycZoneRel Release AR Stage (if nec. for other AR) L– Starting signal for each phase external 7SA522 protection device 3QvpxˆƒÃ ƒuÃ6S Pick-up 1-phase 3QvpxˆƒÃ!ƒuÃ6S Pick-up 2-phase...
  • Page 315 Functions Second protection 7SA522 internal automatic reclosure AR function !$5 6WDUW $5 6WDUW !7ULS / $5 Trip L1 !7ULS / $5 Trip L2 !7ULS / $5 Trip L3 L– L– Protective function 2nd protective relay $5 6WDUW $5 6WDUW Trip L1*) Trip L1 Trip L2 Trip L2*)
  • Page 316: Setting The Function Parameters

    Functions 6.11.2 Setting the function parameters General If no reclosure is required on the feeder to which the Distance Protection 7SA522 is applied (e.g. for cables, transformers, motors or similar), the automatic reclosure func- tion must be removed during configuration of the device (see Section 5.1, address ).
  • Page 317 Functions A few seconds are generally sufficient. In regions with frequent storms and thunder- storms a shorter reclaim time is advisable to reduce the risk of a final trip due to re- peated lightning strikes or cable flashovers. A long reclaim time must be selected in conjunction with multiple reclosure (see above) if the circuit-breaker can not be monitored (e.g.
  • Page 318 Functions remote end has also closed. This delay must therefore be added to the dead time for consideration of the network stability. Configuration of This configuration concerns the interaction between the protection and supplementary the automatic functions of the device and the automatic reclosure function. The selection of functions reclosure function of the device which are to start the automatic reclosure circuit and which are not to, is made here.
  • Page 319 Functions This value can be entered as a primary value when parametrizing with a PC and ® 4. Address  7 8VWDEOH determines the measuring time available for DIGSI determining this voltage. It should be longer than any transient oscillations resulting from line energisation.
  • Page 320 Functions scription, section 6.11.1, under subtitle "Interrogation of circuit-breaker ready state“, page 155. If there is a risk of stability problems in the network during a three-pole interruption, the setting in address  $'7 6\Q5HTXHVW should be <HV. In this case the voltage of the line and busbar are checked after a three pole trip and before reclosure to de- termine if sufficient synchronism exists.
  • Page 321 Functions single-pole tripping must be set to ∞; the protection then trips three-pole for all fault types. The dead time after single-pole tripping (if set) $5 7GHDG7ULS (address ) should be long enough for the short-circuit arc to be extinguished and the surrounding air to be de-ionized so that the reclosure promises to be successful.
  • Page 322: Settings

    Functions Address  $5 7$&7,21; action time for the 2nd cycle Address  $5 7GHDG )OW; dead time after 1-phase starting Address  $5 7GHDG )OW; dead time after 2-phase starting Address  $5 7GHDG )OW; dead time after 3-phase starting Address  $5 7GHDG7ULS;...
  • Page 323 Functions Addr. Setting Title Setting Options Default Setting Comments 3407 EV. FLT. MODE blocks AR starts 3pole AR- Evolving fault (during the dead starts 3pole AR-cycle cycle time) is ignored 3408 T-Start MONITOR 0.01..300.00 sec 0.50 sec AR start-signal monitoring time 3409 CB TIME OUT 0.01..300.00 sec...
  • Page 324 Functions Addr. Setting Title Setting Options Default Setting Comments 3463 2.AR 1p allowed 1pole TRIP allowed 3464 2.AR Tdead 1Flt 0.01..1800.00 sec 1.20 sec Dead time after 1phase faults 3465 2.AR Tdead 2Flt 0.01..1800.00 sec 1.20 sec Dead time after 2phase faults 3466 2.AR Tdead 3Flt 0.01..1800.00 sec...
  • Page 325: Information Overview

    Functions Addr. Setting Title Setting Options Default Setting Comments 3493 4.AR SynRequest Request for synchro-check after 3pole AR 3430 AR TRIP 3pole 3pole TRIP by AR 3431 DLC or RDT Without Without Dead Line Check or Reduced Reduced Dead Time (RDT) Dead Time Dead Line Check (DLC) 3438...
  • Page 326 Functions "$5 LV EORFNHG" (F.No. 2783) The automatic reclosure is blocked (e.g. circuit-breaker not ready). This information indicates to the operational information system that in the event of an upcoming sys- tem fault there will be a final trip, i.e. without reclosure. If the automatic reclosure is already started, this information does not appear.
  • Page 327 Functions F.No. Alarm Comments 2742 >BLK 1.AR-cycle >AR: Block 1st AR-cycle 2743 >BLK 2.AR-cycle >AR: Block 2nd AR-cycle 2744 >BLK 3.AR-cycle >AR: Block 3rd AR-cycle 2745 >BLK 4.-n. AR >AR: Block 4th and higher AR-cycles 2746 >Trip for AR >AR: External Trip for AR start 2747 >Pickup L1 AR >AR: External pickup L1 for AR start...
  • Page 328 Functions F.No. Alarm Comments 2853 AR Close1.Cyc3p AR: Close command after 3pole, 1st cycle 2854 AR Close 2.Cyc AR: Close command 2nd cycle (and higher) 2861 AR T-Recl. run. AR: Reclaim time is running 2862 AR successful AR successful 2864 AR 1p Trip Perm AR: 1pole trip permitted by internal AR 2865...
  • Page 329: Synchronism And Voltage Check (Dead-Line / Dead-Bus Check)

    Functions 6.12 Synchronism and Voltage Check (Dead-line / Dead-bus check) 6.12.1 Method of Operation General The synchronism and voltage check function ensures, when switching a line onto a bus-bar , that the stability of the network is not endangered. The function can be pro- grammed to perform the synchronism and voltage check for automatic reclosure only, for manual closure only, or for both cases.
  • Page 330 Functions Bus-bar Transformer line 7SA522 Protection TRIP Discrepancy Sync switch CLOSE Figure 6-93 Synchronism check across a transformer Furthermore, switching is possible with synchronous or asynchronous system condi- tions ( 2SPRGH ZLWK $5 /  - 2SPRGH ZLWK 0& - 2SHUDWLQJ 0RGH ZLWK  : ZLWK FRQVLGHUDWLRQ RI &% FORVLQJ WLPH ->...
  • Page 331 Functions difference 0D[ )UHT 'LII lie outside the permissible limit values. A precondition for these messages is that voltages within the operating range of the relay are avail- able. Operating modes The closing check procedure can be selected from the following operating modes: −...
  • Page 332: Applying The Function Parameter Settings

    Functions − Does the angle difference |ϕ – ϕ | lie within the permissible tolerance 0D[ line $QJOH 'LII? A check that the synchronous system conditions are maintained for the minimum du- ration 7 6<1&67$% is carried out. When the conditions are satisfied for this duration within the synchronous supervision time 76<1 '85$7,21, the closing command is released.
  • Page 333 Functions  5DWHG )UHTXHQF\ the operating range of the synchronism check is: rated frequency ± 3 Hz; and, if switching at asynchronous system conditions is allowed,  7&% FORVH the closing time of the circuit breaker. Warning! Incorrect synchronization is possible if the closing time of the circuit breaker is not set correctly under the general power system data (Power system data 1, see Sub-section 6.1.1, address ).
  • Page 334 Functions Addresses  to  are relevant to the check conditions before automatic Synchronism check conditions reclosure of the circuit breaker. When setting the parameters for the internal before automatic automatic reclosing function (Section 6.11.2) it is decided with which automatic reclosure reclosing cycle synchronism and voltage check should be carried out.
  • Page 335 Functions Address  2SPRGH ZLWK 0& determines whether closing under asynchronous system conditions is allowed. Set this parameter to ZLWK 7&% FORVH, if asynchro- nous closing shall be allowed; the relay will then consider the circuit breaker closing time before determining the correct instant for the close command. Remember that closing under asynchronous system conditions is allowed only if the circuit breaker closing time is set correctly (see above under “Preconditions”)! If you wish to only per- mit manual closing under synchronous system conditions, set this address to ZR 7...
  • Page 336: Settings

    Functions 6.12.3 Settings Addr. Setting Title Setting Options Default Setting Comments 3501 FCT Synchronism Synchronism and Voltage Check function 3502 Dead Volt. Thr. 1..60 V Voltage threshold dead line / bus (ph-e) 3503 Live Volt. Thr. 20..125 V 90 V Voltage threshold live line / bus (ph-e) 3504...
  • Page 337: Information Overview

    Functions Addr. Setting Title Setting Options Default Setting Comments 3537 MC Usyn< Uline> Dead bus / Live line check before Man.Cl 3538 MC Usyn< Uline< Dead bus / dead line check before Man.Cl 3539 MC O/RIDE Override of any check before Man.Cl 6.12.4 Information Overview Important information available as output by the device is explained, in so far as it can...
  • Page 338 Functions F.No Alarm Comments 2944 Usyn< U-line> Sync. dead bus / live line detected 2945 Usyn> U-line< Sync. live bus / dead line detected 2946 Usyn< U-line< Sync. dead bus / dead line detected 2947 Sync. Udiff> Sync. Voltage diff. greater than limit 2948 Sync.
  • Page 339: Overvoltage Protection

    Functions 6.13 Overvoltage Protection General The overvoltage protection is primarily intended for the recognition of steady-state ov- ervoltage conditions on very long weakly loaded EHV transmission lines. These over- voltages are caused by the shunt capacitance of the line and are most severe if the line is unloaded (Ferranti–effect).
  • Page 340: Applying The Function Parameter Settings

    Functions Displacement Figure 6-95 shows the logic diagram of the displacement voltage stage. The funda- Voltage mental frequency voltage is filtered out of the measured voltage, so that higher har- monics and transient voltage peaks are largely suppresses. If the set phase voltage 8! is exceeded, this is alarmed.
  • Page 341 Functions The impulse duration 7 6HQ,PS 8SKH (address ) is only significant when the trip command must be transmitted to another item of plant, e.g. to the circuit breaker at the opposite line end of the feeder. The impulse must ensure that the command is reliably transferred (transmission time) and reliably executed by the other item of plant (response time of this plant item).
  • Page 342: Settings

    Functions 6.13.3 Settings Adr. Parameter Setting options Presetting Description 3701 FCT Uphase-e Phase-Earth Overvoltage Alarm Only function is 3702 Uph-e> 1.0..170.0 V 85.0 V Uph-e> Pickup 3704 T Uph-e 0.00..30.00 sec 2.00 sec T Uph-e Time Delay 3705 T Sen-Imp(Uphe) 0.05..0.50 sec 0.25 sec Time of Carrier Send Impulse...
  • Page 343: Fault Location

    Functions 6.14 Fault Location Measurement of the distance to fault in the event of a short circuit is an important sup- plement to the protection functions. The availability of the line for transmission of en- ergy in the system can be increased by a more rapid determination of the fault location and repair of any resultant damage.
  • Page 344 Functions Note: The distance can only be applicable in the form of kilometres, miles or percent if the relevant line section is homogeneous. If the line is composed of line sections with different reactance per unit length characteristic, e.g. overhead line–cable sections, the reactance calculated by the fault location function can be subjected to a separate computation to derive the distance to fault.
  • Page 345: Applying The Function Parameter Setting

    Functions Legend: Measuring location Source impedances Source voltages (EMF) Earth source impedances Fault voltage at the measuring location Fault impedances Part fault currents Earth fault impedances Total fault current Common fault resistance Figure 6-96 Fault currents and voltages on double–end fed lines 6.14.2 Applying the Function Parameter Setting The fault location function is only in service if it was selected to (QDEOHG during the configuration of the device functions (Section 5.1, address ).
  • Page 346: Settings

    Functions • the earth current of the parallel line has been connected to the fourth current input with the correct polarity and • the parameter for the fourth current input , WUDQVIRUPHU has been set to ,Q SDUDO OLQH (address ) in the “plant data 1” (refer also to Sub-section 6.1.1 under “Current Transformer Connection”) and •...
  • Page 347 Functions F.No. Alarm Comments 1128 FL Loop L3L1 Fault Locator Loop L3L1 1131 RFpri= Flt Locator: primary FAULT RESISTANCE 1132 Flt.Loc.invalid Fault location invalid 1133 Flt.Loc.ErrorK0 Fault locator setting error K0,angle(K0) 6-199 7SA522 Manual C53000-G1176-C119-2...
  • Page 348: Circuit Breaker Failure Protection

    Functions 6.15 Circuit Breaker Failure Protection 6.15.1 Method of Operation General The circuit breaker failure protection provides rapid back-up fault clearance, in the event that the circuit breaker fails to respond to a trip command from a feeder protec- tion. Whenever e.g.
  • Page 349 Functions Bus-bar Protection trip Circuit breaker failure protection T–BF & Feeder Feeder protection Trip (internal or external) bus-bar Figure 6-98 Simplified function diagram of circuit breaker failure protection controlled by circuit breaker auxiliary contact Current flow Each of the phase currents and an additional plausibility current (see below) are fil- monitoring tered by numerical filter algorithms so that only the fundamental frequency is used for further evaluation.
  • Page 350 Functions "(! D3Ã7A Current criterion > 1 & L1> & > 1 & L2> & > 1 & L3> & > 1 plausi- bility Figure 6-99 Current flow monitoring with the plausibility currents 3·I and 3·I Processing of the The position of the circuit breaker is derived from the central function control of the de- circuit breaker aux- vice (refer also to Section 6.14.2).
  • Page 351 Functions L1> & Start only L1 & CBaux L1 closed FNo 351 (refer to Fig. 6-101) >CB Aux. L1 ) if phase dedicated auxiliary contacts available > 1 FNo 380 ) if series connection of NC contacts available >CB 3p Open Figure 6-100 Interlock of the auxiliary contact criterion —...
  • Page 352 Functions "(( 8uxÃ7SFÃ8PIU68U (similar to Fig 6-100) <HV CBaux≥1pole closed > 1 L1> > 1 L2> L3> & Start internal w/o l > 1 > 1 & Start L123 FNo 1439 & >BF Start w/o l FNo 1461 Start internal 3pole >...
  • Page 353 Functions external 7SA522 prot. device Trip L1 >BF Start L1 Trip L2 >BF Start L2 Trip L3 >BF Start L3 Pick-up >BF Release L– Figure 6-102 Breaker failure protection with phase segregated initiation — example for initia- tion by an external protection device with release by a fault detection signal external 7SA522 prot.
  • Page 354 Functions The additional release-signal “!%) 5HOHDVH” (if assigned to a binary input) affects all starting conditions. Initiation can be blocked via the binary input “!%) EORFN” (e.g. during test of the feeder protection relay). Additionally, an internal blocking option is provided.
  • Page 355 Functions Delay timers When the initiate conditions are fulfilled, the associated timers are started. The circuit breaker pole(s) must open before the associated time has elapsed. Different delay timers are provided for operation after common phase initiation and phase segregated initiation. A third time stage can be used for two-stage breaker fail- ure protection.
  • Page 356 Functions For the first time stage, different time delays can be selected for a single-pole trip and three-pole trip by the feeder protection. Additionally, you can select (parameter S 5(75,3 7 ) whether this repeated trip should be single-pole or three-pole. "(# U  Q‚yr "("...
  • Page 357 Functions To realise this intertrip, the desired command — usually the trip command which is in- tended to trip the adjacent breakers — is assigned to a binary output of the device. The contact of this output triggers the transmission device. End fault protection An end fault is defined here as a short–circuit which has occurred at the end of a line or protected object, between the circuit breaker and the current transformer set.
  • Page 358 Functions L1> > 1 L2> 3922 T-ENDFault L3> FNo 1461 & BF Start FNo 1495 & BF EndFlt TRIP ≥1 pole closed Figure 6-110 Function block diagram of end fault protection Circuit breaker pole The pole discrepancy supervision has the task to detect discrepancies in the position discrepancy super- of the three circuit breaker poles.
  • Page 359: Applying The Function Parameter Settings

    Functions 6.15.2 Applying the Function Parameter Settings General The breaker failure protection and its ancillary functions (end fault protection, pole dis- crepancy supervision) can only operate if they were configured as HQDEOHG during setting of the scope of functions (see Section 5.1, address ). Breaker failure The complete breaker failure protection including its ancillary functions is switched Off or On under address  )&7 %UHDNHU)DLO.
  • Page 360 Functions Fault inception Fault clearance time normal Prot. CB operating time Reset Safety trip (local) I–BF margin Initiation breaker failure protection Time delay T1 of breaker Trip command Reset Safety failure protection repetition I–BF margin Time delay T2 of breaker CB operating time failure protection (adjacent CBs)
  • Page 361 Functions Fault inception Fault clearance time normal Prot. CB operating time Reset Safety trip I–BF margin Initiation breaker failure protection Time delay T2 of breaker CB–operating time failure protection (adjacent CBs) Total fault clearance time with breaker failure Figure 6-113 Time sequence example for normal clearance of a fault, and with circuit breaker failure, using single-stage breaker failure protection Circuit breaker not If the circuit breaker associated with the feeder is not operational (e.g.
  • Page 362: Settings

    Functions The delay time 73ROH'LVFUHS (address ) determines how long a breaker pole discrepancy condition of the feeder circuit breaker, i.e. only one or two poles open, may be present before the pole discrepancy supervision issues a three-pole trip command. This time must clearly be longer than the duration of a single-pole automatic reclose cycle.
  • Page 363 Functions F.No. Alarm Comments 1403 >BLOCK BkrFail >BLOCK Breaker failure 1432 >BF release >BF: External release 1439 >BF Start w/o I >BF: External start 3pole (w/o current) 1415 >BF Start 3pole >BF: External start 3pole 1435 >BF Start L1 >BF: External start L1 1436 >BF Start L2 >BF: External start L2...
  • Page 364: Monitoring Functions

    Functions 6.16 Monitoring Functions The device incorporates extensive monitoring functions of both the device hardware and software; the measured values are also continually checked to ensure their plau- sibility; the current and voltage transformer secondary circuits are thereby substantial- ly covered by the monitoring function. Furthermore it is possible to implement a trip circuit supervision function by means of the available binary inputs.
  • Page 365 Functions Measured Value Four measuring inputs are available in the current circuits. If the three phase currents Acquisition — and the earth current from the current transformer star-point or from a separate earth Currents current transformer on the protected circuit are connected to the device, the sum of the four digitized currents must equal 0.
  • Page 366: Software-Monitoring

    Functions 6.16.1.2 Software–Monitoring Watchdog For the continuous monitoring of the program execution, a time monitoring is incorpo- rated in the hardware (hardware watchdog). The watchdog expires and resets the processor system causing a complete reboot if the processor fails or when a program loses synchronism.
  • Page 367 Functions Broken Conductor A broken conductor of the protected line or in the current transformer secondary circuit can be detected, if the minimum current %$/$1&( , /,0,7 flows via the feeder. If a current symmetrie failure is detected and the minimum current is below the threshold 3ROH2SHQ&XUUHQW (address 1130, refer to subsection 6.1.3), an interruption of this conductor may be assumed.
  • Page 368 Functions Fuse Failure In the event of measured voltage failure due to a short circuit or broken conductor in Monitor the voltage transformer secondary circuit certain measuring loops may mistakenly see (Non-Symmetrical a voltage of zero, which due to the load current may result in an unwanted pick-up or Voltages) even trip.
  • Page 369 Functions !( ! AAHÃD1Àh‘ I> ≥1 I> I> ≥1 I> & & 0170 VT FuseFail I> AAHÃV3€v 10 s ≥1 VT FuseFail>10s ≥1 0169 ≥1 U> & U> 1pole open ≥1 Figure 6-117 Logic diagram of the fuse failure monitor with zero and negative sequence system Fuse Failure A three-phase failure of the secondary measured voltage can be distinguished from Monitor...
  • Page 370 Functions 6.16.1.4 Trip Circuit Supervision The Distance Protection 7SA522 incorporates an integrated trip circuit supervision function. Depending on the number of binary inputs with isolated control inputs that are still available, a choice can be made between monitoring with one or with two bi- nary inputs.
  • Page 371 Functions A continuous occurrence of this state is only possible during interruption or short cir- cuit of the trip circuit as well as during failure of the battery supply voltage, or faults in the mechanism of the circuit breaker. Table 6-5 Condition table of the binary inputs depending on the Trip relay state and CB state Trip...
  • Page 372: Response To Failures

    Functions 7SA522 >Trip C1 TripRel 7SA522 Legend: — trip relay contact — circuit breaker — circuit breaker trip coil Aux1 — circuit breaker auxiliary contact (normally open) Aux2 — circuit breaker auxiliary contact Aux1 Aux2 (normally closed) — substitute resistor —...
  • Page 373 Functions • (UURU ZLWK D VXPPDU\ DODUP (F.No. 140, i.e. general device failure) • $ODUP VXPPDU\ HYHQW (F.No. 160, i.e. general supervision alarm) • )DLOXUH JHQHUDO FXUUHQW VXSHUYLVLRQ (F.No. 161) • )DLOXUH JHQHUDO YROWDJH VXSHUYLVLRQ (F.No. 164) Table 6-6 Summary of the device response to detected failures Monitoring Possible causes Alarm (function no.)
  • Page 374: Applying The Function Parameter Settings

    Functions Table 6-6 Summary of the device response to detected failures Monitoring Possible causes Alarm (function no.) Failure response Output General alarms “)DLO Σ8 3K(” (165) general alarms: 164, 160 as allocated Voltage sum internal (measured value acquisition) “)DLO 8 EDODQFH” Voltage symmetry external (primary plant or general alarms: 164, 160 as allocated...
  • Page 375 Functions Note: The current summation monitoring is only in service if the earth current of the protect- ed feeder is connected to the fourth current measuring input (I ) for earth currents. Fuse Failure The settings of the fuse failure monitor for non-symmetrical measured voltage failure Monitor (single- or two-phase) must be selected such that on the one hand reliable pick-up of the monitoring is ensured in the case of loss of a single-phase voltage (address ...
  • Page 376: Trip Circuit Supervision

    Functions 6.16.3 Settings Measurement Su- The indicated secondary current values for setting ranges and default settings refer to pervision = 1 A. For the nominal current 5 A the current values are to be multiplied by 5. The values of impedance are divided by 5. Addr.
  • Page 377: Information Overview

    Functions 6.16.4 Information Overview Hardware and Software Supervi- sion F.No. Alarm Comments Error Sum Alarm Error with a summary alarm Error 5V Error 5V Alarm Sum Event Alarm Summary Event Fail Battery Failure: Battery empty Error A/D-conv. Error: A/D converter Alarm Clock Alarm: Real Time Clock Error Board 1...
  • Page 378 Functions Trip Command Supervision F.No. Alarm Comments 6854 >TripC1 TripRel >Trip circuit superv. 1: Trip Relay 6855 >TripC1 Bkr.Rel >Trip circuit superv. 1: Breaker Relay 6856 >TripC2 TripRel >Trip circuit superv. 2: Trip Relay 6857 >TripC2 Bkr.Rel >Trip circuit superv. 2: Breaker Relay 6858 >TripC3 TripRel >Trip circuit superv.
  • Page 379: Function Control

    Functions 6.17 Function Control The function control is the control centre of the device. It coordinates the execution of the protection and supplementary functions, processes their decisions and the infor- mation that emanates from the plant. In particular the following •...
  • Page 380: Processing Of The Circuit Breaker Position

    Functions 7SA522 control switch FNo 356 >Manual Close FNo 2851 AR CLOSE Cmd. Close 8‚vy Legend: — circuit breaker Close — circuit breaker close pulse L– Figure 6-123 Manual closure with internal automatic reclosure 7SA522 control external switch automatic reclosure FNo 356 >Manual Close close...
  • Page 381 Functions In most cases it is sufficient to furnish the status of the circuit breaker with its auxiliary contacts via a binary input to the device. This always applies if the circuit breaker is only switched three-pole. Then the NO auxiliary contact of the circuit breaker is con- nected to a binary input which must be configured to the input function ">CB 3p Closed"...
  • Page 382 Functions CB aux. contact: R380 ≥1 R380 any pole & closed R351 351 >CB Aux. L1 ≥1 & closed ≥1 R351 & open R352 352 >CB Aux. L2 ≥1 & closed ≥1 R352 & open R353 353 >CB Aux. L3 ≥1 &...
  • Page 383: Overall Fault Detection Logic Of The Device

    Functions 6.17.3 Overall Fault Detection Logic of the Device Phase Segregated The fault detection logic combines the fault detection (pick-up) signals of all protection Fault Detection functions. In the case of those protection functions that allow for phase segregated pick-up, the pick-up is output in a phase segregated manner. If a protection function detects an earth fault, this is also output as a common device alarm.
  • Page 384 Functions • “GLVW ”: the distance to fault in kilometres or miles derived by the distance to fault location function. 6-236 7SA522 Manual C53000-G1176-C119-2...
  • Page 385: Overall Tripping Logic Of The Device

    Functions 6.17.4 Overall Tripping Logic of the Device Three-Pole In general, the device trips three-pole in the event of a fault. Depending on the version Tripping ordered, (13th position of the ordering code = “4”) single-pole tripping is also possible (see below).
  • Page 386 Functions rupted in this manner. The phase selected for tripping must be the same at both line ends (and should be the same for the entire system). By means of the setting parameter 7ULSSK)OW it is possible to select whether this tripping is SROH OHDGLQJ 3K, i.e.
  • Page 387 Functions ping protection function resets very rapidly. Only after the last protection function has reset (no function is picked up any more) AND the minimum trip command duration has expired, the trip commands can reset. A further condition for the reset of the trip command is that the circuit breaker has opened, in the event of single-pole tripping the relevant circuit-breaker pole.
  • Page 388 Functions Conditions which cause reclosure interlocking and control commands which have to be interlocked can be set individually. The two inputs and the output can be wired via the correspondingly allocated binary inputs and outputs or be linked via user-defined logic functions (CFC).
  • Page 389 Functions (Signalling Circuit Voltage) 7SA522 FNo 563 Operation Close Trip &% $ODUP 6XSS Detector Alarm: „Breaker tripping“ Figure 6-128 Breaker Tripping Alarm Suppression If the device issues a final trip command, the contact remains closed. This is the case, during the reclaim time of the automatic reclosure cycle, when the automatic reclosure is blocked or switched off or, due to other reasons is not ready for automatic reclosure (e.g.
  • Page 390: Circuit Breaker Trip Test

    Functions Trip Dependent The latching of fault messages, allocated to the device LEDs and the storage of spon- Messages taneous messages may be made dependant on whether the device has issued a trip command. This information is then not output if during a system disturbance one or more protection functions have picked up, but no tripping by the 7SA522 resulted be- cause the fault was cleared by a different device (e.g.
  • Page 391: Setting Parameters

    Functions The information regarding the position of the circuit breakers is not automatically de- rived from the position logic according to Sub-section 6.17.2 (Figure 6-125). For the circuit breaker test function (auto recloser) there are separate binary inputs for the switching status feedback of the circuit breaker position.
  • Page 392: Settings

    Functions 6.17.7 Settings Fault display Addr. Setting Title Setting Options Default Setting Comments FltDisp.LED/LCD Display Targets on every Display Targets on Fault Display on LED / LCD Pickup every Pickup Display Targets on TRIP only Spont. FltDisp. Spontaneous display of flt.an- nunciations 6-244 7SA522 Manual...
  • Page 393: Information Overview

    Functions 6.17.8 Information Overview Circuit-breaker test F.No. Alarm Comments 7325 CB1-TESTtrip L1 CB1-TEST TRIP command - Only L1 7326 CB1-TESTtrip L2 CB1-TEST TRIP command - Only L2 7327 CB1-TESTtrip L3 CB1-TEST TRIP command - Only L3 7328 CB1-TESTtrip123 CB1-TEST TRIP command L123 7329 CB1-TEST close...
  • Page 394: Supplementary Functions

    Functions 6.18 Supplementary Functions The auxiliary functions of the 7SA522 relay include: • processing of messages, • processing of operational measured values, • storage of fault record data. 6.18.1 Processing of Messages For the detailed fault analysis, the information regarding the reaction of the protection device and the measured values following a system fault are of interest.
  • Page 395: Operational Measurement And Energy Metering

    Functions The device in addition has several event buffers for operational messages, switching statistics, etc., which are saved against loss of auxiliary supply by means of a battery buffer. These messages can be displayed on the LCD at any time by selection via the keypad or transferred to a personal computer via the serial service or PC interface.
  • Page 396 Table 6-9 Operational measured values primary secondary % referred to Measured values phase currents rated operational current earth currents rated operational current pos. and neg. seq. currents rated operational current sensitive earth current rated operational current transformer star point current or rated operational current earth current in the parallel line line voltages...
  • Page 397: Data Storage For Fault Recording

    Functions Table 6-10 Operational Metering Impulse Counters Measured Values primary active power, export kWh, MWh, GWh – active power, import kWh, MWh, GWh reactive power, export kVARh, MVARh, GVARh – reactive power, import kVARh, MVARh, GVARh 6.18.3 Data Storage for Fault Recording The Distance Protection 7SA522 has a fault recording memory.
  • Page 398: Settings

    Functions $ :$9()250 &$3785(). Normally the reference instant is the occurrence of de- vice fault detection, i.e. the fault detection of any protection function is allocated with the time stamp 0. The fault detection can also be the storage criterion (6DYH Z 3LFNXS) or the device trip command (6DYH Z 75,3) can be the storage criterion.
  • Page 399: Information Overview

    Functions 6.18.6 Information Overview Measured Values FNo. Alarm Comments IL1 = I L1 IL2 = I L2 IL3 = I L3 3I0 = 3I0 (zero sequence) 3I0sen= 3I0sen (sensitive zero sequence) IY = IY (star point of transformer) 3I0par= 3I0par (parallel line neutral) I1 = I1 (positive sequence) I2 =...
  • Page 400 Functions X L3E= X L3E X L12= X L12 X L23= X L23 X L31= X L31 Fault Value Storage F.No. Alarm Comments >Trig.Wave.Cap. >Trigger Waveform Capture Wave. deleted Waveform data deleted FltRecSta Fault Recording Start 6-252 7SA522 Manual C53000-G1176-C119-2...
  • Page 401: Processing Of Commands

    Functions 6.19 Processing of Commands General In addition to the protective functions described so far, a control command process is ® integrated in the SIPROTEC 7SA522 to coordinate the operation of circuit breakers and other equipment in the power system. Control commands can originate from four command sources: −...
  • Page 402: Steps In The Command Sequence

    Functions − Status information commands for setting / deactivating the “information status” for the information value of an object: − Controlling activation of binary input status − Blocking binary outputs 6.19.2 Steps in the Command Sequence Safety mechanisms in the command sequence ensure that a command can only be released after a thorough check of preset criteria has been successfully concluded.
  • Page 403: Interlocking

    Functions − Interruption of a command because of a cancel command Monitoring the Command Execu- − Running time monitor (feedback message monitoring time) tion 6.19.3 Interlocking Interlocking is executed by the user-defined logic (CFC). The interlocking checks of a ® SICAM/SIPROTEC -system are classified into: •...
  • Page 404 Functions ative confirmation, the command was rejected. Figure 6-132 shows the messages re- lating to command execution and operation response information for a successful op- eration of the circuit breaker. The check of interlocking can be programmed separately for all switching devices and tags that were set with a tagging command.
  • Page 405 Functions Switching Authority Switching Mode Device with Source of Command = On/Off LOCAL Local & SAS REMOTE Local & DIGSI AUTO & & Remote Switching Authority (Local/Remote) DIGSI & DIGSI Switching Authority DIGSI Remote & Switching Mode Non-Interlocked Local SCHEDULED=ACT .y/n &...
  • Page 406: Recording And Acknowledgement Of Commands

    Functions Figure 6-134 shows all interlocking conditions (which usually appear in the display of the device) for three switchgear items with the relevant abbreviations explained in table 6-12 . All parametrized interlocking conditions are indicated (see Figure 6-134). ,QWHUORFNLQJ   4 &ORVH2SHQ 6 ²...
  • Page 407 Functions The “plus” appearing in a feedback information confirms that the command was suc- cessful, the command was as expected, in other words positive. The “minus” is a neg- ative confirmation and means that the command was not fulfilled as expected. Command Output The command types needed for tripping and closing of the switchgear or for raising and Switching...
  • Page 408 7SA522 Manual C53000-G1176-C119-2...
  • Page 409: Control During Operation

    Control During Operation ® This chapter describes interaction possibilities with the SIPROTEC 7SA522 device during operation. The information that can be obtained and the procedure for retriev- ing the data are discussed. Methods of influencing the device functions during opera- tion and controlling the system using the device are covered.
  • Page 410: Read-Out Of Information

    Control During Operation Read-out of Information General The device provides a great deal of information that can be obtained on-site or from data transfer: • Messages, • Operating measurement and metered values, • Waveform data in oscillographic fault records. This information is individually discussed below. Methods for viewing, retrieving, ac- knowledging, and storing this information on a PC are also explained.
  • Page 411 Control During Operation LEDs that display a condition should light for as long as the condition is maintained. The LED action is therefore generally not latched. Of course, these LEDs are also in- cluded in the function check with the LED key Binary Outputs Indications can be configured to output relays for external indication (e.g.
  • Page 412 Control During Operation Figure 7-2 Function selection screen in If the 2QOLQH directory is opened with a double-click, the operating functions for the device appear in the navigation window (Figure 7-2). By double clicking on $QQXQFLDWLRQ, the tree structure expands and shows the individual message groups.
  • Page 413: Event Log (Operating Messages)

    Control During Operation 7.1.1.2 Event Log (Operating Messages) Operating messages contain information that the device generates during operation and about the operation. Up to 200 operating messages are stored in chronological order in the device. New messages are added at the end of the list. If the memory has been exceeded, then the oldest message is overwritten for each new message.
  • Page 414: Trip Log (Fault Messages)

    Control During Operation ® Figure 7-4 Selection of operational messages in DIGSI ® Figure 7-5 Example of operational messages in DIGSI 7.1.1.3 Trip Log (Fault Messages) Spontaneous The spontaneous messages appear automatically in the display, after a general pick- Messages up of the device.
  • Page 415 Control During Operation Retrieved The messages for the last eight network faults can be retrieved. The definition of a net- messages work fault is such that the time period from fault detection up to final clearing of the system fault is considered to be one network fault. If auto-reclosure occurs, then the network fault ends after the last reclosing shot, which means after a successful or final- unsuccessful reclosing.
  • Page 416 Control During Operation By double clicking on an entry in the list view, the associated contents of the network fault is displayed in another window. The entries are chronologically listed with the newest message appearing first. ® Figure 7-8 Selection of fault messages in DIGSI ®...
  • Page 417: Saving And Erasing The Messages

    Control During Operation 7.1.1.4 Saving and Erasing the Messages Normally, erasing the messages is not necessary because the oldest messages are automatically erased when new events are entered, if the memory is full at the time. However, erasure of the stored messages may be useful, for instance, after revision of the plant, so that in the future the memory only contains information about actual events.
  • Page 418: General Interrogation

    Control During Operation 7.1.1.5 General Interrogation ® ® From PC with The present condition of a SIPROTEC device can examined by using DIGSI 4 to ® DIGSI view the contents of the “General Interrogation” annunciation. The messages are found by double-clicking on $QQXQFLDWLRQ (see Figure 7-2), double-clicking on *HQHUDO ,QWHUURJDWLRQ, and double-clicking on the date and time that appear in the right window.
  • Page 419: Switching Statistics

    Control During Operation 7.1.2 Switching Statistics The messages in switching statistics are counters for the accumulation of interrupted currents by each of the breaker poles, the number of trips issued by the device to the breaker. The interrupted currents are in primary terms. Switching statistics can be viewed on the LCD of the device, or on a PC running ®...
  • Page 420: Resetting And Setting The Switching Statistics

    Control During Operation ® Figure 7-13 List of statistic values in DIGSI 4 — example 7.1.2.2 Resetting and Setting the Switching Statistics The memories and counters for switching statistics are secured against a loss of pow- er supply voltage. The values can, however, be set to zero, or to any desired value within certain setting limits.
  • Page 421: Measured Values

    Control During Operation ® Figure 7-15 Setting statistic values in DIGSI 4 — example 7.1.3 Measured Values Operating measured values are determined in the background by the processor sys- tem. They can be called up at the front of the device, read out via the operating inter- ®...
  • Page 422 Control During Operation Table 7-1 Operational measured values primary secondary % referred to Measured values phase currents rated operational current earth currents rated operational current pos. and neg. seq. currents rated operational current sensitive earth current rated operational current transformer star point current or rated operational current earth current in the parallel line line voltages...
  • Page 423 Control During Operation 21 3HUFHQW Operating measured values, in percent of nominal quanti- ties. 51 8VHU 'HILQHG Measured values that are defined by the user during initial setting of the device (see Section 5.3). 61 6HW 3RLQWV Impulse counter generated by the user defined logic CFC (according to section 5.3).
  • Page 424 Control During Operation • 3ULPDU\ with 2SHUDWLRQDO PHDVXUHG YDOXHV SULPDU\, 3ULPDU\ RSHUDWLQJ LPSHGDQFH; 6\QFKURFKHFN PHDVXUHG YDOXHV SULPDU\ • 6HFRQGDU\ with 2SHUDWLRQDO PHDVXUHG YDOXHV VHFRQGDU\, 6HFRQGDU\ RSHUDWLQJ LPSHGDQFH; • 3HUFHQWDJH with 2SHUDWLRQDO PHDVXUHG YDOXHV SHUFHQWDJH, referred to the rated operational values; •...
  • Page 425: Setting And Retrieval Of User Defined Set-Points

    Control During Operation 7.1.3.2 Setting and Retrieval of User Defined Set-points In the 7SA522 measured value set-points can be configured with the user definable logic CFC (see Section 5.3). If during normal operation a measured value reaches one of these set-points, the device generates an alarm which is indicated as an operational event.
  • Page 426 Control During Operation swer “1R” is marked, and confirm with the key. If the value is to be modified once ENTER more, mark “$ERUW”, confirm this with the key and re-enter the value. ENTER From PC with Set points are only available in online–mode. The metered value groups are found un- ®...
  • Page 427: Retrieval And Resetting Of User Defined Pulse Metered Values (Pmv)

    Control During Operation 7.1.3.3 Retrieval and Resetting of User Defined Pulse Metered Values (PMV) In the 7SA522 it is possible to define pulse metered values with the user definable log- ic (CFC) (see Section 5.3). If such pulse metered values were defined during the configuration of the device, they can —...
  • Page 428: Fault Records

    Control During Operation 7.1.4 Fault Records Waveform data is stored in the device and can be graphically represented on a per- ® ® sonal computer using DIGSI 4, together with the graphic program DIGRA 4. The settings associated with fault recording — such as duration and pre- and post-trigger times —...
  • Page 429: Saving The Fault Records

    Control During Operation The recorded data read into the PC memory are first shown in full on the screen. Cur- rent, and possibly voltage, for each phase and the ground are represented separately. The fault number, data and time, network, and feeder are also displayed. Representation of primary or secondary quantities can be selected.
  • Page 430: Control Of Device Functions

    Control During Operation Control of Device Functions You may change individual functions and messages in a 7SA522 while the device is in-service. Some examples are given above, including erasing stored information (Sub-section 7.1.1.4) and setting/resetting counters and set-points (Sub-sections 7.1.2.2 and 7.1.3.3). In this section, three other control capabilities are discussed. They are correcting the date and time, changing the settings group, and affecting in- formation at the system interface during test operations.
  • Page 431 Control During Operation sentations. The possible representations and the associated causes are listed in Table 7-3. Table 7-3 Representations of Date and Time: Item Display (Example) Year Time Time Invalid Malfunction Date Time HHHH " Year = 1990 irrelevant  " " "...
  • Page 432 Control During Operation In the other operating modes, manual adjustments are only accepted if the synchroni- zation is momentarily lost. The messages “time error ON” and “time error OFF” are giv- en when manually changing the year in the IRIG B mode. Without healthy or external time synchronisation the free running date and time can also be relatively adjusted (+/–...
  • Page 433 Control During Operation From PC with ® DIGSI Click on 'HYLFH in the menu bar as shown in Figure 7-27. Select the command 6HW To manually &ORFN. change the date and time of the de- vice: Selecting the command 6HW &ORFN in DIGSI ®...
  • Page 434 Control During Operation ® Figure 7-29 Setting window in DIGSI Double click on 7LPH 6\QFKURQL]DWLRQ in the data window. This gives access to change (Figure 7-30): − Source of time synchronisation, − Monitoring (Time delay for alarm), − Time format for display, −...
  • Page 435: Changeover Of Setting Groups

    Control During Operation 7.2.2 Changeover of Setting Groups Four different setting groups for the protective functions are available. The active group can be changed onsite while the is in-service by using the integrated operating field on the device or the operating interface on a PC running . Alternatively, you may decide that the active setting group be remotely controlled via binary inputs or the Sys- tem (SCADA) interface.
  • Page 436 Control During Operation &+$1*( *5283  The currently-active setting group is dis-   $&7,9( *5283 played under Address . *URXS $ The setting group can be changed under Ad-  &+$1*( WR dress : by pressing the !*URXS $ ENTER key, after entering the password, two possible alterna-...
  • Page 437: Test Messages To The System (Scada) Interface During Test Operation

    Control During Operation Double click on &KDQJH *URXS. The &KDQJH *URXS window is opened, as shown in Figure 7-33. Figure 7-33 Setting group switching in The active setting group is displayed. To switch to another setting group, click on the field 9DOXH and select the desired option from the drop-down list.
  • Page 438 Control During Operation key. The 0$,1 0(18 appears. From the With a device ready for operation, first press the MENU Device Front key, highlight the menu item 7HVW'LDJQRVH, and then press the Using the key to enter sub-menu. 7(67',$*126( will appear at the top of the menu. At this point, highlight the menu item 7HVW (QDEOH using the key, and then press key to enter sub-menu.
  • Page 439 Control During Operation ® Figure 7-36 Example: Transfer Block Activated in DIGSI Click on %ORFN 'DWD 7UDQVPLVVLRQ to activate or deactivate the transfer block. After entry of Password No. 4 for test and diagnostics, and confirmation with 2., the setting change is complete. Activation is indicated with a check mark in front of the command.
  • Page 440: Circuit Breaker Test Function

    Control During Operation Circuit Breaker Test Function The circuit breaker and the trip circuits can be tested during normal operation by exe- cution of a TRIP and CLOSE command via the device. A prerequisite for this test is that the required test commands were allocated to the cor- responding command relays during the configuration of the device.
  • Page 441 Control During Operation &%7(67 UXQQLQJ Circuit breaker test in progress &%767VWRS )/7 Circuit breaker test cannot be started as a system fault is present &%767VWRS 23(1 Circuit breaker test cannot be started as the circuit breaker is not closed &%767VWRS 127U Circuit breaker test cannot be started as the circuit breaker is not ready &%767VWRS &/26...
  • Page 442 Control During Operation even if the operator confirms the opposite. Only if no auxiliary contacts are marshalled, will the device rely on the confirmation by the operator. If the test cycle should be cancelled, press the key in response to the above query, so that the answer “1R”...
  • Page 443 Control During Operation ® If the 2QOLQH directory in DIGSI From PC with 4 is opened with a double click, the operation func- ® DIGSI tions of the device appear in the left hand side of the window. By clicking on the 7HVW IXQFWLRQ, a list of the available functions appears on the right hand side of the display (Figure 7-39).
  • Page 444: Control Of Switchgear

    Control During Operation Control of Switchgear ® A SIPROTEC 4 device 7SA522 contains control functions that allow for opening and closing of power system switching devices (i.e. circuit breakers). Local control is pos- sible utilizing different elements of the 7SA522. Breaker control from a remote location ®...
  • Page 445: Display Equipment Position And Control

    Control During Operation 7.4.1 Display Equipment Position and Control key. The 0$,1 0(18 appears. From the With a device ready for operation, first press the MENU Device Front key, select the menu item &RQWURO, and go to editing the control func- Using the key.
  • Page 446 Control During Operation Enter Password No. 1 (for interlocked switching) and acknowledge with the key. ENTER Note: if the switching mode is 121²,17(5/2&.(' 7HVW (Sub-section 7.4.7), all switching operations are only possible with Password No. 2 (for non-interlocked switching). A new window appears. Depending on the operating and command type of the select- ed switching device, various options are offered.
  • Page 447 Control During Operation ® The switching authority is first transferred to DIGSI 4 at the moment the control win- dow shown in Figure 7-45 is opened. The configuration matrix discussed in Section 5.2 determines the control devices that have information displayed in this field. ®...
  • Page 448: Manual Overwriting

    Control During Operation 7.4.2 Manual Overwriting When using the Control with Feedback feature, the device checks the feedback in- dications (i.e. 52-a and 52-b) before and after a control command is issued. If for some reason, the physical connection from a circuit breaker auxiliary contact to the binary inputs of the device is broken, inadvertently shorted, or disconnected, commands may be blocked.
  • Page 449: Set Status

    Control During Operation 0$1 2   !23(1  !%UH &/26 !23(1 !'LVF &/26 Figure 7-47 Selection Window for Manual Overwriting of a Switch Position, Front Panel A safety inquiry appears: “$UH \RX VXUH"” Provided manual overwriting is allowed, a response of “<(6” results in an appropriate message on the display. Acknowledge the message by pressing the key again.
  • Page 450 Control During Operation Note: Input ignored only works for physical inputs! Do not set the block for indications cre- ated by CFC. key. The 0$,1 0(18 appears. From the With a device ready for operation, first press the MENU Device Front key, select the menu item &RQWURO and go to editing the control func- Using the key.
  • Page 451: Interlocking

    Control During Operation From PC Us- For safety reasons, Status changes are only possible locally using the keypad on the ® ® ing DIGSI front panel of the device. Status changes are not possible in DIGSI 7.4.4 Interlocking Operating equipment such as circuit breakers, circuit switchers and ground switches can be subject to interlocking conditions.
  • Page 452: Tagging

    Control During Operation ble clicking on 0DVNLQJ ,2, the matrix is opened. Mark the switching device (in the line for the operating message of the switching device). Using the right mouse key, the properties of the switching device can now be called up. The conditions for ,QWHU ORFN 6ZLWFKLQJ, among other items, are recognizable in the dialog box that opens.
  • Page 453: Switching Authority

    Control During Operation 7.4.6 Switching Authority Switching authority determines the command sources that are permitted for control. key. The 0$,1 0(18 appears. From the With a device ready for operation, first press the MENU Device Front key, select the menu item &RQWURO and move to editing the control func- Using the key.
  • Page 454: Switching Mode

    Control During Operation 7.4.7 Switching Mode The switching mode can be changed during operation; so, for example, non-inter- locked switching can be enabled during the commissioning of the installed equipment. DANGER! Only highly qualified personnel who have an exact knowledge of the power sys- tem conditions shall perform non-interlocked switching.
  • Page 455: Control Messages

    Control During Operation 7.4.8 Control Messages In the course of system control, the device generates several messages that docu- ment the process. For example, messages may be given to report the end of a com- mand or provide the reason for a command denial. 7.4.9 Other Commands The device is equipped with a serial interface for connection to the System (SCADA)
  • Page 456 7SA522 Manual C53000-G1176-C119-2...
  • Page 457: Installation And Commissioning

    Installation and Commissioning This section is primarily for personnel who are experienced in installing, testing, and commissioning protective and control systems, and are familiar with applicable safety rules, safety regulations, and the operation of the power system. Installation of the 7SA522 is described in this section. Hardware modifications that might be needed in certain cases are explained.
  • Page 458: Mounting And Connections

    Installation and Commissioning Mounting and Connections Warning! The successful and safe operation of the device is dependent on proper handling, in- stallation, and application by qualified personnel under observance of all warnings and hints contained in this manual. In particular the general erection and safety regulations (e.g. IEC, ANSI, DIN, VDE, EN or other national and international standards) regarding the correct use of hoisting gear must be observed.
  • Page 459 Installation and Commissioning Elongated holes SIPROTEC SIEMENS ERROR 7SA522 H6DIÃH@IV 01/04 Annunciation Measuring MENU ENTER Figure 8-1 Panel mounting of a 7SA522 (housing width of 19 inch rack) Elongated SIPROTEC SIEMENS ERROR holes 7SA522 H6DIÃH@IV 01/04 Annunciation Measuring MENU ENTER...
  • Page 460 Furthermore, the cross-section of the ground wire must be at least 2.5 mm Mounting bracket SIPROTEC SIEMENS ERROR 7SA522 H6DIÃH@IV 01/04...
  • Page 461 Installation and Commissioning SIPROTEC SIEMENS ERROR 7SA522 H6DIÃH@IV 01/04 Annunciation Measuring MENU ENTER Figure 8-4 Installing a 7SA522 in a rack or cubicle (housing width of 19 inch rack) Connect the plug terminals and/or the screwed terminals on the rear side of the de- vice according to the wiring diagram for the rack.
  • Page 462: Termination Variants

    Installation and Commissioning 8.1.2 Termination variants Outline diagrams are shown in Appendix 1.2. Connection examples for current and voltage transformer circuits are provided in Appendix 1.3. It must be checked that the setting configuration of the 3RZHU 6\VWHP 'DWD  36\VWHP 'DWD  corre- sponds with the connections to the device.
  • Page 463 Installation and Commissioning Changing Setting If binary inputs are used to switch setting groups, note: Groups with Binary • Two binary inputs must be dedicated to the purpose of changing setting groups Inputs when four groups are to be switched. One binary input must be set for “!6HW *URXS %LW”, the other input for “!6HW *URXS %LW”.
  • Page 464 Installation and Commissioning If two binary inputs are used for the trip circuit supervision, these binary inputs must be potential free i.o.w. not be commoned with each other or with another binary input. If one binary input is used, a bypass resistor R must be employed (refer to Figure 8- 6).
  • Page 465 Installation and Commissioning So the circuit breaker trip coil does not remain energized in the above case, R derived as: –   TC (LOW) ⋅ ---------------------------------------------- -   TC (LOW) Constant current with BI on BI (HIGH) Minimum control voltage for BI BI min =17 V for delivery setting for nominal voltage of 24/48/60 V;...
  • Page 466 Installation and Commissioning   110 V 16 V – 500 Ω --------------------------------- - –   1.7 mA   110 V 2 V – 500 Ω 500 Ω ----------------------------- - –   8-10 7SA522 Manual C53000-G1176-C119-2...
  • Page 467: Hardware Modifications

    Installation and Commissioning 8.1.3 Hardware Modifications 8.1.3.1 General Hardware modifications might be necessary or desired. For example, a change of the pick-up threshold for some of the binary inputs might be advantageous in certain ap- plications. Terminating resistors might be required for the communication bus. In ei- ther case, hardware modifications are needed.
  • Page 468: Jumpers On The Printed Circuit Boards

    Installation and Commissioning Type of Contact for Input and output boards can contain relays of which the contact can be set as Binary Outputs normally closed or normally open contact. Therefore it is necessary to rearrange a jumper. The paragraph “Jumpers on the Printed Circuit Boards” describes to which type of relays in which boards this applies.
  • Page 469 Installation and Commissioning Caution! Electrostatic discharges through the connections of the components, wiring, plugs, and jumpers must be avoided. Wearing a grounded wrist strap is preferred. Otherwise, first touch a grounded metal part. At one end, disconnect the ribbon-cable between the front cover and the CPU board (å).
  • Page 470 Installation and Commissioning Processor printed circuit board CPU Input/output printed circuit board I/O-1 with power supply Input/output printed circuit board I/O-2 (transducers) Input/output printed circuit 42 1 board I/O-1 without power supply Slot 5 Slot 19 Slot 33 Slot 19 Slot 33 BI17 to BI1 to...
  • Page 471 Installation and Commissioning with representation of the jumper settings re- Figure 8-9 Input/output module I/O–1 quired for the module configuration The check of the set nominal voltage of the integrated power supply and the quiescent state of the life-contact is only done on the input/output module I/O–1 in slot 33 with power supply .
  • Page 472 Installation and Commissioning Table 8-2 Jumper settings for the nominal voltage of the integrated power supply on the with power supply input/output board I/O–1 Jumper Nominal voltage DC 60/110/125 V DC 110/125/220/250 V DC 24/48 V AC 115 V 1–2 2–3 Jumpers 1–2 and 3–4...
  • Page 473 Installation and Commissioning Checking of the supplied nominal current ratings of the current transducers on the in- put/output board I/O–2. Figure 8-10 Jumpers on the input/output board I/O–2 for the current transducers For the input/output module I/O–2 it is possible to change the contact of the output relay R13 from normally open to normally closed (refer to general diagrams in the Appendix under Section 1.2).
  • Page 474 Installation and Commissioning Only for devices with serial rear interfaces: Communication modules are situated on the processor module CPU and secured to the rear plate of the device housing (slots “B” to “E”). Alternatively RS 232, RS 485 or Profibus modules are available. The jumper settings for the alternatives RS 232 or RS 485 (see Figure 8-11) are derived from Table 8-7: Table 8-7 Configuration of Jumpers for RS 232 or RS 485 on the Interface Card (Circuit...
  • Page 475 Installation and Commissioning C53207-A322- 2 3 4 B100 B101 Terminating resistors Jumper Connected Disconnected 2-3* 2-3* Factory Set Figure 8-12 Location of the Jumpers for Configuring the Profibus–Interface Terminating Resistors To Reassemble To reassemble the device, proceed as follows: the Device Carefully insert the boards into the case.
  • Page 476: Checking The Connections

    Installation and Commissioning Checking the Connections 8.2.1 Data Connections The following tables list the pin-assignments for the various serial interfaces of the de- vice and the time synchronization interface. PC Operating Inter- When the recommended communication cable is used, correct connection between ®...
  • Page 477 Installation and Commissioning RS 485 The RS485 interface is capable of half-duplex service with the signals A/A’ and B/B’ Termination with a common relative potential C/C’ (DGND). Verify that only the last device on the bus has the terminating resistors connected, and that the other devices on the bus do not.
  • Page 478: Power Plant Connections

    Installation and Commissioning 8.2.2 Power Plant Connections Warning! Some of the following test steps will be carried out in presence of hazardous voltages. They shall be performed only by qualified personnel which is thoroughly familiar with all safety regulations and precautionary measures and pay due attention to them. Caution! Operating the device on a battery charger without a connected battery can lead to un- usually high voltages and consequently, the destruction of the device.
  • Page 479 Installation and Commissioning Firmly re-insert the I/O–2 board. Carefully connect the ribbon cable. Do not bend any connector pins! Do not use force! Check continuity for each of the current terminal-pairs again. Attach the front panel and tighten the screws. Connect an ammeter in the supply circuit of the power supply.
  • Page 480: Commissioning

    Installation and Commissioning Commissioning Warning! Hazardous voltages are present in this electrical equipment during operation. Non– observance of the safety rules can result in severe personal injury or property dam- age. Only qualified personnel shall work on and around this equipment after becoming thor- oughly familiar with all warnings and safety notices of this manual as well as with the applicable safety regulations.
  • Page 481: Current, Voltage, And Phase Rotation Checks

    Installation and Commissioning 8.3.1 Current, Voltage, and Phase Rotation Checks Load Current The connections of the current and voltage transformers are tested using primary ≥ 10 % I quantities. Secondary load current of at least 10 % of the nominal current of the device is necessary.
  • Page 482: Directional Checks With Load Current

    Installation and Commissioning If the VT mcb is open the message "!)$,/%XV 97 21" appears, if it is closed the message "!)$,/%XV 97 2))" is displayed. 8.3.2 Directional Checks with Load Current Load Current ≥ The connections of the current and voltage transformers are checked using load cur- 10 % I rent on the protected line.
  • Page 483: Polarity Check For The Voltage Input U4

    Installation and Commissioning R, X both positive, when power flows into the line, R, X both negative, when power flows towards the busbar. The general case is assumed here, whereby the forward direction (measuring direc- tion) extends from the busbar towards the line. In the case of capacitive load, caused by e.g.
  • Page 484 Installation and Commissioning A further aid for checking in the connection are the messages  "6\QF 8GLII!" and  "6\QF MGLII!" in the spontaneous annunciations. Circuit breaker is open. The feeder is isolated (zero voltage). The VTmcb of both voltage transformer circuits must be closed. The program 29(55,'( = \HV (address ) must be set for the synchro-check;...
  • Page 485 Installation and Commissioning voltage is not allocated. Check whether this is the required state, alternatively check the binary input "!)$,/%XV 97" if necessary (FNo. ). Close the VT mcb of the busbar voltage is to be closed again. Open the circuit breaker. The program 8V\QF! 8OLQH = <HV (address ) and 8V\QF 8OLQH! = 1R (address ) is set for the synchro-check.
  • Page 486 Installation and Commissioning transformer in the phase from which the voltage in the voltage path is missing, is con- nected. If the line carries load in the first quadrant, the protection is in principle sub- jected to the same conditions that exist during an earth fault in the direction of the line. At least one stage of the earth fault protection must be set to be directional (address [[ of the earth fault protection).
  • Page 487 Installation and Commissioning mary or secondary quantities in the list of operational measured values (Section 7.1.3.1). If, on the other hand, the measured impedance increases when compared to the value without parallel line compensation, the current measuring input I has a swapped po- larity.
  • Page 488: Measuring The Operating Time Of The Circuit Breaker

    Installation and Commissioning The configuration shown in Figure 8-17 corresponds to an earth current flowing through the line, in other words an earth fault in the forward direction. At least one stage of the earth fault protection must be set to be directional (address [[ of the earth fault protection).
  • Page 489: Testing Of The Teleprotection System

    Installation and Commissioning The circuit breaker is connected manually. At the same time the timer is started. After closing the poles of the circuit breaker, the voltage Uline appears and the timer is stopped. The time displayed by the timer is the real circuit breaker closing time. If the timer is not stopped due to an unfavourable closing moment, the attempt will be repeated.
  • Page 490 Installation and Commissioning A short-circuit in Z1B, but outside Z1, is simulated. This may be done with secondary injection test equipment. As the device at the opposite line end is not picked up, the echo function comes into effect there, and a trip command at the line end initiating the test, results.
  • Page 491: Teleprotection With Earth Fault Protection

    Installation and Commissioning Naturally the corresponding transmit and receive signals must also be assigned to the corresponding binary output and input. Communication between the line ends is necessary. On the transmitting end, a fault in zone Z1 must be simulated. This can be achieved with secondary injection test equipment.
  • Page 492: Signal Transmission For The Overvoltage Protection

    Installation and Commissioning The circuit breaker on the protected feeder must be opened, as must be the circuit breaker at the opposite line end. A fault is again simulated as before. A receive signal impulse delayed by somewhat more than twice the signal transmission time appears via the echo function at the opposite line end, and the device issues a trip command.
  • Page 493: Protection

    Installation and Commissioning !%/2&. 8SKH must be set to 21 or $ODUP 2QO\ and/or in address  )&7 8 8[ the setting must be 21 or $ODUP 2QO\. Naturally, the corresponding output signals must also be assigned and connected to the transmitter: “8SKH 6(1'” and/or “8 6(1'”.
  • Page 494: Checking The Binary Inputs And Outputs

    Installation and Commissioning 8.3.7 Checking the Binary Inputs and Outputs ® Preliminary Notes The binary inputs, outputs, and LEDs of a SIPROTEC 4 device can be individually ® and precisely controlled using DIGSI 4. This feature is used to verify control wiring from the device to plant equipment (operational checks), during commissioning.
  • Page 495 Installation and Commissioning with an appropriately marked switching area. By double-clicking in an area, compo- nents within the associated group can be turned on or off. In the 6WDWXV column, the present (physical) state of the hardware component is dis- played.
  • Page 496: Tests For The Circuit Breaker Failure Protection

    Installation and Commissioning The response of the device must be checked in the ,VW–column of the dialogue box. To do this, the dialogue box must be updated. The options may be found below under the margin heading “Updating the Display”. If however the effect of a binary input must be checked without carrying out any switch- ing in the plant, it is possible to trigger individual binary inputs with the hardware test function.
  • Page 497 Installation and Commissioning Before the breaker is closed again for normal operation the trip command of the feeder protection routed to the circuit breaker must be disconnected so that the trip command can only be initiated by the breaker failure protection. Although the following lists do not claim to be complete it may also contain points which are to be ignored in the current application.
  • Page 498: Testing User-Defined Functions

    Installation and Commissioning The surrounding circuit breakers are all those which need to trip when the feeder cir- cuit breaker fails. These are therefore the circuit breakers of all feeders which feed the busbar or busbar section to which the feeder with the short-circuit is connected. A general detailed test guide cannot be specified because the layout of the surround- ing circuit breakers largely depends on the switchgear topology.
  • Page 499: Triggering Oscillographic Recordings

    Installation and Commissioning 8.3.11 Triggering Oscillographic Recordings At the end of commissioning, an investigation of switching operations of the circuit breaker(s) or primary switching device(s), under load conditions, should be done to assure the stability of the protection during the dynamic processes. Oscillographic re- cordings obtain the maximum information about the behaviour of the 7SA522.
  • Page 500: Generate Indications

    Installation and Commissioning 8.3.12 Generate Indications A test of the SCADA interface to verify that messages are being correctly transmitted ® and received can be done with DIGSI 4. With the program Online, click on Test, and then double-click on Test System Port in the right window. The dialog box Generate indications appears, as shown in Figure 8-21.
  • Page 501 Installation and Commissioning The first time a button is clicked in the Action column to send a message, Password No. 6 (for hardware test menus) is requested, After correct input of the password, mes- sages can be individually transmitted. To send a message, click on the Action button of the corresponding line.
  • Page 502: Final Preparation Of The Device

    Final Preparation of the Device Tighten the used screws at the terminals; those ones not being used should be slightly fastened. Ensure all pin connectors are properly insert- Caution! Do not use force! The tightening torques according to Chapter 2 must not be exceed- ed as the threads and terminal chambers may otherwise be damaged! Verify that all service settings are correct.
  • Page 503: Routine Checks And Maintenance

    Routine Checks and Maintenance General comments about the routine checks and maintenance activities to ensure the high reliability of the 7SA522 are given in this chapter. A procedure for replacing com- ponents such as the buffer battery is discussed. Troubleshooting advice is provided. A procedure for replacing the power supply fuse is described.
  • Page 504: General

    Routine Checks and Maintenance General ® Siemens numerical protective and control SIPROTEC 4 devices are designed to re- quire no special maintenance. All measurement and signal processing circuits are fully solid state. All input modules are also fully solid state. The output relays are hermeti- cally sealed or provided with protective covers.
  • Page 505: Routine Checks

    Routine Checks and Maintenance Routine Checks Routine checks of the characteristic curves or pick-up values of the protective ele- ments are not necessary because they form part of the continuously supervised firmware programs. The normally scheduled interval for plant maintenance can be used for carrying out operational testing of the protective and control equipment.
  • Page 506: Maintenance

    Routine Checks and Maintenance Maintenance 9.3.1 Replacing the Buffer Battery The battery is used to retain the annunciation memories and fault recording data in the event of an interruption of the power supply. The battery also maintains the internal system clock with calendar after a loss of the power supply. The battery is checked by the processor at regular intervals.
  • Page 507 Routine Checks and Maintenance Caution! Electrostatic discharges through the connections of the components, wiring, and con- nectors must be avoided. Wearing a grounded wrist strap is preferred; otherwise, touch a grounded metal part before handling the internal components. Warning! Hazardous voltages may exist in the device, even after the power supply is discon- nected and the boards are withdrawn from the case! Capacitors can still be charged! Carefully pull off the front panel and bend it aside.
  • Page 508 Routine Checks and Maintenance Observing the polarity and firmly insert the new battery into the snap-on connector shown in Figure 9-1. Connect the ribbon-cable between the CPU (þ) board and the front panel. Be espe- cially careful not to bend any of the connector pins! Do not use any force! Be sure that the plug connectors latch.
  • Page 509: Troubleshooting

    PC after commissioning (refer to Section 8.4). The device is then in-service. Further Assistance If these steps do not resolve the problem, please call your local Siemens representa- tive or customer hot-line. Our customer hot-line needs the following information to assist you: −...
  • Page 510 Routine Checks and Maintenance − the serial number of the device (BF...), − the firmware version, − the parameter set version. This information is found in the device file of as shown in Figure 9-4. Open the application in the PC and select the device. Double click on this item.
  • Page 511: Corrective Action / Repairs

    Routine Checks and Maintenance Corrective Action / Repairs 9.5.1 Software Procedures A restart of the processor system, as described in Section 9.2, can be done as an at- tempt to solve a problem. Setting changes can be made to solve simple problems, such as sporadic alarms from elements of the measured value supervision.
  • Page 512 Routine Checks and Maintenance Carefully pull off the front panel. The front panel is connected to the CPU board with a short ribbon-cable. On devices with detached operator panel, the front panel can be pulled off directly (without a ribbon cable). Caution! Electrostatic discharges through the connections of the components, wiring, and con- nectors must be avoided! Wearing a grounded wrist strap is preferred.
  • Page 513 Routine Checks and Maintenance T4H250V B30 B40 T2H250V Figure 9-5 Power supply mini-fuse on the input/output printed circuit board I/O–1 Table 9-1 Assigning of the mini-fuse rating to the device auxiliary voltage rating 7SA522∗ Version Rated Auxiliary Voltages Fuse Type –2∗∗∗∗–∗∗∗∗...
  • Page 514 Routine Checks and Maintenance Align and fix the rear interfaces again. Attach all D-subminiature plugs to the matching D-subminiature sockets. Screw in all the fibre optical connectors where applicable. Close the protective switches to apply voltage to the power supply. If the green “RUN” LED does not light, there is a fault in the power supply.
  • Page 515: Return

    Routine Checks and Maintenance Return Siemens strongly recommends that no further repairs on defective devices, boards, or components be done. Special electronic components are used for which proce- dures for preventing electrostatic discharges must be followed. Most importantly, spe- cial production techniques are necessary to avoid damaging the wave-soldered multi- layer boards, the sensitive components, and the protective varnish.
  • Page 516 7SA522 Manual C53000-G1176-C119-2...
  • Page 517: Technical Data

    Technical Data ® This chapter provides the technical data of the SIPROTEC 4 7SA522 device and its individual functions, including the limiting values that must not be exceeded under any circumstances. The electrical and functional data of fully equipped 7SA522 devices are followed by the mechanical data, with dimensional drawings.
  • Page 518: General Device Data

    Technical Data 10.1 General Device Data 10.1.1 Analog Inputs Nominal frequency 50 Hz or 60 Hz(adjustable) Current Inputs Nominal current 1 A or 5 A Power consumption per phase and earth path – at I = 1 A approx. 0.05 VA –...
  • Page 519: Binary Inputs And Outputs

    Technical Data ≥50 ms at U ≥ 110 V Bridging time for failure/short-circuit = 48 V and ≥20 ms at U of the power supply = 24 V and = 60 V Alternating Voltage Voltage supply via integrated AC/DC converter Nominal power supply alternating voltage U 115 VAC Permissible voltage ranges...
  • Page 520: Communications Interfaces

    Technical Data 40 W resistive 25 W at L/R ≤ 50 ms Switching voltage 250 V Permissible current per contact 5 A continous and total current on common paths 30 A for 0.5 s Contact operate time Fast Binary Output relay approx.
  • Page 521 Technical Data – Transmission speed min. 4800 Baud; max. 115200 Baud factory setting: 38400 Baud – Maximum transmission distance 15 m (50 ft) RS485 – Connection for flush mounted case rear panel, mounting location “C” 9-pin DSUB socket for surface mounted case at the terminal on the case bottom shielded data cable –...
  • Page 522: Electrical Tests

    Technical Data Optical fibre – Connector Type ST–connector for flush mounted case rear panel, mounting location “B” for surface mounted case on the case bottom λ = 820 nm – Optical wavelength – Laser class 1 acc. EN 60825–1/ –2 using glass fibre 50/125 µm or using glass fibre 62.5/125 µm –...
  • Page 523 Technical Data – Impulse voltage test (type test) 5 kV (peak); 1.2/50 µs; 0,5 Ws; 3 positive all circuits except communications and 3 negative surges in intervals of 5 s interfaces, class III EMC Tests; Inter- Standards: IEC 60255–6 and –22, (Product standards) ference Immunity EN 50082–2 (Generic standard) (Type Tests)
  • Page 524: Mechanical Stress Tests

    Technical Data – Conducted interference, 150 kHz to 30 MHz only power supply voltage limit class B IEC–CISPR 22 – Radio interference field strength 30 MHz to 1000 MHz IEC–CISPR 22 limit class B 10.1.6 Mechanical Stress Tests Vibration and Standards: IEC 60255–21 and IEC 60068–2 Shock During...
  • Page 525: Climatic Stress Tests

    Technical Data 10.1.7 Climatic Stress Tests Ambient Tempera- Standards: IEC 60255–6 tures – recommended operating temperature –5 °C to +55 °C (+23 °F to +131 °F) when max. half of the inputs and outputs are subjected to the max. permissible values –...
  • Page 526: Certifications

    Technical Data 10.1.9 Certifications ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ UL listing Models with threaded terminals 7SA522 – – ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ 7SA522 – – ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ 7SA522 –...
  • Page 527 Technical Data Mutual Impedance 0.00 to 8.00 (steps 0.01) Matching 0.00 to 8.00 (steps 0.01) (for Parallel Lines) The matching factors for earth impedance and mutual impedance are valid also for fault location. Phase Preferences for double earth fault lagging phase–earth and phase–phase in earthed systems leading phase–earth and phase–phase all associated loops...
  • Page 528: Power Swing Supplement

    Technical Data ∆X Measuring tolerances ≤ ≤ ϕ ≤ for 30° 90° ------- - with sinusoidal quantities ∆R ≤ ≤ ϕ ≤ for 0° 60° ------- - ∆Z ≤ ≤ ϕ ϕ ≤ for –30° 30° – ------ - line ) Secondary values based on I = 1 A;...
  • Page 529: Distance Protection Teleprotection Schemes

    Technical Data 10.4 Distance Protection Teleprotection Schemes Mode For two line ends with one channel for each direction or with three channels for each direction (for phase segregated transmission) For three line ends with one channel for each direction and oposite line end Underreach Method...
  • Page 530: Earth Fault Protection In Earthed Systems

    Technical Data 10.5 Earth Fault Protection in Earthed Systems Characteristics Definite time stages (definite) >>>,3I >>,3I > Inverse time stage (IDMT) one of the characteristics according to Figure 10-1 to 10-7 can be selected Earth Current Very high set stage >>>...
  • Page 531 Technical Data Direction Direction determination with I (= 3I ) and 3U Determination with I (= 3I ) and I (transformer star-point current) with 3I and 3U (negative sequence quantities) Limit values Displacement voltage > 0.5 V to 10.0 V (steps 0.1 V) Starpoint current of a power transformer I...
  • Page 532 Technical Data t [s] t [s] 0.05 0,05 0.05 0.05 13.5 0.14 ⋅ ⋅ Very inverse: Normal inverse: -------------------------- - T -------------------------------- - T 0.02 ⁄ ⁄ – (Type A) I I p – (Type B) 1000 t [s] t [s] 0.1 0.2 0.05 0.05...
  • Page 533 Technical Data t [s] t [s] D [s] D [s] 0.07 0.07 0.05 0.05     8.9341 0.2663 ⋅   ⋅   0.17966 INVERSE ------------------------------------- - 0.03393 SHORT INVERSE ------------------------------------- -  2.0938  ⁄  1.2969 ...
  • Page 534 Technical Data t [s] t [s] D [s] D [s] 0.05 0.05     3,922 ⋅   5.64 VERY INVERSE -------------------------- - 0.0982   ⋅ -------------------------- - 0.02434 EXTREMELY INVERSE   ⁄   – ⁄...
  • Page 535 Technical Data UÃ"DQ€h‘ UÃ"DQ 1,00 1,70 1,35 UÃ"DQ€v I/,3 "DQ²A68UPS ⋅ – ln(I/3I0P) Logarithmic inverse: 3I0Pmax 3I0P ≥ Note: For currents I/,3 35 the tripping time is constant. Figure 10-4 Trip time characteristics of inverse time overcurrent protection with logarithmic inverse characteristic 10-19 7SA522 Manual...
  • Page 536: Earth Fault Protection Teleprotection Schemes

    Technical Data 10.6 Earth Fault Protection Teleprotection Schemes Comparison Methods directional comparison pickup scheme Schemes directional unblocking scheme directional blocking scheme Application 2-terminal lines 3-terminal lines multi-terminal lines via CFC Send signal prolongation 0.00 s to 30.00 s (steps 0.01 s) Release signal prolongation 0.000 s to 30.000 s (steps 0.001 s)
  • Page 537: Overcurrent Protection

    Technical Data 10.9 Overcurrent Protection Operating modes As emergency overcurrent protection or back-up overcurrent protection: Emergency overcurrent protection operates on failure of the measured voltage, – on trip of a voltage secondary miniature circuit breaker (via binary input) – on detection of a fuse failure in the voltage secondary circuit Back-up overcurrent protection operates independent on any events...
  • Page 538 Technical Data (earth) 0.50 s to 15.00 s (steps 0.01 s) 3I0P or ∞ (ineffective) (earth) 0.00 s to 30.00 s (steps 0.01 s) 3I0Padd Tolerances currents 3 % of set value or 1% of nominal current with definite time times 1 % of set value or 10 ms 1.05 ≤...
  • Page 539: High-Current Switch-On-To-Fault Protection

    Technical Data 10.10 High-Current Switch-On-To-Fault Protection Pick-up High current pick-up I>>> 1.00 A to 25.00 A (steps 0.01 A) Drop-out to pick-up ratio approx. 0.90 ≤ 3 % of set value or 1% of I Pick-up tolerance Times Shortest tripping time approx.
  • Page 540: Synchronism And Voltage Check (Dead-Line / Dead-Bus Check)

    Technical Data Voltage measurement live or bus 30 V to 90 V (phase-to-earth) (steps 1 V) Voltage supervision time for dead / live line or bus 0.10 s to 30.00 s (steps 0.01 s) Time delay for close command 0.00 s to 300 s; ∞ transmission (steps 0.01 s) 10.12 Synchronism and Voltage Check (Dead-line / Dead-bus Check)
  • Page 541: Overvoltage Protection

    Technical Data ∆f-measurement Non-Synchronous 0.03 Hz to 2.00 Hz System Conditions (steps 0.01 Hz) Tolerance 15 mHz Threshold synchronous / non-synchronous 0.01 Hz Circuit-breaker operating time 0.01 s to 0.60 s Times Minimum measuring time approx. 80 ms 0.01 s to 600.00 s; ∞ Maximum time delay (steps 0.01 s) Tolerance of all timers...
  • Page 542: Fault Location

    Technical Data 10.14 Fault Location Start with trip command or drop-off 0.005 Ω/km to 6.500 Ω/km Setting range reactance (secondary) (steps 0.001 Ω/km) or 0.005 Ω/mile to 10.000 Ω/mile (steps 0.001 Ω/mile) Parallel line compensation may be switched on/off Set values are the same as for distance protection (see Section 10.2) in Ω...
  • Page 543: Monitoring Functions

    Technical Data approx. 20 ms after switch-on of measured quantities after start ≤ 8 ms for sinusoidal signals Drop-off time(overshoot time) ≤ 16 ms maximum 0.00 s to 30.00 s; ∞ Delay times for all stages (steps 0.01 s) Tolerance 1 % of the set value or 10 ms Breaker Pole Initiation criterion...
  • Page 544: Supplementary Functions

    Technical Data all U < FFM U<max Ph-E AND at the same time all I < (I > (Dist.)) all I > 40 mA – FFM U<max 2 V to 100 V (steps 1 V) – FFM I 0.05·A to 1.00·A (steps 0.01·A) delta ) Secondary values based on I...
  • Page 545 Technical Data Sampling rate at f = 50 Hz 1 ms Sampling rate at f = 60 Hz 0.83 ms Statistics Number of trip events caused by pole segregated 7SA522 Total of interrupted currents caused by 7SA522 pole segregated Real Time Clock Resolution for operational messages 1 ms and Buffer Battery...
  • Page 546: Dimensions

    10.18 Dimensions Housing for Panel Flush Mounting or Cubicle Installation (Size x 19”) 29 30 (1.14) (1.18) 172 (6.77) 172 (6.77) 29.5 29.5 225 (8.86) (1.16) (1.34) (1.16) Mounting plate Monting plate 220 (8.66) (0.08) (0.08) (1.34) Rear view Side view (with screwed terminals) Side view (with plug-in terminals) +0.079 (8.70...
  • Page 547 Technical Data Housing for Panel Flush Mounting or Cubicle Installation (Size x 19”) 29 30 (1.14) (1.18) 172 (6.77) 29.5 172 (6.77) 29.5 (1.16) (1.34) (1.16) Monting plate Mounting plate (0.08) (0.08) (1.34) Side view (with plug-in terminals) Side view (with screwed terminals) 450 (17.72) +0.079 (17.56...
  • Page 548 Technical Data Housing for Panel Surface Mounting (Size x 19”) 240 (9.45) 219 (8.62) 10.5 260 (10.24) (0.41) 29.5 (1.16) 225 (8.86) (0.35) (2.83) 2.05) (2.80) Front viev Side view Dimensions in mm Values in brackets in inches Figure 10-7 Dimensions 7SA522 for panel surface mounting (size x 19”) Housing for Panel...
  • Page 549 Appendix This appendix is primarily a reference for the experienced user. This Chapter provides ordering information for the models of 7SA522. General diagrams indicating the termi- nal connections of the 7SA522 models are included. Connection examples show the proper connections of the device to primary equipment in typical power system con- figurations.
  • Page 550: Ordering Information And Accessories

    Appendix Ordering Information and Accessories 9 10 11 12 15 16 Distance Protection 7SA522 Measured Current Inputs = 1 A, I = 1 A (min. = 0,05 A) = 1 A, I = highly sensitive (min. = 0,005 A) = 5 A, I = 5 A (min.
  • Page 551 Appendix 9 10 11 12 15 16 Distance Protection 7SA522 Functions 1 Only three-pole tripping Single-/three-pole tripping Functions 2 Distance Characteristic; Power Swing Option; Parallel Line Compensation Quadrilateral without power swing option without parallel line compensation Quadrilateral and/or MHO without power swing option without parallel line compensation Quadrilateral with power swing option...
  • Page 552: Accessories

    Appendix 1.1.1 Accessories Terminal Block Covering Caps Covering cap for terminal block type Order No. 18 terminal voltage, 12 terminal current block C73334-A1-C31-1 12 terminal voltage, 8 terminal current block C73334-A1-C32-1 Short Circuit Links Short circuit links for purpose/terminal type Order No.
  • Page 553 Appendix Graphical Analysis Software for graphical visualization, analysis, and evaluation of fault data. Option ® Program DIGRA package of the complete version of DIGSI ® Order No. Graphical analysis program DIGRA Full version with license for 10 machines 7XS5410-0AA0 Display Editor Software for creating basic and power system control pictures.
  • Page 554: General Diagrams

    Appendix General Diagrams 1.2.1 Panel Flush Mounting or Cubicle Mounting ∗A/J − 7SA522∗ Fast BO1 Relay PICKUP Fast BO2 Dis. Telep. SEND Fast BO3 Relay TRIP Fast BO4 Relay TRIP L1 recommended Relay TRIP Fast BO5 for CB Relay TRIP L2 Fast BO6 Relay TRIP L3 Fast BO7...
  • Page 555 Appendix ∗C /L − 7SA522∗ Fast BO1 Relay PICKUP Fast BO2 Dis. Telep. SEND Fast BO3 Relay TRIP Fast BO4 Relay TRIP L1 recommended Relay TRIP Fast BO5 for CB Relay TRIP L2 Fast BO6 Relay TRIP L3 Fast BO7 AR close (if applicable) Dis.
  • Page 556 Appendix ∗D/M − 7SA522∗ Fast BO1 Relay PICKUP Fast BO2 Dis. Telep. SEND Fast BO3 Relay TRIP Fast BO4 Relay TRIP L1 recom. Relay TRIP Fast BO5 for CB Relay TRIP L2 Fast BO6 Relay TRIP L3 Fast BO7 AR close (if applicable) Dis.
  • Page 557: Panel Surface Mounting

    Appendix 1.2.2 Panel Surface Mounting ∗E − 7SA522∗ Fast BO1 Relay PICKUP Fast BO2 Dis. Telep. SEND Fast BO3 Relay TRIP Fast BO4 Relay TRIP L1 recom. Relay TRIP Fast BO5 for CB Relay TRIP L2 Fast BO6 Relay TRIP L3 Fast BO7 AR close (if applicable) Dis.
  • Page 558 Appendix ∗E − 7SA522∗ Channel B Profibus RS232 RS485 – optical System interface electrical – Screen Channel C RS232 RS485 – optical Service interface electrical – Screen Channel D optical electrical Channel E optical electrical IN SYNC IN 12 V COM SYNC Time COMMON...
  • Page 559 Appendix ∗G − 7SA522∗ Fast BO1 Relay PICKUP Fast BO2 Dis. Telep. SEND Fast BO3 Relay TRIP Fast BO4 Relay TRIP L1 recom. Relay TRIP for CB Fast BO5 Relay TRIP L2 Fast BO6 Relay TRIP L3 Fast BO7 AR close (if applicable) Dis.
  • Page 560 Appendix ∗H − 7SA522∗ Fast BO1 Relay PICKUP Fast BO2 Dis. Telep. SEND Fast BO3 Relay TRIP Fast BO4 Relay TRIP L1 recom. Relay TRIP for CB Fast BO5 Relay TRIP L2 Fast BO6 Relay TRIP L3 Fast BO7 AR close (if applicable) Dis.
  • Page 561 Appendix ∗G/H − 7SA522∗ Channel B Profibus RS232 RS485 Optical – System interface Electrical – Screen Channel C RS232 RS485 optical – Service interface electrical – Screen Channel D optical electrical Channel E optical electrical IN SYNC IN 12 V COM SYNC Time COMMON...
  • Page 562: Connection Examples

    Appendix Connection Examples Current Trans- former Examples Panel surface mounted Flush mounted/cubicle 7SA522 Housing size Panel surface mounted Flush mounted/cubicle 7SA522 Housing size Figure 1-9 Current connections to three current transformers with a star-point connection for earth current (residual ,  neutral current), normal circuit layout — appropri- ate for all networks A-14 7SA522 Manual...
  • Page 563 Appendix Panel surface mounted Flush mounted/cubicle 7SA522 Important! Cable shield grounding must be done on the cable side! Note: Change of Address 0201 setting changes polarity of 3I Current Input, i.e. terminal Q7 must be connected to that CT terminal point- ing in the same direction as the starpoint of the phase current CTs (towards “Line side”...
  • Page 564 Appendix Panel surface mounted Panel surface mounted Flush mounted/cubicle Flush mounted/cubicle 7SA522 7SA522 Line 1 Line 2 Housing size Panel surface mounted Panel surface mounted Flush mounted/cubicle Flush mounted/cubicle 7SA522 7SA522 Line 1 Line 2 Housing size Current connections to three current transformers but earth current (residual ,  neutral current) from the Figure 1-11 star-point connection of a parallel line (for parallel line compensation) A-16...
  • Page 565 Appendix Panel surface mounted Flush mounted/cubicle 7SA522 Transformer Line Housing size Panel surface mounted Flush mounted/cubicle 7SA522 Transformer Line Housing size Figure 1-12 Current connections to three current transformers but earth current from the star-point current of a power transformer (for directional earth fault protection) A-17 7SA522 Manual C53000-G1176-C119-2...
  • Page 566 Appendix Voltage Transform- er Examples Panel surface mounted Flush mounted/cubicle 7SA522 Housing size Panel surface mounted Flush mounted/cubicle 7SA522 Housing size Figure 1-13 Voltage connections to three Wye-connected voltage transformers (normal cir- cuit layout) A-18 7SA522 Manual C53000-G1176-C119-2...
  • Page 567 Appendix Panel surface mounted Flush mounted/cubicle 7SA522 Housing size Panel surface mounted Flush mounted/cubicle 7SA522 Housing size Figure 1-14 Voltage connections to three Wye-connected voltage transformers with addition- al open-delta windings (e–n–winding) A-19 7SA522 Manual C53000-G1176-C119-2...
  • Page 568 Appendix Panel surface mounted Flush mounted/cubicle 7SA522 Housing size Panel surface mounted Flush mounted/cubicle 7SA522 Housing size Figure 1-15 Voltage connections to three Wye-connected voltage transformers and addition- ally to a bus-bar voltage (for synchronism check* or overvoltage protection) * next firmware release A-20 7SA522 Manual C53000-G1176-C119-2...
  • Page 569: Preset Configurations

    Appendix Preset Configurations Presettings The LED indication presettings which are present in the device when it leaves the fac- tory are summarised in Table 1-1, those of the binary inputs in Table 1-2. The output relay pre-configuration is shown in Table 1-3. The outputs R1 to R7 in this case are particularly suited for fast operation.
  • Page 570 Appendix Table 1-2 Binary input presettings Binary Input LCD Text Function Remarks BI 1 >Reset LED 0005 Reset of latched indications, H–active BI 2 >Manual Close 0356 Manual close of the circuit breaker, H–active BI 3 >FAIL:Feeder VT 0361 Voltage transformer secondary minia- ture circuit breaker, H–active >I-STUB ENABLE 7131...
  • Page 571 Appendix Table 1-3 Output relay presettings Binary Out- LCD Text Function No. Remarks BO 9 DisTRIP3p. Z1mf 3824 Distance protection three-pole trip in DisTRIP3p Z1Bmf 3826 zone Z1 or Z1B following a multi- phase fault DisTRIP3p. Z1sf 3823 Distance protection three-pole trip in DisTRIP3p.
  • Page 572: Protocol Dependent Functions

    Appendix Protocol Dependent Functions Protocol → IEC 60870–5–103 Function ↓ Operational Measured Value Metering Values Fault Recording User-defined Alarms and Switching Objects Time Sychronism Via Protocol; DCF77/IRIG B; Interface; Binary Input Alarms with Time Stamp Commissioning Tools: Alarm and Measured Value Transmission Blocking Generate Test Alarms...
  • Page 573: List Of Information

    Appendix This appendix is primarily a reference for the experienced user. Tables with all set- tings and all information available in a 7SA522 equipped with all options are pro- vided. Settings List of Information B-18 Measured Values B-47 7SA522 Manual C53000-G1176-C119-2...
  • Page 574 Appendix Settings Addr. Setting Title Function Setting Options Default Setting Comments Grp Chge OPTION Scope of Functions Disabled Disabled Setting Group Change Option Enabled Trip mode Scope of Functions 3pole only 3pole only Trip mode 1-/3pole Phase Distance Scope of Functions Quadrilateral Quadrilateral Phase Distance Disabled...
  • Page 575 Appendix Addr. Setting Title Function Setting Options Default Setting Comments TripCirc.Superv Scope of Functions Disabled Disabled Trip Circuit Supervision 1 trip circuit 2 trip circuits 3 trip circuits CT Starpoint Power System Data towards Line towards Line CT Starpoint towards Busbar Unom PRIMARY Power System Data 1.0..1200.0 kV...
  • Page 576 Appendix Addr. Setting Title Function Setting Options Default Setting Comments CHANGE Change Group Group A Group A Change to Another Setting Group Group B Group C Group D Binary Input Protocol 402A WAVEFORM CAP- Oscillographic Fault Save with Pickup Save with Pickup Waveform Capture TURE Records...
  • Page 577 Appendix Addr. Setting Title Function Setting Options Default Setting Comments 1130 PoleOpenCurrent Power System Data 0.05..1.00 A 0.10 A Pole Open Current Threshold 1131 PoleOpenVoltage Power System Data 2..70 V 30 V Pole Open Voltage Threshold 1132 SI Time all Cl. Power System Data 0.01..30.00 sec 0.05 sec...
  • Page 578 Appendix Addr. Setting Title Function Setting Options Default Setting Comments 1243 R load (Ø-Ø) Distance protec- 0.10..250.00 Ohm 1; Ohm R load, minimum Load Impedance (ph- tion, general set- tings ϕ load (Ø-Ø) 20..60 ° 45 ° 1244 Distance protec- PHI load, maximum Load Angle (ph- tion, general set- tings...
  • Page 579 Appendix Addr. Setting Title Function Setting Options Default Setting Comments 1324 RE(Z3) Ø-E Distance zones 0.05..250.00 Ohm 10.00 Ohm RE(Z3), Resistance for ph-e faults (quadrilateral) 1325 T3 DELAY Distance zones 0.00..30.00 sec 0.60 sec T3 delay (quadrilateral) 1325 T3 DELAY Distance zones ( 0.00..30.00 sec 0.60 sec...
  • Page 580 Appendix Addr. Setting Title Function Setting Options Default Setting Comments 1401 Op. mode Z1 Distance zones ( Forward Forward Operating mode Z1 MHO) Reverse Inactive 1402 ZR(Z1) Distance zones ( 0.05..200.00 Ohm 2.50 Ohm ZR(Z1), Impedance Reach MHO) 1411 Op. mode Z2 Distance zones ( Forward Forward...
  • Page 581 Appendix Addr. Setting Title Function Setting Options Default Setting Comments 2404 I>>> Instantaneous High- 1.00..25.00 A 2.50 A I>>> Pickup Speed SOTF Over- current 2501 FCT Weak Infeed Weak Infeed (Trip Echo only Weak Infeed function is and/or Echo) Echo only Echo and Trip 2502 Trip/Echo DELAY...
  • Page 582 Appendix Addr. Setting Title Function Setting Options Default Setting Comments 2661 ANSI Curve Backup overcurrent Inverse Inverse ANSI Curve Short Inverse Long Inverse Moderately Inverse Very Inverse Extremely Inverse Definite Inverse 2670 I(3I0)p Tele/BI Backup overcurrent NO Instantaneous trip via Teleprot./BI 2671 I(3I0)p SOTF Backup overcurrent NO...
  • Page 583 Appendix Addr. Setting Title Function Setting Options Default Setting Comments 3112 T 3I0>>> Earth fault overcur- 0.00..30.00 sec 0.30 sec T 3I0>>> Time delay rent 3113 3I0>>> Telep/BI Earth fault overcur- Instantaneous trip via Teleprot./BI rent 3114 3I0>>>SOTF-Trip Earth fault overcur- Instantaneous trip after SwitchOnTo- rent Fault...
  • Page 584 Appendix Addr. Setting Title Function Setting Options Default Setting Comments 3148 3I0p Telep/BI Earth fault overcur- Instantaneous trip via Teleprot./BI rent 3149 3I0p SOTF-Trip Earth fault overcur- Instantaneous trip after SwitchOnTo- rent Fault 3150 3I0p InrushBlk Earth fault overcur- Inrush Blocking rent 3151 IEC Curve...
  • Page 585 Appendix Addr. Setting Title Function Setting Options Default Setting Comments 3210 TrBlk BlockTime Teleprotection for 0.00..30.00 sec 0.05 sec Transient Block.: Blk.T. after ext. flt. Earth fault overcurr. 3401 AUTO RECLOSE Automatic Reclo- Auto-Reclose function sure 3402 CB? 1.TRIP Automatic Reclo- CB ready interrogation at 1st trip sure 3403...
  • Page 586 Appendix Addr. Setting Title Function Setting Options Default Setting Comments 3441 U-dead< Automatic Reclo- 2..70 V 30 V Voltage threshold for dead line or bus sure 3450 1.AR: START Automatic Reclo- Start of AR allowed in this cycle sure 3451 1.AR: T-ACTION Automatic Reclo- 0.01..300.00 sec...
  • Page 587 Appendix Addr. Setting Title Function Setting Options Default Setting Comments 3477 3.AR Tdead 3Flt Automatic Reclo- 0.01..1800.00 sec 0.50 sec Dead time after 3phase faults sure 3478 3.AR Tdead1Trip Automatic Reclo- 0.01..1800.00 sec 1.20 sec Dead time after 1pole trip sure 3479 3.AR Tdead3Trip...
  • Page 588 Appendix Addr. Setting Title Function Setting Options Default Setting Comments 3515 SYNC-CHECK Synchronism and Live bus / live line and Sync before AR Voltage Check 3516 Usync> U-line< Synchronism and Live bus / dead line check before AR Voltage Check 3517 Usync<...
  • Page 589 Appendix Addr. Setting Title Function Setting Options Default Setting Comments 3902 I> BF Breaker Failure 0.05..20.00 A 0.10 A Pick-up threshold I> 3903 1p-RETRIP (T1) Breaker Failure 1pole retrip with stage T1 (local trip) 3904 T1-1pole Breaker Failure 0.00..30.00 sec 0.00 sec T1, Delay after 1pole start (local trip) 3905...
  • Page 590 Appendix List of Information F.No. Description Function Type of Infor- Log-Buffers Configurable in Matrix IEC 60870-5-103 mation >Synchronize Internal Real Time Device LED BI Clock (>Time Synch) >Trigger Waveform Capture Oscillo- LED BI (>Trig.Wave.Cap.) graphic Fault Records >Reset LED (>Reset LED) Device LED BI >Setting Group Select Bit 0 (>Set...
  • Page 591 Appendix F.No. Description Function Type of Infor- Log-Buffers Configurable in Matrix IEC 60870-5-103 mation Error with a summary alarm (Error Device 128 47 Sum Alarm) Error 5V (Error 5V) Device 135 164 1 Alarm Summary Event (Alarm Sum Device 128 46 Event) Failure: General Current Supervision Measure-...
  • Page 592 Appendix F.No. Description Function Type of Infor- Log-Buffers Configurable in Matrix IEC 60870-5-103 mation Error Board 7 (Error Board 7) Device 135 177 1 Error Board 0 (Error Board 0) Device 135 210 1 Error:1A/5Ajumper different from set- Device 135 169 1 ting (Error1A/5Awrong) Alarm: NO calibration data available Device...
  • Page 593 Appendix F.No. Description Function Type of Infor- Log-Buffers Configurable in Matrix IEC 60870-5-103 mation >CB aux. contact 3pole Open (>CB Power Sys- LED BI 150 79 3p Open) tem Data 2 >Single-phase trip permitted from Power Sys- LED BI ext.AR (>1p Trip Perm) tem Data 2 >External AR programmed for Power Sys-...
  • Page 594 Appendix F.No. Description Function Type of Infor- Log-Buffers Configurable in Matrix IEC 60870-5-103 mation Primary fault current IL2 (IL2 =) Power Sys- 150 178 4 tem Data 2 Primary fault current IL3 (IL3 =) Power Sys- 150 179 4 tem Data 2 Relay Definitive TRIP (Definitive Power Sys- 150 180 2...
  • Page 595 Appendix F.No. Description Function Type of Infor- Log-Buffers Configurable in Matrix IEC 60870-5-103 mation Ux (separate VT) (Ux =) Measurement MV U1 (positive sequence) (U1 =) Measurement MV U2 (negative sequence) (U2 =) Measurement MV U-diff (line-bus) (Udiff =) Measurement MV U-line (Uline =) Measurement MV P (active power) (P =)
  • Page 596 Appendix F.No. Description Function Type of Infor- Log-Buffers Configurable in Matrix IEC 60870-5-103 mation 1029 Accumulation of interrupted current Statistics L3 (Σ IL3 =) 1030 Last fault current Phase L1 (Last IL1 Statistics 1031 Last fault current Phase L2 (Last IL2 Statistics 1032 Last fault current Phase L3 (Last IL3 Statistics...
  • Page 597 Appendix F.No. Description Function Type of Infor- Log-Buffers Configurable in Matrix IEC 60870-5-103 mation 1310 >Earth Fault O/C Instantaneous trip Earth fault LED BI 166 10 (>EF InstTRIP) overcurrent 1311 >E/F Teleprotection ON (>EF Tele- Teleprotec- LED BI prot.ON) tion for Earth fault overcurr.
  • Page 598 Appendix F.No. Description Function Type of Infor- Log-Buffers Configurable in Matrix IEC 60870-5-103 mation 1359 E/F picked up REVERSE (EF Earth fault 166 59 reverse) overcurrent 1361 E/F General TRIP command (EF Earth fault 166 61 Trip) overcurrent 1366 E/F 3I0>>> TRIP (EF 3I0>>> TRIP) Earth fault 166 66 overcurrent 1367 E/F 3I0>>...
  • Page 599 Appendix F.No. Description Function Type of Infor- Log-Buffers Configurable in Matrix IEC 60870-5-103 mation 1436 >BF: External start L2 (>BF Start L2) Breaker Fail- LED BI 1437 >BF: External start L3 (>BF Start L3) Breaker Fail- LED BI 1439 >BF: External start 3pole (w/o cur- Breaker Fail- LED BI rent) (>BF Start w/o I)
  • Page 600 Appendix F.No. Description Function Type of Infor- Log-Buffers Configurable in Matrix IEC 60870-5-103 mation 2711 >External start of internal Auto Automatic LED BI reclose (>AR Start) Reclosure 2712 >AR: External trip L1 for AR start Automatic LED BI (>Trip L1 AR) Reclosure 2713 >AR: External trip L2 for AR start Automatic...
  • Page 601 Appendix F.No. Description Function Type of Infor- Log-Buffers Configurable in Matrix IEC 60870-5-103 mation 2781 AR: Auto-reclose is switched off (AR Automatic off) Reclosure 2782 AR: Auto-reclose is switched on (AR Automatic IntSP 128 16 Reclosure 2783 AR: Auto-reclose is blocked (AR is Automatic blocked) Reclosure...
  • Page 602 Appendix F.No. Description Function Type of Infor- Log-Buffers Configurable in Matrix IEC 60870-5-103 mation 2852 AR: Close command after 1pole, 1st Automatic 152 1 cycle (AR Close1.Cyc1p) Reclosure 2853 AR: Close command after 3pole, 1st Automatic 153 1 cycle (AR Close1.Cyc3p) Reclosure 2854 AR: Close command 2nd cycle (and Automatic...
  • Page 603 Appendix F.No. Description Function Type of Infor- Log-Buffers Configurable in Matrix IEC 60870-5-103 mation 2906 >Start synchro-check (>Sync. Start) Synchronism LED BI and Voltage Check 2907 >Sync-Prog. Live bus / live line / Synchronism LED BI Sync (>Sync. synch) and Voltage Check 2908 >Sync-Prog.
  • Page 604 Appendix F.No. Description Function Type of Infor- Log-Buffers Configurable in Matrix IEC 60870-5-103 mation 2947 Sync. Voltage diff. greater than limit Synchronism (Sync. Udiff>) and Voltage Check 2948 Sync. Freq. diff. greater than limit Synchronism (Sync. fdiff>) and Voltage Check 2949 Sync.
  • Page 605 Appendix F.No. Description Function Type of Infor- Log-Buffers Configurable in Matrix IEC 60870-5-103 mation 3618 >BLOCK Z5-Trip (>BLOCK Z5-Trip) Distance pro- LED BI tection, gen- eral settings 3651 Distance is switched off (Dist. OFF) Distance pro- tection, gen- eral settings 3652 Distance is BLOCKED (Dist.
  • Page 606 Appendix F.No. Description Function Type of Infor- Log-Buffers Configurable in Matrix IEC 60870-5-103 mation 3687 Distance Pickup Phase L3 (only) Distance pro- (Dis.Pickup 1pL3) tection, gen- eral settings 3688 Distance Pickup L3E (Dis.Pickup Distance pro- L3E) tection, gen- eral settings 3689 Distance Pickup L31 (Dis.Pickup Distance pro- L31)
  • Page 607 Appendix F.No. Description Function Type of Infor- Log-Buffers Configurable in Matrix IEC 60870-5-103 mation 3710 Distance Loop L12 selected reverse Distance pro- (Dis.Loop L1-2 r) tection, gen- eral settings 3711 Distance Loop L23 selected reverse Distance pro- (Dis.Loop L2-3 r) tection, gen- eral settings 3712 Distance Loop L31 selected reverse...
  • Page 608 Appendix F.No. Description Function Type of Infor- Log-Buffers Configurable in Matrix IEC 60870-5-103 mation 3747 Distance Pickup Z1B, Loop L1E (Dis. Distance pro- Z1B L1E) tection, gen- eral settings 3748 Distance Pickup Z1B, Loop L2E (Dis. Distance pro- Z1B L2E) tection, gen- eral settings 3749 Distance Pickup Z1B, Loop L3E (Dis.
  • Page 609 Appendix F.No. Description Function Type of Infor- Log-Buffers Configurable in Matrix IEC 60870-5-103 mation 3802 Distance TRIP command - Only Distance pro- 202 2 Phase L1 (Dis.Trip 1pL1) tection, gen- eral settings 3803 Distance TRIP command - Only Distance pro- 203 2 Phase L2 (Dis.Trip 1pL2) tection, gen-...
  • Page 610 Appendix F.No. Description Function Type of Infor- Log-Buffers Configurable in Matrix IEC 60870-5-103 mation 4002 >Distance Teleprotection OFF Teleprotec- LED BI (>Dis.Telep.OFF) tion for Dis- tance prot. 4003 >Distance Teleprotection BLOCK Teleprotec- LED BI (>Dis.Telep. Blk) tion for Dis- tance prot. 4005 >Dist.
  • Page 611 Appendix F.No. Description Function Type of Infor- Log-Buffers Configurable in Matrix IEC 60870-5-103 mation 4052 Dis. Teleprotection is switched OFF Teleprotec- (Dis.Telep. OFF) tion for Dis- tance prot. 4054 Dis. Telep. Carrier signal received Teleprotec- 128 77 (Dis.T.Carr.rec.) tion for Dis- tance prot.
  • Page 612 Appendix F.No. Description Function Type of Infor- Log-Buffers Configurable in Matrix IEC 60870-5-103 mation 4168 Power Swing detected in L2 (Pow. Power Swing OUT Swing L2) 4169 Power Swing detected in L3 (Pow. Power Swing OUT Swing L3) 4203 >BLOCK Weak Infeed Trip function Weak Infeed LED BI (>BLOCK Weak Inf)
  • Page 613 Appendix F.No. Description Function Type of Infor- Log-Buffers Configurable in Matrix IEC 60870-5-103 mation 4271 SOTF-O/C is switched OFF (SOTF- Instanta- O/C OFF) neous High- Speed SOTF Overcurrent 4272 SOTF-O/C is BLOCKED (SOTF-O/C Instanta- BLOCK) neous High- Speed SOTF Overcurrent 4273 SOTF-O/C is ACTIVE (SOTF-O/C Instanta- ACTIVE)
  • Page 614 Appendix F.No. Description Function Type of Infor- Log-Buffers Configurable in Matrix IEC 60870-5-103 mation 4343 Overvoltage Phase-E PICKUP L2 Voltage Pro- (Uphe Pickup L2) tection 4344 Overvoltage Phase-E PICKUP L3 Voltage Pro- (Uphe Pickup L3) tection 4345 Overvoltage Ph-E Carrier SendIm- Voltage Pro- pulse (Uphe SEND) tection...
  • Page 615 Appendix F.No. Description Function Type of Infor- Log-Buffers Configurable in Matrix IEC 60870-5-103 mation 6861 Trip circuit supervision OFF (TripC Trip Circuit OFF) Supervision 6865 Failure Trip Circuit (FAIL: Trip cir.) Trip Circuit Supervision 6866 TripC1 blocked: Binary input is not Trip Circuit set (TripC1 ProgFAIL) Supervision...
  • Page 616 Appendix F.No. Description Function Type of Infor- Log-Buffers Configurable in Matrix IEC 60870-5-103 mation 7176 Backup O/C Pickup L12 (O/C Pickup Backup over- L12) current 7177 Backup O/C Pickup L12E (O/C Backup over- Pikkup L12E) current 7178 Backup O/C Pickup - Only L3 (O/C Backup over- PU 1p.
  • Page 617 Appendix F.No. Description Function Type of Infor- Log-Buffers Configurable in Matrix IEC 60870-5-103 mation 7326 CB1-TEST TRIP command - Only L2 Testing 153 26 (CB1-TESTtrip L2) 7327 CB1-TEST TRIP command - Only L3 Testing 153 27 (CB1-TESTtrip L3) 7328 CB1-TEST TRIP command L123 Testing 153 28 (CB1-TESTtrip123)
  • Page 618 Appendix F.No. Description Function Type of Infor- Log-Buffers Configurable in Matrix IEC 60870-5-103 mation Group D (Group D) Change IntSP 128 26 Group Hardware Test Mode (HWTestMod) Device IntSP Stop data transmission (DataStop) Device IntSP 128 20 Test mode (Test mode) Device IntSP 128 21...
  • Page 619 Appendix Measured Values Measured Value IEC 60870-5-103 compatible IEC 60870-5-103 extended Type 128 Type 134 Information-No. 148 Information-No. 124 IL1[%] IL1[%] IL2[%] IL2[%] IL3[%] IL3[%] UIL1E[%] UL1E[%] UIL2E[%] UL2E[%] UIL3E[%] UL3E[%] P[%] P[%] Q[%] Q[%] f[%] f[%] UL12[%] UL23[%] UL31[%] B-47 7SA522 Manual C53000-G1176-C119-2...
  • Page 620 Appendix B-48...
  • Page 621 Index Numerics Binary Inputs and Outputs ..1-3, 8-6, 10-3 Binary Outputs ......7-3, 10-3 1st reclosure cycle ......6-172 Binary Outputs for Switching Devices .. 5-23 2 protection equipments with 2 automatic Blocking ........6-102, 6-103 reclosure circuits ......6-166 Blocking reclosure ......
  • Page 622 Index Command Processing Times ....4-15 Control of the internal automatic reclosure by Command Sequence ......6-254 an external protection device ..6-163 Commissioning ........8-23 Controlled Zone Z1B ....6-53, 6-63 Commissioning Aids ......4-7 Copying Setting Groups ....... 6-14 Common phase initiation ....
  • Page 623 Index Direct Voltage ........10-2 Schemes Direction Determination 6-46, 6-106, 10-15 with Negative Sequence System . 6-102 Applying the Function Parameter with the Zero Sequence System . 6-101 Settings ......6-122 Directional Method of Operation ....6-114 Blocking Scheme ......6-118 Earth Impedance (Residual) Checks with Load Current .....
  • Page 624 Index Fuse Failure Monitor Indications ..........5-7 (Non-Symmetrical Voltages) ..6-227 Indicators (LEDs) and Binary Outputs (Output (Three-Phase) ....6-221, 6-227 Relays) ......... 6-246 Information ........... 5-10 Groups ........... 5-10 on the Integrated Display (LCD) or to a General Personal Computer ..6-246 about the Setting Procedures ..
  • Page 625 Index Operating modes of the automatic reclosure circuit ........... 6-154 Maintenance .......... 9-4 Operating the auxiliary contacts of the circuit Make command–transmission (Inter–MAKE) breaker ......... 6-156 6-161 Operation Manual interface ......... 10-4 Overwrite ........4-16 Using DIGSI® 4 ....... 3-8 Overwrite / Tagging .......
  • Page 626 Index Current Stabilization ..6-100, 6-108 Switching Statistics ......7-11 Preferences ......... 10-11 Read-out of Measured Values ....7-13 Rotation ....... 6-10, 8-24 Read-out on the Operator Control Panel ..Segregated Fault Detection ..6-235 4-30 Voltage Stage ......6-192 Real Time Clock and Buffer Battery ...
  • Page 627 Index Date and Time ....... 3-12 Groups ......... 4-27, 6-14 Tagging ........4-16, 7-44 Sequence ........4-18 Technical Data ........10-1 the Display Contrast ......3-6 Teleprotection Settings ........4-4, 4-28 Methods ......6-77, 6-113 Settings for Contact Chatter Blocking .. 5-32 Supplement ........
  • Page 628 Index Method of Operation ....6-126 UL listing ..........10-10 UL recognition ........10-10 Unblocking with Z1B ......6-84 Zone Logic Underreach schemes ......10-13 of the Controlled Zone Z1B .... 6-69 Undervoltage Detection ..... 10-20 of the Independent Zones Z1 up to Z5 ... Unfaulted Loops ........

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Siprotec 7sa522