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GE L90 Instruction Manual

Ur series line current differential system.
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GE Energy
L90 Line Current Differential
System
UR Series Instruction Manual
L90 revision: 6.0x
Manual P/N: 1601-0081-X2 (GEK-113624)
831776A2.CDR
E83849
GE Digital Energy
LISTED
215 Anderson Avenue, Markham, Ontario
IND.CONT. EQ.
Canada L6E 1B3
52TL
GE Multilin's Quality Management
Tel: (905) 294-6222 Fax: (905) 201-2098
System is registered to ISO
9001:2008
Internet:
http://www.gedigitalenergy.com
QMI # 005094
UL # A3775
*1601-0081-X2*

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   Summary of Contents for GE L90

  • Page 1 GE Energy L90 Line Current Differential System UR Series Instruction Manual L90 revision: 6.0x Manual P/N: 1601-0081-X2 (GEK-113624) 831776A2.CDR E83849 GE Digital Energy LISTED 215 Anderson Avenue, Markham, Ontario IND.CONT. EQ. Canada L6E 1B3 52TL GE Multilin's Quality Management Tel: (905) 294-6222 Fax: (905) 201-2098...
  • Page 2 The contents of this manual are the property of GE Multilin Inc. This documentation is furnished on license and may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the permission of GE Multilin. The content of this manual is for informational use only and is subject to change without notice.
  • Page 3 ADDENDUM This addendum contains information that relates to the L90 Line Current Differential System, version 6.0x. This adden- dum lists a number of information items that appear in the instruction manual GEK-113624 (revision X2) but are not included in the current L90 operations.
  • Page 5: Table Of Contents

    1.3 ENERVISTA UR SETUP SOFTWARE 1.3.1 PC REQUIREMENTS ..................1-5 1.3.2 INSTALLATION....................1-5 1.3.3 CONFIGURING THE L90 FOR SOFTWARE ACCESS........1-6 1.3.4 USING THE QUICK CONNECT FEATURE............1-9 1.3.5 CONNECTING TO THE L90 RELAY ............... 1-15 1.4 UR HARDWARE 1.4.1 MOUNTING AND WIRING................
  • Page 6 MANAGED SWITCH LED INDICATORS ............3-44 3.4.4 INITIAL SETUP OF THE ETHERNET SWITCH MODULE.......3-44 3.4.5 CONFIGURING THE MANAGED ETHERNET SWITCH MODULE ....3-48 3.4.6 UPLOADING L90 SWITCH MODULE FIRMWARE..........3-51 3.4.7 ETHERNET SWITCH SELF-TEST ERRORS...........3-53 4. HUMAN INTERFACES 4.1 ENERVISTA UR SETUP SOFTWARE INTERFACE 4.1.1 INTRODUCTION ....................4-1...
  • Page 7 TRIP BUS....................... 5-217 5.7.3 SETTING GROUPS ..................5-219 5.7.4 SELECTOR SWITCH..................5-220 5.7.5 TRIP OUTPUT ....................5-226 5.7.6 UNDERFREQUENCY..................5-232 5.7.7 OVERFREQUENCY ..................5-233 5.7.8 FREQUENCY RATE OF CHANGE..............5-234 5.7.9 SYNCHROCHECK..................5-236 GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System...
  • Page 8 TRACKING FREQUENCY................6-19 6.3.7 FREQUENCY RATE OF CHANGE ..............6-19 6.3.8 FLEXELEMENTS™ ..................6-20 6.3.9 IEC 61580 GOOSE ANALOG VALUES ............6-20 6.3.10 WATTMETRIC GROUND FAULT..............6-21 6.3.11 PHASOR MEASUREMENT UNIT ..............6-21 6.3.12 TRANSDUCER INPUTS AND OUTPUTS ............6-22 viii L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 9 HARDWARE AND COMMUNICATION REQUIREMENTS ......9-11 9.1.16 ONLINE ESTIMATE OF MEASUREMENT ERRORS ........9-12 9.1.17 CT SATURATION DETECTION ..............9-13 9.1.18 CHARGING CURRENT COMPENSATION ............. 9-13 9.1.19 DIFFERENTIAL ELEMENT CHARACTERISTICS........... 9-14 9.1.20 RELAY SYNCHRONIZATION................9-15 GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System...
  • Page 10 10.7.2 TRANSFORMER LOAD CURRENTS ............10-19 10.7.3 LV-SIDE FAULTS ...................10-20 10.7.4 EXTERNAL GROUND FAULTS ..............10-20 10.8 INSTANTANEOUS ELEMENTS 10.8.1 INSTANTANEOUS ELEMENT ERROR DURING L90 SYNCHRONIZATION ...10- 11. COMMISSIONING 11.1 TESTING 11.1.1 CHANNEL TESTING ..................11-1 11.1.2 CLOCK SYNCHRONIZATION TESTS .............11-2 11.1.3 CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL................11-3 11.1.4...
  • Page 11 C.4.5 ETHERNET MAC ADDRESS FOR GSSE/GOOSE...........C-9 C.4.6 GSSE ID AND GOOSE ID SETTINGS ............C-10 C.5 IEC 61850 IMPLEMENTATION VIA ENERVISTA UR SETUP C.5.1 OVERVIEW......................C-11 C.5.2 CONFIGURING IEC 61850 SETTINGS............C-12 C.5.3 ABOUT ICD FILES...................C-13 GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System...
  • Page 12 E.2.4 ANALOG INPUTS.................... E-11 F. MISCELLANEOUS F.1 CHANGE NOTES F.1.1 REVISION HISTORY..................F-1 F.1.2 CHANGES TO THE L90 MANUAL ..............F-2 F.2 ABBREVIATIONS F.2.1 STANDARD ABBREVIATIONS ............... F-12 F.3 WARRANTY F.3.1 GE MULTILIN WARRANTY................F-15 L90 Line Current Differential System...
  • Page 13: Getting Started

    1.1 IMPORTANT PROCEDURES 1 GETTING STARTED 1.1IMPORTANT PROCEDURES Please read this chapter to help guide you through the initial setup of your new GE Mutilin structured template. 1.1.1 CAUTIONS AND WARNINGS Before attempting to install or use the device, review all safety indicators in this document to help prevent injury, equipment damage, or downtime.
  • Page 14: Ur Overview

    This new generation of equipment must also be easily incorporated into automation systems, at both the station and enterprise levels. The GE Multilin Universal Relay (UR) has been developed to meet these goals. L90 Line Current Differential System...
  • Page 15: Hardware Architecture

    (dual) ring configuration. This feature is optimized for speed and intended for pilot- aided schemes, distributed logic applications, or the extension of the input/output capabilities of a single relay chassis. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System...
  • Page 16: Software Architecture

    Employing OOD/OOP in the software architecture of the L90 achieves the same features as the hardware architecture: modularity, scalability, and flexibility. The application software for any UR-series device (for example, feeder protection, transformer protection, distance protection) is constructed by combining objects from the various functionality classes.
  • Page 17: Enervista Ur Setup Software

    Video capable of displaying 800 x 600 or higher in high-color mode (16-bit color) • RS232 and/or Ethernet port for communications to the relay The following qualified modems have been tested to be compliant with the L90 and the EnerVista UR Setup software. • US Robotics external 56K FaxModem 5686 •...
  • Page 18: Configuring The L90 For Software Access

    OVERVIEW The user can connect remotely to the L90 through the rear RS485 port or the rear Ethernet port with a PC running the EnerVista UR Setup software. The L90 can also be accessed locally with a laptop computer through the front panel RS232 port or the rear Ethernet port using the Quick Connect feature.
  • Page 19 • To configure the L90 for local access with a laptop through either the front RS232 port or rear Ethernet port, refer to the Using the Quick Connect Feature section. An Ethernet module must be specified at the time of ordering for Ethernet communications.
  • Page 20 SERIAL PORTS 10. Click the Read Order Code button to connect to the L90 device and upload the order code. If an communications error occurs, ensure that the EnerVista UR Setup serial communications values entered in the previous step correspond to the relay setting values.
  • Page 21: Using The Quick Connect Feature

    L90. This ensures that configuration of the EnerVista UR Setup software matches the L90 model number. b) USING QUICK CONNECT VIA THE REAR ETHERNET PORTS To use the Quick Connect feature to access the L90 from a laptop through Ethernet, first assign an IP address to the relay from the front panel keyboard.
  • Page 22 Now, assign the laptop computer an IP address compatible with the relay’s IP address. From the Windows desktop, right-click the My Network Places icon and select Properties to open the network con- nections window. Right-click the Local Area Connection icon and select Properties. 1-10 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 23 Select the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) item from the list provided and click the Properties button. Click on the “Use the following IP address” box. Enter an IP address with the first three numbers the same as the IP address of the L90 relay and the last number dif- ferent (in this example, 1.1.1.2).
  • Page 24 Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 0ms, Average = 0 ms Pinging 1.1.1.1 with 32 bytes of data: Verify the physical connection between the L90 and the laptop computer, and double-check the programmed IP address in setting, then repeat step 2 in the above procedure.
  • Page 25 If this computer is used to connect to the Internet, re-enable any proxy server settings after the laptop has been discon- nected from the L90 relay. Verify that the latest version of the EnerVista UR Setup software is installed (available from the GE enerVista CD or online from http://www.gedigitalenergy.com/multilin). See the Software Installation section for installation details.
  • Page 26 Set the computer to “Obtain a relay address automatically” as shown below. If this computer is used to connect to the Internet, re-enable any proxy server settings after the laptop has been discon- nected from the L90 relay. AUTOMATIC DISCOVERY OF ETHERNET DEVICES The EnerVista UR Setup software can automatically discover and communicate to all UR-series IEDs located on an Ether- net network.
  • Page 27: Connecting To The L90 Relay

    The EnerVista UR Setup software has several new quick action buttons that provide users with instant access to several functions that are often performed when using L90 relays. From the online window, users can select which relay to interro- gate from a pull-down window, then click on the button for the action they wish to perform. The following quick action func- tions are available: •...
  • Page 28: Ur Hardware

    Figure 1–7: RELAY COMMUNICATIONS OPTIONS To communicate through the L90 rear RS485 port from a PC RS232 port, the GE Multilin RS232/RS485 converter box is required. This device (catalog number F485) connects to the computer using a “straight-through” serial cable. A shielded twisted-pair (20, 22, or 24 AWG) connects the F485 converter to the L90 rear communications port.
  • Page 29: Using The Relay

    LED off. The relay in the “Not Programmed” state will block signaling of any output relay. These conditions will remain until the relay is explicitly put in the “Programmed” state. Select the menu message SETTINGS PRODUCT SETUP INSTALLATION RELAY SETTINGS RELAY SETTINGS: Not Programmed GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 1-17...
  • Page 30: Relay Passwords

    Refer to the Changing Settings section in Chapter 4 for complete instructions on setting up security level pass- words. NOTE 1.5.6 FLEXLOGIC™ CUSTOMIZATION FlexLogic™ equation editing is required for setting up user-defined logic for customizing the relay operations. See the Flex- Logic™ section in Chapter 5 for additional details. 1-18 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 31: Commissioning

    Commissioning tests are included in the Commissioning chapter of this manual. The L90 requires a minimum amount of maintenance when it is commissioned into service. Since the L90 is a microproces- sor-based relay, its characteristics do not change over time. As such, no further functional tests are required.
  • Page 32 1.5 USING THE RELAY 1 GETTING STARTED 1-20 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 33: Product Description

    The L90 is intended to provide complete protection for transmission lines of any voltage level. Both three phase and single phase tripping schemes are available. Models of the L90 are available for application on both two and three terminal lines.
  • Page 34 Digital Counters (8) User Programmable LEDs Power Factor, 87L current, local and remote phasors Digital Elements (48) User Programmable Pushbuttons Direct Inputs (8 per L90 comms channel) Modbus Communications User Programmable Self-Tests Disconnect Switches Modbus User Map Virtual Inputs (64) DNP 3.0 or IEC 60870-5-104 protocol...
  • Page 35: Features

    Zero-sequence removal for application on lines with tapped transformers connected in a grounded wye on the line side. • GE phaselets approach based on the Discrete Fourier Transform with 64 samples per cycle and transmitting two time- stamped phaselets per cycle. •...
  • Page 36: Ordering

    2.1.3 ORDERING a) OVERVIEW The L90 is available as a 19-inch rack horizontal mount or reduced-size (¾) vertical unit and consists of the following mod- ules: power supply, CPU, CT/VT, digital input and output, transducer input and output, and inter-relay communications.
  • Page 37 2.1 INTRODUCTION b) ORDER CODES WITH TRADITIONAL CTS AND VTS The order codes for the horizontal mount units with traditional CTs and VTs are shown below. Table 2–3: L90 ORDER CODES (HORIZONTAL UNITS) * - F - W/X Full Size Horizontal Mount...
  • Page 38 2.1 INTRODUCTION 2 PRODUCT DESCRIPTION The order codes for the reduced size vertical mount units with traditional CTs and VTs are shown below. Table 2–4: L90 ORDER CODES (REDUCED SIZE VERTICAL UNITS) * - F Reduced Size Vertical Mount BASE UNIT...
  • Page 39 RS422, 2 Channels The order codes for the reduced size vertical mount units with the process bus module are shown below. Table 2–6: L90 ORDER CODES (REDUCED SIZE VERTICAL UNITS WITH PROCESS BUS) * - F Reduced Size Vertical Mount...
  • Page 40: Replacement Modules

    Replacement modules can be ordered separately as shown below. When ordering a replacement CPU module or face- plate, please provide the serial number of your existing unit. Not all replacement modules may be applicable to the L90 relay. Only the modules specified in the order codes are available as replacement modules.
  • Page 41 4 dcmA inputs, 4 dcmA outputs (only one 5A module is allowed) 8 RTD inputs INPUTS/OUTPUTS 4 RTD inputs, 4 dcmA outputs (only one 5D module is allowed) 4 dcmA inputs, 4 RTD inputs 8 dcmA inputs GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System...
  • Page 42 4 dcmA inputs, 4 dcmA outputs (only one 5A module is allowed) 8 RTD inputs INPUTS/OUTPUTS 4 RTD inputs, 4 dcmA outputs (only one 5D module is allowed) 4 dcmA inputs, 4 RTD inputs 8 dcmA inputs 2-10 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 43: Pilot Channel Relaying

    (DTT) signal to all of the other L90 relays on the protected line. If a slave L90 relay issues a trip from one of its backup functions, it can send a transfer trip signal to its master and other slave relays if such option is designated.
  • Page 44: Channel Monitor

    2.2.2 CHANNEL MONITOR The L90 has logic to detect that the communications channel is deteriorating or has failed completely. This can provide an alarm indication and disable the current differential protection. Note that a failure of the communications from the master to a slave does not prevent the master from performing the current differential algorithm;...
  • Page 45: Loopback Test

    The L90 includes provision for sending and receiving a single-pole direct transfer trip (DTT) signal from current differential protection between the L90 relays at the line terminals using the pilot communications channel. The user may also initiate an additional eight pilot signals with an L90 communications channel to create trip, block, or signaling logic. A FlexLogic™...
  • Page 46: Functionality

    Current differential protection: The current differential algorithms used in the L90 Line Current Differential System are based on the Fourier transform phaselet approach and an adaptive statistical restraint. The L90 uses per-phase differential at 64 kbps with two phaselets per cycle. A detailed description of the current differential algorithms is found in chapter 8.
  • Page 47: Other Functions

    PFLL Status Frequency Deviation Phase and Frequency Master Locked Loop (PFLL) Clock Phase Deviation PHASELETS TO REMOTE Communications Remote Relay PHASELETS FROM REMOTE Interface Direct Transfer Trip 831732A3.CDR Figure 2–3: L90 BLOCK DIAGRAM GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 2-15...
  • Page 48 Offset and Sequence Charging Current Currents Phaselets Compute Phasors Phaselets Phaselets Align Phaselets Phaselets Compute Phasors and Variance Parameters Fault Detector Trip Output Disturbance Logic Detector 831749A1.CDR Figure 2–4: MAIN SOFTWARE MODULES 2-16 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 49: Specifications

    1 to 1.5 cycles (typical) Reset time: 1 power cycle (typical) LINE PICKUP Phase instantaneous overcurrent: 0.000 to 30.000 pu Undervoltage pickup: 0.000 to 3.000 pu Overvoltage delay: 0.000 to 65.535 s GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 2-17...
  • Page 50 60 Hz Timing accuracy: Operate at > 1.03 actual pickup Timing accuracy: Operate at 1.5 pickup ±3.5% of operate time or ±½ cycle ±3% or ±4 ms (whichever is greater) (whichever is greater) 2-18 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 51 ±0.5% of reading from 10 to 208 V Pickup delay: 0.00 to 600.00 in steps of 0.01 s Operate time: 30 ms at 1.10 pickup at 60 Hz Timing accuracy: ±3% or ±4 ms (whichever is greater) GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 2-19...
  • Page 52 ¼ cycle after breaker opens Availability: one per CT/VT module (not including 8Z modules) Pickup level: 0.1 to 2.00 pu in steps of 0.01 Reset delay: 0.000 to 65.535 s in steps of 0.001 2-20 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 53: User-programmable Elements

    Number of timers: Pickup delay: 0 to 60000 (ms, sec., min.) in steps of 1 Dropout delay: 0 to 60000 (ms, sec., min.) in steps of 1 GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 2-21...
  • Page 54: Monitoring

    01 channel for NN days 16 channels for NN days Triggers: any element pickup, dropout, or operate; digital input change of state; digital out- put change of state; self-test events Data storage: in non-volatile memory 2-22 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 55: Metering

    3-Phase Power (P, Q, and S) present WATT-HOURS (POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE) and maximum measured currents Accuracy: ±2.0% of reading Accuracy: ±2.0% Range: ±0 to 1 Parameters: three-phase only Update rate: 50 ms GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 2-23...
  • Page 56: Inputs

    32, configured from 64 incoming bit pairs Debounce time: 0.0 to 16.0 ms in steps of 0.5 Remote devices: Continuous current draw:3 mA (when energized) Default states on loss of comms.: On, Off, Latest/Off, Latest/On Remote DPS inputs: 2-24 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 57: Power Supply

    Operate time: < 0.6 ms FORM-A VOLTAGE MONITOR Internal Limiting Resistor: 100 , 2 W Applicable voltage: approx. 15 to 250 V DC Trickle current: approx. 1 to 2.5 mA GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 2-25...
  • Page 58 ±300 Vpk Internal fuse: 5 A / 350 V AC, Ceramic, Axial SLO BLO; REMOTE OUTPUTS (IEC 61850 GSSE/GOOSE) Manufacturer: Conquer; Part number: Standard output points: 32 SCD-A 005 User output points: 2-26 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 59: Communications

    Shielded twisted pair: 150 m (492 ft.) MAXIMUM STANDARD FAST ETHERNET SEGMENT LENGTHS 10Base-T (CAT 3, 4, 5 UTP): 100 m (328 ft.) 100Base-TX (CAT 5 UTP):100 m (328 ft.) Shielded twisted pair: 150 m (492 ft.) GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 2-27...
  • Page 60: Inter-relay Communications

    Pollution degree: impaired at temperatures less than – Overvoltage category: 20°C Ingress protection: IP20 front, IP10 back HUMIDITY Humidity: operating up to 95% (non-condensing) at 55°C (as per IEC60068-2-30 variant 1, 6days). 2-28 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 61: Type Tests

    Safety UL508 e83849 NKCR Safety UL C22.2-14 e83849 NKCR7 Safety UL1053 e83849 NKCR 2.4.12 PRODUCTION TESTS THERMAL Products go through an environmental test based upon an Accepted Quality Level (AQL) sampling process. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 2-29...
  • Page 62: Approvals

    Units that are stored in a de-energized state should be powered up once per year, for one hour continuously, to avoid deterioration of electrolytic capacitors. 2-30 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 63: Hardware

    HORIZONTAL UNITS The L90 Line Current Differential System is available as a 19-inch rack horizontal mount unit with a removable faceplate. The faceplate can be specified as either standard or enhanced at the time of ordering. The enhanced faceplate contains additional user-programmable pushbuttons and LED indicators.
  • Page 64 VERTICAL UNITS The L90 Line Current Differential System is available as a reduced size (¾) vertical mount unit, with a removable faceplate. The faceplate can be specified as either standard or enhanced at the time of ordering. The enhanced faceplate contains additional user-programmable pushbuttons and LED indicators.
  • Page 65 RS232 communications port. The relay is secured to the panel with the use of four screws supplied with the relay. 11.015” 7.482” 1.329” 13.560” 15.000” 14.025” 4.000” 9.780” 843809A1.CDR Figure 3–4: L90 VERTICAL DIMENSIONS (ENHANCED PANEL) GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System...
  • Page 66 3.1 DESCRIPTION 3 HARDWARE Figure 3–5: L90 VERTICAL MOUNTING AND DIMENSIONS (STANDARD PANEL) For details on side mounting L90 devices with the enhanced front panel, refer to the following documents available online from the GE Multilin website. • GEK-113180: UR-series UR-V side-mounting front panel assembly instructions.
  • Page 67 3 HARDWARE 3.1 DESCRIPTION Figure 3–6: L90 VERTICAL SIDE MOUNTING INSTALLATION (STANDARD PANEL) GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System...
  • Page 68: Module Withdrawal And Insertion

    The enhanced faceplate can be opened to the left, once the thumb screw has been removed, as shown below. This allows for easy accessibility of the modules for withdrawal. The new wide-angle hinge assembly in the enhanced front panel opens completely and allows easy access to all modules in the L90. L90 Line Current Differential System...
  • Page 69 All CPU modules except the 9E are equipped with 10/100Base-T, 10Base-F, or 100Base-FX options. These con- nectors must be individually disconnected from the module before it can be removed from the chassis. NOTE GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System...
  • Page 70: Rear Terminal Layout

    3.1 DESCRIPTION 3 HARDWARE The 4.0x release of the L90 relay includes new hardware modules.The new CPU modules are specified with codes 9E and higher. The new CT/VT modules are specified with the codes 8F and higher. NOTE The new CT/VT modules can only be used with new CPUs; similarly, old CT/VT modules can only be used with old CPUs.
  • Page 71 3 HARDWARE 3.1 DESCRIPTION Figure 3–11: EXAMPLE OF MODULES IN F AND H SLOTS GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System...
  • Page 72: Wiring

    3.2 WIRING 3 HARDWARE 3.2WIRING 3.2.1 TYPICAL WIRING Figure 3–12: TYPICAL WIRING DIAGRAM 3-10 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 73: Dielectric Strength

    (see the Self-test errors section in chapter 7) or control power is lost, the relay will de-energize. For high reliability systems, the L90 has a redundant option in which two L90 power supplies are placed in parallel on the bus.
  • Page 74: Ct/vt Modules

    CT connections for both ABC and ACB phase rotations are identical as shown in the Typical wiring diagram. The exact placement of a zero-sequence core balance CT to detect ground fault current is shown below. Twisted-pair cabling on the zero-sequence CT is recommended. 3-12 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 75 NOTE Current inputs Voltage inputs 8F, 8G, 8L, and 8M modules (4 CTs and 4 VTs) Current inputs 8H, 8J, 8N, and 8R modules (8 CTs) 842766A3.CDR Figure 3–15: CT/VT MODULE WIRING GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 3-13...
  • Page 76: Process Bus Modules

    3.2.5 PROCESS BUS MODULES The L90 can be ordered with a process bus interface module. This module is designed to interface with the GE Multilin HardFiber system, allowing bi-directional IEC 61850 fiber optic communications with up to eight HardFiber merging units, known as Bricks.
  • Page 77 Logic™ operand driving the contact output should be given a reset delay of 10 ms to prevent damage of the output contact (in situations when the element initiating the contact output is bouncing, at val- ues in the region of the pickup value). GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 3-15...
  • Page 78 ~7a, ~7c 2 Inputs ~7a, ~7c 2 Inputs ~7a, ~7c 2 Inputs ~7a, ~7c 2 Inputs ~8a, ~8c 2 Inputs ~8a, ~8c 2 Inputs ~8a, ~8c 2 Inputs ~8a, ~8c 2 Inputs 3-16 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 79 ~5a, ~5c 2 Inputs 2 Outputs Solid-State Solid-State ~6a, ~6c 2 Inputs 2 Outputs Not Used Not Used ~7a, ~7c 2 Inputs 2 Outputs Solid-State Solid-State ~8a, ~8c 2 Inputs Not Used GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 3-17...
  • Page 80 3.2 WIRING 3 HARDWARE Figure 3–17: CONTACT INPUT AND OUTPUT MODULE WIRING (1 of 2) 3-18 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 81 CONTACT IN COMMON SURGE 842763A2.CDR Figure 3–18: CONTACT INPUT AND OUTPUT MODULE WIRING (2 of 2) CORRECT POLARITY MUST BE OBSERVED FOR ALL CONTACT INPUT AND SOLID STATE OUTPUT CONNECTIONS FOR PROPER FUNCTIONALITY. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 3-19...
  • Page 82 There is no provision in the relay to detect a DC ground fault on 48 V DC control power external output. We recom- mend using an external DC supply. NOTE 3-20 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 83 CONTACT INPUT 2 AUTO-BURNISH = ON 842751A1.CDR Figure 3–21: AUTO-BURNISH DIP SWITCHES The auto-burnish circuitry has an internal fuse for safety purposes. During regular maintenance, the auto-burnish functionality can be checked using an oscilloscope. NOTE GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 3-21...
  • Page 84: Transducer Inputs And Outputs

    (5A, 5C, 5D, 5E, and 5F) and channel arrangements that may be ordered for the relay. Wherever a tilde “~” symbol appears, substitute with the slot position of the module. NOTE Figure 3–22: TRANSDUCER INPUT/OUTPUT MODULE WIRING 3-22 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 85: Rs232 Faceplate Port

    3.2.8 RS232 FACEPLATE PORT A 9-pin RS232C serial port is located on the L90 faceplate for programming with a personal computer. All that is required to use this interface is a personal computer running the EnerVista UR Setup software provided with the relay. Cabling for the RS232 port is shown in the following figure for both 9-pin and 25-pin connectors.
  • Page 86 This common voltage is implied to be a power supply common. Some systems allow the shield (drain wire) to be used as common wire and to connect directly to the L90 COM terminal (#3); others function cor- rectly only if the common wire is connected to the L90 COM terminal, but insulated from the shield.
  • Page 87 In order to engage or disengage the ST type connec- tor, only a quarter turn of the coupling is required. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 3-25...
  • Page 88: Irig-b

    UR-series relays can be synchronized. The IRIG-B repeater has a bypass function to maintain the time signal even when a relay in the series is powered down. Figure 3–27: IRIG-B REPEATER Using an amplitude modulated receiver will cause errors up to 1 ms in event time-stamping. NOTE 3-26 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 89 Using the IRIG-B repeater function in conjunction with synchrophasors is not recommended, as the repeater adds a 40 s delay to the IRIG-B signal. This results in a 1° error for each consecutive device in the string as reported in NOTE synchrophasors. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 3-27...
  • Page 90: Pilot Channel Communications

    RS422, 1 channel RS422, 2 channels, 2 clock inputs RS422, 2 channels All of the fiber modules use ST type connectors. For two-terminal applications, each L90 relay requires at least one com- munications channel. 3-28 L90 Line Current Differential System...
  • Page 91: Fiber: Led And Eled Transmitters

    The following figure shows the configuration for the 72, 73, 7D, and 7K fiber-laser module. Figure 3–29: LASER FIBER MODULES When using a laser Interface, attenuators may be necessary to ensure that you do not exceed the maximum optical input power to the receiver. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 3-29...
  • Page 92: Interface

    Remove the top cover by sliding it towards the rear and then lift it upwards. Set the timing selection switches (channel 1, channel 2) to the desired timing modes. Replace the top cover and the cover screw. 3-30 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 93 For connection to a higher order system (UR- to-multiplexer, factory defaults), set to octet timing (S1 = ON) and set timing mode to loop timing (S5 = OFF and S6 = OFF). GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 3-31...
  • Page 94 G.703 line side of the interface while the other lies on the differential Manchester side of the interface. DMR = Differential Manchester Receiver DMX = Differential Manchester Transmitter G7X = G.703 Transmitter G7R = G.703 Receiver 842775A1.CDR Figure 3–34: G.703 DUAL LOOPBACK MODE 3-32 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 95: Rs422 Interface

    (data module 1), will connect to the clock inputs of the UR–RS422 interface in the usual fashion. In addition, the send timing outputs of data module 1 will also be paralleled to the terminal timing inputs of data module 2. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 3-33...
  • Page 96 Figure 3–37: TIMING CONFIGURATION FOR RS422 TWO-CHANNEL, 3-TERMINAL APPLICATION Data module 1 provides timing to the L90 RS422 interface via the ST(A) and ST(B) outputs. Data module 1 also provides timing to data module 2 TT(A) and TT(B) inputs via the ST(A) and AT(B) outputs. The data module pin numbers have been omitted in the figure above since they may vary depending on the manufacturer.
  • Page 97: Two-channel Two-clock Rs422 Interface

    When using a LASER Interface, attenuators may be necessary to ensure that you do not exceed maximum optical input power to the receiver. Figure 3–40: RS422 AND FIBER INTERFACE CONNECTION Connections shown above are for multiplexers configured as DCE (data communications equipment) units. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 3-35...
  • Page 98: And Fiber Interface

    Connection: as per all fiber optic connections, a Tx to Rx connection is required. The UR-series C37.94 communication module can be connected directly to any compliant digital multiplexer that supports the IEEE C37.94 standard as shown below. 3-36 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 99 Once the clips have cleared the raised edge of the chassis, engage the clips simultaneously. When the clips have locked into position, the module will be fully inserted. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 3-37...
  • Page 100 3.3 PILOT CHANNEL COMMUNICATIONS 3 HARDWARE Figure 3–42: IEEE C37.94 TIMING SELECTION SWITCH SETTING 3-38 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 101 Solid yellow — FPGA is receiving a "yellow bit" and remains yellow for each "yellow bit" • Solid red — FPGA is not receiving a valid packet or the packet received is invalid GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 3-39...
  • Page 102: C37.94sm Interface

    For the internal timing mode, the system clock is generated internally. Therefore, the timing switch selection should be internal timing for relay 1 and loop timed for relay 2. There must be only one timing source configured. 3-40 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 103 Once the clips have cleared the raised edge of the chassis, engage the clips simultaneously. When the clips have locked into position, the module will be fully inserted. Figure 3–44: C37.94SM TIMING SELECTION SWITCH SETTING GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 3-41...
  • Page 104 Solid yellow — FPGA is receiving a "yellow bit" and remains yellow for each "yellow bit" • Solid red — FPGA is not receiving a valid packet or the packet received is invalid 3-42 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 105: Managed Ethernet Switch Modules

    The type 2S and 2T embedded managed switch modules are supported by UR-series relays containing type 9S CPU mod- ules with revisions 5.5x and higher. The modules communicate to the L90 through an internal Ethernet port (referred to as the UR port or port 7) and provide an additional six external Ethernet ports: two 10/100Base-T ports and four multimode ST 100Base-FX ports.
  • Page 106: Managed Switch Led Indicators

    DESCRIPTION Upon initial power up of a L90 device with an installed Ethernet switch, the front panel trouble LED will be illuminated and error message will be displayed. It will be necessary to configure the Ethernet switch and then ENET MODULE OFFLINE place it online.
  • Page 107 The following procedure describes how to initially configure the Ethernet switch to work on your LAN. Initiate communications from a PC to the L90 through a front panel serial connection (refer to the Configuring serial communications section in chapter 1 for details), or if you are familiar with the UR keypad you can use it to set up the network IP address and check the Modbus slave address and Modbus TCP port.
  • Page 108 After few seconds you should see your local area connection attempting to connect to the switch. Once connected, check your IP address by going to bottom of your screen and right-clicking the Local Area Connection icon as shown below. 3-46 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 109 This procedure describes how to configure the L90 switch module through EnerVista UR Setup. Before starting this proce- dure, ensure that the local PC is properly configured on the same network as the L90 device as shown in the previous sec- tion.
  • Page 110: Configuring The Managed Ethernet Switch Module

    Click the Save button. It will take few seconds to save the settings to the Ethernet switch module and the following message displayed. Verify that the target message is cleared and that the L90 displays the MAC address of the Ethernet switch in the Actual Values > Status > Ethernet Switch window.
  • Page 111 SAVING THE ETHERNET SWITCH SETTINGS TO A SETTINGS FILE The L90 allows the settings information for the Ethernet switch module to be saved locally as a settings file. This file con- tains the advanced configuration details for the switch not contained within the standard L90 settings file.
  • Page 112 Navigate to the folder containing the Ethernet switch settings file, select the file, then click Open. The settings file will be transferred to the Ethernet switch and the settings uploaded to the device. 3-50 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 113: Uploading L90 Switch Module Firmware

    NOTE b) SELECTING THE PROPER SWITCH FIRMWARE VERSION The latest switch module firmware is available as a download from the GE Multilin web site. Use the following procedure to determine the version of firmware currently installed on your switch Log into the switch using the EnerVista web interface.
  • Page 114 Select the firmware file to be loaded on to the Switch, and select the Open option. The following window will pop up, indicating that the firmware file transfer is in progress. If the firmware load was successful, the following window will appear: Note 3-52 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 115: Ethernet Switch Self-test Errors

    No setting required; the L90 EQUIPMENT The L90 has not detected the The L90 failed to see the switch module will read the state of a general MISMATCH: Card XXX presence of the Ethernet on power-up, because switch won’t...
  • Page 116 3.4 MANAGED ETHERNET SWITCH MODULES 3 HARDWARE 3-54 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 117: Human Interfaces

    To start using the EnerVista UR Setup software, a site definition and device definition must first be created. See the EnerV- ista UR Setup Help File or refer to the Connecting EnerVista UR Setup with the L90 section in Chapter 1 for details.
  • Page 118 Site List window will automatically be sent to the on-line communicating device. g) FIRMWARE UPGRADES The firmware of a L90 device can be upgraded, locally or remotely, via the EnerVista UR Setup software. The correspond- ing instructions are provided by the EnerVista UR Setup Help file under the topic “Upgrading Firmware”.
  • Page 119 EEPROM DATA ERROR message intended to inform users that the Modbus addresses have changed with the upgraded firmware. This message does not signal any problems when appearing after firmware upgrades. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System...
  • Page 120: Enervista Ur Setup Main Window

    Device data view windows, with common tool bar. Settings file data view windows, with common tool bar. Workspace area with data view tabs. Status bar. 10. Quick action hot links. 842786A2.CDR Figure 4–1: ENERVISTA UR SETUP SOFTWARE MAIN WINDOW L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 121: Extended Enervista Ur Setup Features

    (settings file templates) and online devices (online settings templates). The func- tionality is identical for both purposes. The settings template feature requires that both the EnerVista UR Setup software and the L90 firmware are at ver- sions 5.40 or higher.
  • Page 122 The following procedure describes how to add password protection to a settings file template. Select a settings file from the offline window on the left of the EnerVista UR Setup main screen. Selecting the Template Mode > Password Protect Template option. L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 123 Template Mode > View In Template Mode command. The template specifies that only the Pickup Curve Phase time overcurrent settings window without template applied. settings be available. 842858A1.CDR Figure 4–4: APPLYING TEMPLATES VIA THE VIEW IN TEMPLATE MODE COMMAND GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System...
  • Page 124 Select an installed device or settings file from the tree menu on the left of the EnerVista UR Setup main screen. Select the Template Mode > Remove Settings Template option. Enter the template password and click OK to continue. L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 125: Securing And Locking Flexlogic™ Equations

    Click on Save to save and apply changes to the settings template. Select the Template Mode > View In Template Mode option to view the template. Apply a password to the template then click OK to secure the FlexLogic™ equation. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System...
  • Page 126 FlexLogic™ entries in a settings file have been secured, use the following procedure to lock the settings file to a specific serial number. Select the settings file in the offline window. Right-click on the file and select the Edit Settings File Properties item. 4-10 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 127: Settings File Traceability

    When a settings file is transfered to a L90 device, the date, time, and serial number of the L90 are sent back to EnerVista UR Setup and added to the settings file on the local PC. This infor- mation can be compared with the L90 actual values at any later date to determine if security has been compromised.
  • Page 128 4 HUMAN INTERFACES The transfer date of a setting file written to a L90 is logged in the relay and can be viewed via EnerVista UR Setup or the front panel display. Likewise, the transfer date of a setting file saved to a local PC is logged in EnerVista UR Setup.
  • Page 129 ONLINE DEVICE TRACEABILITY INFORMATION The L90 serial number and file transfer date are available for an online device through the actual values. Select the Actual Values > Product Info > Model Information menu item within the EnerVista UR Setup online window as shown in the example below.
  • Page 130: Faceplate Interface

    LED panel 2 LED panel 3 Display Front panel RS232 port Small user-programmable User-programmable Keypad (control) pushbuttons 1 to 7 pushbuttons 1 to 12 827801A7.CDR Figure 4–16: UR-SERIES STANDARD HORIZONTAL FACEPLATE PANELS 4-14 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 131: Led Indicators

    The status indicators in the first column are described below. • IN SERVICE: This LED indicates that control power is applied, all monitored inputs, outputs, and internal systems are OK, and that the device has been programmed. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 4-15...
  • Page 132 Support for applying a customized label beside every LED is provided. Default labels are shipped in the label pack- age of every L90, together with custom templates. The default labels can be replaced by user-printed labels. User customization of LED operation is of maximum benefit in installations where languages other than English are used to communicate with operators.
  • Page 133 LEDs on these panels. USER-PROGRAMMABLE LEDS USER-PROGRAMMABLE LEDS 842782A1.CDR Figure 4–20: LED PANELS 2 AND 3 (INDEX TEMPLATE) DEFAULT LABELS FOR LED PANEL 2: The default labels are intended to represent: GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 4-17...
  • Page 134: Custom Labeling Of Leds

    EnerVista UR Setup software is installed and operational. • The L90 settings have been saved to a settings file. • The L90 front panel label cutout sheet (GE Multilin part number 1006-0047) has been downloaded from http:// www.gedigitalenergy.com/products/support/ur/URLEDenhanced.doc and printed.
  • Page 135 Enter the text to appear next to each LED and above each user-programmable pushbuttons in the fields provided. Feed the L90 front panel label cutout sheet into a printer and press the Print button in the front panel report window.
  • Page 136 4 HUMAN INTERFACES Bend the tab at the center of the tool tail as shown below. The following procedure describes how to remove the LED labels from the L90 enhanced front panel and insert the custom labels. Use the knife to lift the LED label and slide the label tool underneath. Make sure the bent tabs are pointing away from the relay.
  • Page 137 Slide the new LED label inside the pocket until the text is properly aligned with the LEDs, as shown below. The following procedure describes how to remove the user-programmable pushbutton labels from the L90 enhanced front panel and insert the custom labels.
  • Page 138 Slide the label tool under the user-programmable pushbutton label until the tabs snap out as shown below. This will attach the label tool to the user-programmable pushbutton label. Remove the tool and attached user-programmable pushbutton label as shown below. 4-22 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 139 The panel templates provide relative LED locations and located example text (x) edit boxes. The following procedure demonstrates how to install/uninstall the custom panel labeling. Remove the clear Lexan Front Cover (GE Multilin part number: 1501-0014). Push in...
  • Page 140: Display

    4.3.6 BREAKER CONTROL a) INTRODUCTION The L90 can interface with associated circuit breakers. In many cases the application monitors the state of the breaker, which can be presented on faceplate LEDs, along with a breaker trouble indication. Breaker operations can be manually initiated from faceplate keypad or automatically initiated from a FlexLogic™...
  • Page 141: Menus

    Each press of the MENU key advances through the following main heading pages: • Actual values. • Settings. • Commands. • Targets. • User displays (when enabled). GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 4-25...
  • Page 142: Security

    Display Properties. TIME: 1.0 s To view the remaining settings associated with the Display Properties subheader, DEFAULT MESSAGE repeatedly press the MESSAGE DOWN key. The last message appears as shown. INTENSITY: 25% 4-26 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 143: Changing Settings

    Text settings have data values which are fixed in length, but user-defined in character. They may be comprised of upper case letters, lower case letters, numerals, and a selection of special characters. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 4-27...
  • Page 144 When the "NEW SETTING HAS BEEN STORED" message appears, the relay will be in "Programmed" state and the In Service LED will turn on. e) ENTERING INITIAL PASSWORDS The L90 supports password entry from a local or remote connection. 4-28 L90 Line Current Differential System...
  • Page 145 When an incorrect command or setting password has been entered via the faceplate interface three times within a 3-minute time span, the FlexLogic™ operand will be set to “On” and the L90 will not allow settings or com- LOCAL ACCESS DENIED...
  • Page 146 FlexLogic™ operand will be set to “On” and REMOTE ACCESS DENIED the L90 will not allow Settings or Command access via the any external communications interface for the next ten minutes. FlexLogic™ operand will be set to “Off” after the expiration of the ten-minute timeout.
  • Page 147: Overview

    USER-DEFINABLE See page 5-58. DISPLAYS INSTALLATION See page 5-60. SETTINGS AC INPUTS See page 5-62. SYSTEM SETUP POWER SYSTEM See page 5-63. SIGNAL SOURCES See page 5-64. L90 POWER SYSTEM See page 5-67. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System...
  • Page 148 SELECTOR SWITCH See page 5-220. TRIP OUTPUT See page 5-226. UNDERFREQUENCY See page 5-232. OVERFREQUENCY See page 5-233. FREQUENCY RATE See page 5-234. OF CHANGE SYNCHROCHECK See page 5-236. DIGITAL ELEMENTS See page 5-240. L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 149 IEC 61850 See page 5-296. GOOSE UINTEGERS SETTINGS DCMA INPUTS See page 5-297. TRANSDUCER I/O RTD INPUTS See page 5-298. DCMA OUTPUTS See page 5-300. SETTINGS TEST MODE See page 5-303. TESTING FUNCTION: Disabled GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System...
  • Page 150: Introduction To Elements

    14400 For wye-connected VTs, the secondary nominal voltage (1 pu) would be: 13800 --------------- - --------- - 66.4 V (EQ 5.2) 14400 Many settings are common to most elements and are discussed below: L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 151: Introduction To Ac Sources

    Sources, in the context of L90 series relays, refer to the logical grouping of current and voltage signals such that one source contains all the signals required to measure the load or fault in a particular power apparatus. A given source may contain all or some of the following signals: three-phase currents, single-phase ground current, three-phase voltages and an auxiliary voltages from a single-phase VT for checking for synchronism.
  • Page 152 CTs through which any portion of the current for the element being protected could flow. Auxiliary CTs are required to perform ratio matching if the ratios of the primary CTs to be summed are not identical. In the L90 relay, provisions have been included for all the current signals to be brought to the device where grouping, CT ratio correction, and summation are applied internally via configuration settings.
  • Page 153 CTs on each of two breakers is required to measure the winding current flow. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System...
  • Page 154 When entering a settings or command password via EnerVista or any serial interface, the user must enter the correspond- ing connection password. If the connection is to the back of the L90, the remote password must be used. If the connection is to the RS232 port of the faceplate, the local password must be used.
  • Page 155 ENCRYPTED PASSWORD If the setting and command passwords are identical, then this one password allows access to both commands and settings. NOTE If a remote connection is established, local passcodes are not visible. NOTE GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System...
  • Page 156 ACCESS LEVEL SUPERVISION TIMEOUTS Range: 2 to 5 in steps of 1 INVALID ATTEMPTS MESSAGE BEFORE LOCKOUT: 3 Range: 5 to 60 minutes in steps of 1 PASSWORD LOCKOUT MESSAGE DURATION: 5 min 5-10 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 157 INVALID ATTEMPS BEFORE LOCKOUT The L90 provides a means to raise an alarm upon failed password entry. Should password verification fail while accessing a password-protected level of the relay (either settings or commands), the FlexLogic™ operand is UNAUTHORIZED ACCESS asserted.
  • Page 158 If access is permitted and an off-to-on transition of the FlexLogic™ operand is detected, the timeout is restarted. The status of this timer is updated every 5 seconds. 5-12 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 159 Some customers prefer very low currents to display as zero, while others prefer the current be displayed even when the value reflects noise rather than the actual signal. The L90 applies a cut- off value to the magnitudes and angles of the measured currents.
  • Page 160 CLEAR EVENT RECORDS: MESSAGE Range: FlexLogic™ operand CLEAR OSCILLOGRAPHY? MESSAGE Range: FlexLogic™ operand CLEAR DATA LOGGER: MESSAGE Range: FlexLogic™ operand CLEAR ARC AMPS 1: MESSAGE Range: FlexLogic™ operand CLEAR ARC AMPS 2: MESSAGE 5-14 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 161 Selected records can be cleared from user-programmable conditions with FlexLogic™ operands. Assigning user-program- mable pushbuttons to clear specific records are typical applications for these commands. Since the L90 responds to rising edges of the configured FlexLogic™ operands, they must be asserted for at least 50 ms to take effect.
  • Page 162 0 ms The L90 is equipped with up to three independent serial communication ports. The faceplate RS232 port is intended for local use and is fixed at 19200 baud and no parity. The rear COM1 port type is selected when ordering: either an Ethernet or RS485 port.
  • Page 163 MODBUS SLAVE ADDRESS grammed. For the RS485 ports each L90 must have a unique address from 1 to 254. Address 0 is the broadcast address which all Modbus slave devices listen to. Addresses do not have to be sequential, but no two devices can have the same address or conflicts resulting in errors will occur.
  • Page 164 DEADBAND: 30000 Range: 0 to 100000000 in steps of 1 DNP OTHER DEFAULT MESSAGE DEADBAND: 30000 Range: 1 to 10080 min. in steps of 1 DNP TIME SYNC IIN MESSAGE PERIOD: 1440 min 5-18 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 165 TIMEOUT: 120 s The L90 supports the Distributed Network Protocol (DNP) version 3.0. The L90 can be used as a DNP slave device con- nected to multiple DNP masters (usually an RTU or a SCADA master station). Since the L90 maintains two sets of DNP data change buffers and connection information, two DNP masters can actively communicate with the L90 at one time.
  • Page 166 DNP analog input points that are voltages will be returned with values 1000 times smaller (for example, a value of 72000 V on the L90 will be returned as 72). These settings are useful when analog input values must be adjusted to fit within cer- tain ranges in DNP masters.
  • Page 167 0 to 32 binary output paired controls. Points not configured as paired operate on POINTS a one-to-one basis. setting is the DNP slave address. This number identifies the L90 on a DNP communications link. Each DNP ADDRESS DNP slave should be assigned a unique address.
  • Page 168 The L90 supports the Manufacturing Message Specification (MMS) protocol as specified by IEC 61850. MMS is supported over two protocol stacks: TCP/IP over ethernet and TP4/CLNP (OSI) over ethernet. The L90 operates as an IEC 61850 server. The Remote inputs and outputs section in this chapter describe the peer-to-peer GSSE/GOOSE message scheme.
  • Page 169 IEC 61850 GSSE application ID name string sent as part of each GSSE message. This GSSE ID string identifies the GSSE message to the receiving device. In L90 releases previous to 5.0x, this name string was repre- sented by the setting.
  • Page 170 DESTINATION MAC address; the least significant bit of the first byte must be set. In L90 releases previous to 5.0x, the destination Ethernet MAC address was determined automatically by taking the sending MAC address (that is, the unique, local MAC address of the L90) and setting the multicast bit.
  • Page 171 The L90 has the ability of detecting if a data item in one of the GOOSE datasets is erroneously oscillating. This can be caused by events such as errors in logic programming, inputs improperly being asserted and de-asserted, or failed station components.
  • Page 172 Configure the transmission dataset. Configure the GOOSE service settings. Configure the data. The general steps required for reception configuration are: Configure the reception dataset. Configure the GOOSE service settings. Configure the data. 5-26 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 173 MMXU1 HZ DEADBAND change greater than 45 mHz, from the previous MMXU1.MX.mag.f value, in the source frequency. The L90 must be rebooted (control power removed and re-applied) before these settings take effect. The following procedure illustrates the reception configuration. Configure the reception dataset by making the following changes in the...
  • Page 174 IEC61850 GOOSE ANALOG INPUT 1 UNITS The GOOSE analog input 1 can now be used as a FlexAnalog™ value in a FlexElement™ or in other settings. The L90 must be rebooted (control power removed and re-applied) before these settings take effect.
  • Page 175 DNA and UserSt bit pairs that are included in GSSE messages. To set up a L90 to receive a configurable GOOSE dataset that contains two IEC 61850 single point status indications, the following dataset items can be selected (for example, for configurable GOOSE dataset 1): “GGIO3.ST.Ind1.stVal” and “GGIO3.ST.Ind2.stVal”.
  • Page 176 CPU resources. When server scanning is disabled, there will be not updated to the IEC 61850 logical node sta- tus values in the L90. Clients will still be able to connect to the server (L90 relay), but most data values will not be updated.
  • Page 177 The GGIO2 control configuration settings are used to set the control model for each input. The available choices are “0” (status only), “1” (direct control), and “2” (SBO with normal security). The GGIO2 control points are used to control the L90 virtual inputs.
  • Page 178 GGIO4. When this value is NUMBER OF ANALOG POINTS changed, the L90 must be rebooted in order to allow the GGIO4 logical node to be re-instantiated and contain the newly configured number of analog points.
  • Page 179 ITEM 64 attributes supported by the L90. Changes to the dataset will only take effect when the L90 is restarted. It is recommended to use reporting service from logical node LLN0 if a user needs some (but not all) data from already existing GGIO1, GGIO4, and MMXU4 points and their quantity is not greater than 64 minus the number items in this dataset.
  • Page 180 XCBR operating counter status attribute (OpCnt) increments with every operation. Frequent breaker operation may result in very large OpCnt values over time. This setting allows the OpCnt to be reset to “0” for XCBR1. 5-34 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 181 Internet Explorer or Mozilla Firefox. This feature is available only if the L90 has the ethernet option installed. The web pages are organized as a series of menus that can be accessed starting at the L90 “Main Menu”. Web pages are available showing DNP and IEC 60870-5-104 points lists, Modbus registers, event records, fault reports, etc.
  • Page 182 NUMBER: The Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) can be used to transfer files from the L90 over a network. The L90 operates as a TFTP server. TFTP client software is available from various sources, including Microsoft Windows NT. The dir.txt file obtained from the L90 contains a list and description of all available files (event records, oscillography, etc.).
  • Page 183 L90 clock is closely synchronized with the SNTP/NTP server. It may take up to two minutes for the L90 to signal an SNTP self-test error if the server is offline.
  • Page 184 Range: Sunday to Saturday (all days of the week) DST STOP DAY: MESSAGE Sunday Range: First, Second, Third, Fourth, Last DST STOP DAY MESSAGE INSTANCE: First Range: 0:00 to 23:00 DST STOP HOUR: MESSAGE 2:00 5-38 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 185: Fault Reports

    SNTP, the offset is used to determine the local time for the L90 clock, since SNTP provides UTC time. The daylight savings time (DST) settings can be used to allow the L90 clock can follow the DST rules of the local time zone.
  • Page 186 When the single-ended algorithm is used for three-terminal line applications, the faulted segment of the line is not deter- mined and reported. The L90 relay supports one fault report and an associated fault locator. The signal source and trigger condition, as well as the characteristics of the line or feeder, are entered in this menu.
  • Page 187 For proper operation of the multi-ended fault locator, the nominal primary voltage is expected to appear identical at all line terminals as seen from the nominal secondary voltage, VT ratio, and VT connection settings of the first 87L source. NOTE GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-41...
  • Page 188: Oscillography

    Reducing the sampling rate allows longer records to be stored. This setting has no effect on the internal sampling rate of the relay which is always 64 samples per cycle; that is, it has no effect on the fundamental calculations of the device. 5-42 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 189 IB signal on terminal 2 of the CT/VT module in slot F. If there are no CT/VT modules and analog input modules, no analog traces will appear in the file; only the digital traces will appear. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-43...
  • Page 190: Data Logger

    436380 s 254460 s 3600000 ms 2727.5 235645200 s 340.9 29455200 s 26182800 s Changing any setting affecting data logger operation will clear any data that is currently in the log. NOTE 5-44 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 191: Demand

    D 1 e – (EQ 5.6) where: d = demand value after applying input quantity for time t (in minutes) D = input quantity (constant), and k = 2.3 / thermal 90% response time. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-45...
  • Page 192: User-programmable Leds

    PATH: SETTINGS PRODUCT SETUP USER-PROGRAMMABLE LEDS USER-PROGRAMMABLE LED TEST See below LEDS TRIP & ALARM LEDS See page 5–49. MESSAGE USER-PROGRAMMABLE See page 5–49. MESSAGE LED1 USER-PROGRAMMABLE MESSAGE LED2 USER-PROGRAMMABLE MESSAGE LED48 5-46 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 193 The test responds to the position and rising edges of the control input defined by the set- LED TEST CONTROL ting. The control pulses must last at least 250 ms to take effect. The following diagram explains how the test is executed. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-47...
  • Page 194 2. Once stage 2 has started, the pushbutton can be released. When stage 2 is completed, stage 3 will automatically start. The test may be aborted at any time by pressing the pushbutton. 5-48 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 195 AR ENABLED LED 10 operand BREAKER 1 CLOSED LED 22 operand AR DISABLED LED 11 operand BREAKER 1 TROUBLE LED 23 operand AR RIP LED 12 operand LED 24 operand AR LO GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-49...
  • Page 196: User-programmable Self-tests

    Firmware revisions 3.2x and older use these three pushbuttons for manual breaker control. This functionality has been retained – if the breaker control feature is configured to use the three pushbuttons, they cannot be used as user-program- mable control pushbuttons. 5-50 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 197 The location of the control pushbuttons are shown in the following figures. Control pushbuttons 842813A1.CDR Figure 5–5: CONTROL PUSHBUTTONS (ENHANCED FACEPLATE) An additional four control pushbuttons are included on the standard faceplate when the L90 is ordered with the twelve user- programmable pushbutton option. STATUS EVENT CAUSE...
  • Page 198: User-programmable Pushbuttons

    FlexLogic™ equations, protection elements, and control elements. Typical applications include breaker control, autorecloser blocking, and setting groups changes. The user-programmable pushbuttons are under the control level of password protection. The user-configurable pushbuttons for the enhanced faceplate are shown below. 5-52 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 199 The pulse duration of the remote set, remote reset, or local pushbutton must be at least 50 ms to operate the push- button. This allows the user-programmable pushbuttons to properly operate during power cycling events and vari- ous system disturbances that may cause transient assertion of the operating signals. NOTE GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-53...
  • Page 200 PUSHBTN 1 RESET • PUSHBTN 1 LOCAL: This setting assigns the FlexLogic™ operand serving to inhibit pushbutton operation from the front panel pushbuttons. This locking functionality is not applicable to pushbutton autoreset. 5-54 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 201 “Normal” if the setting is “High Priority” or “Normal”. PUSHBTN 1 MESSAGE • PUSHBUTTON 1 EVENTS: If this setting is enabled, each pushbutton state change will be logged as an event into event recorder. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-55...
  • Page 202 Off = 0 SETTING SETTING Autoreset Delay Autoreset Function = Enabled = Disabled SETTING Drop-Out Timer TIMER FLEXLOGIC OPERAND 200 ms PUSHBUTTON 1 ON 842021A3.CDR Figure 5–10: USER-PROGRAMMABLE PUSHBUTTON LOGIC (Sheet 1 of 2) 5-56 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 203: Flex State Parameters

    5.2.15 FLEX STATE PARAMETERS PATH: SETTINGS PRODUCT SETUP FLEX STATE PARAMETERS Range: FlexLogic™ operand FLEX STATE PARAMETER PARAMETERS Range: FlexLogic™ operand PARAMETER MESSAGE Range: FlexLogic™ operand PARAMETER MESSAGE Range: FlexLogic™ operand PARAMETER 256: MESSAGE GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-57...
  • Page 204: User-definable Displays

    INVOKE AND SCROLL play, not at the first user-defined display. The pulses must last for at least 250 ms to take effect. INVOKE AND SCROLL 5-58 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 205 While viewing a user display, press the ENTER key and then select the ‘Yes” option to remove the display from the user display list. Use the MENU key again to exit the user displays menu. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-59...
  • Page 206: Installation

    "Programmed" state. UNIT NOT PROGRAMMED setting allows the user to uniquely identify a relay. This name will appear on generated reports. RELAY NAME 5-60 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 207: Remote Resources Configuration

    Bricks. Remote resources settings configure the point-to-point connection between specific fiber optic ports on the L90 process card and specific Brick. The relay is then configured to measure spe- cific currents, voltages and contact inputs from those Bricks, and to control specific outputs.
  • Page 208: System Setup

    1000:1 CT before summation. If a protection element is set up to act on SRC 1 currents, then a pickup level of 1 pu will operate on 1000 A primary. The same rule applies for current sums from CTs with different secondary taps (5 A and 1 A). 5-62 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 209: Power System

    GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-63...
  • Page 210: Signal Sources

    FREQUENCY TRACKING cial variable-frequency applications. NOTE The frequency tracking feature will function only when the L90 is in the “Programmed” mode. If the L90 is “Not Pro- grammed”, then metering values will be available but may exhibit significant errors. NOTE The nominal system frequency should be selected as 50 Hz or 60 Hz only.
  • Page 211 0.02 pu; thus by default the disturbance detector responds to a change of 0.04 pu. The metering sensitivity setting ( PROD- ) controls the sensitivity of the disturbance detector UCT SETUP DISPLAY PROPERTIES CURRENT CUT-OFF LEVEL accordingly. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-65...
  • Page 212 Figure 5–14: EXAMPLE USE OF SOURCES Y LV D HV SRC 1 SRC 2 SRC 3 Phase CT F1+F5 None Ground CT None None Phase VT None None Aux VT None None 5-66 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 213: L90 Power System

    MESSAGE CHANGE: 1.5 ms Any changes to the L90 power system settings will change the protection system configuration. As such, the 87L protection at all L90 protection system terminals must be temporarily disabled to allow the relays to acknowledge the new settings.
  • Page 214 The effect of charging current compensation is viewed in the METERING actual values menu. This effect is very dependent on CT and VT accuracy. NOTE 87L DIFFERENTIAL CURRENT 5-68 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 215 LOCAL (TERMINAL 1 and TERMINAL 2) ID NUMBER: In installations using multiplexers or modems for communica- tion, it is desirable to ensure the data used by the relays protecting a given line comes from the correct relays. The L90 performs this check by reading the ID number contained in the messages sent by transmitting relays and comparing this ID to the programmed correct ID numbers by the receiving relays.
  • Page 216 • BLOCK GPS TIME REF: This setting signals to the L90 that the time reference is not valid. The time reference may be not accurate due to problems with the GPS receiver. The user must to be aware of the case when a GPS satellite receiver loses its satellite signal and reverts to its own calibrated crystal oscillator.
  • Page 217 Ch2 Asymmetry > MAX Ch2 Asymmetry ACTUAL VALUE FLEXLOGIC OPERAND Ch2 T-Time New - Ch2 Round Trip Time 87L DIFF 2 TIME CHNG Ch2 T-Time Old > CHANGE 831025A4.CDR Figure 5–16: CHANNEL ASYMMETRY COMPENSATION LOGIC GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-71...
  • Page 218: Breakers

    Range: 0.000 to 65.535 s in steps of 0.001 MANUAL CLOSE RECAL1 MESSAGE TIME: 0.000 s Range: FlexLogic™ operand BREAKER 1 OUT OF SV: MESSAGE Range: Disabled, Enabled BREAKER 1 EVENTS: MESSAGE Disabled 5-72 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 219 1. The number of breaker control elements is dependent on the number of CT/VT modules specified with the L90. The follow- ing settings are available for each breaker control element.
  • Page 220 5.4 SYSTEM SETUP 5 SETTINGS Figure 5–17: DUAL BREAKER CONTROL SCHEME LOGIC (Sheet 1 of 2) IEC 61850 functionality is permitted when the L90 is in “Programmed” mode and not in the local control mode. NOTE 5-74 L90 Line Current Differential System...
  • Page 221 5 SETTINGS 5.4 SYSTEM SETUP Figure 5–18: DUAL BREAKER CONTROL SCHEME LOGIC (Sheet 2 of 2) GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-75...
  • Page 222: Disconnect Switches

    For greater security in determination of the switch pole position, both the 52/a and 52/b auxiliary contacts are used with reporting of the discrepancy between them. The number of available disconnect switches depends on the number of the CT/VT modules ordered with the L90. •...
  • Page 223 This allows for non-simultaneous operation of the poles. IEC 61850 functionality is permitted when the L90 is in “Programmed” mode and not in the local control mode. NOTE GE Multilin...
  • Page 224 5.4 SYSTEM SETUP 5 SETTINGS Figure 5–19: DISCONNECT SWITCH SCHEME LOGIC 5-78 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 225 1.03 pu. It is recommended to set the two times to a similar value; otherwise, the linear approximation may NOTE result in undesired behavior for the operating quantity that is close to 1.00 pu. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-79...
  • Page 226 The multiplier and adder settings only affect the curve portion of the characteristic and not the MRT and HCT set- tings. The HCT settings override the MRT settings for multiples of pickup greater than the HCT ratio. NOTE 5-80 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 227 EnerVista UR Setup software generates an error message and discards the proposed changes. NOTE e) STANDARD RECLOSER CURVES The standard recloser curves available for the L90 are displayed in the following graphs. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System...
  • Page 228 842723A1.CDR Figure 5–23: RECLOSER CURVES GE101 TO GE106 GE142 GE138 GE120 GE113 0.05 7 8 9 10 12 CURRENT (multiple of pickup) 842725A1.CDR Figure 5–24: RECLOSER CURVES GE113, GE120, GE138 AND GE142 5-82 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 229 Figure 5–25: RECLOSER CURVES GE134, GE137, GE140, GE151 AND GE201 GE152 GE141 GE131 GE200 7 8 9 10 12 CURRENT (multiple of pickup) 842728A1.CDR Figure 5–26: RECLOSER CURVES GE131, GE141, GE152, AND GE200 GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-83...
  • Page 230 Figure 5–27: RECLOSER CURVES GE133, GE161, GE162, GE163, GE164 AND GE165 GE132 GE139 GE136 GE116 0.05 GE117 GE118 0.02 0.01 7 8 9 10 12 CURRENT (multiple of pickup) 842726A1.CDR Figure 5–28: RECLOSER CURVES GE116, GE117, GE118, GE132, GE136, AND GE139 5-84 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 231 Figure 5–29: RECLOSER CURVES GE107, GE111, GE112, GE114, GE115, GE121, AND GE122 GE202 GE135 GE119 7 8 9 10 12 CURRENT (multiple of pickup) 842727A1.CDR Figure 5–30: RECLOSER CURVES GE119, GE135, AND GE202 GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-85...
  • Page 232: Phasor Measurement Unit

    MESSAGE NETWORK The L90 Line Current Differential System is provided with an optional phasor measurement unit feature. This feature is specified as a software option at the time of ordering. The number of phasor measurement units available is also dependent on this option. Refer to the Ordering section of chapter 2 for additional details.
  • Page 233 See page 5-88. UNIT 1 CONFIGURATION PMU 1 See page 5-92. MESSAGE AGGREGATORS PMU 1 See page 5-94. MESSAGE CALIBRATION PMU 1 See page 5-96. MESSAGE TRIGGERING PMU 1 See page 5-103. MESSAGE RECORDING GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-87...
  • Page 234 Range: Available FlexLogic™ operands PMU 1 D-CH-1: MESSAGE Default: Off Range: 16 character ASCII string PMU 1 D-CH-1 MESSAGE Default: DigChannel1 NM: DigChannel1 Range: Off, On PMU 1 D-CH-1 MESSAGE Default: Off NORMAL STATE: Off 5-88 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 235 PMU streams of the device that are assigned to transmit over this aggregator. For a system frequency of 60 Hz (50 Hz), the L90 will generate a reporting mismatch message if the selected rate is not set as 10 Hz, 12 Hz, 15 Hz, 20 Hz, 30 Hz, 60 Hz, or 120 Hz (or 10 Hz, 25 Hz, 50 Hz or 100 Hz when the system frequency is 50 Hz) when entered via the keypad or software;...
  • Page 236 4 Hz Same filter as above 100 Hz 25:1 4 Hz 2 Hz Same filter as above 100 Hz 50:1 2 Hz 1 Hz Same filter as above 100 Hz 100:1 1 Hz 5-90 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 237 PMU1 D-CH-1 NORMAL STATE to PMU1 D-CH-16 NORMAL STATE: These settings allow for specifying a normal state for each digital channel. These states are transmitted in configuration frames to the data concentrator. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-91...
  • Page 238 5 second timer is re-started. This setting enables or disables the control. When enabled, all 16 oper- ands for each aggregator are active; when disabled all 16 operands for each aggregator remain reset. 5-92 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 239 Note: If changes are made to PMU settings the PMU must be removed from the aggregator and the settings saved and then the PMU should be added back into the aggregator and the settings saved such that the new PMU set- tings take effect. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-93...
  • Page 240 PMU1 PORT D-CH-16 MESSAGE NORMAL STATE: Off This section configures the phasor measurement unit (PMU) communication functions. • PMU1 COMM PORT: This setting specifies the communication port for transmission of the PMU data. 5-94 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 241 PMU1 PORT D-CH-1 NORMAL STATE to PMU1 PORT D-CH-16 NORMAL STATE: These settings allow for specify- ing a normal state for each digital channel. These states are transmitted in configuration frames to the data concentra- tor. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-95...
  • Page 242 Range: FlexLogic™ operands PMU 1 USER PMU1 USER TRIGGER: TRIGGER The user trigger allows customized triggering logic to be constructed from FlexLogic™. The entire triggering logic is refreshed once every two power system cycles. 5-96 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 243 L90 standards. This element requires the frequency is above the minimum measurable value. If the frequency is below this value, such as when the circuit is de-energized, the trigger will drop out.
  • Page 244 PMU 1 VOLT TRIGGER DPO TIME: This setting could be used to extend the trigger after the situation returned to nor- mal. This setting is of particular importance when using the recorder in the forced mode (recording as long as the trig- gering condition is asserted). 5-98 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 245 PMU 1 CURR TRIGGER DPO TIME: This setting could be used to extend the trigger after the situation returned to nor- mal. This setting is of particular importance when using the recorder in the forced mode (recording as long as the trig- gering condition is asserted). GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-99...
  • Page 246 For single-phase power, 1 pu is a product of 1 pu voltage and 1 pu current, or the product of nominal second- ary voltage, the VT ratio and the nominal primary current. For the three-phase power, 1 pu is three times that for a sin- gle-phase power. The comparator applies a 3% hysteresis. 5-100 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 247 S > APPARENT PICKUP APPARENT POWER, SB S > APPARENT PICKUP APPARENT POWER, SC S > APPARENT PICKUP 3P APPARENT POWER, S S > 3*(APPARENT PICKUP) 847003A1.CDR Figure 5–36: POWER TRIGGER SCHEME LOGIC GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-101...
  • Page 248 PMU 1 df/dt TRIGGER DPO TIME: PMU 1 SIGNAL FLEXLOGIC OPERAND SOURCE: df/dt > RAISE PMU 1 ROCOF TRIGGER ROCOF, df/dt –df/dt > FALL 847000A1.CDR Figure 5–37: RATE OF CHANGE OF FREQUENCY TRIGGER SCHEME LOGIC 5-102 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 249 NETWORK UDP PORT 2: MESSAGE 4714 The Ethernet connection works simultaneously with other communication means working over the Ethernet and is config- ured as follows. Up to three clients can be simultaneously supported. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-103...
  • Page 250 NETWORK UDP PORT 1: This setting selects the first UDP port that will be used for network reporting. • NETWORK UDP PORT 2: This setting selects the second UDP port that will be used for network reporting. 5-104 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 251: Flexlogic

    Figure 5–38: UR ARCHITECTURE OVERVIEW The states of all digital signals used in the L90 are represented by flags (or FlexLogic™ operands, which are described later in this section). A digital “1” is represented by a 'set' flag. Any external contact change-of-state can be used to block an element from operating, as an input to a control feature in a FlexLogic™...
  • Page 252 Some types of operands are present in the relay in multiple instances; e.g. contact and remote inputs. These types of oper- ands are grouped together (for presentation purposes only) on the faceplate display. The characteristics of the different types of operands are listed in the table below. Table 5–12: L90 FLEXLOGIC™ OPERAND TYPES OPERAND TYPE STATE...
  • Page 253 Exceeded maximum CRC error threshold on channel 2 87L DIFF CH1 ID FAIL The ID check for a peer L90 on channel 1 has failed 87L DIFF CH2 ID FAIL The ID check for a peer L90 on channel 2 has failed...
  • Page 254 5.5 FLEXLOGIC™ 5 SETTINGS Table 5–13: L90 FLEXLOGIC™ OPERANDS (Sheet 2 of 10) OPERAND TYPE OPERAND SYNTAX OPERAND DESCRIPTION ELEMENT: AUX UV1 PKP Auxiliary undervoltage element has picked up Auxiliary AUX UV1 DPO Auxiliary undervoltage element has dropped out undervoltage...
  • Page 255 5 SETTINGS 5.5 FLEXLOGIC™ Table 5–13: L90 FLEXLOGIC™ OPERANDS (Sheet 3 of 10) OPERAND TYPE OPERAND SYNTAX OPERAND DESCRIPTION ELEMENT: CONT MONITOR PKP Continuous monitor has picked up Continuous monitor CONT MONITOR OP Continuous monitor has operated ELEMENT: CT FAIL PKP...
  • Page 256 5.5 FLEXLOGIC™ 5 SETTINGS Table 5–13: L90 FLEXLOGIC™ OPERANDS (Sheet 4 of 10) OPERAND TYPE OPERAND SYNTAX OPERAND DESCRIPTION ELEMENT: LINE PICKUP OP Line pickup has operated Line pickup LINE PICKUP PKP Line pickup has picked up LINE PICKUP DPO Line pickup has dropped out LINE PICKUP I<A...
  • Page 257 5 SETTINGS 5.5 FLEXLOGIC™ Table 5–13: L90 FLEXLOGIC™ OPERANDS (Sheet 5 of 10) OPERAND TYPE OPERAND SYNTAX OPERAND DESCRIPTION ELEMENT: PDC NETWORK CNTRL 1 Phasor data concentrator asserts control bit 1 as received via the network Synchrophasor PDC NETWORK CNTRL 2...
  • Page 258 5.5 FLEXLOGIC™ 5 SETTINGS Table 5–13: L90 FLEXLOGIC™ OPERANDS (Sheet 6 of 10) OPERAND TYPE OPERAND SYNTAX OPERAND DESCRIPTION ELEMENT: PHASE TOC1 PKP At least one phase of phase time overcurrent 1 has picked up Phase time PHASE TOC1 OP...
  • Page 259 5 SETTINGS 5.5 FLEXLOGIC™ Table 5–13: L90 FLEXLOGIC™ OPERANDS (Sheet 7 of 10) OPERAND TYPE OPERAND SYNTAX OPERAND DESCRIPTION ELEMENT: SETTING GROUP ACT 1 Setting group 1 is active Setting group SETTING GROUP ACT 2 Setting group 2 is active...
  • Page 260 5.5 FLEXLOGIC™ 5 SETTINGS Table 5–13: L90 FLEXLOGIC™ OPERANDS (Sheet 8 of 10) OPERAND TYPE OPERAND SYNTAX OPERAND DESCRIPTION ELEMENT TRIP 3-POLE Trip all three breaker poles Trip output TRIP 1-POLE A single-pole trip-and-reclose operation is initiated TRIP PHASE A...
  • Page 261 5 SETTINGS 5.5 FLEXLOGIC™ Table 5–13: L90 FLEXLOGIC™ OPERANDS (Sheet 9 of 10) OPERAND TYPE OPERAND SYNTAX OPERAND DESCRIPTION INPUTS/OUTPUTS: Virt Op 1 Flag is set, logic=1 Virtual outputs Virt Op 2 Flag is set, logic=1 Virt Op 3 Flag is set, logic=1...
  • Page 262 5.5 FLEXLOGIC™ 5 SETTINGS Table 5–13: L90 FLEXLOGIC™ OPERANDS (Sheet 10 of 10) OPERAND TYPE OPERAND SYNTAX OPERAND DESCRIPTION SELF- ANY MAJOR ERROR Any of the major self-test errors generated (major error) DIAGNOSTICS ANY MINOR ERROR Any of the minor self-test errors generated (minor error)
  • Page 263: Flexlogic™ Rules

    When making changes to settings, all FlexLogic™ equations are re-compiled whenever any new setting value is entered, so all latches are automatically reset. If it is necessary to re-initialize FlexLogic™ during testing, for exam- ple, it is suggested to power the unit down and then back up. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-117...
  • Page 264: Flexlogic™ Example

    Dropout State=Pickup (200 ms) DIGITAL ELEMENT 2 Timer 1 State=Operated Time Delay on Pickup (800 ms) CONTACT INPUT H1c State=Closed VIRTUAL OUTPUT 3 827026A2.VSD Figure 5–40: LOGIC EXAMPLE WITH VIRTUAL OUTPUTS 5-118 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 265 Following the procedure outlined, start with parameter 99, as follows: 99: The final output of the equation is virtual output 3, which is created by the operator "= Virt Op n". This parameter is therefore "= Virt Op 3." GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-119...
  • Page 266 87: The input just below the upper input to OR #1 is operand “Virt Op 2 On". 86: The upper input to OR #1 is operand “Virt Op 1 On". 85: The last parameter is used to set the latch, and is operand “Virt Op 4 On". 5-120 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 267 In the following equation, virtual output 3 is used as an input to both latch 1 and timer 1 as arranged in the order shown below: DIG ELEM 2 OP Cont Ip H1c On AND(2) GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-121...
  • Page 268: Flexlogic Equation Editor

    TIMER 1 TYPE: This setting is used to select the time measuring unit. • TIMER 1 PICKUP DELAY: Sets the time delay to pickup. If a pickup delay is not required, set this function to "0". 5-122 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 269: Flexelements

    The element can be programmed to respond either to a signal level or to a rate-of-change (delta) over a pre-defined period of time. The output operand is asserted when the operating signal is higher than a threshold or lower than a threshold as per user's choice. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-123...
  • Page 270 The FLEXELEMENT 1 DIRECTION following figure explains the application of the FLEXELEMENT 1 DIRECTION FLEXELEMENT 1 PICKUP FLEXELEMENT 1 HYS- settings. TERESIS 5-124 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 271 DIRECTION = Under; FLEXELEMENT INPUT MODE = Signed; FlexElement 1 OpSig FLEXELEMENT 1 PKP FLEXELEMENT DIRECTION = Under; FLEXELEMENT INPUT MODE = Absolute; FlexElement 1 OpSig 842706A2.CDR Figure 5–48: FLEXELEMENT™ INPUT MODE SETTING GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-125...
  • Page 272 “Delta”. FLEXELEMENT 1 COMP MODE This setting specifies the pickup delay of the element. The setting FLEXELEMENT 1 PKP DELAY FLEXELEMENT 1 RST DELAY specifies the reset delay of the element. 5-126 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 273: Non-volatile Latches

    Off=0 LATCH 1 ON Dominant LATCH 1 OFF SETTING Previous Previous State State LATCH 1 SET: Off=0 RESET 842005A1.CDR Figure 5–49: NON-VOLATILE LATCH OPERATION TABLE (N = 1 to 16) AND LOGIC GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-127...
  • Page 274: Grouped Elements

    Each of the six setting group menus is identical. Setting group 1 (the default active group) automatically becomes active if no other group is active (see the Control elements section for additional details). 5-128 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 275 Range: 1 to 50% in steps of 1 CURRENT DIFF GND MESSAGE RESTRAINT: 25% Range: 0.00 to 5.00 s in steps of 0.01 CURRENT DIFF GND MESSAGE DELAY: 0.10 s Range: Disabled, Enabled CURRENT DIFF DTT: MESSAGE Enabled GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-129...
  • Page 276 CURRENT DIFF DTT: This setting enables and disables the sending of a DTT by the current differential element on per single-phase basis to remote devices. To allow the L90 to restart from master-master to master-slave mode (very important on three-terminal applications), must be set to “Enabled”.
  • Page 277 5 SETTINGS 5.6 GROUPED ELEMENTS Figure 5–50: CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SCHEME LOGIC GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-131...
  • Page 278 The assigned current element should be mapped to appropriate output contact(s) to trip the stub bus breakers. It should be blocked unless disconnect is open. To prevent 87L tripping from remote L90 relays still protecting the line, the auxiliary contact of line disconnect switch (logic “1” when line switch is open) should be assigned to block the local 87L function by using the setting.
  • Page 279 5 SETTINGS 5.6 GROUPED ELEMENTS SETTING STUB BUS FUNCTION: Disabled=0 Enabled=1 SETTING STUB BUS DISCONNECT: FLEXLOGIC OPERAND Off=0 STUB BUS OP SETTING STUB BUS TRIGGER: Off=0 831012A3.CDR Figure 5–51: STUB BUS SCHEME LOGIC GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-133...
  • Page 280 2 or excessive phase current within eight power cycles after the autorecloser issues a close command results in the FlexLogic™ operand. For security, the overcurrent trip is supervised LINE PICKUP RCL TRIP 5-134 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 281 1 extension functionality if external autoreclosure is employed. Another zone 1 extension approach is to permanently apply an overreaching zone, and reduce the reach when reclosing. This philosophy can be programmed via the autore- close scheme. Figure 5–52: LINE PICKUP SCHEME LOGIC GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-135...
  • Page 282 (logic 1), the distance functions become memory-polarized regardless of the positive-sequence voltage magni- tude at this time. When the selected operand is de-asserted (logic 0), the distance functions follow other conditions of the memory voltage logic. 5-136 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 283 NOTE The distance zones of the L90 are identical to that of the UR-series D60 Line Distance Relay. For additional infor- mation on the L90 distance functions, please refer to Chapter 8 of the D60 manual, available on the GE EnerVista CD or free of charge on the GE Multilin web page.
  • Page 284 PHS DIST Z1 DIR: All phase distance zones are reversible. The forward direction is defined by the PHS DIST Z1 RCA setting, whereas the reverse direction is shifted 180° from that angle. The non-directional zone spans between the for- 5-138 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 285 COMP LIMIT DIR COMP LIMIT DIR COMP LIMIT DIR RCA 837720A1.CDR Figure 5–54: DIRECTIONAL MHO DISTANCE CHARACTERISTIC COMP LIMIT REV REACH 837802A1.CDR Figure 5–55: NON-DIRECTIONAL MHO DISTANCE CHARACTERISTIC GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-139...
  • Page 286 Figure 5–56: DIRECTIONAL QUADRILATERAL PHASE DISTANCE CHARACTERISTIC COMP LIMIT COMP LIMIT LFT BLD RCA RGT BLD RCA -LFT BLD RGT BLD REV REACH COMP LIMIT COMP LIMIT 837803A1.CDR Figure 5–57: NON-DIRECTIONAL QUADRILATERAL PHASE DISTANCE CHARACTERISTIC 5-140 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 287 DIR COMP LIMIT = 60 RGT BLD RCA = 90 RGT BLD RCA = 80 LFT BLD RCA = 90 LFT BLD RCA = 80 837723A1.CDR Figure 5–59: QUADRILATERAL DISTANCE CHARACTERISTIC SAMPLE SHAPES GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-141...
  • Page 288 The setting is an angle of reach impedance as shown in the distance characteristic figures shown earlier. This setting is independent from , the characteristic angle of an PHS DIST Z1 DIR RCA extra directional supervising function. 5-142 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 289 PHS DIST Z1 BLK: This setting enables the user to select a FlexLogic™ operand to block a given distance element. VT fuse fail detection is one of the applications for this setting. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-143...
  • Page 290 PH DIST Z1 SUPN IBC PH DIST Z1 SUPN ICA OPEN POLE OP ** ** D60, L60, and L90 only. Other UR-series models apply regular current seal-in for zone 1. 837017A8.CDR Figure 5–61: PHASE DISTANCE ZONE 1 OP SCHEME Figure 5–62: PHASE DISTANCE ZONE 2 OP SCHEME...
  • Page 291 5 SETTINGS 5.6 GROUPED ELEMENTS Figure 5–63: PHASE DISTANCE ZONES 3 AND HIGHER OP SCHEME D60, L60, and L90 only FLEXLOGIC OPERANDS OPEN POLE BLK AB OPEN POLE BLK BC OPEN POLE BLK CA SETTINGS PH DIST Z1 DIR PH DIST Z1 SHAPE...
  • Page 292 Range: 60 to 90° in steps of 1 GND DIST Z1 QUAD MESSAGE LFT BLD RCA: 85° Range: 0.050 to 30.000 pu in steps of 0.001 GND DIST Z1 MESSAGE SUPV: 0.200 pu 5-146 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 293 The directional and non-directional quadrilateral ground distance characteristics are shown below. The directional and non-directional mho ground distance characteristics are the same as those shown for the phase distance element in the previous sub-section. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-147...
  • Page 294 DISTANCE SOURCE zero-sequence impedance between the lines and the positive-sequence impedance of the protected line. It is impera- tive to set this setting to zero if the compensation is not to be performed. 5-148 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 295 This setting applies only to the GND DIST Z1 QUAD RGT BLD RCA quadrilateral characteristic and should be set with consideration to the maximum load current and required resistive coverage. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-149...
  • Page 296 GND DIST Z1 PKP C FLEXLOGIC OPERANDS GND DIST Z1 SUPN IN OPEN POLE OP ** ** D60, L60, and L90 only. Other UR-series models apply regular current seal-in for zone 1. 837018A7.CDR Figure 5–67: GROUND DISTANCE ZONE 1 OP SCHEME 5-150...
  • Page 297 3 or 4 to zone 2. The desired zones should be assigned in the trip output element to accomplish this NOTE functionality. Figure 5–69: GROUND DISTANCE ZONES 3 AND HIGHER OP SCHEME GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-151...
  • Page 298 5.6 GROUPED ELEMENTS 5 SETTINGS Figure 5–70: GROUND DISTANCE ZONE 1 SCHEME LOGIC 5-152 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 299 The supervision is biased toward operation in order to avoid compromising the sensitivity of ground distance elements at low signal levels. Otherwise, the reverse fault condition that generates concern will have high polarizing levels so that a cor- rect reverse fault decision can be reliably made. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-153...
  • Page 300 LIMIT ANGLE: 120° Range: 40 to 140° in steps of 1 POWER SWING MIDDLE MESSAGE LIMIT ANGLE: 90° Range: 40 to 140° in steps of 1 POWER SWING INNER MESSAGE LIMIT ANGLE: 60° 5-154 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 301 Different protection elements respond differently to power swings. If tripping is required for faults during power swing condi- tions, some elements may be blocked permanently (using the operand), and others may be blocked POWER SWING BLOCK and dynamically unblocked upon fault detection (using the operand). POWER SWING UN/BLOCK GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-155...
  • Page 302 The element can be set to use either lens (mho) or rectangular (quadrilateral) characteristics as illustrated below. When set to “Mho”, the element applies the right and left blinders as well. If the blinders are not required, their settings should be set high enough to effectively disable the blinders. 5-156 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 303 5 SETTINGS 5.6 GROUPED ELEMENTS Figure 5–73: POWER SWING DETECT MHO OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS Figure 5–74: EFFECTS OF BLINDERS ON THE MHO CHARACTERISTICS GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-157...
  • Page 304 POWER SWING SHAPE: This setting selects the shapes (either “Mho” or “Quad”) of the outer, middle and, inner char- acteristics of the power swing detect element. The operating principle is not affected. The “Mho” characteristics use the left and right blinders. 5-158 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 305 (the actual trip may be delayed as per the setting). Therefore, this angle must be selected in consider- TRIP MODE ation to the power swing angle beyond which the system becomes unstable and cannot recover. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-159...
  • Page 306 The power swing blocking function is operational all the time as long as the element is enabled. The blocking signal resets the output operand but does not stop the out-of-step tripping sequence. POWER SWING TRIP 5-160 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 307 K_0, K_2 - three times the average change over last power cycle 842008A1.CDR K_1 - four times the average change over last power cycle Figure 5–77: POWER SWING DETECT SCHEME LOGIC (2 of 3) GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-161...
  • Page 308 L1 AND L4 LATCHES ARE SET DOMINANT L2, L3 AND L5 LATCHES ARE RESET DOMINANT Off=0 FLEXLOGIC OPERAND POWER SWING OUTGOING 827841A4.CDR Figure 5–78: POWER SWING DETECT SCHEME LOGIC (3 of 3) 5-162 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 309: Load Encroachment

    The element operates if the positive-sequence voltage is above a settable level and asserts its output signal that can be used to block selected protection elements such as distance or phase overcurrent. The following figure shows an effect of the load encroachment characteristics used to block the quadrilateral distance element. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-163...
  • Page 310 If the voltage is below this threshold a blocking signal will not be asserted by the element. When selecting this setting one must remember that the L90 measures the phase-to-ground sequence voltages regardless of the VT connection.
  • Page 311: Phase Current

    DIRECTIONAL 2 b) INVERSE TIME OVERCURRENT CHARACTERISTICS The inverse time overcurrent curves used by the time overcurrent elements are the IEEE, IEC, GE Type IAC, and I t stan- dard curve shapes. This allows for simplified coordination with downstream devices.
  • Page 312 4.827 38.634 22.819 14.593 11.675 10.130 9.153 8.470 7.960 7.562 7.241 51.512 30.426 19.458 15.567 13.507 12.204 11.294 10.614 10.083 9.654 10.0 64.390 38.032 24.322 19.458 16.883 15.255 14.117 13.267 12.604 12.068 5-166 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 313 1.835 1.067 0.668 0.526 0.451 0.404 0.371 0.346 0.327 0.311 0.80 2.446 1.423 0.890 0.702 0.602 0.538 0.494 0.461 0.435 0.415 1.00 3.058 1.778 1.113 0.877 0.752 0.673 0.618 0.576 0.544 0.518 GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-167...
  • Page 314 = characteristic constant, and T = reset time in seconds (assuming energy capacity is 100% RESET is “Timed”) RESET Table 5–22: GE TYPE IAC INVERSE TIME CURVE CONSTANTS IAC CURVE SHAPE IAC Extreme Inverse 0.0040 0.6379 0.6200 1.7872 0.2461...
  • Page 315 = Reset Time in seconds (assuming energy capacity is 100% and RESET: Timed) RESET RECLOSER CURVES: The L90 uses the FlexCurve™ feature to facilitate programming of 41 recloser curves. Please refer to the FlexCurve™ sec- tion in this chapter for additional details. GE Multilin...
  • Page 316 ‘Mvr’ times the setting. If the voltage restraint feature PHASE TOC1 PICKUP is disabled, the pickup level always remains at the setting value. 5-170 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 317 PHASE TOC1 C DPO Multiplier-Phase C PHASE TOC1 C OP SETTING PHASE TOC1 PKP PHASE TOC1 VOLT RESTRAINT: PHASE TOC1 OP Enabled PHASE TOC1 DPO 827072A4.CDR Figure 5–83: PHASE TIME OVERCURRENT 1 SCHEME LOGIC GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-171...
  • Page 318 PHASE IOC1 PKP SETTING PHASE IOC1 OP PHASE IOC1 BLOCK-B: PHASE IOC1 DPO Off = 0 SETTING 827033A6.VSD PHASE IOC1 BLOCK-C: Off = 0 Figure 5–84: PHASE INSTANTANEOUS OVERCURRENT 1 SCHEME LOGIC 5-172 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 319 CTs and the line-line voltage from the VTs, based on the 90° or quadrature connection. If there is a requirement to supervise overcurrent elements for flows in opposite directions, such as can happen through a bus-tie breaker, two phase directional elements should be programmed with opposite element characteristic angle (ECA) settings. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-173...
  • Page 320 10 ms must be added to all the instantaneous protection elements under the supervi- sion of the phase directional element. If current reversal is of a concern, a longer delay – in the order of 20 ms – may be needed. 5-174 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 321: Neutral Current

    NEUTRAL TOC2 See page 5-176. MESSAGE NEUTRAL IOC1 See page 5-177. MESSAGE NEUTRAL IOC2 See page 5-177. MESSAGE NEUTRAL See page 5-178. MESSAGE DIRECTIONAL OC1 NEUTRAL See page 5-178. MESSAGE DIRECTIONAL OC2 GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-175...
  • Page 322 RESET: NEUTRAL TOC1 PKP NEUTRAL TOC1 IN ≥ PICKUP NEUTRAL TOC1 DPO SOURCE: NEUTRAL TOC1 OP SETTING NEUTRAL TOC1 BLOCK: Off = 0 827034A3.VSD Figure 5–87: NEUTRAL TIME OVERCURRENT 1 SCHEME LOGIC 5-176 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 323 RESET DELAY : SETTING NEUTRAL IOC1 DPO NEUTRAL IOC1 OP 3( _0 - K _1 ) PICKUP NEUTRAL IOC1 BLOCK: Off=0 SETTING NEUTRAL IOC1 SOURCE: 827035A4.CDR Figure 5–88: NEUTRAL IOC1 SCHEME LOGIC GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-177...
  • Page 324 – (EQ 5.19) The positive-sequence restraint allows for more sensitive settings by counterbalancing spurious zero-sequence currents resulting from: • System unbalances under heavy load conditions. 5-178 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 325 1.5 of a power system cycle. The element is designed to emu- late an electromechanical directional device. Larger operating and polarizing signals will result in faster directional discrimi- nation bringing more security to the element operation. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-179...
  • Page 326 The low-side system impedance should be assumed minimal when checking for this condition. A similar sit- uation arises for a wye/delta/wye transformer, where current in one transformer winding neutral may reverse when faults on both sides of the transformer are considered. 5-180 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 327 NEUTRAL DIR OC1 REV PICKUP: This setting defines the pickup level for the overcurrent unit of the element in the reverse direction. When selecting this setting it must be kept in mind that the design uses a positive-sequence restraint technique for the “Calculated 3I0” mode of operation. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-181...
  • Page 328 3) POSITIVE SEQUENCE RESTRAINT IS NOT APPLIED WHEN _1 IS BELOW 0.8pu NEUTRAL DIR OC1 POS- SEQ RESTRAINT: 3( _0 - K _1 ) PICKUP 827077AB.CDR PICKUP Figure 5–90: NEUTRAL DIRECTIONAL OVERCURRENT LOGIC 5-182 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 329: Wattmetric Ground Fault

    VT connected to the auxiliary channel bank of the relay). When the latter selection is made, the auxiliary channel must be identified by the user as a neutral voltage under the VT bank settings. This element will operate only if the aux- iliary voltage is configured as neutral. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-183...
  • Page 330 The four FlexCurves allow for custom user-programmable time characteristics. When working with FlexCurves, the element uses the operate to pickup ratio, and the multiplier setting is not applied: FlexCurve --------- - (EQ 5.22) Again, the FlexCurve timer starts after the definite time timer expires. 5-184 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 331 1 FUNCTION: WATTMETRIC GND FLT 1 Enabled = 1 OC PKP DEL: WATT GND FLT 1 BLK: FLEXLOGIC OPERAND Off = 0 WATTMETRIC 1 PKP 837033A4.CDR Figure 5–92: WATTMETRIC ZERO-SEQUENCE DIRECTIONAL LOGIC GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-185...
  • Page 332: Ground Current

    GROUND TOC 1 SETTING RESET: GROUND TOC1 PKP GROUND TOC1 IG ≥ PICKUP GROUND TOC1 DPO SOURCE: GROUND TOC1 OP SETTING GROUND TOC1 BLOCK: 827036A3.VSD Off = 0 Figure 5–93: GROUND TOC1 SCHEME LOGIC 5-186 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 333 Enabled = 1 SETTING DELAY: GROUND IOC1 GROUND IOC1 RESET SETTING PICKUP: DELAY: GROUND IOC1 SOURCE: IG ≥ PICKUP SETTING GROUND IOC1 BLOCK: 827037A4.VSD Off = 0 Figure 5–94: GROUND IOC1 SCHEME LOGIC GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-187...
  • Page 334: Negative Sequence Current

    < NEG SEQ PICKUP NEG SEQ TOC1 DPO NEG SEQ TOC1 BLOCK: NEG SEQ TOC1 OP Off=0 SETTING NEG SEQ TOC1 SOURCE: Neg Seq 827057A4.CDR Figure 5–95: NEGATIVE SEQUENCE TOC1 SCHEME LOGIC 5-188 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 335 SETTING NEG SEQ IOC1 DPO NEG SEQ IOC1 OP _2 - K _1 PICKUP NEG SEQ IOC1 BLOCK: Off=0 SETTING NEG SEQ IOC1 SOURCE: 827058A5.CDR Figure 5–96: NEGATIVE SEQUENCE IOC1 SCHEME LOGIC GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-189...
  • Page 336 The positive-sequence restraint allows for more sensitive settings by counterbalancing spurious negative-sequence and zero-sequence currents resulting from: • System unbalances under heavy load conditions. • Transformation errors of current transformers (CTs). • Fault inception and switch-off transients. 5-190 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 337 CT errors, since the current is low. The operating quantity depends on the way the test currents are injected into the L90. For single phase injection: •...
  • Page 338 The element characteristic angle in the reverse direction is the angle set for the forward direction shifted by 180°. • NEG SEQ DIR OC1 FWD LIMIT ANGLE: This setting defines a symmetrical (in both directions from the ECA) limit angle for the forward direction. 5-192 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 339 When NEG SEQ DIR OC1 TYPE selecting this setting it must be kept in mind that the design uses a positive-sequence restraint technique. Figure 5–98: NEGATIVE SEQUENCE DIRECTIONAL OC1 SCHEME LOGIC GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-193...
  • Page 340: Breaker Failure 1

    Range: 0.001 to 30.000 pu in steps of 0.001 BF1 N AMP HISET MESSAGE PICKUP: 1.050 pu Range: 0.001 to 30.000 pu in steps of 0.001 BF1 PH AMP LOSET MESSAGE PICKUP: 1.050 pu 5-194 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 341 For the L90 relay, the protection trip signal initially sent to the breaker is already programmed as a trip output. The protection trip signal does not include other breaker commands that are not indicative of a fault in the protected zone.
  • Page 342 BREAKER FAILURE TIMER No. 2 (±1/8 cycle) INITIATE (1/8 cycle) BREAKER FAILURE CURRENT DETECTOR PICKUP (1/8 cycle) BREAKER FAILURE OUTPUT RELAY PICKUP (1/4 cycle) FAULT cycles OCCURS 827083A6.CDR Figure 5–99: BREAKER FAILURE MAIN PATH SEQUENCE 5-196 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 343 In microprocessor relays this time is not significant. In L90 relays, which use a Fourier transform, the calculated current magnitude will ramp-down to zero one power frequency cycle after the current is interrupted, and this lag should be included in the overall margin duration, as it occurs after current interruption.
  • Page 344 Upon operation of the breaker failure element for a single pole trip command, a three-pole trip command should be given via output operand BKR FAIL 1 TRIP OP 5-198 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 345 5 SETTINGS 5.6 GROUPED ELEMENTS Figure 5–101: SINGLE-POLE BREAKER FAILURE, INITIATE (Sheet 1 of 2) GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-199...
  • Page 346 5.6 GROUPED ELEMENTS 5 SETTINGS Figure 5–102: SINGLE-POLE BREAKER FAILURE, TIMERS (Sheet 2 of 2) 5-200 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 347 5 SETTINGS 5.6 GROUPED ELEMENTS Figure 5–103: THREE-POLE BREAKER FAILURE, INITIATE (Sheet 1 of 2) GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-201...
  • Page 348 5.6 GROUPED ELEMENTS 5 SETTINGS Figure 5–104: THREE-POLE BREAKER FAILURE, TIMERS (Sheet 2 of 2) 5-202 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 349: Voltage Elements

    (EQ 5.25) – ------------------ pickup where: T = operating time D = undervoltage delay setting (D = 0.00 operates instantaneously) V = secondary voltage applied to the relay = pickup level pickup GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-203...
  • Page 350 The minimum voltage setting selects the operating voltage below which the element is blocked (a setting of “0” will allow a dead source to be considered a fault condition). 5-204 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 351 The input voltage is the phase-to-phase voltage, either measured directly from delta-connected VTs or as cal- culated from phase-to-ground (wye) connected VTs. The specific voltages to be used for each phase are shown below. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-205...
  • Page 352 FlexCurves A, B, or C) or be used as a definite time element. The setting applies only if NEUTRAL OV1 PICKUP DELAY setting is “Definite time”. The source assigned to this element must be configured for a phase VT. NEUTRAL OV1 CURVE 5-206 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 353 AUX UV1 EVENTS: MESSAGE Disabled The L90 contains one auxiliary undervoltage element for each VT bank. This element is intended for monitoring undervolt- age conditions of the auxiliary voltage. The selects the voltage level at which the time undervoltage ele- AUX UV1 PICKUP ment starts timing.
  • Page 354 AUX OV1 EVENTS: MESSAGE Disabled The L90 contains one auxiliary overvoltage element for each VT bank. This element is intended for monitoring overvoltage conditions of the auxiliary voltage. The nominal secondary voltage of the auxiliary voltage channel entered under SYSTEM...
  • Page 355: Sensitive Directional Power

    The element has an adjustable characteristic angle and minimum operating power as shown in the Directional power char- acteristic diagram. The element responds to the following condition: P cos Q sin SMIN (EQ 5.26) GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-209...
  • Page 356 SENSITIVE DIRECTIONAL POWER 1(2) value. The element has two independent (as to the pickup and delay settings) stages for alarm and trip, respectively. OPERATE RCA+ CALIBRATION SMIN RESTRAIN Figure 5–111: DIRECTIONAL POWER CHARACTERISTIC 5-210 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 357 DIR POWER 1 CALIBRATION: This setting allows the relay characteristic angle to change in steps of 0.05°. This may be useful when a small difference in VT and CT angular errors is to be compensated to permit more sensitive settings. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-211...
  • Page 358 DIR POWER 1 OP Three-phase reactive power (Q) DIR POWER 1 STG2 DPO DIR POWER 1 STG2 OP SETTING DIR POWER 1 STG2 DELAY: 100 ms 842003A3.CDR Figure 5–113: SENSITIVE DIRECTIONAL POWER SCHEME LOGIC 5-212 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 359: Supervising Elements

    DD CONTROL LOGIC: This setting is used to prevent operation of I_0 and I_2 logic of disturbance detector during conditions such as single breaker pole being open which leads to unbalanced load current in single-pole tripping schemes. Breaker auxiliary contact can be used for such scheme. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-213...
  • Page 360 OR LOWER) IN 0.02 pu FLEXLOGIC OPERAND SETTING STEPS USING THE HIGHEST VALUE OF 50DD SV DD LOGIC I_0 AND I_2. SEAL-IN: Off=0 SETTING DD NON-CURRENT SUPV: Off=0 827044A6.CDR Figure 5–114: DISTURBANCE DETECTOR SCHEME LOGIC 5-214 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 361 Autoreclosure disabled can be utilized, or the autoreclosure counter if, for example, the second trip is required to be a three-pole signal. Likewise, any operand representing a change in the power system configuration, can be applied. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-215...
  • Page 362 OPEN POLE OP A Φ OPEN POLE OP B Φ OPEN POLE OP C Φ OPEN POLE OP SETTING 87L TRIP FORCE 3-Φ = Off 831020A5.CDR Figure 5–115: 87L TRIP SCHEME LOGIC 5-216 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 363: Control Elements

    If more than one operate-type operand is required, it may be assigned directly from the trip bus menu. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-217...
  • Page 364 TRIP BUS 1 PKP = Enabled TRIP BUS 1 BLOCK = Off SETTINGS TRIP BUS 1 LATCHING = Enabled TRIP BUS 1 RESET = Off FLEXLOGIC OPERAND RESET OP 842023A1.CDR Figure 5–117: TRIP BUS LOGIC 5-218 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 365: Setting Groups

    The assigned operand is used to control the “On” state of a particular settings group. VIRTUAL OUTPUT 1 GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-219...
  • Page 366: Selector Switch

    SELECTOR 1 3BIT ACK: MESSAGE Range: Restore, Synchronize, Sync/Restore SELECTOR 1 POWER-UP MESSAGE MODE: Restore Range: Self-reset, Latched, Disabled SELECTOR 1 TARGETS: MESSAGE Self-reset Range: Disabled, Enabled SELECTOR 1 EVENTS: MESSAGE Disabled 5-220 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 367 SELECTOR 1 3BIT A0, A1, and A2: These settings specify a three-bit control input of the selector. The three-bit con- trol word pre-selects the position using the following encoding convention: POSITION rest GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-221...
  • Page 368 The selector position pre-selected via the stepping up control input has not been confirmed before the time out. SELECTOR 1 BIT ALARM The selector position pre-selected via the three-bit control input has not been confirmed before the time out. 5-222 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 369 3BIT A2 POS 1 POS 2 POS 3 POS 4 POS 5 POS 6 POS 7 BIT 0 BIT 1 BIT 2 STP ALARM BIT ALARM ALARM 842737A1.CDR Figure 5–119: TIME-OUT MODE GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-223...
  • Page 370: Selector Switch 1

    Make the following changes to selector switch element in the SETTINGS CONTROL ELEMENTS SELECTOR SWITCH menu to assign control to user programmable pushbutton 1 and contact inputs 1 through 3: SELECTOR SWITCH 1 5-224 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 371 SELECTOR 1 BIT ALARM 3-bit position out SELECTOR 1 ALARM SELECTOR 1 PWR ALARM SELECTOR 1 BIT 0 SELECTOR 1 BIT 1 SELECTOR 1 BIT 2 842012A2.CDR Figure 5–121: SELECTOR SWITCH LOGIC GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-225...
  • Page 372: Trip Output

    START TMR Z2GR Inp1: MESSAGE Range: FlexLogic™ operand START TMR Z2GR Inp2: MESSAGE Range: FlexLogic™ operand BKR ΦA OPEN: MESSAGE Range: FlexLogic™ operand BKR ΦB OPEN: MESSAGE Range: FlexLogic™ operand BKR ΦC OPEN: MESSAGE 5-226 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 373 Assign a higher priority to pilot aided scheme outputs than to exclusively local inputs. The trip output element works in association with other L90 elements (refer to the Theory of operation chapter for a com- plete description of single-pole operations) that must be programmed and in-service for successful operation. The neces- sary elements are: recloser, breaker control, open pole detector, and phase selector.
  • Page 374 TRIP FORCE 3-POLE: Selects an operand that will force an input selected for single pole operation to produce a three pole operation. The FlexLogic™ operand is the recommended value for this setting. Power system con- AR DISABLED figurations or conditions which require such operations may be considered as well. 5-228 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 375 Typically this value should be set around half a power system cycle. This setting should be used only in single- pole tripping applications, when evolving faults are of importance, and slightly delayed operation on evolving faults could be traded for enhanced accuracy of single-pole tripping. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-229...
  • Page 376 5.7 CONTROL ELEMENTS 5 SETTINGS Figure 5–122: TRIP OUTPUT SCHEME LOGIC (Sheet 1 of 2) 5-230 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 377 5 SETTINGS 5.7 CONTROL ELEMENTS Figure 5–123: TRIP OUTPUT SCHEME LOGIC (Sheet 2 of 2) GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-231...
  • Page 378: Underfrequency 1

    0 < f PICKUP UNDERFREQ 1 OP ≤ UNDERFREQ 1 MIN VOLT / AMP: ACTUAL VALUES UNDERFREQ 1 SOURCE: Level Minimum ≥ VOLT / AMP Frequency 827079A8.CDR Figure 5–124: UNDERFREQUENCY SCHEME LOGIC 5-232 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 379: Overfrequency 1

    OVERFREQ 1 BLOCK: OVERFREQ 1 RESET OVERFREQ 1 PKP DELAY : Off = 0 OVERFREQ 1 DPO OVERFREQ 1 OP SETTING PICKUP ≥ OVERFREQ 1 SOURCE: Frequency 827832A5.CDR Figure 5–125: OVERFREQUENCY SCHEME LOGIC GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-233...
  • Page 380: Frequency Rate Of Change

    FREQ RATE 1 OC SUPV PICKUP: This setting defines minimum current level required for operation of the element. The supervising function responds to the positive-sequence current. Typical application includes load shedding. Set the pickup threshold to zero if no overcurrent supervision is required. 5-234 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 381 FREQ RATE 1 PKP FREQ RATE 1 MIN FREQUENCY: FREQ RATE 1 MAX FREQUENCY: F > MIN & F < MAX Calculate df/dt 832023A2.CDR Figure 5–126: FREQUENCY RATE OF CHANGE SCHEME LOGIC GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-235...
  • Page 382: Synchrocheck

    F. This time can be calculated by: ------------------------------- - (EQ 5.27) ----------------- - where: = phase angle difference in degrees; F = frequency difference in Hz. 5-236 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 383 COMBINATION SOURCE Y SOURCE Z Phase VTs and Phase VTs and Phase Phase Auxiliary VT Auxiliary VT Phase VTs and Phase VT Phase Phase Auxiliary VT Phase VT Phase VT Phase Phase GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-237...
  • Page 384 The relay will use the phase channel of a three-phase set of voltages if pro- grammed as part of that source. The relay will use the auxiliary voltage channel only if that channel is programmed as part of the Source and a three-phase set is not. 5-238 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 385 5 SETTINGS 5.7 CONTROL ELEMENTS Figure 5–127: SYNCHROCHECK SCHEME LOGIC GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-239...
  • Page 386: Digital Elements

    Some versions of the digital input modules include an active voltage monitor circuit connected across form-A contacts. The voltage monitor circuit limits the trickle current through the output circuit (see technical specifications for form-A). 5-240 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 387 The settings to use digital element 1 to monitor the breaker trip circuit are indicated below (EnerVista UR Setup example shown): The PICKUP DELAY setting should be greater than the operating time of the breaker to avoid nuisance alarms. NOTE GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-241...
  • Page 388 “Off”. In this case, the settings are as follows (EnerVista UR Setup example shown). Figure 5–130: TRIP CIRCUIT EXAMPLE 2 The wiring connection for two examples above is applicable to both form-A contacts with voltage monitoring and solid-state contact with voltage monitoring. NOTE 5-242 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 389: Digital Counters

    –2,147,483,648 counts, the counter will rollover to +2,147,483,647. • COUNTER 1 BLOCK: Selects the FlexLogic™ operand for blocking the counting operation. All counter operands are blocked. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-243...
  • Page 390 COUNTER 1 FROZEN: Off = 0 STORE DATE & TIME Date & Time SETTING COUNT1 FREEZE/RESET: Off = 0 827065A1.VSD SETTING COUNT1 FREEZE/COUNT: Off = 0 Figure 5–131: DIGITAL COUNTER SCHEME LOGIC 5-244 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 391: Monitoring Elements

    VT FUSE FAILURE 4 See page 5–258. MESSAGE OPEN POLE See page 5–260. MESSAGE BROKEN CONDUCTOR 1 See page 5–263. MESSAGE BROKEN CONDUCTOR 2 See page 5–263. MESSAGE THERMAL OVERLOAD See page 5–265. MESSAGE PROTECTION GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-245...
  • Page 392 • BKR 1 ARC AMP LIMIT: Selects the threshold value above which the output operand is set. 5-246 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 393 BKR 1 ARCING AMP C Φ 827071A3.CDR BKR 1 OPERATING TIME A Φ BKR 1 OPERATING TIME B Φ Φ BKR 1 OPERATING TIME C BKR 1 OPERATING TIME Figure 5–133: BREAKER ARCING CURRENT SCHEME LOGIC GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-247...
  • Page 394 Breaker open, Voltage difference drop, and Measured flashover current through the breaker. Furthermore, the scheme is applicable for cases where either one or two sets of three-phase voltages are available across the breaker. 5-248 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 395 This application do not require detection of breaker status via a 52a contact, as it uses a voltage difference larger than the setting. However, monitoring the breaker contact will ensure scheme stability. BRK 1 FLSHOVR DIFF V PKP GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-249...
  • Page 396 BRK 1 FLSHOVR SPV A to BRK 1 FLSHOVR SPV C: These settings specifiy FlexLogic™ operands (per breaker pole) that supervise the operation of the element per phase. Supervision can be provided by operation of other protec- 5-250 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 397 BRK 1 FLSHOVR DIFF V SRC: PKP: SRC 1 SRC 2 SRC 6 , … , , none ∆VA > PKP ∆ VA = VA - Va 842018A2.CDR Figure 5–134: BREAKER FLASHOVER SCHEME LOGIC GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-251...
  • Page 398 A restrike event (FlexLogic™ operand) is declared if all of the following hold: • The current is initially interrupted. 5-252 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 399 “1” when breaker is opened, either manually or from protection logic. • BRK RSTR 1 CLS CMD: This setting assigns a FlexLogic™ operand indicating a breaker close command. It must be logic “1” when breaker is closed. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-253...
  • Page 400 Range: FlexLogic™ operand. To supervise voltage logic, CONT MONITOR V-SUPV: MESSAGE use VT FUSE FAIL OP Range: Self-reset, Latched, Disabled CONT MONITOR MESSAGE TARGET: Self-reset Range: Disabled, Enabled CONT MONITOR MESSAGE EVENTS: Disabled 5-254 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 401 SETTING CONT MONITOR V_SUPV: Off = 0 FLEXLOGIC OPERANDS CONT MONITOR OP CONT MONITOR PKP SETTING CONT MONITOR DPO CONT MONITOR V_OP: Off = 0 827049A3.vsd Figure 5–138: CONTINUOUS MONITOR SCHEME LOGIC GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-255...
  • Page 402 CT FAIL 3I0 INPUT 2 PICKUP: This setting selects the 3I_0 pickup value for input 2 (different CT input) of the relay. • CT FAIL 3V0 INPUT: This setting selects the voltage source. 5-256 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 403 CT FAIL 3IO INPUT2: CT FAIL 3IO INPUT2 PKP: SRC2 3IO > PICKUP SETTING SETTING CT FAIL 3VO INPUT: CT FAIL 3VO INPUT: SRC1 3VO > PICKUP 827048A6.CDR Figure 5–139: CT FAILURE DETECTOR SCHEME LOGIC GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-257...
  • Page 404 An additional condition is introduced to inhibit a fuse failure declaration when the monitored circuit is de-energized; positive- sequence voltage and current are both below threshold levels. The function setting enables and disables the fuse failure feature for each source. 5-258 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 405 20 cycles SRC1 VT FUSE FAIL DPO FLEXLOGIC OPERANDS SRC1 50DD OP OPEN POLE OP The OPEN POLE OP operand is applicable to the D60, L60, and L90 only. RESET Reset-dominant FLEXLOGIC OPERAND SRC1 VT FUSE FAIL VOL LOSS TIMER...
  • Page 406 This setting is relevant if open pole condition at the remote end of the line is to be sensed and utilized by the relay ( FlexLogic™ operand). OPEN POLE REM OP 5-260 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 407 When used in configuration with only one breaker, the should be BREAKER 2 FUNCTION “Enabled” and the setting should be “On” (refer to the Breaker Control section earlier in this chapter BREAKER 2 OUT OF SV for additional details). GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-261...
  • Page 408 5.7 CONTROL ELEMENTS 5 SETTINGS Figure 5–141: OPEN POLE DETECTOR LOGIC (Sheet 1 of 2) 5-262 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 409 I_2 / I_1 ratio. The intention of this function is to detect a single-phase broken conductor only. As such two-phase or three-phase broken conductors cannot be detected. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-263...
  • Page 410 2 cyc | Ic’ | - | Ic | > 0.05pu Where I’ is 4 cycles old FLEXLOGIC OPERAND BROKEN CONDUCT 1 One phase current loss detection Figure 5–143: BROKEN CONDUCTOR DETECTION LOGIC 5-264 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 411 • = measured load RMS current before overload occurs. • k= IEC 255-8 k-factor applied to I , defining maximum permissible current above nominal current. • = protected element base (nominal) current. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-265...
  • Page 412 , element starts increasing the thermal energy: -------------- - (EQ 5.31) – op In When current is less than the dropout level, I > 0.97 × k × I , the element starts decreasing the thermal energy: 5-266 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 413 30 minutes Busbar 60 minutes 20 minutes Underground cable 20 to 60 minutes 60 minutes The logic for the thermal overload protection element is shown below. Figure 5–145: THERMAL OVERLOAD PROTECTION SCHEME LOGIC GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-267...
  • Page 414: Pilot Schemes

    POTT RX PICKUP DELAY: This setting enables the relay to cope with spurious receive signals. The delay should be set longer than the longest spurious signal that can occur simultaneously with the zone 2 pickup. The selected delay will increase the response time of the scheme. 5-268 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 415 Typically, the output operand should be programmed to initiate a trip, breaker fail, and autoreclose, and drive a user-programmable LED as per user application. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-269...
  • Page 416 Echo duration and lockout logic SETTING ECHO TABLE POTT ECHO COND: Phase Custom Selector Off = 0 FLEXLOGIC OPERANDS AR FORCE 3P TRIP OPEN POLE OP 837014AH.CDR Figure 5–146: POTT SCHEME LOGIC 5-270 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 417: Autoreclose

    Range: FlexLogic™ operand AR EXTEND DEAD T 1: MESSAGE Range: 0.00 to 655.35 s in steps of 0.01 AR DEAD TIME 1 MESSAGE EXTENSION: 0.50 s Range: FlexLogic™ operand AR RESET: MESSAGE GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-271...
  • Page 418 The signal used to initiate the autoreclose scheme is the trip output from protection. This signal can be single pole tripping for single phase faults and three phase tripping for multi-phase faults. The autoreclose scheme has five operating states. 5-272 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 419 These operands are AR CLOSE BKR 1 AR CLOSE BKR 2 latched until the breaker closes or the scheme goes to Reset or Lockout. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-273...
  • Page 420 (both breakers closed and there is no initiating signal) the reset timer will time out, return- ing the scheme to the reset state with the shot counter set to 0. The scheme will be ready for a new reclose cycle. 5-274 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 421 The reclosing scheme contains logic that is used to signal trip logic that three-pole tripping is required for certain conditions. This signal is activated by any of the following: • Autoreclose scheme is paused after it was initiated. • Autoreclose scheme is in the lockout state. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-275...
  • Page 422 Instead, the priority is given to the operand. AR 3P INIT • AR MULTI-P FAULT: This setting selects a FlexLogic™ operand that indicates a multi-phase fault. The operand value should be zero for single-phase to ground faults. 5-276 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 423 AR TRANSFER 1 TO 2: This setting establishes how the scheme performs when the breaker closing sequence is 1-2 and breaker 1 is blocked. When set to “Yes” the closing command will be transferred direct to breaker 2 without waiting GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-277...
  • Page 424 AR BUS FLT INIT: This setting is used in breaker-and-a-half applications to allow the autoreclose control function to perform reclosing with only one breaker previously opened by bus protection. For line faults, both breakers must open for the autoreclose reclosing cycles to take effect. 5-278 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 425 5 SETTINGS 5.7 CONTROL ELEMENTS Figure 5–147: SINGLE-POLE AUTORECLOSE LOGIC (Sheet 1 of 3) GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-279...
  • Page 426 5.7 CONTROL ELEMENTS 5 SETTINGS Figure 5–148: SINGLE-POLE AUTORECLOSE LOGIC (Sheet 2 of 3) 5-280 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 427 OFF = 0 FLEXLOGIC OPERAND BREAKER 1 ONE P OPEN FLEXLOGIC OPERAND BREAKER 2 ONE P OPEN BKR ONE POLE OPEN (To sheet 1) 827833AA.CDR Figure 5–149: SINGLE-POLE AUTORECLOSE LOGIC (Sheet 3 of 3) GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-281...
  • Page 428 5.7 CONTROL ELEMENTS 5 SETTINGS Figure 5–150: EXAMPLE RECLOSING SEQUENCE 5-282 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 429: Contact Inputs

    The DC input voltage is compared to a user-settable threshold. A new contact input state must be maintained for a user- settable debounce time in order for the L90 to validate the new contact state. In the figure below, the debounce time is set at 2.5 ms;...
  • Page 430 Event Records menu, make the following settings changes: "Breaker Closed (52b)" CONTACT INPUT H5A ID: "Enabled" CONTACT INPUT H5A EVENTS: Note that the 52b contact is closed when the breaker is open and open when the breaker is closed. 5-284 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 431: Virtual Inputs

    “Virtual Input 1 to OFF = 0” VIRTUAL INPUT 1 ID: (Flexlogic Operand) SETTING Virt Ip 1 VIRTUAL INPUT 1 TYPE: Latched Self - Reset 827080A2.CDR Figure 5–152: VIRTUAL INPUTS SCHEME LOGIC GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-285...
  • Page 432: Contact Outputs

    The most dependable protection of the initiating contact is provided by directly measuring current in the tripping circuit, and using this parameter to control resetting of the initiating relay. This scheme is often called trip seal-in. This can be realized in the L90 using the FlexLogic™ operand to seal-in the contact output as follows: CONT OP 1 ION “Cont Op 1"...
  • Page 433 5.8 INPUTS/OUTPUTS The L90 latching output contacts are mechanically bi-stable and controlled by two separate (open and close) coils. As such they retain their position even if the relay is not powered up. The relay recognizes all latching output contact cards and pop- ulates the setting menu accordingly.
  • Page 434: Virtual Outputs

    FlexLogic™ equations. Any change of state of a virtual output can be logged as an event if programmed to do so. For example, if Virtual Output 1 is the trip signal from FlexLogic™ and the trip relay is used to signal events, the settings would be programmed as follows: 5-288 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 435: Remote Devices

    32 “DNA” bit pairs that represent the state of two pre-defined events and 30 user-defined events. All remaining bit pairs are “UserSt” bit pairs, which are status bits representing user-definable events. The L90 implementation provides 32 of the 96 available UserSt bit pairs.
  • Page 436: Remote Inputs

    5 SETTINGS c) LOCAL DEVICES: DEVICE ID FOR TRANSMITTING GSSE MESSAGES In a L90 relay, the device ID that represents the IEC 61850 GOOSE application ID (GoID) name string sent as part of each GOOSE message is programmed in the...
  • Page 437: Remote Double-point Status Inputs

    RemDPS , and FlexLogic™ operands. These operands can then be Ip 1 BAD RemDPS Ip 1 INTERM RemDPS Ip 1 OFF RemDPS Ip 1 ON used in breaker or disconnect control schemes. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-291...
  • Page 438: Remote Outputs

    Direct input and output FlexLogic™ operands to be used at the local relay are assigned as follows: • Direct input/output 1-1 through direct input/output 1-8 for communications channel 1. • Direct input/output 2-1 through direct input/output 2-8 for communications channel 2 (three-terminal systems only). 5-292 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 439 FlexLogic™ operand. The setting above is used to select the operand which represents a specific function (as selected by the user) to be transmitted. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-293...
  • Page 440 L90 communication channel (same for 1-2...1-8) (87L is Enabled) SETTING DIRECT OUTPUT 1-1: FLEXLOGIC OPERAND (same for 1-2...1-8) Fail DIRECT I/P 1-1 Off (Flexlogic Operand) (same for 1-2...1-8) 831024A1.CDR Figure 5–153: DIRECT INPUTS/OUTPUTS LOGIC 5-294 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 441: Resetting

    GOOSE ANALOG 1 PU: This setting specifies the per-unit base factor when using the GOOSE analog input FlexAna- log™ values in other L90 features, such as FlexElements™. The base factor is applied to the GOOSE analog input FlexAnalog quantity to normalize it to a per-unit quantity. The base units are described in the following table.
  • Page 442: Iec 61850 Goose Integers

    = maximum primary RMS value of all the sources related to the +IN and –IN inputs BASE (Max Delta Volts) The GOOSE analog input FlexAnalog™ values are available for use in other L90 functions that use FlexAnalog™ values. 5.8.12 IEC 61850 GOOSE INTEGERS PATH: SETTINGS...
  • Page 443: Dcma Inputs

    –20 to +180 MW; in this case the value would be “–20” and the DCMA INPUT H1 MIN VALUE DCMA INPUT H1 MAX value “180”. Intermediate values between the min and max values are scaled linearly. VALUE GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-297...
  • Page 444: Rtd Inputs

    1.5 pu. FlexElement™ operands are available to FlexLogic™ for further interlocking or to operate an output contact directly. Refer to the following table for reference temperature values for each RTD type. 5-298 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 445 168.47 280.77 233.97 16.00 172.46 291.96 243.30 16.39 175.84 303.46 252.88 16.78 179.51 315.31 262.76 17.17 183.17 327.54 272.94 17.56 186.82 340.14 283.45 17.95 190.45 353.14 294.28 18.34 194.08 366.53 305.44 18.73 GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-299...
  • Page 446: Dcma Outputs

    – MAX VAL MIN VAL MAX VAL < 0.1 pu. The resulting characteristic is illustrated in the following figure. DRIVING SIGNAL MIN VAL MAX VAL 842739A1.CDR Figure 5–154: DCMA OUTPUT CHARACTERISTIC 5-300 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 447 The CT ratio is 5000:5 and the maximum load current is 4200 A. The current should be monitored from 0 A upwards, allow- ing for 50% overload. The phase current with the 50% overload margin is: GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-301...
  • Page 448 254.03 kV 1.27 kV • ±0.5% of reading For example, under nominal conditions, the positive-sequence reads 230.94 kV and the worst-case error is 0.005 x 230.94 kV + 1.27 kV = 2.42 kV. 5-302 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 449: Test Mode

    TEST MODE FORCING: MESSAGE The L90 provides a test facility to verify the functionality of contact inputs and outputs, some communication channels and the phasor measurement unit (where applicable), using simulated conditions. The test mode is indicated on the relay face- plate by a Test Mode LED indicator.
  • Page 450: Force Contact Inputs

    Following a restart, power up, settings TEST MODE FUNCTION upload, or firmware upgrade, the test mode will remain at the last programmed value. This allows a L90 that has been placed in isolated mode to remain isolated during testing and maintenance activities. On restart, the TEST MODE FORCING setting and the force contact input and force contact output settings all revert to their default states.
  • Page 451: Force Contact Outputs

    USER PUSHBUTTON 1 PUSHBUTTON 1 FUNCTION input 1 to initiate the Test mode, make the following changes in the menu: SETTINGS TESTING TEST MODE “Enabled” and “ ” TEST MODE FUNCTION: TEST MODE INITIATE: GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-305...
  • Page 452: Channel Tests

    Range: 0.000 to 9.999 kA in steps of 0.001 PMU 1 IA TEST MESSAGE MAGNITUDE: 1.000 kA Range: –180.00 to 180.00° in steps of 0.05 PMU 1 IA TEST MESSAGE ANGLE: –10.00° 5-306 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 453 When required, it is recommended to use the user-pro- grammable digital channels to signal the C37.118 client that test values are being sent in place of the real measurements. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 5-307...
  • Page 454 5.10 TESTING 5 SETTINGS 5-308 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 455: Actual Values Main Menu

    IEC 61850 See page 6-8. GOOSE UINTEGERS ETHERNET SWITCH See page 6-9. ACTUAL VALUES 87L DIFFERENTIAL See page 6-13. METERING CURRENT SOURCE SRC 1 See page 6-14. SOURCE SRC 2 SOURCE SRC 3 GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System...
  • Page 456 See page 6-23. OSCILLOGRAPHY See page 6-24. DATA LOGGER See page 6-24. PMU RECORDS See page 6-24. MAINTENANCE See page 6-25. ACTUAL VALUES MODEL INFORMATION See page 6-26. PRODUCT INFO FIRMWARE REVISIONS See page 6-26. L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 457: Contact Inputs

    The state displayed will be that of the remote point unless the remote device has been established to be “Offline” in which case the value shown is the programmed default state for the remote input. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System...
  • Page 458: Remote Double-point Status Inputs

    Range: On, Off, VOff, VOn, IOn, IOff CONTACT OUTPUTS Cont Op 1 Range: On, Off, VOff, VOn, IOn, IOff Cont Op 2 MESSAGE Range: On, Off, VOff, VOn, IOn, IOff Cont Op xx MESSAGE L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 459: Virtual Outputs

    The present state of the programmed remote devices is shown here. The message indicates ALL REMOTE DEVICES ONLINE whether or not all programmed remote devices are online. If the corresponding state is "No", then at least one required remote device is not online. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System...
  • Page 460: Channel Tests

    Range: n/a, FAIL, OK VALIDITY OF CHANNEL MESSAGE CONFIGURATION: n/a Range: n/a, FAIL, OK PFLL MESSAGE STATUS: n/a The status information for two channels is shown here. A brief description of each actual value is below: L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 461: Digital Counters

    COUNTER 1 MICROS 6.2.12 SELECTOR SWITCHES PATH: ACTUAL VALUES STATUS SELECTOR SWITCHES Range: Current Position / 7 SELECTOR SWITCHES SELECTOR SWITCH 1 POSITION: 0/7 Range: Current Position / 7 SELECTOR SWITCH 2 MESSAGE POSITION: 0/7 GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System...
  • Page 462: Flex States

    UINT INPUT 16 MESSAGE The L90 Line Current Differential System is provided with optional IEC 61850 communications capability. This feature is specified as a software option at the time of ordering. Refer to the Ordering section of chap- ter 2 for additional details. The IEC 61850 protocol features are not available if CPU type E is ordered.
  • Page 463: Ethernet Switch

    SWITCH MAC ADDRESS: MESSAGE 00A0F40138FA These actual values appear only if the L90 is ordered with an Ethernet switch module (type 2S or 2T). The status informa- tion for the Ethernet switch is shown in this menu. • SWITCH 1 PORT STATUS to SWITCH 6 PORT STATUS: These values represents the receiver status of each port on the Ethernet switch.
  • Page 464: Metering Conventions

    WATTS = Negative VARS = Positive PF = Lead PF = Lag PF = Lead Current UR RELAY 827239AC.CDR S=VI Generator Figure 6–1: FLOW DIRECTION OF SIGNED VALUES FOR WATTS AND VARS 6-10 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 465 ABC phase rotation: • ACB phase rotation: -- - V -- - V -- - V -- - V -- - V -- - V The above equations apply to currents as well. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 6-11...
  • Page 466 The power system voltages are phase-referenced – for simplicity – to VAG and VAB, respectively. This, however, is a relative matter. It is important to remember that the L90 displays are always referenced as specified under SETTINGS...
  • Page 467: Differential Current

    The metered current values are displayed for all line terminals in fundamental phasor form. All angles are shown with respect to the reference common for all L90 devices; that is, frequency, source currents, and voltages. The metered pri- mary differential and restraint currents are displayed for the local relay.
  • Page 468: Sources

    RMS In: MESSAGE 0.000 SRC 1 PHASOR Ia: MESSAGE 0.000 0.0° SRC 1 PHASOR Ib: MESSAGE 0.000 0.0° SRC 1 PHASOR Ic: MESSAGE 0.000 0.0° SRC 1 PHASOR In: MESSAGE 0.000 0.0° 6-14 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 469 SRC 1 RMS Vab: MESSAGE 0.00 SRC 1 RMS Vbc: MESSAGE 0.00 SRC 1 RMS Vca: MESSAGE 0.00 SRC 1 PHASOR Vab: MESSAGE 0.000 0.0° SRC 1 PHASOR Vbc: MESSAGE 0.000 0.0° GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 6-15...
  • Page 470 MESSAGE 0.000 SRC 1 REACTIVE PWR MESSAGE 0.000 SRC 1 REACTIVE PWR MESSAGE 0.000 SRC 1 APPARENT PWR MESSAGE 0.000 SRC 1 APPARENT PWR MESSAGE 0.000 SRC 1 APPARENT PWR MESSAGE 0.000 6-16 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 471 DMD IA DATE: MESSAGE 2001/07/31 16:30:07 SRC 1 DMD IB: MESSAGE 0.000 SRC 1 DMD IB MAX: MESSAGE 0.000 SRC 1 DMD IB DATE: MESSAGE 2001/07/31 16:30:07 SRC 1 DMD IC: MESSAGE 0.000 GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 6-17...
  • Page 472 If the 87L function is enabled, then dedicated 87L frequency tracking is engaged. In this case, the relay uses the METERING value for all computations, overriding the value. TRACKING FREQUENCY TRACKING FREQUENCY SOURCE FREQUENCY 6-18 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 473: Sensitive Directional Power

    FREQUENCY RATE OF MESSAGE CHANGE 3: 0.00 Hz/s FREQUENCY RATE OF MESSAGE CHANGE 4: 0.00 Hz/s The metered frequency rate of change for the frequency rate of change elements is shown here. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 6-19...
  • Page 474: Flexelements™

    MESSAGE 0.000 The L90 Line Current Differential System is provided with optional IEC 61850 communications capability. This feature is specified as a software option at the time of ordering. Refer to the Ordering section of chap- ter 2 for additional details. The IEC 61850 protocol features are not available if CPU type E is ordered.
  • Page 475: Wattmetric Ground Fault

    PMU 1 I1: MESSAGE 0.0000 kA, 0.00° PMU 1 I2: MESSAGE 0.0000 kA, 0.00° PMU 1 I0: MESSAGE 0.0000 kA, 0.00° PMU 1 FREQUENCY: MESSAGE 0.0000 Hz PMU 1 df/dt: MESSAGE 0.0000 Hz/s GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 6-21...
  • Page 476: Transducer Inputs And Outputs

    RTD INPUT xx -50 °C Actual values for each RTD input channel that is enabled are displayed with the top line as the programmed channel ID and the bottom line as the value. 6-22 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 477: Records

    If all 1024 event records have been filled, the oldest record will be removed as a new record is added. Each event record shows the event identifier/sequence number, cause, and date/time stamp associated with the event trigger. Refer to the menu for clearing event records. COMMANDS CLEAR RECORDS GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 6-23...
  • Page 478: Oscillography

    RECORDING The number of triggers applicable to the phasor measurement unit recorder is indicated by the value. NUMBER OF TRIGGERS The status of the phasor measurement unit recorder is indicated as follows: 6-24 L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 479: Breaker Maintenance

    BKR 1 ARCING AMP menu for clearing breaker arcing current records. The COMMANDS CLEAR RECORDS BREAKER OPERATING TIME defined as the slowest operating time of breaker poles that were initiated to open. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System 6-25...
  • Page 480: Product Information

    6 ACTUAL VALUES 6.5PRODUCT INFORMATION 6.5.1 MODEL INFORMATION PATH: ACTUAL VALUES PRODUCT INFO MODEL INFORMATION Range: standard GE multilin order code format; MODEL INFORMATION ORDER CODE LINE 1: example order code shown L90-E00-HCH-F8F-H6A Range: standard GE multilin order code format...
  • Page 481: Commands And

    The states of up to 64 virtual inputs are changed here. The first line of the display indicates the ID of the virtual input. The second line indicates the current or selected status of the virtual input. This status will be a state off (logic 0) or on (logic 1). GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System...
  • Page 482: Clear Records

    24-hour clock. The complete date, as a minimum, must be entered to allow execution of this com- mand. The new time will take effect at the moment the ENTER key is clicked. L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 483: Relay Maintenance

    Various self-checking diagnostics are performed in the background while the L90 is running, and diagnostic information is stored on the non-volatile memory from time to time based on the self-checking result. Although the diagnostic information is cleared before the L90 is shipped from the factory, the user may want to clear the diagnostic information for themselves under certain circumstances.
  • Page 484 PMU and not to the absolute UTC time. Therefore a simple IRIG-B genera- tor could be used instead. Also, the test set does not have to support GPS synchronization. Any stable signal source can L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 485 The one-shot feature can be used for ad hoc collection of synchronized measurements in the network. Two or more PMU can be pre-scheduled to freeze their measurements at the same time. When frozen the measurements could be collected using EnerVista UR Setup or a protocol client. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System...
  • Page 486: Targets Menu

    The critical fail relay on the power supply module is de-energized. • All other output relays are de-energized and are prevented from further operation. • The faceplate In Service LED indicator is turned off. • event is recorded. RELAY OUT OF SERVICE L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 487 Contact Factory (xxx) • Latched target message: Yes. • Description of problem: One or more installed hardware modules is not compatible with the L90 order code. • How often the test is performed: Module dependent. • What to do: Contact the factory and supply the failure code noted in the display. The “xxx” text identifies the failed mod- ule (for example, F8L).
  • Page 488 • What to do: Verify that all the items in the GOOSE data set are supported by the L90. The EnerVista UR Setup soft- ware will list the valid items. An IEC61850 client will also show which nodes are available for the L90.
  • Page 489 What to do: Verify the state of the output contact and contact the factory if the problem persists. MAINTENANCE ALERT: GGIO Ind xxx oscill • Latched target message: No. • Description of problem: A data item in a configurable GOOSE data set is oscillating. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System...
  • Page 490 Description of problem: The ambient temperature is greater than the maximum operating temperature (+80°C). • How often the test is performed: Every hour. • What to do: Remove the L90 from service and install in a location that meets operating temperature standards. UNEXPECTED RESTART: Press “RESET” key •...
  • Page 491: Security

    When entering a settings or command password via EnerVista or any serial interface, the user must enter the correspond- ing connection password. If the connection is to the back of the L90, the remote password must be used. If the connection is to the RS232 port of the faceplate, the local password must be used.
  • Page 492: Password Security Menu

    ENCRYPTED PASSWORD If the setting and command passwords are identical, then this one password allows access to both commands and settings. NOTE If a remote connection is established, local passcodes are not visible. NOTE L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 493: Remote Passwords

    If a command or setting password is lost (or forgotten), consult the factory with the corresponding Encrypted Password value. If you establish a local connection to the relay (serial), you cannot view remote passcodes. NOTE GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System...
  • Page 494: Access Supervision

    INVALID ATTEMPS BEFORE LOCKOUT The L90 provides a means to raise an alarm upon failed password entry. Should password verification fail while accessing a password-protected level of the relay (either settings or commands), the FlexLogic™ operand is UNAUTHORIZED ACCESS asserted.
  • Page 495 If access is permitted and an off-to-on transition of the FlexLogic™ operand is detected, the timeout is restarted. The status of this timer is updated every 5 seconds. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System...
  • Page 496: Enervista Security Management System

    Select the Security > User Management menu item to open the user management configuration window. Enter a username in the User field. The username must be between 4 and 20 characters in length. L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 497: Modifying User Privileges

    The EnerVista security management system must be enabled. The following procedure describes how to modify user privileges. Select the Security > User Management menu item to open the user management configuration window. Locate the username in the User field. GE Multilin L90 Line Current Differential System...
  • Page 498 When this box is checked, the user will become an EnerVista URPlus Setup administrator, therefore receiving all of the administrative rights. Exercise caution when granting administrator rights. Click OK to save the changes to user to the security management system. L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...
  • Page 499: Theory Of Operation

    The second major technical consideration is the restraint characteristic, which is the decision boundary between situations that are declared to be a fault and those that are not. The L90 uses an innovative adaptive decision process based on an on-line computation of the sources of measurement error. In this adaptive approach, the restraint region is an ellipse with variable major axis, minor axis, and orientation.
  • Page 500: Removal Of Decaying Offset

    Since the sampling clocks are synchronized, the time stamp is simply a sequence number. L90 Line Current Differential System GE Multilin...