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GE L90 Instruction Manual

Line current differential system.
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GE
Grid Solutions
L90
Line Current Differential System
Instruction Manual
Product version: 7.4x
GE publication code: 1601-0081-AE3 (GEK-130985B)
E83849
LISTED
IND.CONT. EQ.
52TL
1601-0081-AE3

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   Summary of Contents for GE L90

  • Page 1 Grid Solutions Line Current Differential System Instruction Manual Product version: 7.4x GE publication code: 1601-0081-AE3 (GEK-130985B) E83849 LISTED IND.CONT. EQ. 52TL 1601-0081-AE3...
  • Page 2 The contents of this manual are the property of GE Multilin Inc. This documentation is furnished on license and may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the permission of GE Multilin. The content of this manual is for informational use only and is subject to change without notice.
  • Page 3: Table Of Contents

    Inputs ............................2-44 2.6.6 Power supply ........................2-45 2.6.7 Outputs............................2-46 2.6.8 Communication protocols....................2-48 2.6.9 Inter-relay communications..................2-49 2.6.10 CyberSentry security......................2-50 2.6.11 Environmental........................2-50 2.6.12 Type tests ..........................2-51 2.6.13 Production tests ........................2-51 2.6.14 Approvals ..........................2-52 2.6.15 Maintenance.........................2-52 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 4 Settings files ..........................4-1 4.1.3 Event viewing..........................4-2 4.1.4 File support ..........................4-3 4.1.5 EnerVista main window .....................4-3 4.1.6 Protection summary window..................4-4 4.1.7 Settings templates........................4-5 4.1.8 Secure and lock FlexLogic equations ................4-9 4.1.9 Settings file traceability....................4-12 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 5 Remote resources configuration ................5-120 System setup ....................5-121 5.5.1 AC inputs ..........................5-121 5.5.2 Power system........................5-122 5.5.3 Signal sources........................5-123 5.5.4 87L power system......................5-126 5.5.5 Breakers..........................5-134 5.5.6 Disconnect switches ......................5-138 5.5.7 FlexCurves...........................5-141 5.5.8 Phasor Measurement Unit ..................5-148 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 6 DCmA inputs........................5-401 5.10.2 RTD inputs .......................... 5-402 5.10.3 DCmA outputs ........................5-403 5.11 Testing ......................5-407 5.11.1 Test mode function ......................5-407 5.11.2 Test mode forcing......................5-407 5.11.3 Phasor Measurement Unit test values..............5-408 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 7 6.5.1 Fault reports .........................6-29 6.5.2 Event records ........................6-30 6.5.3 Oscillography........................6-31 6.5.4 Data logger ...........................6-32 6.5.5 Phasor Measurement Unit records................6-32 6.5.6 Breaker maintenance.......................6-32 Product information..................6-33 6.6.1 Model information......................6-33 6.6.2 Firmware revisions ......................6-34 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 8 LV-side faults........................8-24 8.7.4 External ground faults ..................... 8-24 Instantaneous elements................8-25 8.8.1 Instantaneous element error during L90 synchronization......8-25 Phase distance through power transformers ..........8-26 8.9.1 Phase distance protection..................... 8-26 8.9.2 Example..........................8-27 viii L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 9 10.5.4 Permissive echo signaling...................10-48 10.5.5 Pilot scheme / phase selector coordination ............10-49 10.5.6 Cross-country fault example ..................10-50 10.6 Fault locator ....................10-51 10.6.1 Overview..........................10-51 10.6.2 Multi-ended fault locator .....................10-51 10.6.3 Single-ended fault locator...................10-58 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 10 OPERANDS B RADIUS SERVER B.1 RADIUS server configuration .................B-1 CONFIGURATION C COMMAND LINE C.1 Command line interface .................C-1 INTERFACE D MISCELLANEOUS D.1 Warranty ......................D-1 D.2 Revision history ....................D-1 ABBREVIATIONS INDEX L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 11: Introduction

    Ensure that the control power applied to the device, the AC current, and voltage input match the ratings specified on the relay nameplate. Do not apply current or voltage in excess of the specified limits. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 12: For Further Assistance

    Worldwide e-mail: multilin.tech@ge.com Europe e-mail: multilin.tech.euro@ge.com Website: http://www.gegridsolutions.com/multilin When contacting GE by e-mail, optionally include a device information file, which is generated in the EnerVista software by clicking the Service Report button. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 13 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION FOR FURTHER ASSISTANCE Figure 1-1: Generate service report L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 14 FOR FURTHER ASSISTANCE CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 15: Product Description

    2.1.1 Overview The L90 Line Current Differential System is part of the Universal Relay (UR) series of products. It is a digital current differential relay system with an integral communications channel interface. It is a complete line terminal protection and control system, able to deliver protection as either a line differential and/or distance device.
  • Page 16 IEC 61850, Modbus/TCP, TFTP, and PTP (according to IEEE Std. 1588-2008 or IEC 61588), and it allows access to the relay via any standard web browser (L90 web pages). The IEC 60870-5-104 protocol is supported on the Ethernet port. The Ethernet port also supports the Parallel Redundancy Protocol (PRP) of IEC 62439-3 (clause 4, 2012) when purchased as an option.
  • Page 17: Features

    VT Fuse Failure Event Recorder Open Pole Detector 2.1.2 Features 2.1.2.1 Line current differential • Phase segregated, high-speed digital current differential system • Overhead and underground AC transmission lines, series compensated lines L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 18 Zero-sequence removal for application on lines with tapped transformers connected in a grounded wye on the line side • GE phaselets approach based on the Discrete Fourier Transform with 64 samples per cycle and transmitting two time- stamped phaselets per cycle •...
  • Page 19: Pilot Channel Relaying

    IEEE C37.94 820 nm multimode fiber with an LED transmitter All fiber optic options use an ST connector. L90 models are available for use on two or three terminal lines. A two terminal line application requires one bidirectional channel. However, in two terminal line applications, it is also possible to use an L90 relay with two bidirectional channels.
  • Page 20 CHAPTER 2: PRODUCT DESCRIPTION If a slave L90 issues a trip from one of its backup functions, it can send a transfer trip signal to its master and other slave relays if such option is designated. Because a slave cannot communicate with all the relays in the differential scheme, the master then “broadcasts”...
  • Page 21: Channel Monitor

    2.2.2 Channel monitor The L90 has logic to detect that the communications channel is deteriorating or has failed completely. This can provide an alarm indication and disable the current differential protection. Note that a failure of the communications from the master to a slave does not prevent the master from performing the current differential algorithm;...
  • Page 22: Direct Transfer Tripping

    The L90 supports password entry from a local or remote connection. Local access is defined as any access to settings or commands via the faceplate interface. This includes both keypad entry and the through the faceplate RS232 port. Remote access is defined as any access to settings or commands via any rear communications port.
  • Page 23 See table notes See table notes |--------------- Display Properties |--------------- Clear Relay Records (settings) |--------------- Communications |--------------- Modbus User Map |--------------- Real Time Clock |--------------- Oscillography |--------------- Data Logger |--------------- Demand |--------------- User-Programmable LEDs L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 24 |---------- Set Date and Time User Displays Targets Actual Values |---------- Front panel labels designer |---------- Status |---------- Metering |---------- Transducer I/O |---------- Records |---------- Product Info Maintenance |---------- Modbus Analyzer 2-10 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 25: Order Codes

    The order code is on the product label and indicates the product options applicable. The L90 is available as a 19-inch rack horizontal mount or reduced-size (¾) vertical unit. It consists of the following modules: power supply, CPU, CT/VT, contact input and output, transducer input and output, and inter-relay communications.
  • Page 26: Order Codes With Enhanced Ct/vt Modules

    The R-GOOSE protocol described in IEC 61850-8-1 is available through the IEC 61850 software option. If R-GOOSE security is required, the CyberSentry software option also must be purchased. 2.4.1 Order codes with enhanced CT/VT modules Table 2-4: L90 order codes for horizontal units - * ** - * *...
  • Page 27 IEC 60870-5-103 + PMU IEC 60870-5-103 + IEC 61850 + PMU IEC 60870-5-103 + Breaker-and-a-half + PMU IEC 60870-5-103 + IEC 61850 + Breaker-and-a-half + PMU IEC 60870-5-103 + In-zone transformer protection L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 2-13...
  • Page 28 Half + PMU + 61850-90-5 IEC 60870-5-103 + IEEE 1588 + PRP + CyberSentry UR Lvl 1 + In-zone TX + IEC 61850 + Breaker and Half + PMU + 61850-90-5 2-14 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 29 Channel 1 - RS422; Channel 2 - 820 nm, multimode, LED 7M Channel 1 - RS422; Channel 2 - 1300 nm, multimode, LED Channel 1 - RS422; Channel 2 - 1300 nm, single-mode, ELED L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 2-15...
  • Page 30 G.703, 2 Channels RS422, 1 Channel RS422, 2 Channels, 2 Clock Inputs 7W RS422, 2 Channels Table 2-5: L90 order codes for reduced-size vertical units - * ** - * * * - F ** - H ** - L **...
  • Page 31 CyberSentry UR Lvl 1 + IEC 61850 + PMU + 61850-90-5 CyberSentry UR Lvl 1 + IEC 61850 + Breaker and Half + PMU + 61850-90-5 CyberSentry UR Lvl 1 + In-zone TX protection + IEC 61850 + PMU + 61850-90-5 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 2-17...
  • Page 32 Bi-phase, dual channel Channel 1 - IEEE C37.94, MM, 64/128 kbps; Channel 2 - 1300 nm, single-mode, Laser Channel 1 - IEEE C37.94, MM, 64/128 kbps; Channel 2 - 1550 nm, single-mode, Laser 2-18 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 33: Order Codes With Process Bus Modules

    RS422, 1 Channel RS422, 2 Channels, 2 Clock Inputs 7W RS422, 2 Channels 2.4.2 Order codes with process bus modules Table 2-6: L90 order codes for horizontal units with process bus - * * * - F ** - H **...
  • Page 34 IEC 60870-5-103 + IEC 61850 + PMU IEC 60870-5-103 + Breaker-and-a-half + PMU IEC 60870-5-103 + IEC 61850 + Breaker-and-a-half + PMU IEC 60870-5-103 + In-zone transformer protection IEC 60870-5-103 + In-zone transformer protection + IEC 61850 2-20 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 35 IEC 60870-5-103 + IEEE 1588 + PRP + In-zone TX + IEC 61850 + Breaker and Half + PMU + 61850-90-5 IEC 60870-5-103 + IEEE 1588 + PRP + CyberSentry UR Lvl 1 + In-zone TX + IEC 61850 + Breaker and Half + PMU + 61850-90-5 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 2-21...
  • Page 36 7T RS422, 1 Channel 7V RS422, 2 Channels, 2 Clock Inputs 7W RS422, 2 Channels Table 2-7: L90 order codes for reduced-size vertical units with process bus - * ** - * * * - F ** - H **...
  • Page 37 IEEE 1588, In-zone transformer protection, and Breaker-and-a-half IEEE 1588, In-zone transformer protection, IEC 6850, and Breaker-and-a-half IEEE 1588, In-zone transformer protection, Breaker-and-a-half, and PMU IEEE 1588, In-zone transformer protection, IEC 61850, Breaker-and-a-half, and PMU L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 2-23...
  • Page 38 IEEE 1588 + PRP + IEC 60870-5-103 + IEC 61850 + Breaker and Half + PMU + 61850-90-5 IEEE 1588 + PRP + IEC 60870-5-103 + In-zone TX protection + IEC 61850 + PMU + 61850-90-5 2-24 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 39 Channel 1 - RS422; Channel 2 - 1300 nm, single-mode, Laser Channel 1 - G.703; Channel 2 - 1300 nm, single-mode Laser G.703, 1 Channel G.703, 2 Channels RS422, 1 Channel RS422, 2 Channels, 2 Clock Inputs 7W RS422, 2 Channels L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 2-25...
  • Page 40: Replacement Modules

    Replacement modules can be ordered separately. When ordering a replacement CPU module or faceplate, provide the serial number of your existing unit. Not all replacement modules apply to the L90 relay. The modules specified in the order codes for the L90 are available as replacement modules for the L90.
  • Page 41 IEEE C37.94, 820 nm, 64 kbps, multimode, LED, 1 Channel IEEE C37.94, 820 nm, 64 kbps, multimode, LED, 2 Channels 820 nm, multimode, LED, 1 Channel 1300 nm, multimode, LED, 1 Channel 1300 nm, single-mode, ELED, 1 Channel L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 2-27...
  • Page 42: Signal Processing

    (when applicable), and auxiliary voltages. The 2.4 kHz cut-off frequency applies to both 50 Hz and 60 Hz applications and fixed in the hardware, and thus is not dependent on the system nominal frequency setting. 2-28 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 43 The A/D converter has the following ranges of AC signals: Voltages: Eq. 2-1 Currents: Eq. 2-2 Current harmonics are estimated based on raw samples with the use of the full-cycle Fourier filter. Harmonics 2nd through 25th are estimated. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 2-29...
  • Page 44: Specifications

    ICD/CID/IID files, and so on), IEEE 1588 (IEEE C37.238 power profile) based time synchronization, CyberSentry (advanced cyber security), the Parallel Redundancy Protocol (PRP), IEC 60870-5-103, and so on. 2.6 Specifications Specifications are subject to change without notice. 2-30 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 45: Protection Elements

    5 to 25 cycles in steps of 1 VT location: all delta-wye and wye-delta transformers CT location: all delta-wye and wye-delta transformers Voltage supervision pickup (series compensation applications): 0 to 5.000 pu in steps of 0.001 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 2-31...
  • Page 46 60 to 90° in steps of 1 Time delay: 0.000 to 65.535 s in steps of 0.001 Timer accuracy: ±3% of operate time or ±1/4 cycle (whichever is greater) Current supervision: Level: neutral current (3I_0) 2-32 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 47 ±3% of reading of the maximum circuit current Breakpoint between slopes: 0.0 to 20.0 pu in steps of 0.1 DTT: Direct Transfer Trip (1 and 3 pole) to remote L90 Operating Time: 1.0 to 1.5 power cycles duration Asymmetrical channel delay compensation using GPS: asymmetry up to 10 ms In-zone transformer group compensation: 0 to 330°...
  • Page 48 > 2.0 × CT: ±1.5% of reading > 2.0 × CT rating Curve shapes: IEEE Moderately/Very/Extremely Inverse; IEC (and BS) A/B/C and Short Inverse; GE IAC Inverse, Short/Very/ Extremely Inverse; I t; FlexCurves™ (programmable); Definite Time (0.01 s base curve) Curve multiplier: Time Dial = 0.00 to 600.00 in steps of 0.01...
  • Page 49 CHAPTER 2: PRODUCT DESCRIPTION SPECIFICATIONS Curve shapes: IEEE Moderately/Very/Extremely Inverse; IEC (and BS) A/B/C and Short Inverse; GE IAC Inverse, Short/Very/ Extremely Inverse; I t; FlexCurves™ (programmable); Definite Time (0.01 s base curve) Curve multiplier (Time dial): 0.00 to 600.00 in steps of 0.01...
  • Page 50 PHASE OVERVOLTAGE Voltage: Phasor only Pickup level: 0.004 to 3.000 pu in steps of 0.001 Dropout level: 97 to 98% of pickup Level accuracy: ±0.5% of reading from 10 to 208 V 2-36 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 51 3 cycles at 0.5 Hz/s change Typical times are average operate times including variables such as frequency change instance, test method, and so on, and can vary by ±0.5 cycles. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 2-37...
  • Page 52 0 to 65.535 s in steps of 0.001 Timer accuracy: ±3% of operate time or ±42 ms, whichever is greater Operate time: <42 ms at 1.10 × pickup at 60 Hz 2-38 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 53 40 to 140° in steps of 1 Timers: 0.000 to 65.535 s in steps of 0.001 Timer accuracy: ±3% of operate time or ±1/4 cycle (whichever is greater) LOAD ENCROACHMENT Responds to: Positive-sequence quantities L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 2-39...
  • Page 54: User-programmable Elements

    Time delay: 0 to 65535 ms in steps of 1 FLEX STATES Number: up to 256 logical variables grouped under 16 Modbus addresses Programmability: any logical variable, contact, or virtual input 2-40 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 55 Time-out timer: 3.0 to 60.0 s in steps of 0.1 Control inputs: step-up and 3-bit Power-up mode: restore from non-volatile memory or synchronize to a 3-bit control input or synch/restore mode L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 2-41...
  • Page 56: Monitoring

    See Theory of Operation chapter (single-ended method) RELAY ACCURACY 1.5% %error PHASOR MEASUREMENT UNIT Output format: per IEEE C37.118 or IEC 61850-90-5 standard Number of channels: 14 synchrophasors, 8 analogs, 16 digitals 2-42 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 57: Metering

    < 0.4pu: as above plus %error of f VOLTAGE HARMONICS Harmonics: 2nd to 25th harmonic: per phase, displayed as a % of f fundamental frequency phasor) THD: per phase, displayed as a % of f Accuracy: L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 2-43...
  • Page 58: Inputs

    Continuous current draw: 4 mA (when energized) CONTACT INPUTS WITH AUTO-BURNISHING 1000 Ω maximum Dry contacts: Wet contacts: 300 V DC maximum Selectable thresholds: 17 V, 33 V, 84 V, 166 V 2-44 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 59: Power Supply

    Volt withstand: 2 × Highest Nominal Voltage for 10 ms Power consumption: typical = 15 to 20 W/VA maximum = 45 W/VA contact factory for exact order code consumption INTERNAL FUSE Ratings: L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 2-45...
  • Page 60: Outputs

    30 A as per ANSI C37.90 Carry continuous: Break (DC inductive, L/R = 40 ms): Voltage Current 24 V 48 V 0.5 A 125 V 0.3 A 250 V 0.2 A 2-46 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 61 ±0.75% of full-scale for 0 to 1 mA range ±0.5% of full-scale for –1 to 1 mA range ±0.75% of full-scale for 0 to 20 mA range 99% Settling time to a step change: 100 ms Isolation: 1.5 kV L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 2-47...
  • Page 62: Communication Protocols

    PARALLEL REDUNDANCY PROTOCOL (PRP) (IEC 62439-3 CLAUSE 4, 2012) Ethernet ports used: 2 and 3 Networks supported: 10/100 Mb Ethernet OTHER TFTP, SFTP, HTTP, IEC 60870-5-104, Ethernet Global Data (EGD), IEEE C37.118 2-48 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 63: Inter-relay Communications

    At extreme temperatures these values deviate based on component tolerance. On average, the output power decreases as the temperature is increased by a factor of 1 dB / 5 °C. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 2-49...
  • Page 64: Cybersentry Security

    95% (non-condensing) at 55°C (as per IEC60068-2-30 variant 1, 6 days) OTHER Altitude: 2000 m (maximum) Pollution degree: Overvoltage category: Ingress protection: IP20 front, IP10 back Noise: 0 dB 2-50 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 65: Type Tests

    Insulation: class 1, Pollution degree: 2, Over voltage cat II 1 Not tested by third party. 2.6.13 Production tests THERMAL Products go through an environmental test based upon an Accepted Quality Level (AQL) sampling process. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 2-51...
  • Page 66: Approvals

    Normally, cleaning is not required. When dust has accumulated on the faceplate display, wipe with a dry cloth. To avoid deterioration of electrolytic capacitors, power up units that are stored in a de-energized state once per year, for one hour continuously. 2-52 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 67: Installation

    For any issues, contact GE Grid Solutions as outlined in the For Further Assistance section in chapter 1. Check that you have the latest copy of the L90 Instruction Manual and the UR Family Communications Guide, for the applicable firmware version, at http://www.gegridsolutions.com/multilin/manuals/index.htm...
  • Page 68: Panel Cutouts

    Maintenance > Change Front Panel. 3.2.1 Horizontal units The L90 is available as a 19-inch rack horizontal mount unit with a removable faceplate. The faceplate can be specified as either standard or enhanced at the time of ordering. The enhanced faceplate contains additional user-programmable pushbuttons and LED indicators.
  • Page 69: Vertical Units

    3.2.2 Vertical units The L90 is available as a reduced size (¾) vertical mount unit, with a removable faceplate. The faceplate can be specified as either standard or enhanced at the time of ordering. The enhanced faceplate contains additional user-programmable pushbuttons and LED indicators.
  • Page 70 PANEL CUTOUTS CHAPTER 3: INSTALLATION Figure 3-4: Vertical dimensions (enhanced panel) L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 71 CHAPTER 3: INSTALLATION PANEL CUTOUTS Figure 3-5: Vertical and mounting dimensions (standard panel) For side-mounting L90 devices with the enhanced front panel, see the following documents available on the UR DVD and the GE Grid Solutions website: • GEK-113180 — UR-Series UR-V Side-Mounting Front Panel Assembly Instructions •...
  • Page 72 PANEL CUTOUTS CHAPTER 3: INSTALLATION For side-mounting L90 devices with the standard front panel, use the following figures. Figure 3-6: Vertical side-mounting installation (standard panel) L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 73 CHAPTER 3: INSTALLATION PANEL CUTOUTS Figure 3-7: Vertical side-mounting rear dimensions (standard panel) L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 74: Rear Terminal Layout

    (nearest to CPU module), indicated by an arrow marker on the terminal block. The figure shows an example of rear terminal assignments. Figure 3-8: Example of modules in F and H slots L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 75 (rows 1 to 8), use a minimum of 17 inch-pounds. During manufacturing, the power supply and CPU modules are installed in slots B and D of the chassis with 13 inch-pounds of torque on the screws at the top and bottom of the modules. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 76: Wiring

    WIRING CHAPTER 3: INSTALLATION 3.3 Wiring 3.3.1 Typical wiring Figure 3-9: Typical wiring diagram (T module shown for CPU) 3-10 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 77: Dielectric Strength

    The power supply module can be ordered for two possible voltage ranges, and the L90 can be ordered with or without a redundant power supply module option. Each range has a dedicated input connection for proper operation. The ranges are as follows (see the Specifications section of chapter 2 for details): •...
  • Page 78: Ct/vt Modules

    These modules have enhanced diagnostics that can automatically detect CT/VT hardware failure and take the relay out of service. CT connections for both ABC and ACB phase rotations are identical, as shown in the Typical Wiring Diagram. 3-12 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 79 UR models. Substitute the tilde “~” symbol with the slot position of the module in the following figure. Figure 3-12: CT/VT module wiring L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 3-13...
  • Page 80: Process Bus Modules

    3.3.5 Process bus modules The L90 can be ordered with a process bus interface module. The module interfaces with the HardFiber Process Bus System, or HardFiber Brick, allowing bidirectional IEC 61850 fiber optic communications with up to eight HardFiber Bricks.
  • Page 81 Where a tilde “~” symbol appears, substitute the slot position of the module. Where a number sign “#” appears, substitute the contact number. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 3-15...
  • Page 82 ~6a, ~6c 2 Inputs Fast Form-C ~7a, ~7c 2 Inputs ~7a, ~7c 2 Inputs ~7a, ~7c 2 Inputs Fast Form-C ~8a, ~8c 2 Inputs ~8a, ~8c 2 Inputs ~8a, ~8c 2 Inputs 3-16 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 83 ~5a, ~5c 2 Inputs 2 Outputs Solid-State Solid-State ~6a, ~6c 2 Inputs 2 Outputs Not Used Not Used ~7a, ~7c 2 Inputs 2 Outputs Solid-State Solid-State ~8a, ~8c 2 Inputs Not Used L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 3-17...
  • Page 84 WIRING CHAPTER 3: INSTALLATION Figure 3-14: Contact input and output module wiring (Sheet 1 of 2) 3-18 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 85 CHAPTER 3: INSTALLATION WIRING Figure 3-15: Contact input and output module wiring (Sheet 2 of 2) For proper functionality, observe the polarity shown in the figures for all contact input and output connections. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 3-19...
  • Page 86 L90 input even when the output is open, if there is a substantial distributed capacitance (represented by C1) present in the wiring between the output and the L90 input and the debounce time setting in the L90 relay is low enough.
  • Page 87 This example is for illustrative purposes only and the calculations present the worst-case scenario. In practice, the value of debounce time can be lower. Contact input ON state impedance used in the calculation of the discharge period is based on the following table. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 3-21...
  • Page 88 Eq. 3-2 The 2 mA current is used in case the contact input is connected across the GE Form A contact output with voltage monitoring. Otherwise use the amperage of the active circuit connected to the contact input when its contact output is open and the voltage across the contact input is third trigger threshold to calculate the resistor value.
  • Page 89 The auto-burnish feature can be disabled or enabled using the DIP switches found on each daughter card. There is a DIP switch for each contact, for a total of 16 inputs. Figure 3-20: Auto-burnish DIP switches L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 3-23...
  • Page 90 In case of external devices that are susceptible to parasitic capacitance of long cable runs affected by switching surges from external circuits, that can cause inadvertent activation of contact inputs with the external contact open, GE recommends using the Digital I/O module with active impedance circuit.
  • Page 91: Transducer Inputs And Outputs

    (5A, 5C, 5D, 5E, and 5F) and channel arrangements that can be ordered for the relay. Where a tilde “~” symbol appears, substitute the slot position of the module. Figure 3-22: Transducer input/output module wiring The following figure show how to connect RTDs. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 3-25...
  • Page 92: Rs232 Faceplate Port

    EnerVista UR Setup software provided with the relay. Cabling for the RS232 port is shown in the following figure for both 9-pin and 25-pin connectors. The baud rate for this port can be set, with a default of 115200 bps. 3-26 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 93: Cpu Communication Ports

    Figure 3-24: RS232 faceplate port connection 3.3.9 CPU communication ports 3.3.9.1 Overview In addition to the faceplate RS232 port, there is a rear RS485 communication port. The CPU modules do not require a surge ground connection. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 3-27...
  • Page 94 This common voltage is implied to be a power supply common. Some systems allow the shield (drain wire) to be used as common wire and to connect directly to the L90 COM terminal (#3); others function correctly only if the common wire is connected to the L90 COM terminal, but insulated from the shield.
  • Page 95: Irig-b

    IRIG-B is a standard time code format that allows stamping of events to be synchronized among connected devices. The IRIG-B code allows time accuracies of up to 100 ns. Using the IRIG-B input, the L90 operates an internal oscillator with 1 µs resolution and accuracy.
  • Page 96: Pilot Channel Communications

    3.4 Pilot channel communications A special inter-relay communications module is available for the L90. This module is plugged into slot “W” in horizontally mounted units and slot “R” in vertically mounted units. Inter-relay channel communications is not the same as 10/ 100Base-F interface communications (available as an option with the CPU module).
  • Page 97: Fiber: Led And Eled Transmitters

    CHAPTER 3: INSTALLATION PILOT CHANNEL COMMUNICATIONS All of the fiber modules use ST type connectors. For two-terminal applications, each L90 relay requires at least one communications channel. The current differential function must be “Enabled” for the communications module to properly operate. See the menu.
  • Page 98: Interface

    The following figure shows the typical pin interconnection between two G.703 interfaces. For the actual physical arrangement of these pins, see the Rear Terminal Layout section earlier in this chapter. All pin interconnections are to be maintained for a connection to a multiplexer. 3-32 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 99 Once the clips have cleared the raised edge of the chassis, engage the clips simultaneously. When the clips have locked into position, the module is inserted fully. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 3-33...
  • Page 100 (S1 = ON) and set timing mode to loop timing (S5 = OFF and S6 = OFF). The switch settings for the internal and loop timing modes are shown. 3-34 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 101 One source lies on the G.703 line side of the interface while the other lies on the differential Manchester side of the interface. Figure 3-36: G.703 dual loopback mode L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 3-35...
  • Page 102: Rs422 Interface

    When used in single-channel applications, the RS422 interface links to higher-order systems in a typical way, observing transmit (Tx), receive (Rx), and send timing (ST) connections. However, when used in two-channel applications, certain 3-36 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 103 Figure 3-39: Timing configuration for RS422 two-channel, three-terminal application Data module 1 provides timing to the L90 RS422 interface via the ST(A) and ST(B) outputs. Data module 1 also provides timing to data module 2 TT(A) and TT(B) inputs via the ST(A) and AT(B) outputs. The data module pin numbers have been omitted in the figure because they vary by manufacturer.
  • Page 104: Two-channel Two-clock Rs422 Interface

    (SCC) receive clock. 3.4.5 Two-channel two-clock RS422 interface The two-channel two-clock RS422 interface (module 7V) is for use with the synchrophasor feature. The figure shows the module connections. 3-38 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 105: Rs422 And Fiber Interface

    G.703 and fiber interfaces. When using a laser interface, attenuators can be necessary to ensure that you do not exceed the maximum optical input power to the receiver. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 3-39...
  • Page 106: Ieee C37.94 Interface

    The UR-series C37.94 communication module can be connected to the electrical interface (G.703, RS422, or X.21) of a non- compliant digital multiplexer via an optical-to-electrical interface converter that supports the IEEE C37.94 standard. The following figure shows the concept. 3-40 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 107 5.60. For customers using firmware release 5.60 and higher, the module can be identified with "Rev D" printed on the module and is to be used on all ends of L90 communication for two and three terminal applications.
  • Page 108 Modules shipped since January 2012 have status LEDs that indicate the status of the DIP switches, as shown in the following figure. Figure 3-48: Status LEDs The clock configuration LED status is as follows: • Flashing green — loop timing mode while receiving a valid data packet 3-42 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 109: C37.94sm Interface

    5.60. For customers using firmware release 5.60 and higher, the module can be identified with "Rev D" printed on the module and is to be used on all ends of L90 communication for two and three terminal applications.
  • Page 110 Once the clips have cleared the raised edge of the chassis, engage the clips simultaneously. When the clips have locked into position, the module is inserted fully. 3-44 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 111 Modules shipped since January 2012 have status LEDs that indicate the status of the DIP switches, as shown in the following figure. Figure 3-51: Status LEDs The clock configuration LED status is as follows: • Flashing green — loop timing mode while receiving a valid data packet L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 3-45...
  • Page 112: Activate Relay

    RELAY SETTINGS: NEW SETTING Not Programmed Programmed HAS BEEN STORED When the "NEW SETTING HAS BEEN STORED" message appears, the relay is in "Programmed" state and the "In Service" LED turns on. 3-46 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 113: Install Software

    This device (catalog number F485) connects to the computer using a straight-through serial cable. A shielded twisted-pair (20, 22, or 24 AWG) connects the F485 converter to the L90 rear communications port. The converter terminals (+, –, GND) are connected to the L90 communication module (+, –, COM) terminals. See the CPU Communication Ports section in chapter 3 for details.
  • Page 114: System Requirements

    Select the Web option to ensure the most recent software release, or select CD if you do not have an Internet connection, then click the Add Now button to list software items for the product. EnerVista Launchpad obtains the software from the Internet or DVD and automatically starts the installation program. 3-48 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 115: Add Device To Software

    3.7 Add device to software You connect remotely to the L90 through the rear RS485 or Ethernet port with a computer running the EnerVista UR Setup software. The L90 also can be accessed locally with a computer through the front panel RS232 port or the rear Ethernet port using the Quick Connect feature.
  • Page 116: Set Ip Address In Ur

    Online Window area, cannot be moved from it to another grouping, and needs to be renamed in the Device Setup window. GE instead recommends using the Device Setup window to add devices, as outlined here. 3.7.1 Set IP address in UR The IP and subnet addresses need to be added to the UR for Ethernet communication.
  • Page 117 CHAPTER 3: INSTALLATION ADD DEVICE TO SOFTWARE connections window. Or in Windows 7, access the Network and Sharing Center in the Control Panel. Right-click the Local Area Connection icon and select Properties. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 3-51...
  • Page 118 Select the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) item from the list, and click the Properties button. Click the “Use the following IP address” box. Enter an IP address with the first three numbers the same as the IP address of the L90 relay and the last number different (in this example, 1.1.1.2).
  • Page 119 Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 0ms, Average = 0 ms Pinging 1.1.1.1 with 32 bytes of data: verify the physical connection between the L90 and the computer, and double-check the programmed IP address in setting, then repeat step 2. Product Setup  Communications  Network  IP Address...
  • Page 120 Click the Quick Connect button to open the window. Select the Ethernet interface and enter the IP address assigned to the L90, then click the Connect button. The EnerVista UR Setup software creates a site named “Quick Connect” with a corresponding device also named “Quick Connect”...
  • Page 121: Configure Serial Connection

    For the RS232 connection, a computer with an RS232 port and a serial cable are required. To use the RS485 port at the back of the relay, a GE Grid Solutions F485 converter (or compatible RS232-to-RS485 converter) is required. See the F485 instruction manual for details.
  • Page 122: Configure Ethernet Connection

    SEL-2032. This option enables display of a terminal window to allow interaction with the other device. 11. Click the Read Order Code button to connect to the L90 and upload the order code to the software. If a communications error occurs, ensure that the EnerVista software serial communications values entered in the previous step correspond to the relay setting values, and also ensure that the same IP address is not assigned to multiple L90 ports.
  • Page 123 12. If using a gateway to connect to the device, select Yes from the drop-down list. 13. Click the Read Order Code button to connect to the L90 device and upload the order code. If the device was entered already, a message displays "Device ’x’ is also using IP address.." If a communications error occurs, ensure that the values entered in the previous steps correspond to the relay setting values, and also ensure that the same IP address is not assigned to multiple L90 ports.
  • Page 124: Configure Modem Connection

    ADD DEVICE TO SOFTWARE CHAPTER 3: INSTALLATION The device has been configured for Ethernet communications. Proceed to the Connect to the L90 section to begin communications. 3.7.4 Configure modem connection A modem connection allows a computer to communicate with a UR device over phone lines.
  • Page 125: Connect To The L90

    When unable to connect because of an "ACCESS VIOLATION," access Device Setup and refresh the order code for the device. When unable to connect, ensure that the same IP address is not assigned to multiple L90 ports, for example under Settings > Product Setup > Communications > Network.
  • Page 126: Use Quick Connect Via The Front Panel Rs232 Port

    Connect a nine-pin to nine-pin RS232 serial cable to the computer and the front panel RS232 port. Verify that the latest version of the EnerVista UR Setup software is installed (available from the GE EnerVista DVD or online from http://www.gegridsolutions.com/multilin). See the software installation section if not already installed.
  • Page 127: Set Up Cybersentry And Change Default Password

    Connect" and displays them in the Online Window. Expand the sections to view data directly from the L90 device. Use the Device Setup button to change the site name. Each time that the EnerVista software is initialized, click the Quick Connect button to establish direct communications to the L90.
  • Page 128: Import Settings

    If required, change the Files of type drop-down list. Select the file to import. To apply the settings to a live device, drag-and-drop the device entry from the Offline Window area to its entry in the Online Window area. 3-62 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 129 CHAPTER 3: INSTALLATION IMPORT SETTINGS Individual settings also can be dragged and dropped between Online and Offline Window areas. The order codes much match. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 3-63...
  • Page 130 IMPORT SETTINGS CHAPTER 3: INSTALLATION 3-64 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 131: Interfaces

    The EnerVista UR Setup software is provided with every L90. This chapter outlines the EnerVista software interface features. The EnerVista UR Setup Help File also provides details for getting started and using the software interface.
  • Page 132: Event Viewing

    IP Address IP Subnet Mask IP Routing When a settings file is loaded to a L90 that is in-service, the following sequence occurs: The L90 takes itself out of service. The L90 issues a UNIT NOT PROGRAMMED major self-test error.
  • Page 133: File Support

    Settings list / offline window area Software windows, with common tool bar Settings file data view windows, with common tool bar Workspace area with data view tabs Status bar 10. Quick action hot links L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 134: Protection Summary Window

    The Protection Summary is a graphical user interface to manage elements, such as enabling and disabling them. Access it under Settings > Protection Summary. See the Settings chapter for information on use. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 135: Settings Templates

    Right-click the selected device or settings file and select the Template Mode > Create Template option. The settings file template is now enabled and the file menus displayed in light blue. A message displays. The settings file is now in template editing mode. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 136 Figure 4-4: Settings template with all settings specified as locked Specify the settings to make viewable by clicking them. A setting available to view is displayed against a yellow background. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 137 Select an installed device or a settings file from the left menu of the EnerVista UR Setup window. Apply the template by selecting the Template Mode > View In Template Mode option. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 138 Once the template has been applied, users are limited to edit the settings specified by the template, but all settings are shown. The effect of applying the template to the phase time overcurrent settings is shown as follows. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 139: Secure And Lock Flexlogic Equations

    4.1.8.1 Lock FlexLogic equations To lock individual entries of a FlexLogic equation: Right-click the settings file or online device and select the Template Mode > Create Template item to enable the settings template feature. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 140 The effect of applying the template to the FlexLogic entries is shown here. Figure 4-10: Locking FlexLogic entries through settings templates The FlexLogic entries are also shown as locked in the graphical view and on the front panel display. 4-10 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 141 Right-click the setting file in the offline window area and select the Edit Device Properties item. The window opens. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 4-11...
  • Page 142: Settings File Traceability

    When a settings file is transferred to a L90 device, the date, time, and serial number of the L90 are sent back to EnerVista UR Setup and added to the settings file on the local computer. This information can be compared with the L90 actual values at any later date to determine if security has been compromised.
  • Page 143 With respect to the figure, the traceability feature is used as follows. The transfer date of a settings file written to a L90 is logged in the relay and can be viewed in the EnerVista software or the front panel display. Likewise, the transfer date of a settings file saved to a local computer is logged in the EnerVista software.
  • Page 144 4.1.9.2 Online device traceability information The L90 serial number and file transfer date are available for an online device through the actual values. Select the Actual Values > Product Info > Model Information menu item within the EnerVista online window as shown in the example.
  • Page 145: Front Panel Interface

    The front panel can be viewed and used in the EnerVista software, for example to view an error message displayed on the front panel. To view the front panel in EnerVista software: Click Actual Values > Front Panel. Figure 4-18: Front panel use in the software (C60 shown) L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 4-15...
  • Page 146: Front Panel Keypad

    Conversely, continually pressing the MESSAGE left arrow from a setting value or actual value display returns to the header display. 4-16 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 147: Changing Settings

    MESSAGE TIME setting.  MINIMUM: 0.5 Press the HELP key to view the minimum and maximum values. Press the key again to view the MAXIMUM: 10.0 next context sensitive help message. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 4-17...
  • Page 148 Flash messages appear sequentially for several HELP seconds each. For the case of a text setting message, pressing displays how to edit and store new values. HELP 4-18 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 149: Faceplate

    The following figure shows the horizontal arrangement of the faceplate panel. Figure 4-21: Standard horizontal faceplate The following figure shows the vertical arrangement of the faceplate panel for relays ordered with the vertical option. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 4-19...
  • Page 150: Led Indicators

    SETTINGS  INPUT/OUTPUTS  RESETTING keys are used by the breaker control feature. USER Figure 4-23: Typical LED panel for enhanced faceplate 4-20 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 151 Support for applying a customized label beside every LED is provided. Default labels are shipped in the label package of every L90, together with custom templates. The default labels can be replaced by user-printed labels. User customization of LED operation is of maximum benefit in installations where languages other than English are used to communicate with operators.
  • Page 152 NEUTRAL/GROUND — Indicates that neutral or ground was involved User-programmable indicators The second and third panels provide 48 amber LED indicators whose operation is controlled by the user. Support for applying a customized label beside every LED is provided. 4-22 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 153 LED settings must be entered as shown in the User-programmable LEDs section of chapter 5. The LEDs are fully user-programmable. The default labels can be replaced by user-printed labels for both panels as explained in the next section. Figure 4-26: LED panel 2 (default labels) L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 4-23...
  • Page 154: Custom Led Labeling

    Select the Front Panel Label Designer item from the Online Window or Offline Window area, for example under Settings > Front Panel Label Designer. If the option does not display, it means that the L90 does not have an enhanced front panel or that no customization is possible. The Online Window has the advantage of displaying the live fields as opposed to blank fields.
  • Page 155 Use the tool EXACTLY as outlined as follows, with the printed side containing the GE part number facing the user. The label package shipped with every L90 contains the three default labels, the custom label template sheet, and the label removal tool.
  • Page 156 Slide the label tool under the LED label until the tabs snap out as shown. This attaches the label tool to the LED label. Remove the tool and attached LED label as shown. 4-26 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 157 Slide the new LED label inside the pocket until the text is properly aligned with the LEDs, as shown. To remove the user-programmable pushbutton labels from the L90 enhanced front panel and insert the custom labels: Use the knife to lift the pushbutton label and slide the tail of the label tool underneath, as shown. Ensure that the bent tab points away from the relay.
  • Page 158: Breaker Control

    4.2.9 Breaker control The L90 can interface with associated circuit breakers. In many cases the application monitors the state of the breaker, that can be presented on faceplate LEDs, along with a breaker trouble indication. Breaker operations can be manually initiated from the faceplate keypad or automatically initiated from a FlexLogic operand.
  • Page 159: Change Passwords

    The information in this section refers to password security. For information on how to set the password for the first time or change CyberSentry passwords, see the previous chapter or the Settings > Product Setup > Security > CyberSentry section in the next chapter. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 4-29...
  • Page 160 When entering a settings or command password via EnerVista or any serial interface, the user must enter the corresponding connection password. If the connection is to the back of the L90, the remote password must be used. If the connection is to the RS232 port of the faceplate, the local password must be used.
  • Page 161: Logic Diagrams

    By default, when an incorrect Command or Setting password has been entered via the faceplate interface three times within five minutes, the FlexLogic operand is set to “On” and the L90 does not allow settings or LOCAL ACCESS DENIED command level access via the faceplate interface for five minutes.
  • Page 162: Flexlogic Design And Monitoring Using Engineer

    Works with all UR firmware versions The figure shows an example where several inputs are used to trigger an output. With the OR function, any one of the inputs can trigger the output. 4-32 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 163 This section explains how to use Engineer. It outlines the following topics: • Design logic • Send file to and from device • Monitor logic • View front panel • Generate connectivity report • Preferences L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 4-33...
  • Page 164: Design Logic

    Preparation — Under Settings > Inputs/Outputs > Virtual Outputs, virtual outputs 3 and 4 are named DLTrigger Top logic — Seven-minute timer trigger Bottom logic — Turn on LED 9 for 10 seconds when the trigger starts 4-34 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 165 This procedure uses input / output logic as an example. To create a logic diagram: In the Offline Window area, access Engineer for the device, then Logic Designer. If the device is not listed, right-click L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 4-35...
  • Page 166 Add the input blocks to the logic diagram. For example, click the I/O Tokens tab on the right, click the Input element, then click in the logic sheet to add it. Or drag-and-drop it. 4-36 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 167 Line option. The cursor needs to be at the connection point to end the line, not elsewhere on the block. Note that the outline color is no longer red on the blocks. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 4-37...
  • Page 168 The warning "input using disabled feature" means that input needs to be enabled. Double-click the block, click the View Associated Screen button, enable the setting, save, and recompile. The output and messages are explained in the next section. 4-38 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 169 'Do not update IID file when updating SCL files') are updated. If the CID file is not already there, it is generated. The location of these files is C:\ProgramData\GE Power Management\urpc, for example, in the Offline and Online folders.
  • Page 170 The same timer is used in more than one place in the editor. This means (TIMER_ID, SheetReference) either the circuit that the Timer belongs to has been branched, or the Timer has been duplicated. 4-40 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 171 Click the Ok button to save and exit from the window. In the logic diagram, select an element, then click in the drawing area to add it, click again to add a second box, and so on. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 4-41...
  • Page 172 Optimization Summary. Changes also display when the FlexLogic Equation Editor is accessed. The logic diagram does not change. In the example shown, no lines were saved to free up space. Figure 4-45: Code optimization results 4-42 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 173 Type in the second text string box, or select any of the 32 previous searches from the drop-down list. Click the Search button. Any results display. The search applies to all tabs, not just the active tab. Double-click a search result to view the item. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 4-43...
  • Page 174: Send File To And From Device

    When a window opens, select the device to which you want to send the file, then click the Send button and confirm. The order codes must match. The file is sent to the live device. Any errors can be viewed in the log file at the prompt. 4-44 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 175: Monitor Logic

    (green box outline). In this case, the battery is weak and needs to be replaced. This can be viewed as the Replace Battery message on the front panel of the device and in the EnerVista software under Actual Values > Front Panel > Front Panel or Display/Keypad. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 4-45...
  • Page 176: View Front Panel And Print Labels

    To save the report and labels, click File > Save As, enter a file name, and select the FPR, JPG, or PDF format. Use the instructions in the second tab of the window to add the labels to the physical device. 4-46 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 177: Generate Connectivity Report

    View > Toolbar > Advanced Actions — Active when in Logic Designer. Toggles a toolbar to nudge, rotate, flip, or change the order of an element. View > Show Unused Pins — Enable to display unconnected pins. Disable to eliminate unconnected pins from the view, for example when printing. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 4-47...
  • Page 178 File Information The text entered here displays at the bottom right of a diagram when printing, provided that the Show Title Block option is enabled. Note the option to change the logo from the GE logo to your company logo. Display The panel sets how the element boxes display.
  • Page 179 The software displays the color specified when an element is on. There is no color when the element is off. The software displays another color when the status cannot be determined and is unknown. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 4-49...
  • Page 180 Options display for filtering, such as recording timing for Virtual Inputs and Outputs, but not Communications Status. 4.4.6.4 COMTRADE waveforms Waveform files are viewable in the EnerVista software. The preferences are unrelated to Engineer and are outlined in the UR Family Communications Guide. 4-50 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 181: Toolbars

    4.4.7.2 Token Toolbox Drawing Tools Draw a line. Click and drag to draw. Draw multiple joined lines. Click and drag for each line. Double-click to finish. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 4-51...
  • Page 182 Input from another UR device. Teleprotection inputs/outputs and direct inputs/outputs are mutually exclusive and cannot be used simultaneously. Teleprotection inputs/outputs and direct inputs/outputs are mutually exclusive and cannot be used simultaneously. 4-52 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 183 Tag-In can is used to reference an existing Tag-Out. It joins another diagram to a previous diagram. Boolean Tokens These symbols are used to create FlexLogic Equations. Use them as intermediate logic for the Virtual Output equations. The display can vary from that shown here. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 4-53...
  • Page 184 Place a positive one shot and a negative one shot symbol in the Logic Designer diagram Place a timer in the Logic Designer diagram Elements These blocks configure properties of the element or use element operands as input to FlexLogic equations. 4-54 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 185 Set the width of the selected components to the same width as the reference component Same Height Set the height of the selected components to the same height as the reference component L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 4-55...
  • Page 186 Front, Back Moves current components to the absolute front or back of all viewable layers Forward, Backward Moves current components on layer higher or lower than its original layer hierarchy 4-56 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 187: Settings

       OSCILLOGRAPHY See page 5-102    DATA LOGGER See page 5-104    DEMAND See page 5-105    USER-PROGRAMMABLE See page 5-106   LEDS L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 188 See page 5-196   GROUPED ELEMENTS   SETTING GROUP 2     SETTING GROUP 3    SETTING GROUP 4    SETTING GROUP 5   L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 189   SETTINGS  DCMA INPUTS See page 5-401   TRANSDUCER I/O   RTD INPUTS See page 5-402     DCMA OUTPUTS See page 5-403    L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 190: Overview

    VT ratio setting is set to the nominal ratio of the VTs and the secondary voltage setting is set to the phase-to-phase voltage seen by the relay when the voltage of the protected system in nominal. The UR uses the convention that nominal voltages in a three-phase system are phase-to-phase voltages. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 191: Introduction To Ac Sources

    5.2.2 Introduction to AC sources 5.2.2.1 Background The L90 can be used on systems with breaker-and-a-half or ring bus configurations. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 192 Sources, in the context of L90 relays, refer to the logical grouping of current and voltage signals such that one source contains all the signals required to measure the load or fault in a particular power apparatus. A given source can contain all or some of the following signals: three-phase currents, single-phase ground current, three-phase voltages and an auxiliary voltages from a single-phase VT for checking for synchronism.
  • Page 193 CTs through which any portion of the current for the element being protected could flow. Auxiliary CTs are required to perform ratio matching if the ratios of the primary CTs to be summed are not identical. In the L90, provisions have been included for all the current signals to be brought to the device where grouping, CT ratio correction, and summation are applied internally via configuration settings.
  • Page 194: Product Setup

    Password security — Basic security present by default • EnerVista security — Role-based access to various EnerVista software screens and configuration elements. The feature is present by default in the EnerVista software. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 195 To reset the unit after a lost password: Email GE customer service at multilin.tech@ge.com with the serial number and using a recognizable corporate email account. Customer service provides a code to reset the relay to the factory defaults.
  • Page 196 When entering a settings or command password via EnerVista or any serial interface, the user must enter the corresponding connection password. If the connection is to the back of the L90, the remote password must be used. If the connection is to the RS232 port of the faceplate, the local password must be used.
  • Page 197 Re-enter the password in the Confirm Password field. Click the OK button. The password is checked to ensure that it meets requirements. If you establish a local (serial) connection to the relay, you cannot view remote passcodes. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-11...
  • Page 198 INVALID ATTEMPTS BEFORE LOCKOUT The L90 provides a means to raise an alarm upon failed password entry. If password verification fails while accessing a password-protected level of the relay (either settings or commands), the FlexLogic operand is UNAUTHORIZED ACCESS asserted.
  • Page 199 Access Authorized Timeout setting value is started. When this timer expires, remote setting access is denied immediately. If access is permitted and an off-to-on transition of the FlexLogic operand is detected, the timeout is restarted. The status of this timer updates every five seconds. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-13...
  • Page 200 If you force password entry by using this feature, ensure that you know the Administrator password. If you do not know the password and are locked out of the software, contact GE Grid Solutions for the default password of a UR device.
  • Page 201 The EnerVista security management system must be enabled (the Enable Security check box enabled) To modify user privileges: Select the Security > User Management item from the top menu to open the user management window. Locate the username in the User field. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-15...
  • Page 202 This feature requires a CyberSentry software option. See the Order Codes section in chapter 2 for details. The EnerVista software provides the means to configure and authenticate the L90 access using either a server or the device. Access to functions depends on user role.
  • Page 203 When the "Device" button is selected, the L90 uses its local authentication database and not the RADIUS server to authenticate the user. In this case, it uses built-in roles (Administrator, Engineer, Supervisor, Operator, Observer, or Administrator and Supervisor when Device Authentication is disabled), as login accounts and the associated passwords are stored on the L90 device.
  • Page 204 Figure 5-3: Security panel when CyberSentry installed For the Device > Settings > Product Setup > Supervisory option, the panel looks like the following. Figure 5-4: Supervisory panel For the Security panel, the following settings are available. 5-18 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 205 Administrator is to re-enable Device authentication when Device authentication is disabled. To re-enable Device authentication, the Supervisor unlocks the device for setting changes, and then the Administrator can re- enable Device authentication. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-19...
  • Page 206 Range: Administrator, Engineer, Supervisor,   None Operator, Factory (for factory use only), None  CHANGE LOCAL See page 5-21   PASSWORDS  SESSION See page 5-22   SETTINGS 5-20 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 207 • Observer — This role has read-only access to all L90 settings. This role allows unlimited concurrent access but it has no download access to any files on the device. Observer is the default role if no authentication has been done to the device.
  • Page 208 In Device authentication mode, the Observer role does not have a password associated with it. In Server authentication mode the Observer role requires a password. If you are locked out of the software, contact GE Grid Solutions for the default password. When using CyberSentry, the default password is "ChangeMe1#".
  • Page 209 SETTINGS  PRODUCT SETUP  SECURITY  SUPERVISORY  SELF TESTS  SELF TESTS  FAILED See below    AUTHENTICATE FIRMWARE LOCK: Range: Enabled, Disabled  Enabled SETTINGS LOCK: Range: Enabled, Disabled  Enabled L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-23...
  • Page 210 After making any required changes, log out. When changing settings offline, ensure that only settings permitted by the role that performs the settings download are changed because only those changes are applied. 5-24 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 211 If "System Integrity Recovery" events are logged during a restart of the unit due to an incorrect shutdown sequence, upgrade the firmware to version 7.31 or later to correct this issue. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-25...
  • Page 212: Display Properties

    PRODUCT SETUP CHAPTER 5: SETTINGS In addition to supporting syslog, a L90 with CyberSentry also saves the security events in two local security files, these being SECURITY_EVENTS.CSV and SETTING_CHANGES.LOG. Details on these files and how to retrieve them are available in the EnerVista software under Maintenance >...
  • Page 213 Some customers prefer very low currents to display as zero, while others prefer the current to display even when the value reflects noise rather than the actual signal. The L90 applies a cut-off value to the magnitudes and angles of the measured currents.
  • Page 214: Clear Relay Records

    Selected records can be cleared from user-programmable conditions with FlexLogic operands. Assigning user- programmable pushbuttons to clear specific records is a typical application for these commands. Since the L90 responds to rising edges of the configured FlexLogic operands, they must be asserted for at least 50 ms to take effect.
  • Page 215: Communications

    Range: 0 to 1000 ms in steps of 10  MIN TIME: 0 ms , and — The L90 is equipped with two independent serial communication RS232 BAUD RATE RS485 COM2 BAUD RATE PARITY ports. The faceplate RS232 port is intended for local use and has two options for baud rate. The rear COM2 port is RS485 and has settings for baud rate and parity.
  • Page 216 5.3.4.3 Ethernet network topology The L90 has three Ethernet ports. Each Ethernet port must belong to a different network or subnetwork. Configure the IP address and subnet to ensure that each port meets this requirement. Two subnets are different when the bitwise AND operation performed between their respective IP address and mask produces a different result.
  • Page 217 SCADA is provided through LAN2. P2 and P3 are connected to LAN2, where P2 is the primary channel and P3 is the redundant channel. In this configuration, P3 uses the IP and MAC addresses of P2. Figure 5-6: Multiple LANs, with redundancy L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-31...
  • Page 218 IP addresses and mask. Configure the network IP and subnet settings before configuring the routing settings. To obtain a list of all port numbers used, for example for audit purposes, contact GE technical support with substantiating information, such as the serial number and order code of your device.
  • Page 219 2 is performed. The delay in switching back ensures that rebooted switching devices connected to the L90, which signal their ports as active prior to being completely functional, have time to completely initialize themselves and become active. Once port 2 is active again, port 3 returns to standby mode.
  • Page 220 UR 7 redundancy Failover is selected for redundancy. 5.3.4.6 Parallel Redundancy Protocol (PRP) The L90 is provided with optional PRP capability. This feature is specified as a software option at the time of ordering. See the Order Codes section in chapter 2 for details.
  • Page 221 The default route is used as the last choice when no other route towards a given destination is found.  DEFAULT IPv4 ROUTE GATEWAY ADDRESS: Range: standard IPV4 unicast address format   127.0.0.1  IPv4 NETWORK RT1 DESTINATION: Range: standard IPV4 address format   ROUTE 1 127.0.0.1 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-35...
  • Page 222 (RtGwy & Prt1Mask) == (Prt1IP & Prt1Mask) || (RtGwy & Prt2Mask) == (Prt2IP & Prt2Mask) || (RtGwy & Prt3Mask) == (Prt3IP & Prt3Mask) where & is the bitwise-AND operator == is the equality operator || is the logical OR operator 5-36 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 223 PRT2 SUBNET IP MASK = 255.255.255.0 IPV4 DEFAULT ROUTE: GATEWAY ADDRESS = 10.1.1.1 STATIC NETWORK ROUTE 1: RT1 DESTINATION = 10.1.3.0/24; RT1 NET MASK = 255.255.255.0; and RT1 GATEWAY = 10.1.2.1 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-37...
  • Page 224 0 disables Modbus over TCP/IP, meaning closes the Modbus TCP port. When the port number is changed to 0, the change takes effect when the L90 is restarted. When it is set to 0, use the front panel or serial port to communicate with the relay.
  • Page 225 Modbus, IEC 61850 Channel 2: RS485 Channel 1: RS485 Modbus Modbus, IEC 61850 Channel 2: none IEC 104 Modbus Modbus IEC 104, Modbus, IEC 61850 IEC 103 Modbus IEC 103 Modbus, IEC 61850 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-39...
  • Page 226 Range: 1 to 10080 min. in steps of 1  PERIOD: 1440 min DNP MESSAGE FRAGMENT Range: 30 to 2048 in steps of 1  SIZE: 240 DNP OBJECT 1 Range: 1, 2  DEFAULT VARIATION: 2 5-40 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 227  COMMUNICATIONS  PROTOCOL multiple DNP masters (usually an RTU or a SCADA master station). Since the L90 maintains two sets of DNP data change buffers and connection information, two DNP masters can actively communicate with the L90 at one time.
  • Page 228 DNP ADDRESS unique address to each DNP slave. The L90 can specify a maximum of five clients for its DNP connections. These are IP addresses for the controllers to which the L90 can connect. The settings follow. SETTINGS  PRODUCT SETUP  COMMUNICATIONS  DNP PROTOCOL  DNP NETWORK CLIENT ADDRESSES ...
  • Page 229 DNP TCP connection for greater than the time specified by this setting, the connection is aborted by the L90. This frees up the connection to be re-used by a client. Any change takes effect after cycling power to the relay.
  • Page 230 The maximum number of simultaneous clients supported by the UR family is five. EnerVista setup for IEC 61850 The EnerVista UR Setup software provides the interface to configure L90 settings for the IEC 61850 protocol. This section describes this interface. The software also supports import/export and merging of IEC 61850 Substation Configuration Language (SCL) files as documented in the UR Family Communications Guide.
  • Page 231 Figure 5-11: IEC 61850 panel Opening the IEC 61850 window while online causes the UR Setup software to retrieve and import an SCL file from the L90. This System Configuration Description (SCD) file contains all the settings in the UR at the time of the file request, both those that are mapped into the IEC 61850 information model (that is, the "public"...
  • Page 232 When the Save button is clicked in the online IEC 61850 window, UR Setup software prepares a configured IED description (CID) file containing all the settings of the UR and sends the CID file to the L90. Upon receipt, the L90 checks the CID file for correctness, going out of service, then back into service when the CID file is accepted.
  • Page 233 Default: TEMPLATE The value entered sets the IED name used by IEC 61850 for the L90. An IED name unique within the network must be entered for proper operation. Valid characters are upper and lowercase letters, digits, and the underscore (_) character.
  • Page 234 Range: status-only, direct-with-normal-security, sbo-with-normal-security Default: sbo-with-normal-security This setting specifies the control service that clients must use to control the TEST MODE FUNCTION of the L90. An "on" control to <LDName>/LLN0.Mod changes TEST MODE FUNCTION to Disabled, an "on-blocked" control changes it to Forcible, and a "test/blocked"...
  • Page 235 Protection logical device has been set to instance name "Prot", the function-related name "Feeder1Prot" and the configuration revision "2016-03-07 08:46." The text is clipped on the right if the line is longer than the available width. The next paragraphs explain how to do this setup. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-49...
  • Page 236 Figure 5-15: Menu for logical node If the insert option is selected, or the edit option is selected for other than the Master logical device, a logical device parameters edit dialog opens. 5-50 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 237 Each logical device inst name is required to be unique within the device, and it cannot be blank. Also, if the corresponding functional ldName setting is blank, the concatenation of the IED name and the logical device L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-51...
  • Page 238 The UR increments the value of paramRev by one whenever one or multiple setting changes occurs in one Modbus write request by any means (front panel, Modbus, or MMS) other than by SCL file 5-52 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 239 Routable GOOSE (R-GOOSE) is supported in firmware release 7.4 and later. Routable GOOSE allows UR and other devices to be located in separate networks. Encryption/decryption of messages is performed by a separate gateway device. Messages are routed using a separate router, using IP addresses. Note the following behavior: L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-53...
  • Page 240 The UR does not implement the Fixed-Length encoded GOOSE messages option specified in IEC 61850-8-1:2011 clause A.3; the UR always uses the ASN.1 Basic encoding rules (as specified in ISO/IEC 8825-1) as specified in IEC 61850 edition 1.0 and as optional in IEC 61850 edition 2.0. 5-54 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 241 TxGOOSE1 messages from other GOOSE messages. <LDName> is a syntactic variable that is set to the value of setting Master functional ldName if one or more characters have been entered to that setting, otherwise the value of setting IED NAME suffixed with "Master". L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-55...
  • Page 242 Network devices can forward a message with a higher priority value before a message with a lower priority value, which speeds delivery of high-priority messages in heavily loaded networks. The standard recommends that higher-priority messages, such as GOOSE, have priority values in the range of 4 to 7. 5-56 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 243 Range: 1 to 60 s in steps of 1 s Default: 60 s This setting specifies the time interval between heartbeat messages, meaning messages that are sent periodically while no events are detected. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-57...
  • Page 244 61850-90-5 R GOOSE service can be subscribed to. The UR accepts both the variable length encoded GOOSE messages specified IEC 61850 8 1:2004 and the Fixed-Length encoded GOOSE messages as specified in IEC 61850 8 1:2011 clause A.3. 5-58 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 245 If the publisher is a UR 7.3x series device, this setting needs match the value of the publisher's TxGOOSE GoID setting. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-59...
  • Page 246 <GoCBName> is the name of the publishing control block. The L90 translates the ACSI format required for this setting to the MMS format used in GOOSE messages: <LDName>/LLN0$GO$<GoCBName> If the publisher is a UR 7.3x or 7.40 series device, <LDName> is the value of the publisher's Master functional ldName setting if that setting is not empty, otherwise it is the value of the publisher's IED NAME suffixed with "Master".
  • Page 247 If the publisher is a UR 7.3x or 7.40 series device, set these settings to match the basic type of the members of the publisher's data set selected by the publisher's TxGOOSE datSet setting. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-61...
  • Page 248 SCD (supported in version 7.40 and later). When the file format is SCD, the system lists all IEDs inside the SCD file and lets the user select the ones to add. The figure shows a selection being made by importing a CID file using the Add IED function. 5-62 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 249 This setting selects the logic state for the RxGOOSE Boolean1 FlexLogic operand if the UR has just completed startup and the selected RxGOOSE has not yet received a message, or the selected RxGOOSE has lost its connectivity with the publisher. The following choices are available: L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-63...
  • Page 250 Default: None This setting selects the GOOSE message containing the value that drives the RxGOOSE DPS1 FlexLogic operand. If set to None, the RxGOOSE DPS1 FlexLogic operand assumes its default state. 5-64 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 251 (supported in version 7.40 and later). When the file format is SCD, the system lists all IEDs inside the SCD file and lets the user select the ones to add. Figure 5-23: RxGOOSE Analog Inputs panel There are 32 RxGOOSE analog inputs. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-65...
  • Page 252 Range: 0.000 to 1000000000.000 in steps of 0.001 Default: 1.000 This setting specifies the per-unit base value for other L90 features to use with the RxGOOSE Analog1 operand. A FlexElement for instance subtracts two quantities after converting their values to integers rescaled to a common base, the common base being the largest of the base values of the two quantities.
  • Page 253 RptEna attribute is false. Buffered and unbuffered reports Navigate to Settings > Product Setup > Communications > IEC 61850 > Reports > Buffered Reports or Unbuffered Reports. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-67...
  • Page 254 Also, the control block can be configured to send integrity reports containing the present value of all members either on demand from the client or periodically. A TCP handshaking mechanism causes messages that are not read and acknowledged by the client to be retransmitted. 5-68 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 255 Control blocks and data sets can be pre-configured by sending the L90 a CID file. See the UR Family Communications Guide for details. EnerVista UR Setup also can be used to select the data set members and to pre-configure the control blocks.
  • Page 256 This setting selects the data set whose members' status is reported in Unbuffered Report1 messages using the UR Setup software designator for the data set. The IEC 61850 name of the data sets are configured in the Datasets panel, as described later. 5-70 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 257 DataSets Navigate to Settings > Product Setup > Communications > IEC 61850 > DataSets. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-71...
  • Page 258 The DataSet name is not copied or pasted. In short, use this feature to copy a DataSet Member setting and paste it into another Member setting, a text file, or Word, as examples. 5-72 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 259 Select the member from the drop-down list. Or right-click an entry to copy, paste, delete, or insert. Product setup Navigate to Settings > Product Setup > Communications > IEC 61850 > Product Setup. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-73...
  • Page 260 Deadband parameters of measured values related to the Energy metering are configured here. Real Time Clock Navigate to Settings > Product Setup > Communications > IEC 61850 > Product Setup > Real Time Clock. 5-74 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 261 However, a tabulation of the analog values and their associated deadband setting can be found in the UR Family Communications Guide. Figure 5-30: Deadband settings with .db suffix L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-75...
  • Page 262 Navigate to Settings > Communications > IEC 61850 > System Setup > Breakers > Breaker 1 to access the settings that configure the IEC 61850 protocol interface with the first breaker control and status monitoring element. The settings and functionality for the others are similar. 5-76 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 263 SelectWithValue or Operate service with ctlVal true and with Check.Interlock-check true is requested of either BkrCSWI1.Pos or Bkr0XCBR1.Pos and the selected operand is not activated, a Negative Response (-Rsp) is issued with the REASON CODE of Blocked-by-interlocking. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-77...
  • Page 264 This setting specifies the maximum time between an operate command to breaker 1 via BkrCSWI1.Pos until BkrCSWI1.Pos.stVal enters the commanded state. The command terminates if the commanded state is not reached in the set time. 5-78 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 265 If a SelectWithValue or Operate service with ctlVal true and with Check.Interlock-check true is requested of DiscCSWI1.Pos or Disc0XSWI1.Pos and the selected operand is not activated, a Negative Response (-Rsp) is issued with the REASON CODE of Blocked-by-interlocking. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-79...
  • Page 266 > System Setup section later. These signals force a disconnect switch trip or close control while the operand selected by setting XSWI1 ST.LOC OPERAND is not active. "sbo" here is select-before-operate. Enhanced security means that the L90 reports to the client the disconnect switch 1 position the end of the command sequence.
  • Page 267 Navigate to Settings > Product Setup > Communications > IEC 61850 > Settings for Commands to access the settings that configure the IEC 61850 protocol interface for record clear commands. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-81...
  • Page 268 This setting selects the control model clients must use to successfully control the command CLEAR FAULT REPORTS. "sbo" here is select-before-operate. Enhanced security means that the L90 reports to the client the breaker 1 position at the end of the command sequence.
  • Page 269 Virtual Inputs are controllable FlexLogic operands that can be controlled via IEC 61850 commands to GGIO2, by DNP, by Modbus, and by the UR front panel. The settings related to these IEC 61850 commands are described here. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-83...
  • Page 270 Navigate to Settings > Product Setup > Communications > IEC 61850 > GGIO > GGIO4 > GGIO4.AnIn1 to access the settings for the first GGIO4 value. The settings and functionality for the others are similar. 5-84 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 271 <LDName>/GGIO4.AnIn01.instMag.f. This setting is stored as an IEEE 754 / IEC 60559 floating point number. Because of the large range of this setting, not all possible values can be stored. Some values are rounded to the closest possible floating point number. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-85...
  • Page 272 CHAPTER 5: SETTINGS File transfer by IEC 61850 The L90 supports file transfer by IEC 61850. The approach is as follows, using the SISCO AX-S4 61850 client software as an example. In the AX-S4 61850 Explorer window, click the Tools menu and access the SISCO File Transfer Utility.
  • Page 273 NUMBER: 0 The Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) can be used to transfer files from the L90 over a network. The L90 operates as a TFTP server. TFTP client software is available from various sources, including Microsoft Windows NT. The dir.txt file obtained from the L90 contains a list and description of all available files, for example event records and oscillography.
  • Page 274 0.0.0.0 The L90 can specify a maximum of five clients for its IEC 104 connections. These are IP addresses for the controllers to which the L90 can connect. A maximum of two simultaneous connections are supported at any given time.
  • Page 275 PTP, or SNTP, its time is overwritten by these three sources, if any of them is active. If the synchronization timeout occurs and none of IRIG-B, PTP, or SNTP is active, the L90 sets the invalid bit in the time stamp of a time-tagged message.
  • Page 276 Spontaneous transmission occurs as a response to cyclic Class 2 requests. If the L90 wants to transmit Class 1 data at that time, it demands access for Class 1 data transmission (ACD=1 in the control field of the response).
  • Page 277 FlexAnalog operands. The measurands sent are voltage, current, power, power factor, and frequency. If any other FlexAnalog is chosen, the L90 sends 0 instead of its value. Note that the power is transmitted in KW, not W. Measurands are transmitted as ASDU 3 or ASDU 9 (type identification value set to measurands I, respectively measurands II).
  • Page 278 Vt = 0.006 * 1200000 - 4096 = 7200 - 4096 = 3104 SETTINGS  PRODUCT SETUP  COMMUNICATIONS  IEC 60870-5-103  IEC103 COMMANDS  IEC103 COMMANDS  COMMAND 0 See below     COMMAND 1    5-92 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 279: Modbus User Map

    Commands are received as General Command (Type Identification 20). The user can configure the action to perform when an ASDU command comes. A list of available mappings is provided on the L90. This includes 64 virtual inputs (see the following table). The ON and OFF for the same ASDU command can be mapped to different virtual inputs.
  • Page 280: Real-time Clock

    FlexLogic operand is CLOCK UNSYNCHRONIZED activated. When the L30/L90 channel asymmetry function is used, the relay’s real time clock must be synchronized to an external time source using PTP or IRIG-B, typically from a global positioning system (GPS) receiver. setting displays when the relay includes the IEEE 1588 software option. The setting configures...
  • Page 281 See the Order Codes section in chapter 2 for details. The L90 supports the Precision Time Protocol (PTP) specified in IEEE Std 1588 2008 using the Power Profile (PP) specified in IEEE Std C37.238 2011. This enables the relay to synchronize to the international time standard over an Ethernet network that implements PP.
  • Page 282 When a clock on start-up discovers that it is “better” than the present grandmaster, it assumes the grandmaster role and the previous grandmaster reverts to slave. The L90 qualification mechanism accepts a potential master clock as a new grandmaster, when in a four-second interval it has received three announce messages from it, all better than the present grandmaster clock and better than any other announce in this interval.
  • Page 283 L90 clock is closely synchronized with the SNTP/ NTP server. It takes up to two minutes for the L90 to signal an SNTP self-test error if the server is offline.
  • Page 284: Fault Reports

     2:00 The L90 maintains two times: local time and Universal Coordinated Time (UTC). Local time can be provided by IRIG-B signals. UTC time is provided by SNTP servers. The real-time clock (RTC) and time stamps reported in historical records and communication protocols can be incorrect if the Local Time settings are not configured properly.
  • Page 285 The L90 relay supports one fault report and an associated fault locator per CT bank to a maximum of four. The signal source and trigger condition, as well as the characteristics of the line or feeder, are entered in this menu.
  • Page 286 The figure shows the supported configurations of parallel lines in three-terminal applications. 5-100 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 287 For proper operation of the multi-ended fault locator, the nominal primary voltage is expected to appear identical at all line terminals as seen from the nominal secondary voltage, VT ratio, and VT connection settings of the first 87L source. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-101...
  • Page 288: Oscillography

    — Set this to a percentage of the total buffer size (for example, 10%, 50%, 75%, and so on). A trigger TRIGGER POSITION position of 25% consists of 25% pre- and 75% post-trigger data. 5-102 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 289 It can be time-consuming to scan through the list of parameters via the relay keypad and display — entering this number via the relay keypad causes the corresponding parameter to display. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-103...
  • Page 290: Data Logger

    1000 ms 32729 s 4091 s 3637 s 2046 s 60000 ms 22.7 1963710 s 245460 s 218190 s 127230 s 3600000 ms 1362.1 117822600 s 170.2 14727600 s 151.3 13091400 s 5-104 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 291: Demand

    (RMS current, real power, reactive power, or apparent power) on each phase every second and assumes that the circuit quantity remains at this value until updated by the next measurement. It calculates the 'thermal demand equivalent' based on the following equation: Eq. 5-6 where L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-105...
  • Page 292: User-programmable Leds

    5.3.11 User-programmable LEDs 5.3.11.1 Menu SETTINGS  PRODUCT SETUP  USER-PROGRAMMABLE LEDS  USER-PROGRAMMABLE  LED TEST See below   LEDS   TRIP & ALARM LEDS See page 5-109   5-106 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 293 The test responds to the position and rising edges of the control input defined by the LED TEST CONTROL setting. The control pulses must last at least 250 ms to take effect. The following diagram explains how the test is executed. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-107...
  • Page 294 2. When stage 2 is completed, stage 3 starts automatically. The test can be cancelled at any time by pressing the pushbutton. 5-108 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 295 AR ENABLED LED 10 operand BREAKER 1 CLOSED LED 22 operand AR DISABLED LED 11 operand BREAKER 1 TROUBLE LED 23 operand AR RIP LED 12 operand LED 24 operand AR LO L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-109...
  • Page 296: User-programmable Self-tests

    The location of the control pushbuttons are shown in the following figures. 5-110 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 297 CHAPTER 5: SETTINGS PRODUCT SETUP Figure 5-45: Control pushbuttons (enhanced faceplate) An additional four control pushbuttons are included on the standard faceplate when the L90 is ordered with the 12 user- programmable pushbutton option. Figure 5-46: Control pushbuttons (standard faceplate) Control pushbuttons are not typically used for critical operations and are not protected by the control password.
  • Page 298: User-programmable Pushbuttons

    Range: 0 to 60.00 s in steps of 0.05  TIME: 0.00 s PUSHBTN 1 LED CTL: Range: FlexLogic operand  PUSHBTN 1 MESSAGE: Range: Disabled, Normal, High Priority  Disabled PUSHBUTTON 1 Range: Disabled, Enabled  EVENTS: Disabled 5-112 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 299 CHAPTER 5: SETTINGS PRODUCT SETUP The L90 is provided with this optional feature, specified as an option at the time of ordering. Using the order code for your device, see the order codes in chapter 2 for details. User-programmable pushbuttons provide an easy and error-free method of entering digital state (on, off) information. The number depends on the front panel ordered.
  • Page 300 This setting is applicable only if the user-programmable pushbutton is in "Latched" mode. — This setting enables the user-programmable pushbutton autoreset feature. This setting is applicable PUSHBTN 1 AUTORST only if the pushbutton is in “Latched” mode. 5-114 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 301 10 seconds. — If this setting is enabled, each user-programmable pushbutton state change is logged as an PUSHBUTTON 1 EVENTS event into the event recorder. The figures show the user-programmable pushbutton logic. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-115...
  • Page 302 PRODUCT SETUP CHAPTER 5: SETTINGS Figure 5-50: User-programmable pushbutton logic (Sheet 1 of 2) 5-116 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 303: Flex State Parameters

    The state bits can be read out in the “Flex States” register array beginning at Modbus address 0900h. Sixteen states are packed into each register, with the lowest-numbered state in the lowest-order bit. Sixteen registers accommodate the 256 state bits. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-117...
  • Page 304: User-definable Displays

    When this type of entry occurs, the sub-menus are automatically configured with the proper content—this content can be edited subsequently. 5-118 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 305: Installation

    The units are only displayed on both lines if the units specified both the top and bottom line items are different. 5.3.17 Installation SETTINGS  PRODUCT SETUP  INSTALLATION  INSTALLATION RELAY SETTINGS: Range: Not Programmed, Programmed   Not Programmed L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-119...
  • Page 306: Remote Resources

    5.4 Remote resources 5.4.1 Remote resources configuration When the L90 is ordered with a process card module as a part of HardFiber system, an additional Remote Resources menu tree is available in the EnerVista software to allow configuration of the HardFiber system.
  • Page 307: Ac Inputs

    CTs are adjusted to that created by a 1000:1 CT before summation. If a protection element is set up to act on SRC 1 currents, then a pickup level of 1 pu operates on 1000 A primary. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-121...
  • Page 308: Power System

     60 Hz PHASE ROTATION: Range: ABC, ACB  FREQUENCY AND PHASE Range: SRC 1, SRC 2, SRC 3, SRC 4  REFERENCE: SRC 1 FREQUENCYTRACKING: Range: Disabled, Enabled  Enabled 5-122 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 309: Signal Sources

    FREQUENCY TRACKING frequency applications. The frequency tracking feature functions only when the L90 is in the “Programmed” mode. If the L90 is “Not Programmed,” then metering values are available but can exhibit significant errors. Select the nominal system frequency as 50 Hz or 60 Hz only. The...
  • Page 310 CT wiring problem. A disturbance detector is provided for each source. The 50DD function responds to the changes in magnitude of the sequence currents. The disturbance detector logic is as follows. 5-124 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 311 8 CTs 4 CTs, 4 VTs 4 CTs, 4 VTs C60, D60, G30, G60, L30, L90, M60, T60 not applicable This configuration can be used on a two-winding transformer, with one winding connected into a breaker-and-a-half system. The following figure shows the arrangement of sources used to provide the functions required in this application, and the CT/VT inputs that are used to provide the data.
  • Page 312: Power System

     NUMBER OF CHANNELS: Range: 1, 2  CHARGING CURRENT Range: Disabled, Enabled  COMPENSATN: Disabled POS SEQ CAPACITIVE Range: 0.100 to 65.535 kΩin steps of 0.001  REACTANCE: 0.100 kΩ 5-126 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 313   TRANSFORMER Any changes to the L90 power system settings change the protection system configuration. As such, the 87L protection at all L90 protection system terminals must be temporarily disabled to allow the relays to acknowledge the new settings.
  • Page 314 2 (or 3 for a three-terminal line) before use in the previous equations. If the reactors installed at both ends of the line are different, the following equations apply: For two terminal line: Eq. 5-10 For three terminal line: Eq. 5-11 where 5-128 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 315 LOCAL (TERMINAL 1 and TERMINAL 2) ID NUMBER desirable to ensure the data used by the relays protecting a given line comes from the correct relays. The L90 performs this check by reading the ID number contained in the messages sent by transmitting relays and comparing this ID to the programmed correct ID numbers by the receiving relays.
  • Page 316 Fail-safe output of the GPS receiver — Some receivers can be equipped with the fail-safe output relay. The L90 system requires a maximum error of 250 µs. The fail-safe output of the GPS receiver can be connected to the local L90 via an input contact.
  • Page 317 µs, or accuracy less than 250 µs, or unknown accuracy/error (that is, not locked to an international time standard). Apply two security counts (2 seconds) to both set and reset of this operand when change is based on accuracy. There is no corresponding quality test for IRIG-B sources here. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-131...
  • Page 318 5.5.4.2 In-zone transformer SETTINGS  SYSTEM SETUP  87L POWER SYSTEM  IN-ZONE TRANSFORMER  IN-ZONE IN-ZONE TRANSFORMER Range: None, 0 to 330° lag in steps of 30°   TRANSFORMER CONNECTION: None 5-132 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 319  LOCAL-TAP The L90 is provided with this optional feature, specified as an option at the time of ordering. Using the order code for your device, see the order codes in chapter 2 for details. These settings ensure that the 87L element correctly applies magnitude and phase compensation for the in-zone transformer.
  • Page 320: Breakers

    1. The number of breaker control elements depends on the number of CT/VT modules specified with the L90. The following settings are available for each breaker control element.
  • Page 321 MANUAL CLOSE RECAL1 TIME operator has initiated a manual close command to operate a circuit breaker. — Selects an operand indicating that breaker 1 is out-of-service. BREAKER 1 OUT OF SV L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-135...
  • Page 322 CHAPTER 5: SETTINGS Figure 5-58: Dual breaker control logic (Sheet 1 of 2) IEC 61850 functionality is permitted when the L90 is in “Programmed” mode and not in local control mode. 5-136 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 323 IEC 61850 trip and close commands shown is one protection pass only. To maintain the close/ open command for a certain time, do so on the contact outputs using the "Seal-in" setting, in the Trip Output element, or in FlexLogic. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-137...
  • Page 324: Disconnect Switches

    “1-Pole” mode where each disconnect switch pole has its own auxiliary switch. — This setting selects an operand that when activated, and unless blocked, initiates the disconnect switch 1 SWITCH 1 OPEN open command. 5-138 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 325 This allows for non-simultaneous operation of the poles. IEC 61850 functionality is permitted when the L90 is in “Programmed” mode and not in local control mode. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 326 SYSTEM SETUP CHAPTER 5: SETTINGS Figure 5-60: Disconnect switch logic 5-140 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 327: Flexcurves

    0.48 0.88 15.5 0.50 0.90 16.0 0.52 0.91 16.5 0.54 0.92 17.0 0.56 0.93 17.5 0.58 0.94 18.0 0.60 0.95 18.5 0.62 0.96 19.0 0.64 0.97 19.5 0.66 0.98 10.0 20.0 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-141...
  • Page 328 30 ms. At approximately four times pickup, the curve operating time is equal to the MRT and from then onwards the operating time remains at 200 ms. 5-142 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 329 Configuring a composite curve with an increase in operating time at increased pickup multiples is not allowed. If this is attempted, the EnerVista software generates an error message and discards the proposed changes. 5.5.7.5 Standard recloser curves The following graphs display standard recloser curves available for the L90. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-143...
  • Page 330 SYSTEM SETUP CHAPTER 5: SETTINGS Figure 5-64: Recloser curves GE101 to GE106 Figure 5-65: Recloser curves GE113, GE120, GE138, and GE142 5-144 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 331 CHAPTER 5: SETTINGS SYSTEM SETUP Figure 5-66: Recloser curves GE134, GE137, GE140, GE151, and GE201 Figure 5-67: Recloser curves GE131, GE141, GE152, and GE200 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-145...
  • Page 332 SYSTEM SETUP CHAPTER 5: SETTINGS Figure 5-68: Recloser curves GE133, GE161, GE162, GE163, GE164, and GE165 Figure 5-69: Recloser curves GE116, GE117, GE118, GE132, GE136, and GE139 5-146 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 333 CHAPTER 5: SETTINGS SYSTEM SETUP Figure 5-70: Recloser curves GE107, GE111, GE112, GE114, GE115, GE121, and GE122 Figure 5-71: Recloser curves GE119, GE135, and GE202 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-147...
  • Page 334: Phasor Measurement Unit

      CONFIGURATION The L90 is provided with an optional Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) feature. This feature is specified as a software option at the time of ordering. The number of PMUs available also depends on this option. Using the order code for your device, see the order codes in chapter 2 for details.
  • Page 335 NONE, which within the standard is classified as PRES OR UNKNOWN under the Calculation Method - ClcMth. Each Logical Device PMU supports one MxxMMXU, MxxMSQI, PxxxMMXU , PxxxMSQI, NxxMMXU, and one NxxMSQI logical node. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-149...
  • Page 336 All bitstrings less than or equal to 32 bits in length map into a 32 bit bitstring in an IEC 61850-90-5 dataset. The Value of the Nominal Frequency of the chassis is instantiated as a DO in LPHD of LD1. The value is named HzNom and is an Integer Status (INS). 5-150 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 337 5.5.8.5 Example: Creation of different data sets The aggregators allow the aggregation of phasors from multiple PMUs (with the same reporting rate) into a single custom data set to optimize bandwidth when streaming. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-151...
  • Page 338 5.5.8.6 Configuration example: CFG-2 based configuration (using IEC 61850-90-5) The L90 is expected to send the CFG-2 file (IEEE C37.118 config. file) upon request from the upstream synchrophasor devices (for example, P30) without stopping R-SV multicasting, as shown in the following figure. The primary domain controller (PDC) does not need to use a stop/start data stream command if the UR protocol is set to IEC 61850-90-5 prior to requesting the configuration via CFG-2 (IEEE C37.118 config.
  • Page 339 PMU 1 PHS-14: Range: available synchrophasor values  PMU 1 PHS- 1: Range: 16-character ASCII string  NM: GE-UR-PMU-PHS 1  PMU 1 PHS-14: Range: 16-character ASCII string  NM: GE-UR-PMU-PHS 14 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-153...
  • Page 340 IEEE C37.118 protocol. This value is a 16-character ASCII string as per the IEEE C37.118 standard. — This setting specifies one of the available L90 signal sources for processing in the PMU. Any PMU 1 SIGNAL SOURCE combination of voltages and currents can be configured as a source.
  • Page 341 10 Hz, 12 Hz, 15 Hz, 20 Hz, 30 Hz, 60 Hz, or 120 Hz (or 10 Hz, 25 Hz, 50 Hz, or 100 Hz when the system frequency is 50 Hz) when entered via the keypad or software; and the L90 stops the transmission of reports.
  • Page 342 ANGLE: 0.00° PMU 1 VB CALIBRATION Range: 95.0 to 105.0 in steps of 0.1%  MAG: 100.0% PMU 1 VC CALIBRATION Range: –5.00 to 5.00° in steps of 0.05  ANGLE: 0.00° 5-156 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 343 When receiving synchrophasor data at multiple locations, with possibly different reference nodes, it can be more beneficial to allow the central locations to perform the compensation of sequence voltages. • This setting applies to PMU data only. The L90 calculates symmetrical voltages independently for protection and control purposes without applying this correction. •...
  • Page 344 TRIGGER DPO TIME PMU x TRIGGERED operand with stat bits 3 and 11 for a fixed interval defined by this setting. If it is required that operand with PMU x TRIGGERED 5-158 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 345 L90 standards. This element requires that the frequency be above the minimum measurable value. If the frequency is below this value, such as when the circuit is de-energized, the trigger drops out.
  • Page 346 — Use to extend the trigger after the situation returns to normal. This setting is of importance PMU 1 VOLT TRIGGER DPO TIME when using the recorder in the forced mode (recording as long as the triggering condition is asserted). 5-160 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 347 — Use to extend the trigger after the situation returns to normal. This setting is of PMU 1 CURR TRIGGER DPO TIME importance when using the recorder in the forced mode (recording as long as the triggering condition is asserted). Figure 5-81: Current trigger logic L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-161...
  • Page 348 — Use to extend the trigger after the situation returns to normal. This setting is of PMU 1 POWER TRIGGER DPO TIME particular importance when using the recorder in the forced mode (recording as long as the triggering condition is asserted). 5-162 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 349 — Use to extend the trigger after the situation returns to normal. This setting is of importance PMU 1 df/dt TRIGGER DPO TIME when using the recorder in the forced mode (recording as long as the triggering condition is asserted). L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-163...
  • Page 350 Range: NONE, 37.118, 90-5   PROTOCOL: NONE PMU AGGREGATOR 1 Range: 1 to 65534 in steps of 1  IDCODE: 1 PMU AGGREGATOR 1 Range: No, Yes  INCLUDE PMU1: No 5-164 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 351 Phasor data concentrator asserts control bit 3 as received via the network  as above AGTR1 PDC CNTRL 16 Phasor data concentrator asserts control bit 16, as received via the network L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-165...
  • Page 352 R-SV CB1 SVENA: Range: FlexLogic operand   CONFIGURATION R-SV CB1 CLIENT CTRL: Range: FlexLogic operand  R-SV CB1 SVENA DFLT: Range: FlexLogic operand  R-SV CB1 CONFREV: Range: 1 to 4294967295  5-166 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 353 — A range of values limited from 0 to 4095. R-SV CB1 VLAN ID — This setting allows the selection of a specific application ID for each sending device. R-SV CB1 APPID L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-167...
  • Page 354: Flexlogic

    FlexLogic. In general, the system receives analog and digital inputs that it uses to produce analog and digital outputs. The figure shows major subsystems of a generic UR-series relay involved in this process. 5-168 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 355 Figure 5-85: UR architecture overview The states of all digital signals used in the L90 are represented by flags (or FlexLogic operands, which are described later in this section). A digital “1” is represented by a set flag. Any external contact change-of-state can be used to block an element from operating, as an input to a control feature in a FlexLogic equation, or to operate a contact output.
  • Page 356 The following table lists the operands available for the relay. The operands can be viewed online by entering the IP address of the relay in a web browser and accessing the Device Information Menu. 5-170 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 357 Exceeded maximum CRC error threshold on channel 2 87L DIFF CH1 ID FAIL The ID check for a peer L90 on channel 1 has failed 87L DIFF CH2 ID FAIL The ID check for a peer L90 on channel 2 has failed...
  • Page 358 BKR FAIL 1 T2 OP Breaker failure 1 timer 2 is operated BKR FAIL 1 T3 OP Breaker failure 1 timer 3 is operated BKR FAIL 1 TRIP OP Breaker failure 1 trip is operated 5-172 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 359 Digital counter 1 output is ‘equal to’ comparison value Counter 1 LO Digital counter 1 output is ‘less than’ comparison value Counter 2 to 8 Same set of operands as shown for Counter 1 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-173...
  • Page 360 FlexElement 1 has picked up FlexElements FxE 1 OP FlexElement 1 has operated FxE 1 DPO FlexElement 1 has dropped out FxE 2 to 8 Same set of operands as shown for FxE 1 5-174 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 361 Negative-sequence time overcurrent 1 has picked up Negative-sequence NEG SEQ TOC1 OP Negative-sequence time overcurrent 1 has operated time overcurrent NEG SEQ TOC1 DPO Negative-sequence time overcurrent 1 has dropped out L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-175...
  • Page 362 Phase B directional 1 block overcurrent PH DIR1 BLK C Phase C directional 1 block PH DIR1 BLK Phase directional 1 block PH DIR2 Same set of operands as shown for PH DIR1 5-176 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 363 Phase A of phase time overcurrent 1 has dropped out PHASE TOC1 DPO B Phase B of phase time overcurrent 1 has dropped out PHASE TOC1 DPO C Phase C of phase time overcurrent 1 has dropped out L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-177...
  • Page 364 An unstable power swing has been detected (incoming locus) POWER SWING OUTGOING An unstable power swing has been detected (outgoing locus) POWER SWING UN/BLOCK Asserted when power swing is detected and de-asserted when a fault during power swing occurs 5-178 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 365 Delta connected VT. SRC2 VT FUSE FAIL to SRC4 Same set of operands as shown for SRC1 VT FF ELEMENT: STUB BUS OP Stub bus is operated Stub bus L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-179...
  • Page 366 The volts per hertz element 1 has picked up Volts per hertz VOLT PER HERTZ 1 OP The volts per hertz element 1 has operated VOLT PER HERTZ 1 DPO The volts per hertz element 1 has dropped out 5-180 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 367 Virt Op 1 Flag is set, logic=1 Virtual outputs Virt Op 2 Flag is set, logic=1 Virt Op 3 Flag is set, logic=1 ↓ ↓ Virt Op 96 Flag is set, logic=1 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-181...
  • Page 368 Communications source of the reset command RESET OP (OPERAND) Operand (assigned in the INPUTS/OUTPUTS  RESETTING menu) source of the reset command RESET OP (PUSHBUTTON) Reset key (pushbutton) source of the reset command 5-182 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 369 ‘1’ 2 to 16 all inputs are ‘1’ 2 to 16 all inputs are ‘0’ NAND 2 to 16 any input is ‘0’ only one input is ‘1’ L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-183...
  • Page 370: Flexlogic Rules

    A timer operator (for example, "TIMER 1") or virtual output assignment (for example, " = Virt Op 1") can be used once only. If this rule is broken, a syntax error is declared. 5.6.3 FlexLogic evaluation Each equation is evaluated in the ascending order in which the parameters have been entered. 5-184 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 371: Flexlogic Example

    4, which is programmed in the contact output section to operate relay H1 (that is, contact output H1). Therefore, the required logic can be implemented with two FlexLogic equations with outputs of virtual output 3 and virtual output 4, shown as follows. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-185...
  • Page 372 It is generally easier to start at the output end of the equation and work back towards the input, as shown in the following steps. It is also recommended 5-186 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 373 It is now possible to check that this selection of parameters produces the required logic by converting the set of parameters into a logic diagram. The result of this process is shown in the figure, which is compared to the logic for virtual output 3 diagram as a check. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-187...
  • Page 374 Now check that the selection of parameters produce the required logic by converting the set of parameters into a logic diagram. The result is shown in the figure, which is compared to the logic for virtual output 4 diagram as a check. 5-188 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 375 Always test the logic after it is loaded into the relay, in the same way as has been used in the past. Testing can be simplified by placing an "END" operator within the overall set of FlexLogic equations. The equations are evaluated up L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-189...
  • Page 376: Flexlogic Equation Editor

    Range: Off, any analog actual value parameter  FLEXELEMENT 1 INPUT Range: SIGNED, ABSOLUTE  MODE: SIGNED FLEXELEMENT 1 COMP Range: LEVEL, DELTA  MODE: LEVEL FLEXELEMENT 1 Range: OVER, UNDER  DIRECTION: OVER 5-190 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 377 FLEXELEMENT 1 +IN this setting is set to “Off.” For proper operation of the element, at least one input must be selected. Otherwise, the element does not assert its output operands. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-191...
  • Page 378 Figure 5-94: FlexElement direction, pickup, and hysteresis In conjunction with the setting, the element can be programmed to provide two extra FLEXELEMENT 1 INPUT MODE characteristics, as shown in the following figure. 5-192 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 379 (Terminal 2 IA Mag, IB and IC) 87L SIGNALS BASE = Squared CT secondary of the 87L source (Op Square Curr IA, IB, and IC) (Rest Square Curr IA, IB, and IC) L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-193...
  • Page 380: Non-volatile Latches

    SETTINGS  FLEXLOGIC  NON-VOLATILE LATCHES  LATCH 1(16)  LATCH 1 LATCH 1 Range: Disabled, Enabled   FUNCTION: Disabled LATCH 1 ID: Range: up to 20 alphanumeric characters  NV Latch 1 5-194 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 381 Figure 5-96: Non-volatile latch operation table (N = 1 to 16) and logic Latch n type Latch n Latch n Latch n Latch n reset Reset Dominant Previous Previous State State Dominant Previous Previous State State L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-195...
  • Page 382: Overview

    Each of the six setting group menus is identical. Setting group 1 (the default active group) is active automatically when no other group is active. If the device incorrectly switches to group 1 after power cycling, upgrade the firmware to version 7.31 or later to correct this issue. 5-196 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 383 Range: 1 to 50% in steps of 1  RESTRAINT: 25% CURRENT DIFF GND Range: 0.00 to 5.00 s in steps of 0.01  DELAY: 0.10 s CURRENT DIFF DTT: Range: Disabled, Enabled  Enabled L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-197...
  • Page 384 If set to “Per phase”, the L90 performs inrush inhibit individually in each phase. If set to “2-out-of-3,” the L90 checks second harmonic level in all three phases individually. If any two phases establish an inhibiting condition, then the remaining phase is restrained automatically.
  • Page 385 DTT on a per three-phase basis. For the current differential element to function properly, it is imperative that all L90 devices on the protected line have identical firmware revisions. For example, revision 5.62 in only compatible with 5.62, not 5.61 or 5.63.
  • Page 386 GROUPED ELEMENTS CHAPTER 5: SETTINGS Figure 5-97: Current differential logic 5-200 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 387 It should be blocked unless disconnect is open. To prevent 87L tripping from remote L90 relays still protecting the line, assign the auxiliary contact of line disconnect switch (logic “1” when line switch is open) to block the local 87L function by using the setting.
  • Page 388: Line Pickup

    LINE PICKUP DISTANCE Range: Disabled, Enabled  TRIP: Enabled LINE PICKUP BLOCK: Range: FlexLogic operand  LINE PICKUP Range: Self-reset, Latched, Disabled  TARGET: Self-reset LINE PICKUP Range: Disabled, Enabled  EVENTS: Disabled 5-202 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 389 — Assertion of the FlexLogic operand assigned to this setting blocks operation of the line pickup LINE PICKUP BLOCK element. — This setting enables and disables the logging of line pickup events in the sequence of events LINE PICKUP EVENTS recorder. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-203...
  • Page 390: Distance

      SOURCE: SRC 1 MEMORY Range: 5 to 25 cycles in steps of 1  DURATION: 10 cycles FORCE SELF-POLAR: Range: FlexLogic operand  FORCE MEM-POLAR: Range: FlexLogic operand  5-204 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 391 1 and zone 2. Disable fast distance for FAST DISTANCE distance protection applications on a series compensated line. enables phase selection supervision on phase distance zone 1 to zone 3. PH DIST PH SELECT SUPV L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-205...
  • Page 392 The distance zones of the L90 are identical to that of the D60 Line Distance Relay. Figure 5-100: Memory voltage logic The figure shows a condition for the L90 only that forces distance to be self-polarized to assure correct distance operation when L90 relays are synchronizing to each other.
  • Page 393 — This setting selects the shape of the phase distance function between the mho and quadrilateral PHS DIST Z1 SHAPE characteristics. The selection is available on a per-zone basis. The two characteristics and their possible variations are shown in the following figures. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-207...
  • Page 394 GROUPED ELEMENTS CHAPTER 5: SETTINGS Figure 5-101: Directional mho phase distance characteristic Figure 5-102: Non-directional mho phase distance characteristic 5-208 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 395 CHAPTER 5: SETTINGS GROUPED ELEMENTS Figure 5-103: Directional quadrilateral phase distance characteristic Figure 5-104: Non-directional quadrilateral phase distance characteristic L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-209...
  • Page 396 GROUPED ELEMENTS CHAPTER 5: SETTINGS Figure 5-105: Mho distance characteristic sample shapes 5-210 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 397 Therefore, the Z3 setting is set to “None.” See the Application of Settings chapter for information on calculating distance reach settings in applications involving power transformers. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-211...
  • Page 398 — This setting defines the angle of the reverse reach impedance of the non-directional zone PHS DIST Z1 REV REACH RCA setting). This setting does not apply when the zone direction is set to "Forward" or "Reverse." PHS DIST Z1 DIR 5-212 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 399 — This setting enables the user to select a FlexLogic operand to block a given distance element. VT fuse fail PHS DIST Z1 BLK detection is one of the applications for this setting. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-213...
  • Page 400 2 operation when the fault evolves from one type to another or migrates from the initial zone to zone 2. Assign the required zones in the trip output function to accomplish this functionality. 5-214 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 401 CHAPTER 5: SETTINGS GROUPED ELEMENTS Figure 5-110: Phase distance zones 3 and higher OP logic Figure 5-111: Phase distance logic L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-215...
  • Page 402 GND DIST Z1 VOLT Range: 0.000 to 5.000 pu in steps of 0.001  LEVEL: 0.000 pu GND DIST Z1 Range: 0.000 to 65.535 s in steps of 0.001  DELAY: 0.000 s 5-216 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 403 The figures show the directional and non-directional quadrilateral ground distance characteristics. The directional and non-directional mho ground distance characteristics are the same as those shown for the phase distance element in the previous section. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-217...
  • Page 404 If this compensation is required, the ground current from the parallel line (3I_0) measured in the direction of the zone being compensated must be connected to the ground input CT of the CT bank 5-218 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 405 In conjunction with the quadrilateral characteristic, this setting improves security for faults close to the reach point by adjusting the reactance boundary into a tent-shape. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-219...
  • Page 406 — This setting enables the user to select a FlexLogic operand to block the given ground distance element. GND DIST Z1 BLK VT fuse fail detection is one of the applications for this setting. 5-220 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 407 2 operation if the fault evolves from one type to another or migrates from zone 3 or 4 to zone 2. Assign the required zones in the trip output element to accomplish this functionality. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-221...
  • Page 408 GROUPED ELEMENTS CHAPTER 5: SETTINGS Figure 5-116: Ground distance zones 3 and higher OP scheme 5-222 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 409 CHAPTER 5: SETTINGS GROUPED ELEMENTS Figure 5-117: Ground distance zone 1 pickup logic L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-223...
  • Page 410 The supervision is biased toward operation in order to avoid compromising the sensitivity of ground distance elements at low signal levels. Otherwise, the reverse fault condition that generates concern has high polarizing levels so that a correct reverse fault decision can be reliably made. 5-224 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 411: Power Swing Detect (ansi 68)

    RCA: 75° POWER SWING OUTER Range: 40 to 140° in steps of 1  LIMIT ANGLE: 120° POWER SWING MIDDLE Range: 40 to 140° in steps of 1  LIMIT ANGLE: 90° L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-225...
  • Page 412 Different protection elements respond differently to power swings. If tripping is required for faults during power swing conditions, some elements can be blocked permanently (using the operand), and others can be POWER SWING BLOCK blocked and dynamically unblocked upon fault detection (using the operand). POWER SWING UN/BLOCK 5-226 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 413 The element can be set to use either lens (mho) or rectangular (quadrilateral) characteristics, as shown in the figure. When set to “Mho,” the element applies the right and left blinders as well. If the blinders are not required, set their settings high enough to effectively disable the blinders. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-227...
  • Page 414 GROUPED ELEMENTS CHAPTER 5: SETTINGS Figure 5-120: Power swing detect mho operating characteristics Figure 5-121: Effects of blinders on the mho characteristics 5-228 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 415 — This setting selects the shapes (either “Mho” or “Quad”) of the outer, middle, and inner POWER SWING SHAPE characteristics of the power swing detect element. The operating principle is not affected. The “Mho” characteristics use the left and right blinders. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-229...
  • Page 416 POWER SWING MIDDLE LIMIT ANGLE for the three-step mode. A typical value is close to the average of the outer and inner limit angles. This setting applies to mho shapes only. 5-230 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 417 POWER SWING TRIP — Enables and disables the logging of power swing detect events in the sequence of events POWER SWING EVENTS recorder. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-231...
  • Page 418 GROUPED ELEMENTS CHAPTER 5: SETTINGS Figure 5-123: Power swing detect logic (Sheet 1 of 3) 5-232 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 419 CHAPTER 5: SETTINGS GROUPED ELEMENTS Figure 5-124: Power swing detect logic (Sheet 2 of 3) Figure 5-125: Power swing detect logic (Sheet 3 of 3) L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-233...
  • Page 420: Load Encroachment

    The element operates if the positive-sequence voltage is above a settable level and asserts its output signal that can be used to block selected protection elements, such as distance or phase overcurrent. The following figure shows an effect of the load encroachment characteristics used to block the quadrilateral distance element. 5-234 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 421: Phase Current

    When the voltage is below this threshold, a blocking signal is not asserted by the element. When selecting this setting, remember that the L90 measures the phase-to-ground sequence voltages regardless of the VT connection. The nominal VT secondary voltage as specified with the SYSTEM SETUP ...
  • Page 422  DIRECTIONAL 2 5.7.8.2 Inverse TOC curve characteristics The inverse time overcurrent curves used by the time overcurrent elements are the IEEE, IEC, GE Type IAC, and I t standard curve shapes. This allows for simplified coordination with downstream devices.
  • Page 423 For European applications, the relay offers three standard curves defined in IEC 255-4 and British standard BS142. These are defined as IEC Curve A, IEC Curve B, and IEC Curve C. The IEC curves are derived by the operate and reset time equations. Eq. 5-16 where L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-237...
  • Page 424 0.711 0.445 0.351 0.301 0.269 0.247 0.231 0.218 0.207 0.60 1.835 1.067 0.668 0.526 0.451 0.404 0.371 0.346 0.327 0.311 0.80 2.446 1.423 0.890 0.702 0.602 0.538 0.494 0.461 0.435 0.415 5-238 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 425 A to E = constants defined in the table = characteristic constant defined in the table = reset time in seconds (assuming energy capacity is 100% and RESET is “Timed”) RESET Table 5-32: GE type IAC inverse time curve constants IAC curve shape IAC Extreme Inverse 0.0040 0.6379...
  • Page 426 250.00 111.11 62.50 40.00 27.78 20.41 15.63 12.35 10.00 100.00 4444.4 2500.0 1111.1 625.00 400.00 277.78 204.08 156.25 123.46 100.00 600.00 26666.7 15000.0 6666.7 3750.0 2400.0 1666.7 1224.5 937.50 740.74 600.00 5-240 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 427 = Reset Time in seconds (assuming energy capacity is 100% and RESET: Timed) RESET Recloser curves The L90 uses the FlexCurve feature to facilitate programming of 41 recloser curves. See the FlexCurves settings section earlier in this chapter for details. 5.7.8.3 Phase time overcurrent (ANSI 51P, IEC PTOC) SETTINGS ...
  • Page 428 — Selects the signal source for the phase time overcurrent protection element. SIGNAL SOURCE — Selects how phase current input quantities are interpreted by the L90. Inputs can be selected as fundamental INPUT phasor magnitudes or total waveform RMS magnitudes as required by the application.
  • Page 429 PHASE IOC1 PICKUP Range: 0.00 to 600.00 s in steps of 0.01  DELAY: 0.00 s PHASE IOC1 RESET Range: 0.00 to 600.00 s in steps of 0.01  DELAY: 0.00 s L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-243...
  • Page 430   DIRECTIONAL 1 FUNCTION: Disabled PHASE DIR 1 SIGNAL Range: SRC 1, SRC 2, SRC 3, SRC 4  SOURCE: SRC 1 PHASE DIR 1 BLOCK: Range: FlexLogic operand  5-244 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 431 (ECA) settings. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-245...
  • Page 432 When set to "Yes," the directional element blocks the operation of any phase overcurrent element under directional control, when voltage memory expires. When set to "No," the directional element allows tripping of phase overcurrent elements under directional control. 5-246 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 433: Neutral Current

    SETTINGS  GROUPED ELEMENTS  SETTING GROUP 1(6)  NEUTRAL CURRENT  NEUTRAL CURRENT  NEUTRAL TOC 1 See below      NEUTRAL TOC 4    NEUTRAL IOC 1 See page 5-249    L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-247...
  • Page 434 — This setting selects the signal source for the neutral time overcurrent protection element. NEUTRAL TOC1 SIGNAL SOURCE — This setting selects how neutral current input quantities are interpreted by the L90. Inputs can be NEUTRAL TOC1 INPUT selected as fundamental phasor magnitudes or total waveform RMS magnitudes as required by the application.
  • Page 435 The positive-sequence restraint allows for more sensitive settings by counterbalancing spurious zero-sequence currents resulting from: • System unbalances under heavy load conditions • Transformation errors of current transformers (CTs) during double-line and three-phase faults • Switch-off transients during double-line and three-phase faults L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-249...
  • Page 436 VOLT: Calculated V0 NEUTRAL DIR OC1 OP Range: Calculated 3I0, Measured IG  CURR: Calculated 3I0 NEUTRAL DIR OC1 POS- Range: 0.000 to 0.500 in steps of 0.001  SEQ RESTRAINT: 0.063 5-250 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 437 The following tables define the neutral directional overcurrent element. V_0 is the zero-sequence voltage, I_0 is the zero-sequence current, ECA is the element characteristic angle, and IG is the ground current. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-251...
  • Page 438 This allows for better protection coordination. Take the bias into account when using the neutral directional overcurrent element to directionalize other protection elements. 5-252 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 439 A similar situation arises for a wye/delta/wye transformer, where current in one transformer winding neutral can reverse when faults on both sides of the transformer are considered. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-253...
  • Page 440 — This setting defines the pickup level for the overcurrent unit of the element in the reverse NEUTRAL DIR OC1 REV PICKUP direction. When selecting this setting, keep in mind that the design uses a positive-sequence restraint technique for the “Calculated 3I0” mode of operation. 5-254 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 441: Wattmetric Ground Fault

    WATTMETRIC GND FLT 1 Range: Calculated IN, Measured IG  CURR: Calculated IN WATTMETRIC GND FLT 1 Range: 0.002 to 30.000 pu in steps of 0.001  OC PKP: 0.060 pu L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-255...
  • Page 442 WATTMETRIC GND FLT 1 PWR PKP the 1 pu voltage as specified for the overvoltage condition of this element, and 1 pu current as specified for the overcurrent condition of this element. 5-256 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 443 The four FlexCurves allow for custom user-programmable time characteristics. When working with FlexCurves, the element uses the operate to pickup ratio, and the multiplier setting is not applied: Eq. 5-28 Again, the FlexCurve timer starts after the definite time timer expires. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-257...
  • Page 444 — This setting is applicable if the is set to Inverse and WATTMETRIC GND FLT 1 MULTIPLIER WATTMETRIC GND FLT 1 CURVE defines the multiplier factor for the inverse time delay. 5-258 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 445: Ground Current

    Figure 5-139: Wattmetric zero-sequence directional logic 5.7.11 Ground current 5.7.11.1 Menu SETTINGS  GROUPED ELEMENTS  SETTING GROUP 1(6)  GROUND CURRENT  GROUND CURRENT  GROUND TOC1 See below     L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-259...
  • Page 446 — This setting selects the signal source for the ground time overcurrent protection element. GROUND TOC1 SIGNAL SOURCE — This setting selects how ground current input quantities are interpreted by the L90. Inputs can be GROUND TOC1 INPUT selected as fundamental phasor magnitudes or total waveform RMS magnitudes as required by the application.
  • Page 447 The ground instantaneous overcurrent element can be used as an instantaneous element with no intentional delay or as a definite time element. The ground current input is the quantity measured by the ground input CT and is the fundamental phasor magnitude. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-261...
  • Page 448 Application of the restricted ground fault protection extends the coverage towards the neutral point (see the following figure). 5-262 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 449 Even with the improved definition of the restraining signal, the breaker-and-a-half application of the restricted ground fault must be approached with care, and is not recommended unless the settings are carefully selected to avoid maloperation due to CT saturation. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-263...
  • Page 450 (Igr(k)) does not reduce instantly but keeps decaying decreasing its value by 50% each 15.5 power system cycles. Having the differential and restraining signals developed, the element applies a single slope differential characteristic with a minimum pickup as shown in the following logic diagram. 5-264 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 451 Given the following inputs: IA = 1.10 pu ∠0°, IB = 1.0 pu ∠–120°, IC = 1.0 pu ∠120°, and IG = 0.05 pu ∠0° The relay calculates the following values: I_0 = 0.033 pu ∠0°, I_2 = 0.033 pu ∠0°, and I_1 = 1.033 pu ∠0° L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-265...
  • Page 452: Negative Sequence Current

     NEG SEQ DIR OC2   The L90 provides two negative-sequence time overcurrent elements, two negative-sequence instantaneous overcurrent elements, and two negative-sequence directional overcurrent elements. For information on the negative sequence time overcurrent curves, see the Inverse TOC Curve Characteristics section earlier.
  • Page 453 NEG SEQ IOC1 SIGNAL Range: SRC 1, SRC 2, SRC 3, SRC 4  SOURCE: SRC 1 NEG SEQ IOC1 Range: 0.020 to 30.000 pu in steps of 0.001  PICKUP: 1.000 pu L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-267...
  • Page 454 NEG SEQ DIR OC1 Range: SRC 1, SRC 2, SRC 3, SRC 4  SOURCE: SRC 1 NEG SEQ DIR OC1 Range: 0.00 to 250.00 ohms in steps of 0.01  OFFSET: 0.00 Ω 5-268 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 455 CT errors, since the current is low. The operating quantity depends on the way the test currents are injected into the L90. For single phase injection = ⅓ × (1 – K) × I •...
  • Page 456 1.5 of a power system cycle. The element emulates an electromechanical directional device. Larger operating and polarizing signals result in faster directional discrimination, bringing more security to the element operation. Figure 5-147: Negative-sequence directional characteristic 5-270 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 457 When NEG SEQ DIR OC1 TYPE selecting this setting, keep in mind that the design uses a positive-sequence restraint technique. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-271...
  • Page 458: Breaker Failure (ansi 50bf)

    Range: 0.020 to 30.000 pu in steps of 0.001  PICKUP: 1.050 pu BF1 USE TIMER 1: Range: Yes, No  BF1 TIMER 1 PICKUP Range: 0.000 to 65.535 s in steps of 0.001  DELAY: 0.000 s 5-272 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 459 Because breaker failure can result in tripping a large number of breakers and this affects system safety and stability, a very high level of security is required. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-273...
  • Page 460 For the L90 relay, the protection trip signal initially sent to the breaker is already programmed as a trip output. The protection trip signal does not include other breaker commands that are not indicative of a fault in the protected zone.
  • Page 461 — If set to "Yes," the element is sealed-in if current flowing through the breaker is above the supervision BF1 USE SEAL-IN pickup level. — This setting selects the FlexLogic operand that initiates three-pole tripping of the breaker. BF1 3-POLE INITIATE L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-275...
  • Page 462 In microprocessor relays this time is not significant. In L90 relays, which use a Fourier transform, the calculated current magnitude ramps-down to zero one power frequency cycle after the current is interrupted, and this lag needs to be included in the overall margin duration, as it occurs after current interruption.
  • Page 463 Upon operation of the breaker failure element for a single pole trip command, a three-pole trip command needs to be given via output operand BKR FAIL 1 TRIP L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-277...
  • Page 464 GROUPED ELEMENTS CHAPTER 5: SETTINGS Figure 5-151: Single-pole breaker failure, initiate logic 5-278 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 465 CHAPTER 5: SETTINGS GROUPED ELEMENTS Figure 5-152: Single-pole breaker failure, timers logic L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-279...
  • Page 466 GROUPED ELEMENTS CHAPTER 5: SETTINGS Figure 5-153: Three-pole breaker failure, initiate logic 5-280 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 467 CHAPTER 5: SETTINGS GROUPED ELEMENTS Figure 5-154: Three-pole breaker failure, timers logic L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-281...
  • Page 468: Voltage Elements

    The time delay is adjustable from 0 to 600.00 seconds in steps of 0.01. The undervoltage elements can also be programmed to have an inverse time delay characteristic. 5-282 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 469 Range: 0.00 to 600.00 s in steps of 0.01  DELAY: 1.00 s PHASE UV1 MINIMUM Range: 0.000 to 3.000 pu in steps of 0.001  VOLTAGE: 0.100 pu PHASE UV1 BLOCK: Range: FlexLogic operand  L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-283...
  • Page 470 Range: 0.00 to 600.00 s in steps of 0.01  DELAY: 1.00 s PHASE OV1 BLOCK: Range: FlexLogic Operand  PHASE OV1 Range: Self-reset, Latched, Disabled  TARGET: Self-reset PHASE OV1 Range: Disabled, Enabled  EVENTS: Disabled 5-284 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 471 Range: 0.00 to 600.00 s in steps of 0.01  DELAY: 1.00 s NEUTRAL OV1 BLOCK: Range: FlexLogic operand  NEUTRAL OV1 TARGET: Range: Self-reset, Latched, Disabled  Self-reset NEUTRAL OV1 EVENTS: Range: Disabled, Enabled  Disabled L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-285...
  • Page 472 Range: Disabled, Enabled  Disabled The L90 contains one auxiliary undervoltage element for each VT bank. This element monitors undervoltage conditions of the auxiliary voltage. selects the voltage level at which the time undervoltage element starts timing. The nominal secondary...
  • Page 473 Range: Disabled, Enabled  Disabled The L90 contains one auxiliary overvoltage element for each VT bank. This element is intended for monitoring overvoltage conditions of the auxiliary voltage. The nominal secondary voltage of the auxiliary voltage channel entered under SYSTEM is the per-unit (pu) base used when setting the SETUP ...
  • Page 474 Disabled For the L90, this feature is optional and requires software option 24 or 83. Check the order code of your device. The per-unit volts-per-hertz (V/Hz) value is calculated using the maximum of the three-phase voltage inputs or the auxiliary voltage channel Vx input, if the source is not configured with phase voltages.
  • Page 475 “Phase-ground”, then the operating quantity for this element is the phase-to-ground nominal voltage. It is beneficial to use the phase-to-phase voltage mode for this element when the L90 device is applied on an isolated or resistance-grounded system.
  • Page 476 TDM = Time Delay Multiplier (delay in sec.) V = fundamental RMS value of voltage (pu) F = frequency of voltage signal (pu) Pickup = volts-per-hertz pickup setpoint (pu) The figure shows the volts/hertz inverse B curves. 5-290 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 477 TDM = Time Delay Multiplier (delay in sec.) V = fundamental RMS value of voltage (pu) F = frequency of voltage signal (pu) Pickup = volts-per-hertz pickup setpoint (pu) The figure shows the volts/hertz inverse C curves. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-291...
  • Page 478 COMPENSATED OV STG3 Range: 0.250 to 3.000 pu in steps of 0.01  PKP: 1.300 pu COMPENSATED OV STG3 Range: 0.00 to 600.00 seconds in steps of 0.01  DELAY: 1.00 sec 5-292 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 479 In this case, the required reach setting is: Eq. 5-41 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-293...
  • Page 480: Supervising Elements

    5.7.15.1 Menu SETTINGS  GROUPED ELEMENTS  SETTING GROUP 1(6)  SUPERVISING ELEMENTS  SUPERVISING  DISTURBANCE See below   ELEMENTS  DETECTOR  87L TRIP See page 5-298   5-294 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 481 DD FUNCTION — Selects a FlexLogic operand that activates the output of the disturbance detector upon events DD NON-CURRENT SUPV (such as frequency or voltage change) not accompanied by a current change. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-295...
  • Page 482 — This setting can be disabled when the disturbance detector element responds to any current disturbance on DD EVENTS the system that results in filling the events buffer and possible loss of valuable data. 5-296 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 483 CHAPTER 5: SETTINGS GROUPED ELEMENTS Figure 5-168: Disturbance detector logic L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-297...
  • Page 484 — Assigns a trip supervising element. The FlexLogic operand is recommended (the element has to be 87L TRIP SUPV 50DD SV enabled); otherwise, elements like instantaneous overcurrent, distance, and so can be used. 5-298 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 485 Trip Out element is applied, set this setting to "Disabled." — Selects a pickup setting of the current seal-in function. 87L TRIP SEAL-IN PICKUP Figure 5-169: 87L trip logic L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-299...
  • Page 486: Sensitive Directional Power

    The operating quantity is displayed in the actual value. ACTUAL VALUES  METERING  SENSITIVE DIRECTIONAL POWER 1(2) The element has two independent (as to the pickup and delay settings) stages for alarm and trip, respectively. 5-300 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 487 For example, section (a) in the figure shows settings for reverse power, while section (b) shows settings for low forward power applications. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-301...
  • Page 488 DIR POWER 1 RCA setting to “90°,” active underpower by setting to “180°,” and reactive underpower by DIR POWER 1 RCA DIR POWER 1 RCA setting to “270°.” DIR POWER 1 RCA 5-302 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 489: Control Elements

    5.8.2 Trip bus SETTINGS  CONTROL ELEMENTS  TRIP BUS  TRIP BUS 1(6)  TRIP BUS 1 TRIP BUS 1 Range: Enabled, Disabled  FUNCTION: Disabled  L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-303...
  • Page 490 — The trip bus output is blocked when the operand assigned to this setting is asserted. TRIP BUS 1 BLOCK — This setting specifies a time delay to produce an output depending on how output is used. TRIP BUS 1 PICKUP DELAY 5-304 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 491: Setting Groups

      GROUP 6 ACTIVATE ON: Range: FlexLogic operand  GROUP 1 NAME: Range: up to 16 alphanumeric characters   GROUP 6 NAME: Range: up to 16 alphanumeric characters  L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-305...
  • Page 492 The most recent SelectActiveSG selection is preserved while the UR is powered down or reset. If it becomes necessary to cancel the SelectActiveSG selection without using a SelectActiveSG service request, change the setting to Disabled. This resets the SelectActiveSG selection to 1. SETTING GROUPS FUNCTION 5-306 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 493: Selector Switch

    1 to the . If the control word is outside the range, an alarm is established by setting the SELECTOR FULL RANGE FlexLogic operand for three seconds. SELECTOR ALARM L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-307...
  • Page 494 If the acknowledging signal does not appear within a pre-defined period of time, the selector rejects the change and an alarm established by invoking the FlexLogic operand SELECTOR BIT ALARM for three seconds. 5-308 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 495 The selector position pre-selected via the three-bit control input has not been confirmed before the time The following figures illustrate the operation of the selector switch. In these diagrams, “T” represents a time-out setting. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-309...
  • Page 496 CONTROL ELEMENTS CHAPTER 5: SETTINGS Figure 5-176: Time-out mode 5-310 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 497 1 through 3. The pre-selected setting group is to be applied automatically after five seconds of inactivity of the control inputs. When the relay powers up, it is to synchronize the setting group to the three-bit control input. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-311...
  • Page 498 SETTINGS  PRODUCT menu: SETUP  USER-PROGRAMMABLE PUSHBUTTONS  USER PUSHBUTTON 1 : “Self-reset” PUSHBUTTON 1 FUNCTION : “0.10 s” PUSHBUTTON 1 DROP-OUT TIME The figure shows the logic for the selector switch. 5-312 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 499: Trip Output

     TRIP RECLOSE INPUT1: Range: FlexLogic operand   TRIP RECLOSE INPUT6: Range: FlexLogic operand  TRIP SEAL-IN DELAY: Range: 0 to 65.535 s in steps of 0.001  0.000 s L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-313...
  • Page 500 Collect inputs to initiate three pole tripping, the recloser and breaker failure elements • Collect inputs to initiate single pole tripping, the recloser and breaker failure elements • Assign a higher priority to pilot aided scheme outputs than to exclusively local inputs 5-314 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 501 CHAPTER 5: SETTINGS CONTROL ELEMENTS The trip output element works in association with other L90 elements that must be programmed and in-service for successful operation. The necessary elements are: recloser, breaker control, open pole detector, and phase selector. The recloser must also be in the “Reset” state before a single pole trip can be issued. Outputs from this element are also directly connected as initiate signals to the breaker failure elements.
  • Page 502 — These settings are used to select an operand to indicates that phase A, B, or BKR ΦA OPEN BKR ΦB OPEN BKR ΦC OPEN C of the breaker is open, respectively. 5-316 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 503 CHAPTER 5: SETTINGS CONTROL ELEMENTS Figure 5-179: Trip output logic (Sheet 1 of 2) L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-317...
  • Page 504 CONTROL ELEMENTS CHAPTER 5: SETTINGS Figure 5-180: Trip output logic (Sheet 2 of 2) 5-318 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 505: Underfrequency (ansi 81u)

    — Selects the level at which the underfrequency element is to pickup. For example, if the system UNDERFREQ 1 PICKUP frequency is 60 Hz and the load shedding is required at 59.5 Hz, the setting is 59.50 Hz. Figure 5-181: Underfrequency logic L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-319...
  • Page 506: Overfrequency (ansi 81o)

    OVERFREQ 1 SOURCE setting selects the level at which the overfrequency element is to pickup. OVERFREQ 1 PICKUP Figure 5-182: Overfrequency logic 5-320 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 507: Synchrocheck (ansi 25)

    The synchronism check function supervises the paralleling of two parts of a system that are to be joined by the closure of a circuit breaker. The synchrocheck elements are typically used at locations where the two parts of the system are interconnected through at least one other point in the system. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-321...
  • Page 508 Figure 5-183: Synchrocheck plot for slip > 0 (slip = F2-F1) 5-322 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 509 The selected sources for synchrocheck inputs V1 and V2 (which must not be the same source) can include both a three-phase and an auxiliary voltage. The relay automatically selects the specific voltages to be used by the synchrocheck element in accordance with the following table. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-323...
  • Page 510 The relay uses the phase channel of a three-phase set of voltages if programmed as part of that source. The relay uses the auxiliary voltage channel only if that channel is programmed as part of the Source and a three-phase set is not. 5-324 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 511 CHAPTER 5: SETTINGS CONTROL ELEMENTS Figure 5-185: Synchrocheck logic L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-325...
  • Page 512: Digital Elements

    DIGITAL ELEMENT 1 RESET DELAY — This setting enables or disabled the digital element pickup LED. When set to “Disabled,” the DIGITAL ELEMENT 1 PICKUP LED operation of the pickup LED is blocked. 5-326 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 513 In most breaker control circuits, the trip coil is connected in series with a breaker auxiliary contact that is open when the breaker is open (see figure). To prevent unwanted alarms in this situation, the trip circuit monitoring logic must include the breaker position. Figure 5-187: Trip circuit example 1 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-327...
  • Page 514 In this case, it is not required to supervise the monitoring circuit with the breaker position – the setting is BLOCK selected to “Off.” In this case, the settings are as follows (EnerVista example shown). 5-328 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 515: Digital Counters

    Range: FlexLogic operand  CNT1 SET TO PRESET: Range: FlexLogic operand  COUNTER 1 RESET: Range: FlexLogic operand  COUNT1 FREEZE/RESET: Range: FlexLogic operand  COUNT1 FREEZE/COUNT: Range: FlexLogic operand  L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-329...
  • Page 516 If control power is interrupted, the accumulated and frozen values are saved into non-volatile memory during the power-down operation. 5-330 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 517: Monitoring Elements

    See page 5-340     BREAKER RESTRIKE 4    CONTINUOUS MONITOR See page 5-342    CT FAILURE See page 5-343   DETECTOR 1  L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-331...
  • Page 518 This interval includes the operating time of the output relay, any other auxiliary 5-332 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 519 -cycle) and AMP MAX (kA) values of the last event. — This setting specifies the maximum symmetrical interruption rating of the circuit breaker. BKR 1 INTERUPTION RATING Figure 5-190: Arcing current measurement L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-333...
  • Page 520 CONTROL ELEMENTS CHAPTER 5: SETTINGS Figure 5-191: Breaker arcing current logic 5-334 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 521 (contact input indicating the breaker status is off), and no flashover current is flowing. A contact showing the breaker status must be provided to the relay. The voltage difference is not considered as a condition for open breaker in this part of the logic. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-335...
  • Page 522 This application does not require detection of breaker status via a 52a contact, as it uses a voltage difference larger than setting. However, monitoring the breaker contact ensures scheme stability. BRK 1 FLSHOVR DIFF V PKP 5-336 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 523 (all line breakers open), to well above the maximum line (feeder) load (line/feeder connected to load). L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-337...
  • Page 524 A six-cycle time delay applies after the selected FlexLogic operand resets. — This setting specifies the time delay to operate after a pickup condition is detected. BRK FLSHOVR PKP DELAY 5-338 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 525 CHAPTER 5: SETTINGS CONTROL ELEMENTS Figure 5-192: Breaker flashover logic L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-339...
  • Page 526 The user can add counters and other logic to facilitate the decision making process as to the appropriate actions upon detecting a single restrike or a series of consecutive restrikes. 5-340 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 527 1/8th of the power cycle. — Enables/disables high-frequency (HF) pattern detection when breaker restrike occurs. BREAKER RESTRIKE 1 HF DETECT High-frequency pattern is typical for capacitor bank, cables, and long transmission lines applications. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-341...
  • Page 528 This can occur when an element is incorrectly set so that it can misoperate under load. The continuous monitor can detect this state and issue an alarm and/or block the tripping of the relay. 5-342 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 529 Range: 0.000 to 65.535 s in steps of 0.001  DELAY: 1.000 s CT FAIL 1 TARGET: Range: Self-reset, Latched, Disabled  Self-reset CT FAIL 1 EVENTS: Range: Disabled, Enabled  Disabled L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-343...
  • Page 530 — Specifies the pickup value for the 3V_0 source. CT FAIL 1 3V0 INPUT PICKUP — Specifies the pickup delay of the CT failure element. CT FAIL 1 PICKUP DELAY Figure 5-197: CT failure detector logic 5-344 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 531 WYE VTs and ( in case PHASE VT SECONDARY PHASE VT SECONDARY of DELTA VTs. The setting is found under SETTINGS  SYSTEM SETUP  AC INPUTS  VOLTAGE BANK  PHASE VT SECONDARY L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-345...
  • Page 532 Range: 300.0 to 9999.9 ohms in steps of 0.001  9999.9 Ω OPEN POLE REM CURR Range: 0.020 to 30.000 pu in steps of 0.001  PKP: 0.050 pu OPEN POLE MODE: Range: Accelerated, Traditional  Accelerated 5-346 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 533 When used in configuration with only one breaker, set the BREAKER 2 FUNCTION “Enabled” and the setting to “On” (see the Breaker Control section earlier in this chapter for details). BREAKER 2 OUT OF SV L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-347...
  • Page 534 CONTROL ELEMENTS CHAPTER 5: SETTINGS Figure 5-199: Open pole detector logic (Sheet 1 of 2) 5-348 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 535 Range: FlexLogic operand  THERM PROT 1 BLOCK: Range: FlexLogic operand  THERMAL PROTECTION 1 Range: Self-reset, Latched, Disabled  TARGET: Self-reset THERMAL PROTECTION 1 Range: Disabled, Enabled  EVENTS: Disabled L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-349...
  • Page 536 The reset time of the thermal overload protection element is also time delayed using following formula: Eq. 5-46 where τ = thermal protection trip time constant = a minimum reset time setting 5-350 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 537 IEC255-8 cold curve or hot curve equations op(In) is the reset time calculated at index n as per the reset time equation rst(In) L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-351...
  • Page 538 BROKEN CONDUCTOR 1 Range: 20.0% to 100.0% in steps of 0.1%  I2/I1 RATIO: 20% BROKEN CONDUCTOR 1 Range: 0.05 to 1.00 pu in steps of 0.01  I1 MIN: 0.10 pu 5-352 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 539 — This setting specifies the pickup time delay for this function to operate after assertion BROKEN CONDUCTOR 1 PKP DELAY of the broken conductor pickup FlexLogic operand. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-353...
  • Page 540 CONTROL ELEMENTS CHAPTER 5: SETTINGS Figure 5-203: Broken conductor detection logic 5-354 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 541: Pilot Schemes

    Range: FlexLogic operand  DUTT RX3: Range: FlexLogic operand  DUTT RX4: Range: FlexLogic operand  DUTT SCHEME TARGET: Range: Self-Reset, Latched, Disabled  Self-Reset DUTT SCHEME EVENT: Range: Disabled, Enabled  Disabled L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-355...
  • Page 542 DUTT RX1 DUTT RX2 DUTT RX3 DUTT RX4 signals from two or more remote terminals through OR gates in the FlexLogic, and configure the resulting signals as the inputs DUTT RX 5-356 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 543 Range: 0.000 to 65.535 s in steps of 0.001  DELAY: 0.010 s PUTT NO OF COMM Range: 1, 2, or 4  BITS: 1 PUTT RX1: Range: FlexLogic operand  PUTT RX2: Range: FlexLogic operand  L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-357...
  • Page 544 In multi-terminal applications, connect the signals from two or more PUTT RX2 PUTT RX3 PUTT RX4 remote terminals through OR gates in the FlexLogic, and configure the resulting signals as the inputs. PUTT RX 5-358 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 545 LINE END OPEN PICKUP Range: 0.000 to 65.535 s in steps of 0.001  DELAY: 0.050 s POTT SEAL-IN Range: 0.000 to 65.535 s in steps of 0.001  DELAY: 0.400 s L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-359...
  • Page 546 POTT scheme to return a received echo signal (if the echo feature is enabled). Also for this setting, take into account the principle of operation and settings of the line pickup element. 5-360 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 547 Typically, the output operand should be programmed to initiate a trip, breaker fail, and autoreclose, and drive a user-programmable LED as per user application. Figure 5-206: POTT scheme logic L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-361...
  • Page 548 OC directional elements. This allows a user to apply the POTT1 scheme using solely directional elements to achieve better coordination, rather than mixing distance and ground OC directional elements together. 5-362 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 549 Range: Disabled, Enabled   FUNCTION: Disabled HYB POTT BLOCK: Range: FlexLogic operand  HYB POTT PERMISSIVE Range: Disabled, Enabled, Custom  ECHO: Disabled HYB POTT ECHO COND: Range: FlexLogic operand  L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-363...
  • Page 550 Generally, this scheme uses an overreaching zone 2 distance element to essentially compare the direction to a fault at all terminals of the line. Ground directional overcurrent functions available in the L90 can be used in conjunction with the zone 2 distance element to key the scheme and initiate operation. This increases the coverage for high-resistance faults.
  • Page 551 — This setting defines a transient blocking mechanism embedded in the hybrid POTT scheme for TRANS BLOCK RESET DELAY coping with the exposure of the overreaching protection functions to current reversal conditions (see also the TRANS BLOCK PICKUP DELAY L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-365...
  • Page 552 In four-bit HYB POTT RX1 HYB POTT RX1 HYB POTT RX2 applications, , and must be used. HYB POTT RX1 HYB POTT RX2 HYB POTT RX3 HYB POTT RX4 5-366 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 553 Range: Disabled, Enabled  FUNCTION: Disabled  BLOCK SCHEME BLOCK: Range: FlexLogic operand  BLOCK RX CO-ORD PKP Range: 0.000 to 65.535 s in steps of 0.001  DELAY: 0.010 s L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-367...
  • Page 554 — This setting allows the user to assign any FlexLogic operand to block the scheme. Contact inputs BLOCK SCHEME BLOCK from a pilot cut-out switch are typically used for this purpose. 5-368 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 555 FlexLogic equations, this extra signal is primarily meant to be the output operand from either the negative-sequence directional, neutral directional, or a non-directional instantaneous overcurrent element. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-369...
  • Page 556 BLOCK SCHEME RX2 must be used. In four-bit applications, , and BLOCK SCHEME RX1 BLOCK SCHEME RX2 BLOCK SCHEME RX3 BLOCK SCHEME RX4 must be used. Figure 5-209: Directional blocking scheme logic 5-370 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 557 — Each setting defines the FlexLogic operand of a protection element for identifying forward faults BLK1 SCHME DIR FWD1-3 on the protected line, and thus, for initiating operation of the scheme. Good directional integrity is the key requirement for an over-reaching forward-looking protection element. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-371...
  • Page 558 Typically forward-looking under-reach distance elements are used as BLK1 FORCE TX STOP Figure 5-210: Directional comparison blocking1 scheme logic 5-372 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 559  DCUB RX2: Range: FlexLogic operand  DCUB LOG2: Range: FlexLogic operand  DCUB RX3: Range: FlexLogic operand  DCUB LOG3: Range: FlexLogic operand  DCUB RX4: Range: FlexLogic operand  L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-373...
  • Page 560 (for example, digital communication channels utilizing the L90 teleprotection input/outputs). To make the scheme fully operational as a stand-alone feature, the scheme output operands must be configured to interface with other relay functions, output contacts in particular.
  • Page 561 (if the echo feature is enabled). When selecting this delay value, take into account the principle of operation and settings of the line pickup element, which should thus be enabled. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-375...
  • Page 562 In two-bit applications, with DCUB RX1 DCUB LOG1 DCUB RX1 DCUB LOG1 with must be used. In four-bit applications, all receive and loss-of-guard signals must be used. DCUB RX2 DCUB LOG2 5-376 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 563 CHAPTER 5: SETTINGS CONTROL ELEMENTS Figure 5-211: Directional comparison unblocking scheme logic L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-377...
  • Page 564: Autoreclose (ansi 79)

    Range: 0.00 to 655.35 s in steps of 0.01  2.00 s AR 3-P DEAD TIME 4: Range: 0.00 to 655.35 s in steps of 0.01  4.00 s AR EXTEND DEAD T 1: Range: FlexLogic operand  5-378 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 565 When reclosing simultaneously, for the first shot both breakers should reclose with either the single-pole or three-pole dead time, according to the fault type and the reclose mode. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-379...
  • Page 566 FlexLogic operand. The scheme is latched into the RIP state and resets only when an (autoreclose AR RIP AR CLS BKR 1 breaker 1) or (autoreclose breaker 2) operand is generated or the scheme goes to the Lockout state. AR CLS BKR 2 5-380 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 567 After the 3-P dead time times out, the Close Breaker 1 signal closes the first breaker again and starts the transfer timer. Since the fault is permanent, the protection trips again initiating the autoreclose scheme that is sent to Lockout by the SHOT COUNT = MAX signal. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-381...
  • Page 568 Breaker 2 if is set to “Yes.” If set to “No”, the scheme is sent to AR TRANSFER 1 TO 2 Lockout by the incomplete sequence timer. 5-382 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 569 AR1 CLOSE BRK 1 case of the unsuccessful reclose attempt or 20 ms after Open Pole is reset in case of the successful reclosure attempt. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-383...
  • Page 570 The pause signal freezes all four dead timers. When the pause 5-384 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 571 — This setting is used in breaker-and-a-half applications to allow the autoreclose control function to AR BUS FLT INIT perform reclosing with only one breaker previously opened by bus protection. For line faults, both breakers must open for the autoreclose reclosing cycles to take effect. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-385...
  • Page 572 However, a FlexLogic operand, FAIL, is asserted if either simultaneous multiple activations are AR MODE SWITCH initiated, or a single activation is initiated but recloser is already in progress. 5-386 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 573 Figure 5-213: Mode control logic In addition, the current AR mode is available as FlexLogic Operands because AR Mode equals to 1, 2, 3, and 4 respectively so that it can be monitored and logged. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-387...
  • Page 574 CONTROL ELEMENTS CHAPTER 5: SETTINGS Figure 5-214: Single-pole autoreclose logic (Sheet 2 of 3) 5-388 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 575 CHAPTER 5: SETTINGS CONTROL ELEMENTS Figure 5-215: Single-pole autoreclose logic (Sheet 3 of 3) L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-389...
  • Page 576 CONTROL ELEMENTS CHAPTER 5: SETTINGS Figure 5-216: Example of reclosing sequence 5-390 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 577: Frequency Rate Of Change (ansi 81r)

    For example, if the intent is to monitor an increasing trend but only if the frequency is already above certain level, set this setting to the required frequency level. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-391...
  • Page 578: Inputs/outputs

    Range: 0.0 to 16.0 ms in steps of 0.5  DEBNCE TIME: 6.0 ms CONTACT INPUT H5a Range: Disabled, Enabled  EVENTS: Disabled ↓  CONTACT INPUT xxx    CONTACT INPUT   THRESHOLDS 5-392 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 579 The DC input voltage is compared to a user-settable threshold. A new contact input state must be maintained for a user-settable debounce time in order for the L90 to validate the new contact state. In the following figure, the debounce time is set at 2.5 ms;...
  • Page 580: Virtual Inputs

    The virtual outputs are outputs of FlexLogic equations used to customize the device. Virtual outputs can also serve as virtual inputs to FlexLogic equations. 5-394 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 581: Contact Outputs

    (virtual output, element state, contact input, or virtual input). An additional FlexLogic operand can be used to SEAL-IN the relay. Any change of state of a contact output can be logged as an Event if programmed to do so. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-395...
  • Page 582 If any latching outputs exhibits a discrepancy, the LATCHING OUTPUT ERROR self-test error is declared. The error is signaled by the FlexLogic operand, event, and target message. LATCHING OUT ERROR 5-396 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 583 (assuming an H4L module): OUTPUTS  CONTACT OUTPUT H1a CONTACT OUTPUT H1c : “VO1” OUTPUT H1a OPERATE : “VO2” OUTPUT H1a RESET : “VO2” OUTPUT H1c OPERATE : “VO1” OUTPUT H1c RESET L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-397...
  • Page 584 Program the Latching Outputs by making the following changes in the SETTINGS  INPUTS/OUTPUTS  CONTACT menu (assuming an H4L module): OUTPUTS  CONTACT OUTPUT H1a : “VO1” OUTPUT H1a OPERATE : “VO2” OUTPUT H1a RESET 5-398 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 585: Virtual Outputs

    DEFAULT: Off   DIRECT INPUT 1-8 Range: Off, On  DEFAULT: Off DIRECT INPUT 2-1 Range: Off, On  DEFAULT: Off  DIRECT INPUT 2-8 Range: Off, On  DEFAULT: Off L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-399...
  • Page 586: Resetting

    (as selected by the user) to be transmitted. Direct outputs 2-1 to 2-8 are functional in three-terminal systems. Figure 5-222: Direct inputs/outputs logic (example for L90 shown) 5.9.6 Resetting SETTINGS  INPUTS/OUTPUTS  RESETTING ...
  • Page 587: Transducer Inputs/outputs

    VALUE: 0.000 The L90 is provided with optional DCmA capability. This feature is specified as an option at the time of ordering. See the Order Codes section in chapter 2 for details. Hardware and software are provided to receive signals from external transducers and to convert these signals into a digital format for use as required.
  • Page 588: Rtd Inputs

    1.5 pu. FlexElement operands are available to FlexLogic for further interlocking or to operate an output contact directly. See the following table for reference temperature values for each RTD type. 5-402 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 589: Dcma Outputs

    Range: –90.000 to 90.000 pu in steps of 0.001  MIN VAL: 0.000 pu DCMA OUTPUT H1 Range: –90.000 to 90.000 pu in steps of 0.001  MAX VAL: 1.000 pu L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-403...
  • Page 590 — This setting allows selection of the output range. Each DCmA channel can be set independently DCMA OUTPUT H1 RANGE to work with different ranges. The three most commonly used output ranges are available. 5-404 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 591 The CT ratio is 5000:5 and the maximum load current is 4200 A. The current is to be monitored from 0 A upwards, allowing for 50% overload. The phase current with the 50% overload margin is: Eq. 5-55 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-405...
  • Page 592 ±0.5% of the full scale for the analog output module, or ± 0.005 x (1-0) x 254.03 kV = ±1.27 kV • ±0.5% of reading For example, under nominal conditions, the positive-sequence reads 230.94 kV and the worst-case error is 0.005 × 230.94 kV + 1.27 kV = 2.42 kV. 5-406 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 593: Testing

     FUNCTION: Disabled The L90 provides a test facility to verify the functionality of contact inputs and outputs, some communication functions and the phasor measurement unit (where applicable), using simulated conditions. The test mode can be in any of three states: Disabled, Isolated, or Forcible.
  • Page 594: Phasor Measurement Unit Test Values

    PMU 1 IC TEST Range: –180.00 to 180.00° in steps of 0.05  ANGLE: 110.00° PMU 1 IG TEST Range: 0.000 to 9.999 kA in steps of 0.001  MAGNITUDE: 0.000 kA 5-408 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 595: Force Contact Inputs

    5.11.5 Force contact outputs SETTINGS  TESTING  FORCE CONTACT OUTPUTS  FORCE CONTACT FORCE Cont Op 1 Range: Normal, Energized, De-energized, Freeze   OUTPUTS : Normal L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-409...
  • Page 596: Channel Tests

     REMOTE LOOPBACK REMOTE LOOPBACK Range: Yes, No  FUNCTION: No  REMOTE LOOPBACK Range: 1, 2  CHANNEL NUMBER: 1 See the Commissioning chapter for information on using the channel tests. 5-410 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 597: Actual Values

      RxGOOSE See page 6-6   STATUS  RxGOOSE See page 6-6   STATISTICS  AUTORECLOSE See page 6-7    CHANNEL TESTS See page 6-7   L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 598   GROUND FAULT 2  PHASOR MEASUREMENT See page 6-25   UNIT  PMU AGGREGATOR See page 6-26    VOLTS PER HERTZ 1 See page 6-26   L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 599: Front Panel

    The front panel can be viewed and used in the EnerVista software, for example to view an error message displayed on the front panel. To view the front panel in EnerVista software: Click Actual Values > Front Panel. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 600: Status

    The present status of the 64 virtual inputs is shown here. The first line of a message display indicates the ID of the virtual input. For example, ‘Virt Ip 1’ refers to the virtual input in terms of the default name. The second line of the display indicates the logic state of the virtual input. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 601: Rxgoose Boolean Inputs

    Range: On, Off  STATUS: Off The L90 is provided with optional IEC 61850 capability. This feature is specified as a software option at the time of ordering. See the Order Codes section of chapter 2 for details. 6.3.4 RxGOOSE DPS inputs ACTUAL VALUES ...
  • Page 602: Virtual Outputs

     Offline The L90 is provided with optional IEC 61850 capability. This feature is specified as a software option at the time of ordering. See the Order Codes section of chapter 2 for details. actual value does not consider RxGOOSE that are not configured or are not used by any RxGOOSE All RxGOOSE Online Input.
  • Page 603: Autoreclose

    Range: –10 to 10 ms in steps of 0.1  +0.0 ms VALIDITY OF CHANNEL Range: n/a, FAIL, OK  CONFIGURATION: n/a PFLL Range: n/a, FAIL, OK  STATUS: n/a The status information for two channels displays in this menu. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 604: Digital Counters

    ACTUAL VALUES  STATUS  SELECTOR SWITCHES  SELECTOR SWITCHES SELECTOR SWITCH 1 Range: Current Position / 7  POSITION: 0/7  SELECTOR SWITCH 2 Range: Current Position / 7  POSITION: 0/7 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 605: Flex States

    PTP grandmaster, this actual value is zero. The grandmasterIdentity code is specified by PTP to be globally unique, so one can always know which clock is grandmaster in a system with multiple grandmaster-capable clocks. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 606: Remaining Connection Status

    The Parallel Redundancy Protocol (PRP) defines a redundancy protocol for high availability in substation automation networks. ACTUAL VALUES  STATUS  PRP STATUS  PRP STATUS Total Rx Port A: Range: 0 to 4G, blank if PRP disabled   6-10 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 607: Txgoose Status

    Range: 0 to 4G, blank if PRP disabled  The L90 is provided with optional PRP capability. This feature is specified as a software option at the time of ordering. See the Order Codes section in chapter 2 for details.
  • Page 608: Metering

    METERING CHAPTER 6: ACTUAL VALUES 6.4 Metering 6.4.1 Metering conventions 6.4.1.1 UR convention for measuring power and energy The figure illustrates the conventions established for use in UR devices. 6-12 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 609 6.4.1.2 UR convention for measuring phase angles All phasors calculated by URs and used for protection, control and metering functions are rotating phasors that maintain the correct phase angle relationships with each other at all times. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 6-13...
  • Page 610 For display and oscillography purposes the phase angles of symmetrical components are referenced to a common reference as described in the previous sub-section. WYE-connected instrument transformers • ABC phase rotation: • ACB phase rotation: The above equations apply to currents as well. 6-14 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 611 * The power system voltages are phase-referenced – for simplicity – to V and V , respectively. This, however, is a relative matter. It is important to remember that the L90 displays are always referenced as specified under SETTINGS  SYSTEM SETUP  POWER SYSTEM  FREQUENCY AND PHASE REFERENCE The example above is illustrated in the following figure.
  • Page 612: Differential Current

    Terminal 1 refers to the communication channel 1 interface to a remote L90 at terminal 1. Terminal 2 refers to the communication channel 2 interface to a remote L90 at terminal 2.
  • Page 613: Sources

    SRC 1 RMS In:  0.000 A SRC 1 PHASOR Ia:  0.000 A 0.0° SRC 1 PHASOR Ib:  0.000 A 0.0° SRC 1 PHASOR Ic:  0.000 A 0.0° L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 6-17...
  • Page 614 0.00 V SRC 1 RMS Vbc:  0.00 V SRC 1 RMS Vca:  0.00 V SRC 1 PHASOR Vab:  0.000 V 0.0° SRC 1 PHASOR Vbc:  0.000 V 0.0° 6-18 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 615 SRC 1 APPARENT PWR  3φ: 0.000 VA SRC 1 APPARENT PWR  φa: 0.000 VA SRC 1 APPARENT PWR  φb: 0.000 VA SRC 1 APPARENT PWR  φc: 0.000 VA L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 6-19...
  • Page 616 S = V x Î x Î x Î Eq. 6-1 When VTs are configured in delta, the L90 does not calculate power in each phase and three-phase power is measured as S = V x Î x Î Eq. 6-2...
  • Page 617 The signal used for frequency estimation is low-pass filtered. The final SYSTEM SETUP  POWER SYSTEM frequency measurement is passed through a validation filter that eliminates false readings due to signal distortions and transients. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 6-21...
  • Page 618 = 1, 2,..., 25 is the harmonic number The short-time Fourier transform is applied to the unfiltered signal: Eq. 6-3 6-22 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 619: Sensitive Directional Power

    V2 ANG: 0.0° SYNCHROCHECK 1 PROJ  DELTA_PHASE: 0.0° SYNCHROCHECK 1 PROJ  SYNSCP D_PH: 0.0° If synchrocheck or a setting is "Disabled," the corresponding actual values menu item does not display. L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 6-23...
  • Page 620: Tracking Frequency

    = 10000 MWh or MVAh, respectively BASE (Positive and Negative Watthours, Positive and Negative Varhours) SOURCE POWER = maximum value of V × I for the +IN and –IN inputs BASE BASE BASE 6-24 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 621: Rxgoose Analogs

     0.000 The L90 is provided with optional GOOSE communications capability. This feature is specified as a software option at the time of ordering. See the Order Codes section of chapter 2 for details. The RxGOOSE Analog values display in this menu. The RxGOOSE Analog values are received via IEC 61850 GOOSE messages sent from other devices.
  • Page 622: Pmu Aggregator

    ACTUAL VALUES  METERING  VOLTS PER HERTZ 1(2)  VOLTS PER HERTZ 1 VOLTS PER HERTZ 1:  0.000 pu  This menu displays the data for volts per hertz. 6-26 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 623: Restricted Ground Fault

    ZBC: 0.00 Ohms BC LOOP IMPEDANCE  ANGLE: 0.00 DEG CA LOOP RESISTANCE  RCA: 0.00 Ohms CA LOOP REACTANCE  XCA: 0.00 Ohms CA LOOP IMPEDANCE  ZCA: 0.00 Ohms L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 6-27...
  • Page 624 (ZAG, ZBG, and ZCG) are reset to zero, including magnitude and angle. Note that VTs of the distance source must be connected in Wye if the ground distance element is enabled. 6-28 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 625: Records

    The fault loop resistance is calculated by x Real(Z Eq. 6-7 loop The fault loop reactance is calculated by x Imag(Z Eq. 6-8 loop L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 6-29...
  • Page 626: Event Records

    6.5.2 Event records ACTUAL VALUES  RECORDS  EVENT RECORDS  EVENT RECORDS EVENT: XXX    Date and time stamps EVENT: 3 EVENT 3    POWER ON DATE: 2000/07/14 6-30 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 627: Oscillography

    ACTUAL VALUES  RECORDS  OSCILLOGRAPHY  OSCILLOGRAPHY FORCE TRIGGER? Range: No, Yes   NUMBER OF TRIGGERS:  AVAILABLE RECORDS:  CYCLES PER RECORD:  LAST CLEARED DATE:  2000/07/14 15:40:16 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 6-31...
  • Page 628: Data Logger

     BREAKER 1 BKR 1 ACC ARCING AMP  φA: 0.00 kA2-cyc  BKR 1 ACC ARCING AMP  φB: 0.00 kA2-cyc BKR 1 ACC ARCING AMP  φC: 0.00 kA2-cyc 6-32 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 629: Product Information

    Range: up to 20 alphanumeric characters  SERIAL NUMBER: Range: standard GE serial number format  ETHERNET MAC ADDRESS Range: standard Ethernet MAC address format  000000000000 MANUFACTURING DATE: Range: YYYY/MM/DD HH:MM:SS  L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL 6-33...
  • Page 630: Firmware Revisions

     2016/09/15 16:41:32 Date and time when the FPGA was built. The shown data is illustrative only. A modification file number of 0 indicates that, currently, no modifications have been installed. 6-34 L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 631: Commands And Targets

    The commands menu contains relay directives intended for operations personnel. All commands can be protected from unauthorized access via the command password; see the Security section of chapter 5 for details. The following flash message appears after successfully command entry. COMMAND EXECUTED L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 632: Virtual Inputs

    Range: No, Yes  CHANGE COUNTER? No  CLEAR IEC61850 See below   XWSI OPCNT  CLEAR IEC61850 See below   XCBR OPCNT CLEAR ALL RELAY Range: No, Yes  RECORDS? No L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 633: Set Date And Time

    “Yes” and pressing the key. The command setting then automatically ENTER reverts to “No.” The service command is activated by entering a numerical code and pressing the key. ENTER L90 LINE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM – INSTRUCTION MANUAL...
  • Page 634: Phasor Measurement Unit One-shot

    Although the diagnostic information is cleared before the L90 is shipped from the factory, the user can want to clear the diagnostic information for themselves under certain circumstances. For example, you clear diagnostic information after replacement of hardware. Once the diagnostic information is cleared, all self-checking variables are reset to their initial state and diagnostics restart from scratch.
  • Page 635 30 seconds afterwards PMU ONE-SHOT OP When the function is disabled, all three operands are de-asserted. The one-shot function applies to all l