Safety and Regulatory Notices Safety and Regulatory Notices Read the separate Power Connection Guide before using your computer for the first time. Information in the Owner’s Handbook relating to connection to the AC power supply may not apply outside the United Kingdom. Your computer uses a safety ground and must be earthed.
Safety and Regulatory Notices Power cord The power cord packed with the computer complies with requirements the safety standards applicable in the country in which it is sold. Use only this power cord; do not substitute a power cord from any other equipment.
Safety and Regulatory Notices UK plug wiring instructions IMPORTANT Power The wire which is coloured blue must be connected to the terminal which is marked with the letter N or Cable Connections coloured black. The wire which is coloured brown must be connected to the terminal which is marked This appliance is supplied with a mains lead that with the letter L or coloured red.
Safety and Regulatory Notices Refer to the labels on the rear of your computer to establish which of the following warnings apply. FCC Class A Warning - this equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A computing device, pursuant to Subpart J of Part 15 of FCC rules.
Contents CONTENTS Introducing your computer Getting started with your computer General advice 2/2 Connecting the components 2/3 Turning on and booting the computer 2/4 Preparing a second hard disk 2/6 The software on your computer 2/7 Using the SETUP utility 2/8 Using Help 2/9 Operating your computer Using the front panel controls 3/2...
Contents Advanced SETUP 4/15 ISA Legacy Resources 4/17 Power management 4/18 Error messages 4/20 Expanding the system Expansion cards 5/2 Memory upgrades 5/6 Processor upgrades 5/10 Installing additional video RAM 5/13 5.25" drives 5/15 3.5" hard disk drive 5/21 Caring for your computer Cleaning your computer 6/2 Transporting your computer 6/6 Troubleshooting...
Chapter INTRODUCING YOUR COMPUTER Chapter 1...
Introducing your computer INTRODUCING YOUR COMPUTER The Apricot XEN Pentium range is ideally suited for use as a general-purpose personal computer, networked business workstation or workgroup server. Read the separate Power Connection Guide before using your computer for the first time.
Introducing your computer Standard features Standard features of the range include: • Intel Pentium system processor. • Standard 8 Mbytes of motherboard random access memory (RAM), upgradable to 128 Mbytes by the use of single in-line memory modules (SIMMs). • Second level system memory cache (at least 256kbytes).
Introducing your computer Unpacking On unpacking the computer, you should find: • System unit. • Monitor and accompanying User’s Guide. • Extended keyboard and two-button mouse. • System unit AC power cord and monitor power cord appropriate for the country of sale. •...
Introducing your computer 1/4 XEN OWNER'S HANDBOOK...
Introducing your computer button: press to turn the system on or off. POWER The green indicator on the button lights when the system unit is powered. activity indicators, from left to right: lights when a diskette, floppy disk or floppy tape drive is accessed (depending on the operating system).
Introducing your computer 1/6 XEN OWNER'S HANDBOOK...
Introducing your computer AC power outlet: where the monitor power cord can plug in. Only manufacturer-approved monitors should be powered from this outlet. voltage selection switch: the computer can be set to operate with a 100-120 volt or 220-240 volt AC power supply.
Introducing your computer motherboard: see the label inside the system unit top cover for up-to-date information on the layout of the motherboard. expansion card slots: Three expansion slots, one half length and one full length ISA, and one full length slot which can be used by either an ISA or PCI card.
Chapter GETTING STARTED WITH YOUR COMPUTER Chapter 2...
Getting started with your computer GETTING STARTED WITH YOUR COMPUTER You should read this chapter even if you do not read any other. It provides important information to help you site, connect, power and configure your computer. If you are familiar with the operation of personal computers, this chapter will probably tell you all you need to know in order to start working with your computer.
Getting started with your computer General advice The computer is designed to be used in a normal office environment. Here are a few hints for choosing a suitable site: • Place the system unit flat on a sturdy, level surface. Unlike some other computers, the system unit is not designed to be stood on its side.
Getting started with your computer Connecting the components See Chapter 1, “Introducing your computer”, if you need help identifying the various ports on the system unit. Checking the AC power supply When your computer is delivered, it is ready for the commercial AC power supply generally available in the country in which it is sold.
Getting started with your computer Connecting the components Having assured yourself that the voltage settings and the AC power cords of the computer, the monitor and any other peripherals are correct: If your AC power outlets have switches, set them to their Off positions.
Getting started with your computer Power-on self-test Whenever the computer is turned on, the power-on self- test (POST) routine tests various hardware components, including memory, and checks the computer’s configuration. During this time, various BIOS sign-on and POST messages are displayed, and you have the opportunity of invoking the built-in SETUP utility to reconfigure the computer (described later in this chapter).
Getting started with your computer To turn off the computer, simply press the button again. POWER The green indicator on the button goes out. (Remember that the monitor is powered from the system unit.) After you turn the computer off, wait at least 5 seconds before turning it on again.
Getting started with your computer The software on your computer All computers with a hard disk arrive with Microsoft MS- DOS and Microsoft Windows for Workgroups pre-installed. Other software may be pre-installed at the factory or by your supplier. Hard disks also contain a copy of the Windows display driver for the video subsystem, but Windows is factory configured to use the standard VGA driver.
Getting started with your computer Using the SETUP utility What is SETUP? SETUP is a configuration utility programmed into the motherboard’s read-only memory (ROM). Because it is permanently kept in ROM, SETUP does not need an operating system to function and can be invoked whenever you turn on or reboot your computer.
Getting started with your computer Using Help Along with the diskettes provided with your computer, or the software preinstalled on its hard disk, you will often find one or more Help files. These will explain any special features of the system, and tell you how to install the software needed to exploit those features.
Getting started with your computer Choose the .HLP file you want, either by double- clicking on its filename or by selecting the filename with the cursor and then pressing ENTER The Windows Help program starts, displaying the first topic in the help file. For more information about using Help,...
Getting started with your computer type helpfile.txt | more Version numbers All the help files provided have a version number so you can tell whether you’re looking at the most up-to-date version. You can discover the version number of a Windows help file by viewing it with Help and choosing About Help from the Help menu.
Chapter OPERATING YOUR COMPUTER Chapter 3...
Operating your computer OPERATING YOUR COMPUTER This chapter contains all you need to know for the day-to- day operation of your computer. Note that the monitor has its own User’s Guide. Read the separate Power Connection Guide before using the computer for the first time. XEN OWNER'S HANDBOOK 3/1...
Operating your computer Using the front panel controls The computer has only a few front panel controls and activity indicators, and is very simple to use. DISKETTE HARD DISK ACTIVITY ACTIVITY INDICATOR INDICATOR POWER BUTTON button is used to turn the computer on and off. POWER The green indicator in the button lights when the system is powered.
Operating your computer Using the 3.5" diskette drive The 3.5" diskette drive can read and write double-sided diskettes with a formatted capacity of either 1.44 Mbytes (if marked “HD” or “high density”) or 720 Kbytes (if marked “DD” or “double density”). Each diskette has a rigid plastic cover with a metal shutter that guards the disk surface.
Operating your computer Removing a diskette Before attempting to remove a diskette, ensure that the drive is not currently in use (the diskette activity indicator must be unlit). Press the button. The drive mechanism disengages and EJECT the diskette is ejected halfway out of the drive. Write-protecting a diskette A diskette can be write-protected by sliding the small tab toward the edge of the diskette to expose the little hole...
Operating your computer Keep floppy disks well away from dust, moisture, magnetic objects, and equipment that generates magnetic fields. Also, avoid extremes of temperature and exposure to direct sunlight. Otherwise, data recorded on the disk may become corrupted. Inserting a floppy disk Insert the disk into the drive slot with the read/write aperture foremost.
Operating your computer Using a CD-ROM drive Your computer may be configured with a CD-ROM drive. With the appropriate software support, the CD-ROM drive can retrieve multimedia data from CD-ROM discs and multisession Photo-CD discs. It can also play commercial audio CDs.
Operating your computer If your CD-ROM drive looks like the illustration above, follow the instructions below. If your CD-ROM does not look like the illustration above refer to “CD caddy drives”. Inserting a compact disc Press the button on the front of the drive to eject the EJECT platter;...
Operating your computer To eject the drawer manually (for example, during a power failure) you must first ensure that the computer is turned off. Then insert a thin metal rod (such as an unwound paper clip) into the emergency eject hole and push (see below). COMPACT Keep CDs well away from dust and moisture, and avoid touching the surface of the CD.
Operating your computer Caddy drives have a flap over the drive slot. When the drive is empty the legend “CD caddy” is visible on the flap, when a CD caddy is loaded the legend “CADDY LOADED” is visible. If your CD-ROM drive looks like the illustration above, follow the instructions below.
Operating your computer Set the disc, with its label upward, in the caddy. Handle the disc only by its edge. Close the lid of the caddy firmly. Insert the caddy into the slot of the drive with the disc’s label facing up and the arrow on the caddy pointing towards the drive (that is, shutter end foremost).
Operating your computer To eject the drawer manually (for example, after a power failure) you must first ensure that the computer is turned off. Then insert a thin metal rod (such as an unwound paper clip) into the emergency eject hole and push hard (see below). The rod must be at least 35 mm long.
Operating your computer The tape drive can be damaged by incorrect insertion or removal of cartridges, so always observe the following procedures: Inserting a cartridge Remove the cartridge from its plastic holder. Hold the cartridge so that the metal plate faces downwards, as shown below.
Operating your computer Write-enabling a cartridge A cartridge is normally write protected but can be write- enabled by sliding the tag labelled < in the direction of RECORD the arrow (that is, to the left). A cartridge must be write- enabled if you intend to write data onto the tape.
Operating your computer The use of 1000 ft, 250 Mbyte cartridges with the 150 Mbyte drive is not supported or recommended. If you must use 1000 ft cartridges with the 150 Mbyte drive, do not use 600 ft cartridges on the same drive. The different cartridges produce different patterns of wear on the read/ write heads, resulting in increased error rates and reduced head life.
Operating your computer Push the control lever to the right to engage the mechanism. Removing a cartridge Do not attempt to remove the cartridge while it is being accessed by the computer (that is, while the green indicator is lit). Push the control lever to the left to release the mechanism.
Operating your computer Pull the cartridge out of the drive slot. Return the cartridge to its plastic holder. This protects the cartridge and prevents dust from collecting on the surface of the tape. Write-protecting a cartridge A cartridge can be write-protected by turning the circular plastic plug in the top left corner of the cartridge so that it points to SAFE.
Operating your computer The DDS-DC drive is illustrated below. CASSETTE INSERTION SLOT CASSETTE IN PLACE (GREEN) EJECT BUTTON DRIVE BUSY (AMBER) The DDS-DC drive uses standard 60-metre or 90-metre digital cassettes bearing the DDS symbol. The drive writes compressed data by default, unless it finds uncompressed data already on the cassette.
Operating your computer Interpreting the LED indicators There are two LED (light-emitting diode) indicators on the drive’s front panel. The Cassette in Place (green) and Drive Busy (amber) LEDs show the status of the drive: Green Amber Drive status Cassette inserted Cassette inserted: tape being read or written Flashing slowly...
Operating your computer Hardware error or high humidity If the Drive Busy (amber) LED flashes rapidly, this indicates either a hardware error or dew (high humidity). If this happens soon after powering-up the computer, the drive’s diagnostic test may have failed, in which case the drive will not operate. Request help from your supplier or an authorized maintainer.
Operating your computer The drive will automatically format a blank tape when data is first written to it. Remember to allow time for the formatting process when you use a new tape. Removing a cassette Before attempting to remove a cassette, ensure that the drive is not currently in use (the amber Drive Busy indicator must be unlit).
Operating your computer The tape log, which includes a record of data integrity failures, cannot be updated while the cassette is write-protected. It follows that the tape log becomes inaccurate if a cassette is used while write-protected, and the media warning LED status cannot be relied upon to determine if the cassette needs to be copied and replaced.
Operating your computer The voltage setting of the monitor must always be the same as the voltage setting of the system unit. See the User’s Guide that accompanies the monitor or consult your supplier to find out how to change the voltage setting. Make sure that the computer and its monitor are returned to their original voltage settings when you return home.
SETUP SETUP Introduction Your computer’s motherboard is fitted with a small area of memory which is used to store information about the configuration of the computer. The computer’s configuration is modified using a SETUP utility provided in Read Only Memory (ROM) on the motherboard. A rechargeable battery on the motherboard maintains the configuration memory when the computer is switched off.
SETUP The opening screen Once you invoke SETUP, a menu appears on the screen. This menu, called the Main Menu throughout this publication, is a list of sub-menus and commands. The sub-menu selections categorize system setup options, the commands affect the whole of the SETUP program.
SETUP ISA Legacy Resources This menu allows you to register resources used by ISA cards installed in the system. Resources affected are: memory, I/O ports, DMA, and interrupts used by ISA expansion cards. Power Management Choose this item to view or change settings of the system’s power management features.
SETUP Using SETUP A number of options are available to you in every menu, including context-sensitive help. For each menu a banner across the bottom of the screen indicates which keys are currently valid. The following list explains the function of each key.
SETUP +, –, 0-9 These keys are available only when you are in an editable menu where values can be typed (numbers only). 9 key can be used to restore the current item to the setting in effect when the current SETUP session was invoked.
SETUP Devices and I/O Ports This menu allows you to change values for serial and parallel ports, drives and drive interfaces, video and mouse. Serial Ports 1 and 2 Use these two fields to select the I/O ports and interrupts used by the two motherboard serial ports.
SETUP Parallel Port Use this field to select the I/O ports and interrupt used by the motherboard parallel port. Note The parallel port cannot support the full range of extended modes when the primary (default) set of I/O ports is selected. In order to use the ECP and EPP modes one of the alternate sets of ports must be selected.
SETUP Diskette Drive A and B These two items indicate to the system the type of floppy drive installed in each of the two drive bays. The options for each drive are: None, 360KB 5.25", 1.2MB 5.25", 1.44MB 3.5" and 2.88MB 3.5". Diskette Drive A is always a 1.44MB 3.5"...
SETUP Note VGA monitors will not correctly display resolutions greater than 640x480. EVGA (high refresh) This option can be used if your EVGA monitor supports high refresh rates. If this option is chosen: 640x480, 800x600 and 1024x768 display modes use high refresh rates, typically 75Hz. Some EVGA monitors may also support the 1280x1024 resolution.
SETUP Date and Time Setup This menu allows you to set the system date and time which are maintained by the Real Time Clock (RTC) in the system. The RTC is maintained even when the system is switched off. System Time To set or change the values in this field, type a number or use the + and - keys to increase or decrease the current number.
SETUP Secure Hard Disk and Diskette Drives This menu allows you to select whether a user will have access to hard or floppy disk drives. Hard and floppy disk access are not linked and each can be enabled or disabled independently. Note This menu can interact with the Start Options menu.
SETUP Delete User Password Choose this to delete an existing password (if any). Use this method when you want to remove or clear the old password without assigning a new one. A menu appears prompting you to press to confirm the deletion. Press the key to ENTER return to the Main Menu and stop the deletion.
SETUP If you have not changed the password using the above two fields before choosing this item, a menu appears prompting you to press to confirm the deletion of any existing passwords. In effect, ENTER you are setting the password to “no password” and deleting any existing password from the system.
SETUP Disketteless Operation When this option is set to Disabled the Power On Self Test (POST) will report the absence of a floppy drive and halt the boot process. If this option is set to Enabled, POST by-passes the floppy test and the system will start provided a boot device is available.
SETUP Advanced Setup This menu allows you change settings for cache, ROM shadowing and hard disks. When you select Advanced Setup, a menu appears which includes a warning telling you that if these advanced hardware features are incorrectly configured, the system may malfunction. Cache Control When you choose Cache Control, a new two line submenu appears, the lines are cache state and cache size.
SETUP Note If you find the terminology used in these descriptions confusing, refer to Appendix A of this manual. E0000h - FFFFFh The first three lines of this menu are for information only. The address range from E0000h to FFFFFh is always shadowed. C8000h - DFFFFh These areas are normally used by option ROMs on ISA adapter cards.
SETUP For drives with capacities less than 500 Mbytes Extended CHS functions identically to Standard CHS. Some non-DOS operating systems may require this option to be set to Standard CHS for drives of greater than 500 Mbytes. Read-ahead Many IDE hard disk drives incorporate a read-ahead buffer. This option allows you to disable the buffer.
SETUP Each user definable resource can be set to either Available or Not available. Resources that are Available are assumed by the system not to be in use by an ISA adapter, and can therefore be allocated by the PCI and PnP auto-configuration processes. Those resources that are Not available are assumed to be in use and are excluded from the auto-configuration process.
SETUP When an After X minutes setting is selected the system will drop into a power saving (standby) mode after X minutes of user inactivity. User inactivity is defined as, no keyboard input and no mouse movement. From the standby mode normal operation is resumed as soon as any keyboard or mouse activity occurs.
SETUP Error Messages The table below lists error messages you might see when SETUP is invoked. Code Causes Timer tick interrupt failure Timer 2 test failure Diskette controller failure System Board Memory Parity interrupt Option ROM checksum failure Real time clock failure Real time clock battery failure CMOS RAM checksum failure Invalid configuration information...
Expanding the system EXPANDING THE SYSTEM This chapter contains instructions on installing add-ons and upgrades in your computer. The areas covered include: • expansion cards • additional memory • upgrade processor • video RAM • additional drives Read this chapter before purchasing an add-on or upgrade. If, having read the relevant instructions, you are not confident about installing the upgrade, you may wish to have your supplier or service organisation install it for you.
Expanding the system Inside the system unit The illustration below identifies the major components inside the system unit that are affected by the installation instructions later in this section. BLANKING PLATES POWER EXPANSION SUPPLY CARD CONNECTORS SIMM SOCKETS 3.5" PROCESSOR DRIVE BAY SOCKET CARD...
Expanding the system The system has three expansion slots: one half length and one full length 16-bit Industry Standard Architecture (ISA), and one full length slot which can be used by either an ISA or PCI card. If your computer has a Small Computer Systems Interface (SCSI) device such as a QIC tape drive, one of the ISA slots will be occupied by a SCSI drive controller.
Expanding the system With the system unit cover removed, the space for expansion cards will be visible. It is on the left side of the system unit behind the activity indicators and the volume control. Use the illustration below to help you identify this area.
Expanding the system To remove the blanking plate, first unscrew the securing screw, then slide the plate out of its slot. Keep the screw, you will use it later to secure the card. You are now ready to install the card. However, before you do so you must first ensure that the card is correctly configured for your system.
Expanding the system Slide the card into the slot ensuring that the card edge connector engages correctly with the expansion card connector. Carefully push the card fully home. Do not apply excessive pressure. Secure the card by replacing the screw that you removed in step 4.
Expanding the system The illustration below shows the location of the sockets, and identifies the two banks. BANK 1 BANK 0 Installation In order to install a memory upgrade you must: Power the system down. Take suitable anti-static precautions and remove the system unit cover.
Expanding the system If there is a drive fitted, disconnect the power and signal cables from the rear of the drive. Remove the two screws that secure the drive bay and slide the bay backwards. Lift the bay out of the system unit and put it down on a safe flat surface.
Expanding the system Position the SIMM above the socket with the SIMM tilted slightly to the left. Lower the SIMM into the socket, and ensure that the SIMM is properly located in the connector. Pushing gently on the top corners rotate the SIMM towards the horizontal until it clips into place.
Expanding the system Replace the two screws which secure the 5.25" drive bay. If there is a drive in the bay reconnect its power and signal cables. Replace the system unit cover. The next time you power the system up the SETUP utility will be invoked automatically.
Expanding the system The processor is installed in a ZIF socket. A lever attached to the socket clamps the processor securely in the socket when it is parallel to the motherboard. Carefully rotate the lever from the secure position until it is perpendicular to the motherboard FREE LOCKED The first and last 15°...
Expanding the system Once the processor is free of its socket lift it out of the system unit and place it on the anti-static foam provided with the upgrade processor. Installation The upgrade processor and socket are keyed to ensure that the processor can only be installed in one orientation.
Expanding the system Gently insert the upgrade processor making sure that it is correctly aligned with the socket and that you do not bend or otherwise damage the pins. Once you are certain that all the pins on the processor are in the holes in the socket carefully move the securing lever to the locked position.
Expanding the system Note Installing an OverDrive processor in the system will prevent a full length card from being installed in slot 1. However, shorter cards may be fitted in slot 1, provided they do not intrude upon the OverDrive’s open air space. Installing additional video RAM The motherboard is fitted with two sockets which allow the video RAM to be expanded from 1 Mbyte to 2 Mbytes using...
Expanding the system Pin 1 One by one, carefully align the video RAM chips over the sockets. Make sure that they are in the correct orientation. The chips have pin 1 clearly marked, pin 1 is also marked on the motherboard at the left end of the sockets.
Expanding the system 5.25" drives The 5.25" drive bay in the system unit can contain any standard size half height 5.25" device. A range of tape and CD-ROM drives, and a 5.25" floppy drive, are available for this bay. The following instructions describe the installation of a drive in the bay.
Expanding the system Lift the bay out of the system unit. The aperture in the chassis at the front of the drive bay is obscured by a blanking plate. The blanking plate is attached to the top of the chassis and must be removed in order to install a drive in the 5.25"...
Expanding the system 12. Line up the holes in the underside of the drive with those in the base of the drive bay. SECURING SCREW HOLES A C T C O M P 13. Insert the four drive securing screws, and tighten them until they are finger tight.
Expanding the system 15. Turn the drive bay over and replace it in the system unit. 16. Slide the bay forwards until the two holes in the bay line up with those in the hard drive assembly and the system unit brace. 17.
Expanding the system 5.25" floppy or FTD Cabling The 5.25" floppy and FTD drives come complete with a suitable signal cable. The signal cable must be connected between the signal connector on the rear of the drive, the 3.5" floppy drive and the socket marked floppy on the motherboard.
Expanding the system If a second drive is connected to the ISA IDE interface you must ensure that one drive is configured as Master, and the other as Slave. DOS drivers for the CD-ROM drive are described in help files on a diskette supplied with the drive.
Expanding the system Configuration Each SCSI drive is assigned an identity on the SCSI bus, these are known as SCSI IDs. All authorized SCSI tape drives are supplied configured with SCSI ID 2, the SCSI CD-ROM drive is configured with ID 5. All authorized SCSI drives are supplied with termination resistors fitted.
Expanding the system Disconnect the cable from the rear of the 3.5" floppy drive. If a 3.5" hard disk is fitted remove the signal and power cables from the rear of the drive. The 3.5" drive bay is secured by two screws and two lugs in the system unit base.
Expanding the system IDE drives are normally configured using jumpers on the drive. Configuration details may vary from drive to drive. Authorized drives are supplied with documentation describing how to configure the drive. If you are uncertain about configuring the drive, check with your supplier.
Expanding the system When installing drives supplied by third parties, be careful to ensure that securing screws do not come into contact with drive circuit boards. If in doubt check with your supplier. Line up the screw holes on the sides of the drive with those in the bay, insert the securing screws supplied with the drive and tighten them until they are finger tight.
Expanding the system Replace the two screws which secure the 5.25" drive bay. If there is a drive in the bay reconnect its power and signal cables. 10. Replace the system unit cover. 5/26 XEN OWNER'S HANDBOOK...
Chapter CARING FOR YOUR COMPUTER Chapter 6...
Caring for your computer CARING FOR YOUR COMPUTER This chapter provides information on how to care for your computer. Your computer requires little physical maintenance other than occasional cleaning. But you must take care when transporting it to avoid damage to its delicate components, particularly the hard disks.
Caring for your computer Cleaning your computer Turn off the computer and unplug all power cords before cleaning it. If you have any problems which can’t be resolved by cleaning, consult Chapter 7 “Troubleshooting” . The system unit Do not use sprays, solvents or abrasives that might damage the computer’s surface.
Caring for your computer If the liquid is viscous, unplug the keyboard and call your supplier or authorized maintainer. If the liquid is thin and clear, try unplugging the keyboard, turning it upside down to let the liquid drain out, and drying it for at least 24 hours at room temperature.
Caring for your computer Put the ball back in its socket and replace the plastic cover. It should click into place. The FTD tape drive You should clean the read/write head and the capstan of the FTD frequently to prevent the accumulation of dust and metallic particles.
Caring for your computer Gently rub an alcohol-dampened swab against the surface of the read/write head. If the swab becomes too discoloured, use additional swabs until there is no further discolouration. Rub an alcohol-dampened swab against the surface of the capstan using an up and down motion. Gently rotate the capstan and continue rubbing until the entire surface is clean.
Caring for your computer When you insert the cleaning cassette, the drive recognises it as a cleaning cassette, runs it for about 20 seconds, then ejects it automatically. Each time the cleaning cassette is used the tape advances over an unused portion of the tape. If the drive ejects the cleaning cassette immediately after you insert it, this means that the entire tape has been used and a new cleaning cassette is required.
Troubleshooting TROUBLESHOOTING This chapter offers advice if you suspect a fault with your computer. If in doubt, turn off the computer and unplug all power cords before consulting your supplier or an authorized maintainer. This chapter is concerned only with problems caused by the computer itself;...
Troubleshooting Problems when starting Power-on self-test Whenever the computer is turned on or reset, the power- on self-test (POST) routine tests various hardware components, including memory, and compares the actual configuration of the machine with that recorded in configuration (CMOS) memory. A configuration discrepancy could arise if you have just installed or removed a hardware option (for example, if you have added or replaced SIMMs).
Troubleshooting Failure to boot On the completion of POST, the computer attempts to boot from a system diskette then a bootable hard disk partition. MS-DOS is normally pre-installed on systems with a hard disk. If necessary, your operating system manuals should tell you how to format a blank diskette as a system diskette (for example, DOS uses the Format a: /s command) or how to partition and format a hard disk (DOS uses the Fdisk utility...
Troubleshooting Fixed disk read failure Press the F1 key to continue The hard disk may be defective. Press F1 to retry. If the problem persists, insert a system diskette, press F1, back- up the data held on the defective hard disk and try reformatting it.
Troubleshooting Power Check that the AC power supply is switched on, and that the fuse in the AC plug has not blown. If the system still does not seem to be getting power, try another power cord. Display If there is no display check: that the monitor is turned on, and the brightness and contrast controls are set appropriately.
Chapter Appendix A INSIDE YOUR COMPUTER...
Inside your computer INSIDE YOUR COMPUTER This appendix provides step-by-step instructions on obtaining access to the inside of your computer’s system unit. Note that instructions for installing upgrade options are provided in Chapter 5 “Upgrading your computer”. Turn off the computer and unplug all power cords before removing the top cover.
Inside your computer Anti-static precautions Static electricity can cause permanent damage to electronic components. You should be aware of this risk, and take precautions against the discharge of static electricity into your computer. Anyone can generate static electricity by moving on a chair, brushing against desks or walls, or simply walking across an ordinary carpet.
Inside your computer Handle static-sensitive items with extreme care. Hold expansion cards and add-on components only by their edges, avoiding their electrical contacts. Never touch the components or electrical contacts on the motherboard or on expansion cards. In general, do not handle static-sensitive items unnecessarily.
Inside your computer Configuring expansion cards Many expansion cards have a number of configurable options. These options can include items such as: the interrupt used, the DMA channel used, where any ROM on the card will appear in the processor’s memory map and which I/O ports are used to control the card.
Inside your computer Interrupts (IRQ) Your computer (like every other ISA compatible PC) supports 15 (IRQ) hardware interrupts. These interrupts are used to alert the processor that a peripheral (e.g. the keyboard controller, or an expansion card) requires a particular piece of software to be executed.
Inside your computer Selecting IRQs for cards The table below lists the interrupts available on the motherboard and their default functions. The notes explain whether the default function can be disabled, if so how, and under what circumstances it is safe to do so. Interrupts Default Notes...
Inside your computer Refer to the table above, and the documentation supplied with the card to establish which IRQ, if any, to use and how to select DMA channels ISA compatible PCs are equipped with a seven channel DMA (Direct Memory Access) controller. This DMA subsystem allows peripherals to access motherboard memory directly.
Inside your computer If you think of the decimal system using columns: 1000 (10x10x10) (10x10) (10) The number 1019 is: 1000 Each time you add 1 to a column that contains 9, that column goes back to 0 and you add 1 to the column to the left. The columns represent powers of 10: 10x10, 10x10x10 and so on, and the decimal system is said to be base 10.
Inside your computer We can demonstrate that 3FB is exactly the same as 1019 by: (4096x0)+(256x3)+(16xF)+(1xB)=768+240+11=1019 Note A lower case h is often used at the end of a number to ensure that you realise it is in hex format e.g. 3FBh. A larger hex number, and one that you will come across in the Memory map description below, is A0000h.
Inside your computer Every address contains 8-bits of data, a byte. Each bit can be thought of as a switch which can be either on or off. A byte is like a bank of 8-switches, where each switch can be on or off. BYTE So 1Mbyte of memory consists of 1048576 (see Numbers and computers) locations each containing one byte of data.
Inside your computer Note The top location of this first Mbyte is 1M-1 or FFFFFh. This is because in the first Mbyte there are 1M locations, starting at 0. Location 1M is the start of the second Mbyte of address space. The memory map above shows the uses of the first Mbyte of address space.
Inside your computer The region from C8000h to DFFFFh is available for expansion card ROM other than video BIOS. It is recommended that you configure expansion card ROM at the bottom of this region, with the address ranges as close together as possible without any overlapping.
Inside your computer I/O ports (Hex) Used by 000 - 01F DMA controller 1 020 - 027 Interrupt controller 1 030 - 037 Interrupt controller 1 040 - 047 System timer 050 - 057 System timer 060 - 06F Keyboard controller 070 - 07F Real time clock, NMI mask 080 - 09F...
Inside your computer Motherboard jumper settings The motherboard is fitted with a number of jumpers that are used to configure the operation of the system. The following illustration shows the position of the jumpers. All the jumpers are three pin. These can be configured with a jumper clip connecting the centre pin and either of the two end pins.
Inside your computer Jumper J3 - Flash ROM program This jumper is used to enable programming of the motherboard flash ROM to upgrade the BIOS. During normal operation the flash ROM is write protected and the jumper clip should be in the position marked WP on the motherboard. Note Upgrading the BIOS should only be carried out by your supplier or an authorized maintainer.
Inside your computer Jumper J9 - VGA enable This jumper is provided to allow a hardware disable of the on-board VGA controller. During normal operation the jumper clip should be in the position marked EN on the motherboard. For the majority of systems there will be no need to move this jumper.
Inside your computer Jumper J12 - ISA IDE interrupt This jumper is provided to allow the ISA IDE controller to be configured as either the primary or secondary IDE controller. On systems fitted with a PCI IDE controller this jumper clip will be in the position marked SEC.
Chapter TECHNICAL INFORMATION Appendix B...
Technical Information TECHNICAL INFORMATION This appendix provides some technical information about your computer. More detailed information is available from your supplier. XEN OWNER'S HANDBOOK B/1...
Technical Information Specifications System Intel Pentium processor Processor 60, 66, 90, 100 clock speed BIOS ROM 1 or 2Mbit flash device (reprogrammable in situ) Memory Four 32-bit 70ns SIMMs (128 Mb maximum) Video Cirrus Logic GD5434 controller Video RAM 1 Mb or 2 Mb Resolutions EVGA 1280 x 1024 EVGA 1024 x 768...
Technical Information ATA-PI CD-ROM drive (CDU55E) Discs Acceptable discs CD-ROM mode 1 data discs CD-ROM mode 2 data discs CD audio discs Audio-combined CD-ROM Multisession Photo-CD Disc diameter 12 cm, 8 cm Transfer rate Sustained 300 Kbyte/s (Mode 1) 342.2 Kbyte/s (Mode 2) Burst 4.0 Mbyte/s Access time...
Technical Information SCSI DDS-DC tape drive Performance specifications apply when using data compression. Power specifications are measured at the tape drive power connector and are nominal values. Nominal 60-metre cassette 1.3 Gbyte (1:1 base) capacity 2.6 Gbyte (2:1 typical) 5.2 Gbyte (4:1 max 90-metre cassette 2.0 Gbyte (1:1 base) 4.0 Gbyte (2:1 typical)
Technical Information Audio output Line 0.75 V at 47 kOhm Headphone 0.55 V at 32 Ohm Host SCSI-2 interface Power Voltage +5 V dc + 5% specification +12 V dc + 10% Laser Type GaAlAs semiconductor Wavelength 780 nm Output power 0.6 mW CDU561 Transfer rate...
Technical Information Physical characteristics Weight and dimensions Component Height Depth Width Mass System unit 94 mm 430 mm 428 mm 9.5-12 kg Keyboard 40 mm 205 mm 488 mm 1.4 kg depending on configuration Temperature ranges The equipment is designed to operate in a normal office and humidity environment, during...
Technical Information Power cords The power cord supplied complies with the safety standards applicable in the country in which it is first sold. If you wish to use the computer in another country, you must ensure that you use a power cord which complies with the safety standards of that country.
Technical Information Port characteristics Serial ports 9-way male D-type (COM1/COM2) 10101 Function Data carrier detect Receive data Transmit data Data terminal ready Signal ground Data set ready Request to send Clear to send Ring indicate B/8 XEN OWNER'S HANDBOOK...
Technical Information Parallel port 25-way female D-type (LPT1) Function -STROBE Data bit 0 Data bit 1 Data bit 2 Data bit 3 Data bit 4 Data bit 5 Data bit 6 Data bit 7 -ACK BUSY SLCT -AUTO FEED -ERROR -INIT -SLCT IN Ground...
Technical Information Monitor port 15-way female D-type (VGA) Pin I/O Output Monochrome Colour No pin Green Mono Green Blue No pin Blue Reserved No pin No pin Digital G Self test Self test Red Rtn Key pin Red Rtn Green Rtn Mono Rtn Green Rtn Blue Rtn...
Technical Information Keyboard and mouse ports Both the keyboard and mouse ports accept 6-pin miniature DIN connectors. The voltages and signals are the same for both connectors. Function Data Reserved Ground +5 Vdc Clock Reserved Although the keyboard and mouse ports are physically and electrically compatible, neither the keyboard nor the mouse will operate if plugged into the other’s socket.
Technical Information Video feature connector The motherboard video adapter provides a video feature connector. The connector on the motherboard uses a standard pinout and a standard cable may be used to connect the feature connector to an expansion card. In case you have difficulty obtaining a cable the pinout of the motherboard connector is given in the following table.
APRICOT COMPUTERS LIMITED 3500 PARKSIDE BIRMINGHAM BUSINESS PARK BIRMINGHAM B37 7YS. MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC Part No 15390631 Revision No 01...