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Programming Manual 10/2004 Edition
SINUMERIK 840D/840Di/810D
Fundamentals

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Table of Contents

   Summary of Contents for Siemens SINUMERIK 840DE

  • Page 1 Programming Manual 10/2004 Edition SINUMERIK 840D/840Di/810D Fundamentals...
  • Page 3: Table Of Contents

    Subprograms and Repetition of Program Sections Tables Applicable to the following controls: List of abbreviations SINUMERIK 840D powerline SINUMERIK 840DE powerline (export version) SINUMERIK 840Di SINUMERIK 840DiE (export version) SINUMERIK 810D powerline SINUMERIK 810DE powerline (export version) software version 10.2004 Edition...
  • Page 4 Trademarks All names identified by ® are registered trademarks of the Siemens AG. The remaining trademarks in this publication may be trademarks whose use by third parties for their own purposes could violate the rights of the owner.
  • Page 5: Sinumerik 840d Powerline

    Extensions or changes made by the machine tool manufacturer are documented by the machine tool manufacturer. Please contact your local Siemens office for more detailed information about other SINUMERIK 840D/810D publications and publications that apply to all SINUMERIK controls (e.g., universal interface, measuring cycles, etc.).
  • Page 6 Please send any queries about the documentation (suggestions or corrections) to the following fax number or email address: Fax: +49 (0)9131 98 21 76 E-mail: motioncontrol.docu@erlf.siemens.de Fax form: See the reply form at the end of the document. Description Fundamentals This Programming Guide "Fundamentals"...
  • Page 7 Preface The commands and statements described in this Guide are not specific to one particular technology. They could be used, for example, for the following: • Grinding • Cyclical machines (packaging, woodworking) • Laser power controls Fundamentals Programming Manual, 10.2004 Edition, 6FC5 298-7AB00-0BP1...
  • Page 9 Table of contents Preface ..............................iii Fundamental Geometrical Principles ...................... 1-1 Description of workpiece points ....................1-1 1.1.1 Workpiece coordinate systems ....................1-1 1.1.2 Definition of workpiece positions....................1-2 1.1.3 Polar coordinates ........................1-5 1.1.4 Absolute dimensions........................1-5 1.1.5 Incremental dimension....................... 1-7 1.1.6 Plane designations........................
  • Page 10 Table of contents Positional Data............................3-1 General notes..........................3-1 3.1.1 Program dimensions ........................3-1 Absolute/relative dimensions ..................... 3-2 3.2.1 Absolute dimension (G90, X=AC) ....................3-2 3.2.2 Incremental dimensions (G91, X=IC)..................3-6 Absolute dimension for rotary axes (DC, ACP, ACN).............. 3-10 Dimensions inch/metric, (G70/G700, G71/G710) ..............
  • Page 11 Table of contents 4.19.1 Retraction for thread cutting (LFOF, LFON, LIFTFAST, DILF, ALF) ........4-61 4.19.2 Lifting on retraction (LFTXT, LFWP, LFPOS, POLF, POLFMASK; POLFMLIN)..... 4-63 4.20 Approaching a fixed point (G75) ....................4-66 4.21 Travel to fixed stop (FXS, FXST, FXSW) ................4-67 4.22 Chamfer, rounding (CHF, CHR, RND, RNDM, FRC, FRCM)..........
  • Page 12 Table of contents Feedrate for positioning axes/spindles (FA, FPR, FPRAON, FPRAOF) ......... 7-23 Percentage feedrate override (OVR, OVRA) ................7-25 Feedrate with handwheel override (FD, FDA) ................. 7-26 7.10 Percentage acceleration override (ACC option) ..............7-30 7.11 Feedrate optimization for curved path sections (CFTCP, CFC, CFIN)........7-32 7.12 Spindle speed (S), direction of spindle rotation (M3, M4, M5)..........
  • Page 13 Table of contents 8.17.1 Mirroring of tool lengths ......................8-73 8.17.2 Wear sign evaluation ....................... 8-74 8.17.3 Coordinate system of the active machining operation (TOWSTD/TOWMCS/TOWWCS/TOWBCS/TOWTCS/TOWKCS) ......... 8-75 8.17.4 Tool length and plane change....................8-78 8.18 Tools with a relevant cutting edge length ................8-79 Special functions.............................
  • Page 15: Fundamental Geometrical Principles

    Fundamental Geometrical Principles Description of workpiece points 1.1.1 Workpiece coordinate systems In order for the machine or control to operate with the specified positions, these data must be entered in a reference system that corresponds to the direction of motion of the axis slides. A coordinate system with the axes X, Y and Z is used for this purpose.
  • Page 16: Definition Of Workpiece Positions

    Fundamental Geometrical Principles 1.1 Description of workpiece points Turning: DIN 66217 stipulates that machine tools must use right-handed, rectangular (Cartesian) coordinate systems. The workpiece zero (W) is the origin of the workpiece coordinate system. Sometimes it is advisable or even necessary to work with negative positional data. Positions to the left of the origin are prefixed by a negative sign (–).
  • Page 17: Fundamental Geometrical

    Fundamental Geometrical Principles 1.1 Description of workpiece points P1 corresponds to X100 Y50 P2 corresponds to X-50 Y100 P3 corresponds to X-105 Y-115 P4 corresponds to X70 Y-75 The workpiece positions are required only in one plane for turning. Points P1 to P4 are defined by the following coordinates: P1 corresponds to X25 Z-7.5 P2 corresponds to X40 Z-15 P3 corresponds to X40 Z-25...
  • Page 18 Fundamental Geometrical Principles 1.1 Description of workpiece points Example of turning positions Points P1 and P2 are defined by the following coordinates: P1 corresponds to X-20 Y-20 Z23 P2 corresponds to X13 Y-13 Z27 Example:Positions for milling To state the infeed depth, we need to specify a numerical value for the third coordinate (Z in this case).
  • Page 19: Polar Coordinates

    Fundamental Geometrical Principles 1.1 Description of workpiece points 1.1.3 Polar coordinates The method used to date to specify points in the coordinate system is known as the "Cartesian coordinate" method. However, there is another way to specify coordinates, i.e., as so-called "polar coordinates". The polar coordinate method is useful only if a workpiece or part of a workpiece has radius and angle measurements.
  • Page 20 Fundamental Geometrical Principles 1.1 Description of workpiece points P1 corresponds to X20 Y35 P2 corresponds to X50 Y60 P3 corresponds to X70 Y20 Example of turning The positions for points P1 to P4 in absolute dimensions are as follows with reference to the zero point: P1 corresponds to X25 Z-7.5 P2 corresponds to X40 Z-15...
  • Page 21: Incremental Dimension

    Fundamental Geometrical Principles 1.1 Description of workpiece points 1.1.5 Incremental dimension Production drawings are frequently encountered, however, where the dimensions refer not to the origin, but to another point on the workpiece. In order to avoid having to convert such dimensions, it is possible to specify them in incremental dimensions.
  • Page 22: Plane Designations

    Fundamental Geometrical Principles 1.1 Description of workpiece points G90 P1 corresponds to X25 Z-7.5 ;(with reference to the zero point) G91 P2 corresponds to X15 Z-7.5 ;(with reference to P1) G91 P3 corresponds to Z-10 ;(with reference to P2) G91 P4 corresponds to X20 Z-10 ;(with reference to P3) Note When DIAMOF or DIAM90 is active, the path setpoint is programmed as a radius dimension with G91.
  • Page 23 Fundamental Geometrical Principles 1.1 Description of workpiece points Milling: Turning: The third coordinate axis is perpendicular to this plane and determines the infeed direction of the tool (e.g., for 2½ D machining). Working planes The working planes are specified as follows in the NC program with G17, G18 and G19: Plane Designation Infeed direction...
  • Page 24: Position Of Zero Points

    Fundamental Geometrical Principles 1.2 Position of zero points Position of zero points The various origins (zero points) and reference positions are defined on the NC machine. They are reference points • for the machine to approach and • for programming the workpiece dimensions. The diagrams show the zero points and reference points for drilling/milling machines and turning machines.
  • Page 25: Position Of Coordinate Systems

    Fundamental Geometrical Principles 1.3 Position of coordinate systems Start point. Can be defined for each program. Start point of the first tool for machining. Reference point. Position determined by cams and measuring system. The distance to the machine zero M must be known, so that the axis position can be set at this place exactly on this value Position of coordinate systems 1.3.1...
  • Page 26: Machine Coordinate System

    Fundamental Geometrical Principles 1.3 Position of coordinate systems Milling coordinate system: Turning coordinate system: 1.3.2 Machine coordinate system The machine coordinate system comprises all the physically existing machine axes. Reference points and tool and pallet changing points (fixed machine points) are defined in the machine coordinate system.
  • Page 27 Fundamental Geometrical Principles 1.3 Position of coordinate systems Where the machine coordinate system is used for programming (this is possible with some of the G functions), the physical axes of the machine are addressed directly. No allowance is made for workpiece clamping. Right-hand rule The orientation of the coordinate system relative to the machine depends on the machine type.
  • Page 28 Fundamental Geometrical Principles 1.3 Position of coordinate systems Determination from the right hand rule for different machine types With different machine types the determination from the right hand rule can look different in each case. The following are examples of machine coordinate systems for various machines.
  • Page 29: Basic Coordinate System

    Fundamental Geometrical Principles 1.3 Position of coordinate systems 1.3.3 Basic coordinate system The basic coordinate system is a Cartesian coordinate system, which is mirrored by kinematic transformation (for example, 5-axis transformation or by using Transmit with peripheral surfaces) onto the machine coordinate system. Fundamentals 1-15 Programming Manual, 10.2004 Edition, 6FC5 298-7AB00-0BP1...
  • Page 30 Fundamental Geometrical Principles 1.3 Position of coordinate systems If there is no kinematic transformation, the basic coordinate system differs from the machine coordinate system only in terms of the axis designations. The activation of a transformation can produce deviations in the parallel orientation of the axes.
  • Page 31: Workpiece Coordinate System

    Fundamental Geometrical Principles 1.3 Position of coordinate systems Further determinations Zero offsets, scaling, etc., are always executed in the basic coordinate system. The coordinates also refer to the basic coordinate system when specifying the working field limitation. 1.3.4 Workpiece coordinate system The geometry of a workpiece is described in the workpiece coordinate system.
  • Page 32: Frame System

    Fundamental Geometrical Principles 1.3 Position of coordinate systems The workpiece coordinate system is always a Cartesian coordinate system and assigned to a specific workpiece. 1.3.5 Frame system The frame is a self-contained arithmetic rule that transforms one Cartesian coordinate system into another Cartesian coordinate system. It is a spatial description of the workpiece coordinate system The following components are available within a frame: •...
  • Page 33 Fundamental Geometrical Principles 1.3 Position of coordinate systems These components can be used individually or in any combination. Mirroring of the Z axis Shifting and turning the workpiece coordinate system One way of machining inclined contours is to use appropriate fixtures to align the workpiece parallel to the machine axes.
  • Page 34: Assignment Of Workpiece Coordinate System To Machine Axes

    Fundamental Geometrical Principles 1.3 Position of coordinate systems • align the coordinate axes parallel to the desired working plane by rotation • and thus machine surfaces clamped in inclined positions, produce drill holes at different angles. • Performing multi-side machining operations. The conventions for the working plane and the tool offsets must be observed –...
  • Page 35: Current Workpiece Coordinate System

    Fundamental Geometrical Principles 1.3 Position of coordinate systems The settable frames are activated in the NC program by means of commands such as G54. 1.3.7 Current workpiece coordinate system Sometimes it is advisable or necessary to reposition and to rotate, mirror and/or scale the originally selected workpiece coordinate system within a program.
  • Page 36: Axes

    Fundamental Geometrical Principles 1.4 Axes Axes A distinction is made between the following types of axes when programming: • Machine axes • Channel axes • Geometry axes • Special axes • Path axes • Synchronized axes • Positioning axes • Command axes (motion-synchronous actions) •...
  • Page 37: Main Axes/geometry Axes

    Fundamental Geometrical Principles 1.4 Axes • Synchronized axes traverse synchronously to path axes and take the same time to traverse as all path axes. • Positioning axes traverse asynchronously to all other axes. These traversing movements take place independently of path and synchronized movements. •...
  • Page 38: Special Axes

    Fundamental Geometrical Principles 1.4 Axes The identifiers for geometry and channel axes may be the same, provided a reference is possible. Geometry axis and channel axis names can be the same in any channel so that the same programs can be executed. 1.4.2 Special axes In contrast to the geometry axes, no geometrical relationship is defined between the special...
  • Page 39: Channel Axes

    Fundamental Geometrical Principles 1.4 Axes The machine axis names are programmed only in special cases, such as reference point or fixed point approaching. Axis identifier The axis identifiers can be set in the machine data. Standard identifiers: X1, Y1, Z1, A1, B1, C1, U1, V1 There are also standard axis identifiers that can always be used: AX1, AX2, ..., AXn 1.4.5...
  • Page 40: Synchronized Axes

    Fundamental Geometrical Principles 1.4 Axes • Loaders for moving workpieces away from machine • Tool magazine/turret Programming A distinction is made between positioning axes with synchronization at the block end or over several blocks. Parameters POS axes: Block change occurs at the end of the block when all the path and positioning axes programmed in this block have reached their programmed end point.
  • Page 41: Command Axes

    Fundamental Geometrical Principles 1.4 Axes 1.4.9 Command axes Command axes are started from synchronized actions in response to an event (command). They can be positioned, started, and stopped fully asynchronous to the parts program. An axis cannot be moved from the parts program and from synchronized actions simultaneously.
  • Page 42: Lead Link Axes

    Fundamental Geometrical Principles 1.4 Axes Precondition The participating NCUs, NCU1 and NCU2, must be connected by means of high-speed communication via the link module. References: /PHD/, Configuring Manual NCU 571-573.2, Link Module The axis must be configured appropriately by machine data. The link axis option must be installed.
  • Page 43 Fundamental Geometrical Principles 1.4 Axes An axial position controller alarm is sent to all other NCUs, which are connected to the affected axis via a leading link axis. NCUs that are dependent on the leading link axis can utilize the following coupling relationships with it: •...
  • Page 44: Coordinate Systems And Workpiece Machining

    Fundamental Geometrical Principles 1.5 Coordinate systems and workpiece machining • The axis must be configured appropriately by machine data. • The link axis option must be installed. • The same interpolation cycle must be configured for all NCUs connected to the leading link axis.
  • Page 45 Fundamental Geometrical Principles 1.5 Coordinate systems and workpiece machining Path calculation The path calculation determines the distance to be traversed in a block, taking into account all offsets and compensations. In general: Distance = setpoint - actual value + zero offset (ZO) + tool offset (TO) If a new zero offset and a new tool offset are programmed in a new program block, the following applies: •...
  • Page 46 Fundamental Geometrical Principles 1.5 Coordinate systems and workpiece machining Fundamentals 1-32 Programming Manual, 10.2004 Edition, 6FC5 298-7AB00-0BP1...
  • Page 47: Fundamental Principles Of Nc Programming

    Fundamental Principles of NC Programming Structure and contents of an NC program Note DIN 66025 is the guideline for designing a parts program. An (NC/part) program consists of a sequence of NC blocks (see table below). Each data block represents one machining step. Instructions are written in the blocks in the form of words.
  • Page 48: Language Elements Of The Programming Language

    Fundamental Principles of NC Programming 2.2 Language elements of the programming language File names can contain the characters 0...9, A...Z, a...z or _ and must not exceed 24 characters in total. File names must have a 3-character extension (_xxx). Data in punch tape format can be generated externally or processed with an editor. A file name of a file that is filed internally in the NC memory starts with "_N_".
  • Page 49 Fundamental Principles of NC Programming 2.2 Language elements of the programming language Character set The following characters are available for writing NC programs: Uppercase characters A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N,(O),P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z Please note: Take care to differentiate between the letter "O"...
  • Page 50 Fundamental Principles of NC Programming 2.2 Language elements of the programming language End of block Tab character Separator space character Separator (blank) Note Non-printable special characters are treated like blanks. Words In the same way as our language, NC programs are made up of blocks and each block is made up of words.
  • Page 51 Fundamental Principles of NC Programming 2.2 Language elements of the programming language Note The "L " character does not have to be inserted manually, it is generated automatically when you change lines. Block length A block can contain a maximum of 512 characters (including the comment and end-of-block character "L ").
  • Page 52 Fundamental Principles of NC Programming 2.2 Language elements of the programming language Main block/subblock There are two types of blocks: • Main blocks and • subblocks The main block must contain all the words necessary to start the operation sequence in the program section beginning with the main block.
  • Page 53 Fundamental Principles of NC Programming 2.2 Language elements of the programming language Addresses Addresses are fixed or settable identifiers for axes (X, Y, etc.), spindle speed (S), feedrate (F), circle radius (CR), etc. Example: N10 X100 Important addresses Address Meaning (default setting) Notes A=DC(...) Rotary axis...
  • Page 54: Fundamental Principles Of Nc Programming

    Fundamental Principles of NC Programming 2.2 Language elements of the programming language Round the contour corner fixed RNDM Round contour corner (modally) fixed S... Spindle speed fixed T... Tool number fixed U... Axis variable V... Axis variable W... Axis variable X...
  • Page 55 Fundamental Principles of NC Programming 2.2 Language elements of the programming language Example: FA[U]=400 ;Axis-specific feed for U axis Extended addresses Extended address notation enables a larger number of axes and spindles to be organized in a system. An extended address is composed of a numeric extension or a variable identifier enclosed in square brackets and an arithmetic expression with an "="...
  • Page 56 Fundamental Principles of NC Programming 2.2 Language elements of the programming language Fixed addresses The following addresses are set permanently: Address Meaning (default setting) Cutting edge number Feed Preparatory function Auxiliary function Subprogram call Miscellaneous (i.e., special) function Subblock Number of program passes Arithmetic variables Spindle speed Tool number...
  • Page 57 Fundamental Principles of NC Programming 2.2 Language elements of the programming language Settable addresses Addresses can be defined either as an address letter (with numerical extension if necessary) or as freely selected identifiers. Note Variable addresses must be unique within the control, i.e., the same identifier name may not be used for different address types.
  • Page 58 Fundamental Principles of NC Programming 2.2 Language elements of the programming language Operators/mathematical functions Operators and Meaning mathematical functions Addition Subtraction Multiplication Division Notice!: (type INT)/(type INT)=(type REAL); e.g., 3/4 = 0.75 Division, for variable types INT and REAL Notice!: (type INT)DIV(type INT)=(type INT); e.g., 3 DIV 4 = 0 Modulo division (INT type only) produces the remainder of INT division, e.g., 3 MOD 4=3 Chain operator (for FRAME variables)
  • Page 59 Fundamental Principles of NC Programming 2.2 Language elements of the programming language In arithmetic expressions, the execution order of all the operators can be specified by parentheses, in order to override the normal priority rules. Value assignments Values can be assigned to the addresses. The method of value assignment depends on the type of address identifier.
  • Page 60 Rules for allocating identifiers The following rules are provided in order to avoid identifier collisions: • All identifiers beginning with "CYCLE" or "_" are reserved for SIEMENS cycles. • All identifiers beginning with "CCS" are reserved for SIEMENS compile cycles.
  • Page 61 Fundamental Principles of NC Programming 2.2 Language elements of the programming language • All identifiers beginning with "E_ " are reserved for EASYSTEP programming. Variable identifiers In variables used by the system, the first letter is replaced by the "$" character. This character may not be used for user-defined variables.
  • Page 62 Fundamental Principles of NC Programming 2.2 Language elements of the programming language Constants Integer constants Integer with or without leading sign, e.g., for assigning a value to an address Examples: X10.25 ;Assignment of the value +10.25 to address X X -10.25 ;Assignment of the value –.25 to address X X0.25 ;Assignment of the value +0.25 to address X...
  • Page 63 Fundamental Principles of NC Programming 2.2 Language elements of the programming language Example for machine data (see also "Programming Guide Advanced"): $MN_AUXFU_GROUP_SPEC='B10000001' ;Assignment of binary constants to ;machine data bit 0 and 7 are set The maximum number of characters is limited by the value range of the integer data type. Program section A program section consists of a main block and several subblocks.
  • Page 64 Fundamental Principles of NC Programming 2.2 Language elements of the programming language Example of skipping blocks ;Is executed /N20 … ;Skipped N30 … ;Is executed /N40 … ;Skipped N70 … ;Is executed Up to 10 skip levels can be programmed. Only one skip level can be specified per NC block: / ...
  • Page 65 Fundamental Principles of NC Programming 2.2 Language elements of the programming language Note Labels must be unique within a program. Labels always appear at the start of a block. If a program number exists, the label appears immediately after the block number. Comments To make NC programs easier to understand for other users and programmers, it is advisable to insert meaningful comments in the program.
  • Page 66 The valid range for alarm numbers is between 60,000 and 69,999, whereby 60,000 to 64,999 are reserved for SIEMENS cycles and 65,000 to 69,999 are available to the user. Note Alarms are always programmed in a separate block.
  • Page 67: Programming A Sample Workpiece

    Fundamental Principles of NC Programming 2.3 Programming a sample workpiece Programming SETAL(<alarmnumber>, <string>) Parameters Variable user texts can be defined in these parameters. Predefined parameters with the following meaning are also provided: %1 = Channel number %2 = Block number, label %3 = Text index for cycle alarms %4 =...
  • Page 68: First Programming Example For Milling Application

    Fundamental Principles of NC Programming 2.4 First programming example for milling application – Can you use part contours or similar elements, which already exist in other subprograms or subroutines? Where is it advisable or necessary to perform zero offset, rotation, mirroring or scaling (frame concept)? •...
  • Page 69: Second Programming Example For Milling Application

    Fundamental Principles of NC Programming 2.5 Second programming example for milling application Machine manufacturer The machine data settings must be defined correctly before the program can run on the machine. References: /FB1/ Functional description, K2, "Axes, Coordinate Systems,.." Programming example _MILL1_MPF N10 MSG("THIS IS MY NC PROGRAM") ;MSG = Message output in an alarm line...
  • Page 70 Fundamental Principles of NC Programming 2.5 Second programming example for milling application N025 T1 M6 ;d = 3 inch face cutter N030 MSG () ;Clears the message from block N020 N035 MSG ("Face milling Z=0 workpiece surface") N040 G0 G54 X-2 Y.6 S800 M3 M8 N045 Z1 D1 N050 G1 Z0 F50 N055 X8 F25...
  • Page 71 Fundamental Principles of NC Programming 2.5 Second programming example for milling application ;Drill second hole N215 X4.25 ;Drill third hole N220 MCALL N221 SUPA Z0 D0 M5 M9 ;Delete modal call. Z axis traverses to ;machine zero N225 SUPA X0 Y0 MSG () N230 M30 ;End of program...
  • Page 72: Programming Example For Turning Application

    Fundamental Principles of NC Programming 2.6 Programming example for turning application Programming example for turning application Radius programming and tool radius compensation The sample program contains radius programming and tool radius compensation. Programming example %_N_1001_MPF N5 G0 G53 X280 Z380 D0 ;Start point N10 TRANS X0 Z250 ;Zero offset...
  • Page 73 Fundamental Principles of NC Programming 2.6 Programming example for turning application Machine manufacturer The MD settings must be defined correctly before the program can run on the machine. References: /FB/ Functional description, K2, "Axes, Coordinate Systems,.." Fundamentals 2-27 Programming Manual, 10.2004 Edition, 6FC5 298-7AB00-0BP1...
  • Page 75: Positional Data

    Positional Data General notes 3.1.1 Program dimensions In this section you will find descriptions of the commands, with which you can directly program dimensions taken from a drawing. This has the advantage that no extensive calculations have to be made for NC programming. Note The commands described in this section stand in most cases at the start of a NC program.
  • Page 76: Absolute/relative Dimensions

    Positional Data 3.2 Absolute/relative dimensions • Absolute dimension, X=ACN(value) approaching the position in negative direction, only this value is set for the rotary axis, the range of which is set in the machine datum to 0...< 360°. • Incremental dimension, G91 modally effective applies for all axes in the block, until it is revoked by G90 in a following block.
  • Page 77 Positional Data 3.2 Absolute/relative dimensions Parameters Absolute reference dimension X Y Z Axis identifiers of the axes to be traversed Absolute dimensions non-modally effective Note The command G90 is modal. Generally G90 applies to all axes programmed in subsequent NC blocks. Example of milling The traverse paths are entered in absolute coordinates with reference to the workpiece zero.
  • Page 78 Positional Data 3.2 Absolute/relative dimensions Example of turning The traverse paths are entered in absolute coordinates with reference to the workpiece zero. For entering the circle center point coordinates I and J see circle interpolation G2/G3. N5 T1 D1 S2000 M3 ;Tool, spindle on clockwise N10 G0 G90 X11 Z1 ;Absolute dimensioning, rapid traverse...
  • Page 79 Positional Data 3.2 Absolute/relative dimensions Milling: Turning: Note On conventional turning machines it is standard practice to interpret incremental NC blocks in the transverse axis as radius values, while diameter dimensions are valid for absolute coordinates. This conversion for G90 is performed using the commands DIAMON, DIAMOF or DIAM90.
  • Page 80: Incremental Dimensions (g91, X=ic)

    Positional Data 3.2 Absolute/relative dimensions 3.2.2 Incremental dimensions (G91, X=IC) Function With the G91 command or the non-modal statement IC, you determine the descriptive system for approaching individual axes from setpoints in incremental dimensions. You program how far the tool is to travel. Programming X=IC(...) Y=IC(...) Z=IC(...) Parameters...
  • Page 81: Positional Data

    Positional Data 3.2 Absolute/relative dimensions N10 G90 G0 X45 Y60 Z2 T1 S2000 M3 ;Absolute dimensioning, rapid traverse to ;XYZ, tool, spindle on clockwise N20 G1 Z-5 F500 ;Tool infeed at feedrate N30 G2 X20 Y35 I0 J-25) ;Circle center point in incremental dimensions N40 G0 Z2 ;Retracting...
  • Page 82 Positional Data 3.2 Absolute/relative dimensions Example without traversing through the active zero offset • G54 contains an offset of 25 in X • SD 42440: FRAME_OFFSET_INCR_PROG = 0 N10 G90 G0 G54 X100 N20 G1 G91 X10 ;Traverse X by 10 mm, the offset is ;not traversed N30 G90 X50...
  • Page 83 Positional Data 3.2 Absolute/relative dimensions Turning: Note On conventional turning machines it is standard practice to interpret incremental NC blocks in the transverse axis as radius values, while diameter dimensions are valid for absolute coordinates. This conversion for G91 is performed using the commands DIAMON, DIAMOF or DIAM90.
  • Page 84: Absolute Dimension For Rotary Axes (dc, Acp, Acn)

    Positional Data 3.3 Absolute dimension for rotary axes (DC, ACP, ACN) Absolute dimension for rotary axes (DC, ACP, ACN) With the above parameters you can define the desired approach strategy for positioning rotary axes. Programming A=DC(…) B=DC(…) C=DC(…) A=ACP(…) B=ACP(…) C=ACP(…) A=ACP(…) B=ACP(…) C=ACP(…) Parameters A B C...
  • Page 85 Positional Data 3.3 Absolute dimension for rotary axes (DC, ACP, ACN) N10 SPOS=0 ;Spindle in position control N20 G90 G0 X-20 Y0 Z2 T1 ;Absolute, infeed in rapid traverse N30 G1 Z-5 F500 ;Lower at feedrate N40 C=ACP(270) ;The table rotates through 270° in ;clockwise direction (positive), the tool ;mills a circular groove N50 G0 Z2 M30...
  • Page 86: Dimensions Inch/metric, (g70/g700, G71/g710)

    Positional Data 3.4 Dimensions inch/metric, (G70/G700, G71/G710) All of the commands are non-modal. You can also use DC, ACP and ACN for spindle positioning from zero speed. Example: SPOS=DC(45) Dimensions inch/metric, (G70/G700, G71/G710) Function Depending on the dimensions in the production drawing, you can program workpiece geometries alternately in metric measurements and inches.
  • Page 87 Positional Data 3.4 Dimensions inch/metric, (G70/G700, G71/G710) N10 G0 G90 X20 Y30 Z2 S2000 M3 T1 ;Basic setting metric N20 G1 Z-5 F500 ;At feedrate in Z [mm/min] N30 X90 N40 G70 X2.75 Y3.22 ;Enter destination positions in inches, ;is active until deselected by G71 or ;end of program N50 X1.18 Y3.54 N60 G71 X 20 Y30...
  • Page 88 Positional Data 3.4 Dimensions inch/metric, (G70/G700, G71/G710) Further information All other parameters such as feedrates, tool offsets or settable zero offsets are interpreted (when using G70/G71) in the default system of units (MD 10240: SCALING_SYSTEM_IS_METRIC). The representation of system variables and machine data is also independent of the G70/G71 context.
  • Page 89: Special Turning Functions

    Positional Data 3.5 Special turning functions Special turning functions 3.5.1 Dimensions for radius, diameter, (DIAMON, DIAMOF, DIAM90) Function The free choice of diameter or radius dimensions allows you to program the dimensions straight from the engineering drawing without conversion. After power up of •...
  • Page 90 Positional Data 3.5 Special turning functions Parameters Absolute dimensioning (G90) Incremental dimensioning (G91) DIAMON Diameter Diameter DIAMOF Radius (for default, see Radius machine manufacturer) DIAM90 Diameter Radius The diameter programming is set with DIAM90 for G90 and the radius programming for G91. Further information The commands for diameter and radius data are modal.
  • Page 91: Position Of Workpiece

    Positional Data 3.5 Special turning functions 3.5.2 Position of workpiece Function While the machine zero is fixed, you can choose the position for the workpiece zero on the longitudinal axis. The workpiece zero is generally located on the front or rear side of the workpiece.
  • Page 92 Positional Data 3.5 Special turning functions Parameters G54 to G599 or TRANS Call for the position of the workpiece zero Machine zero Tool zero point Z axis Longitudinal axis X axis Transverse axis The two mutually perpendicular geometry axes are usually designated as follows: •...
  • Page 93: Zero Offset (frame), G54 To G57, G505 To G599, G53, G500/supa

    Positional Data 3.6 Zero offset (frame), G54 to G57, G505 to G599, G53, G500/SUPA Zero offset (frame), G54 to G57, G505 to G599, G53, G500/SUPA Function The settable zero offset relates the workpiece zero on all axes to the origin of the basic coordinate system.
  • Page 94 Positional Data 3.6 Zero offset (frame), G54 to G57, G505 to G599, G53, G500/SUPA Turning: Programming Call-up G505 … G599 Switching off G500 SUPA G153 Fundamentals 3-20 Programming Manual, 10.2004 Edition, 6FC5 298-7AB00-0BP1...
  • Page 95 Positional Data 3.6 Zero offset (frame), G54 to G57, G505 to G599, G53, G500/SUPA Parameters G54 to G57 Call the second to fifth settable zero offset/frame G505 ...G599 Call the 6th to the 99th settable zero offset Non-modal deactivation of current settable zero offset and programmable zero offset G500 G500=zero frame, default setting,...
  • Page 96 Positional Data 3.6 Zero offset (frame), G54 to G57, G505 to G599, G53, G500/SUPA N10 G0 G90 X10 Y10 F500 T1 ;Approach N20 G54 S1000 M3 ;Call the first zero offset, ;spindle clockwise N30 L47 ;Run program, in this case as a subprogram N40 G55 G0 Z200 ;Call the second zero offset...
  • Page 97 Positional Data 3.6 Zero offset (frame), G54 to G57, G505 to G599, G53, G500/SUPA Switching on zero offset, G54 to G57 In the NC program, the zero offset is moved from the machine coordinate system to the workpiece coordinate system by executing one of the four commands G54 to G57. In the next NC block with a programmed movement, all of the positional parameters and thus the tool movements refer to the workpiece zero, which is now valid.
  • Page 98 Positional Data 3.6 Zero offset (frame), G54 to G57, G505 to G599, G53, G500/SUPA Further settable zero offsets, G505 to G599 Command numbers G505 to G599 are available for this purpose. This enables you to create up to 100 settable zero offsets in total, in addition to the 4 default zero offsets G54 to G57, by using the machine data.
  • Page 99: Selection Of Working Plane (g17 To G19)

    Positional Data 3.7 Selection of working plane (G17 to G19) Selection of working plane (G17 to G19) Function By specification of working plane, in which the contour is to be machined also defines the following functions: • The plane for tool radius compensation. •...
  • Page 100 Positional Data 3.7 Selection of working plane (G17 to G19) Important In the basic setting, preset for millingG17 (X/Y plane) and G18 (Z/X plane) for turning. With selection of the tool path compensationG41/G42 (see section "Tool offsets") the working plane must be specified so that the control can correct the tool length and radius. Example for milling The "conventional"...
  • Page 101 Positional Data 3.7 Selection of working plane (G17 to G19) Turning: For calculating the direction of rotation, the controller requires the specification of the working plane, refer to circular interpolation G2/G3. Machining on inclined planes By turning the coordinate system withROT (see Section "Coordinate system offset") you position the coordinate axes on the inclined surface.
  • Page 102: Working Area Limitation (g25/g26, Walimon, Walimof)

    Positional Data 3.8 Working area limitation (G25/G26, WALIMON, WALIMOF) Further information The tool length components can be calculated according to the rotated working planes with the functions for "Tool length compensation for orientable tools". The offset plane is selected with CUT2D., CUT2DF. For further information on this and for the description of the calculation possibility refer to the section "Tool offsets"...
  • Page 103 Positional Data 3.8 Working area limitation (G25/G26, WALIMON, WALIMOF) Programming G25 X…Y…Z… Programming in a separate NC block G26 X…Y…Z… Programming in a separate NC block WALIMON WALIMOF Parameters G25, X Y Z Lower working area limitation, value assignment in the channel axes in the basic coordinate system G26, X Y Z Upper working area limitation, value assignment in the...
  • Page 104 Positional Data 3.8 Working area limitation (G25/G26, WALIMON, WALIMOF) N10 G0 G90 F0.5 T1 N20 G25 X-80 Z30 ;Define the lower limit for ;the individual coordinate axes N30 G26 X80 Z330 ;Define the upper limit N40 L22 ;Cutting program N50 G0 G90 Z102 T2 ;To tool change location N60 X0 N70 WALIMOF...
  • Page 105 Positional Data 3.8 Working area limitation (G25/G26, WALIMON, WALIMOF) Note The coordinates for the individual axes apply in the basic coordinate system! Further information You will find the CALCPOSI subroutine in the Advanced Programming Guide This routine can be used to check in advance whether traversal of the planned path will take into account working area limitations or protection zones.
  • Page 106: Reference Point Approach (g74)

    Positional Data 3.9 Reference point approach (G74) Reference point approach (G74) Function When the machine has been powered up (where incremental position measurement systems are used), all of the axis slides must approach their reference point. Only then can traversing movements be programmed.
  • Page 107: Programming Motion Commands

    Programming Motion Commands General notes In this section you will find a description of all the travel commands you can use to machine workpiece contours. These travel commands with the associated parameters enable you to program quite different workpiece contours for milling and also for turning. Travel commands for programmable workpiece contours The programmed workpiece contours are composed of straight lines and circular arcs.
  • Page 108 Programming Motion Commands 4.1 General notes Tool prepositioning Before a machining process is started, you need to position the tool in such a way as to avoid any damage to the tool or workpiece. Start point - destination point The traversing movement always runs from the last approached position to the programmed destination position.
  • Page 109 Programming Motion Commands 4.1 General notes Number of motion blocks in milling: Number of motion blocks in turning: Caution An axis address can only be programmed once in each block. These commands can be programmed in Cartesian or polar coordinates. Synchronized axes, positioning axes and oscillation mode.
  • Page 110: Travel Commands With Polar Coordinates, Polar Angle, Polar Radius

    Programming Motion Commands 4.2 Travel commands with polar coordinates, polar angle, polar radius Travel commands with polar coordinates, polar angle, polar radius 4.2.1 Defining the pole (G110, G111, G112) Function The dimensioning starting point is called a pole. The pole can be specified in either Cartesian or polar coordinates (polar radius RP=...
  • Page 111: Traversing Commands With Polar Coordinates, (g0, G1, G2, G3 Ap

    Programming Motion Commands 4.2 Travel commands with polar coordinates, polar angle, polar radius You come directly back into the Cartesian system by using the Cartesian coordinate identifiers (X, Y, Z...). The defined pole is moreover retained up to program end. Note All the commands relating to pole input must be programmed in a separate NC block If no pole is specified, the origin of the current coordinate system applies.
  • Page 112 Programming Motion Commands 4.2 Travel commands with polar coordinates, polar angle, polar radius If the dimensions of a workpiece, such as those in hole patterns, proceed from a central point, then the dimensions are given in terms of angles and radii. Programming G0 AP=…...
  • Page 113: Programming Motion Commands

    Programming Motion Commands 4.2 Travel commands with polar coordinates, polar angle, polar radius Example of making a hole pattern The positions of the holes are specified in polar coordinates. Each hole is machined with the same production sequence: Predrilling, drilling to size, reaming, etc.
  • Page 114 Programming Motion Commands 4.2 Travel commands with polar coordinates, polar angle, polar radius Example of cylinder coordinates The 3rd geometry axis, which lies perpendicular to the working plane, can also be specified in Cartesian coordinates. This enables spatial parameters to be programmed in cylindrical coordinates. Example: G17 G0 AP…...
  • Page 115: Rapid Traverse Movement (g0, Rtlion, Rtliof)

    Programming Motion Commands 4.3 Rapid traverse movement (G0, RTLION, RTLIOF) Polar radius RP The polar radius remains stored until a new value is input. If the modally active polar radius is RP = 0 The polar radius is calculated from the distance between the starting point vector in the polar plane and the active pole vector.
  • Page 116 Programming Motion Commands 4.3 Rapid traverse movement (G0, RTLION, RTLIOF) Programming G0 X… Y… Z … G0 AP=… G0 RP=… RTLIOF RTLION Parameters Rapid traverse movement X Y Z End point in Cartesian coordinates End point in polar coordinates, in this case the polar angle End point in polar coordinates, in this case the polar radius...
  • Page 117 Programming Motion Commands 4.3 Rapid traverse movement (G0, RTLION, RTLIOF) Example of milling Start positions or tool change points, retracting the tool, etc., are approached with G0. N10 G90 S400 M3 ;Absolute dimensioning, spindle clockwise N20 G0 X30 Y20 Z2 ;Approach start position N30 G1 Z-5 F1000 ;Tool infeed...
  • Page 118 Programming Motion Commands 4.3 Rapid traverse movement (G0, RTLION, RTLIOF) N10 G90 S400 M3 ;Absolute dimensioning, spindle clockwise N20 G0 X25 Z5 ;Approach start position N30 G1 G94 Z0 F1000 ;Tool infeed N40 G95 Z-7.5 F0.2 N50 X60 Z-35 ;Travel on straight line N60 Z-50 N70 G0 X62 N80 G0 X80 Z20 M30...
  • Page 119 Programming Motion Commands 4.3 Rapid traverse movement (G0, RTLION, RTLIOF) Notice Since a different contour can be traversed in nonlinear interpolation mode, synchronized actions that refer to coordinates of the original path are not operative in some cases! Linear interpolation applies in the following cases: •...
  • Page 120: Linear Interpolation (g1)

    Programming Motion Commands 4.4 Linear interpolation (G1) Linear interpolation (G1) Function With G1, the tool travels along straight lines that are parallel to the axis, inclined or in any orientation in space. Linear interpolation permits machining of 3D surfaces, grooves, etc. Milling: Programming G1 X…...
  • Page 121 Programming Motion Commands 4.4 Linear interpolation (G1) Note G1 is modal. The spindle speed S and the direction of spindle rotation M3/M4 must be specified for machining. FGROUP can be used to define groups of axes, to which the path feed F applies. You will find more information in the "Path behavior"...
  • Page 122: Circular Interpolation Types, (g2/g3, Cip, Ct)

    Programming Motion Commands 4.5 Circular interpolation types, (G2/G3, CIP, CT) Example of turning N10 G17 S400 M3 ;Select working plane, spindle clockwise N20 G0 X40 Y-6 Z2 ;Approach start position N30 G1 Z-3 F40 ;Tool infeed N40 X12 Y-20 ;Travel along inclined ;straight line N50 G0 Z100 M30 ;Retract to tool change point...
  • Page 123 Programming Motion Commands 4.5 Circular interpolation types, (G2/G3, CIP, CT) Programming G2/G3 X… Y… Z… Absolute center point and end point with reference to the I=AC(…) J=AC(…) K=AC(…) workpiece zero Center point in incremental dimensions with reference to the G2/G3 X… Y… Z… I… J… K… circle starting point Circle radius CR= and circle end position in Cartesian G2/G3 X…...
  • Page 124 Programming Motion Commands 4.5 Circular interpolation types, (G2/G3, CIP, CT) Example of milling The following program lines contain an example for each circular programming possibility. The necessary dimensions are shown in the production drawing on the right. N10 G0 G90 X133 Y44.48 S800 M3 ;Approach starting point N20 G17 G1 Z-5 F1000 ;Tool infeed...
  • Page 125 Programming Motion Commands 4.5 Circular interpolation types, (G2/G3, CIP, CT) Example of turning N..N120 G0 X12 Z0 N125 G1 X40 Z-25 F0.2 N130 G3 X70 Y-75 I-3.335 K-29.25 ;Circle end point, center point in ;incremental dimensions N130 G3 X70 Y-75 I=AC(33.33) K=AC(-54.25) ;Circle end point, center point in ;absolute dimensions N130 G3 X70 Z-75 CR=30...
  • Page 126 Programming Motion Commands 4.6 Circular interpolation with center point and end point (G2/G3, I=, J=, K=AC...) Circular interpolation with center point and end point (G2/G3, I=, J=, K=AC...) Function Circular interpolation enables machining of full circles or arcs. The circular movement is described by: •...
  • Page 127: Circular Interpolation With Center Point And End Point (g2/g3, I=, J=, K=ac

    Programming Motion Commands 4.6 Circular interpolation with center point and end point (G2/G3, I=, J=, K=AC...) Note G2 and G3 are modal. The G90/G91 defaults for absolute or incremental dimensions are only valid for the circle end point. The center point coordinates I, J, K are normally entered in incremental dimensions with reference to the circle starting point.
  • Page 128 Programming Motion Commands 4.6 Circular interpolation with center point and end point (G2/G3, I=, J=, K=AC...) Examples for turning Incremental dimension N120 G0 X12 Z0 N125 G1 X40 Z-25 F0.2 N130 G3 X70 Z-75 I-3.335 K-29.25 N135 G1 Z-95 Absolute dimensions N120 G0 X12 Z0 N125 G1 X40 Z-25 F0.2 N130 G3 X70 Z-75 I=AC(33.33) K=AC(-54.25)
  • Page 129 Programming Motion Commands 4.6 Circular interpolation with center point and end point (G2/G3, I=, J=, K=AC...) Indication of working plane The control needs the working plane parameter (G17 to G19) in order to calculate the direction of rotation for the circle – G2 is clockwise or G3 is counterclockwise. It is advisable to specify the working plane generally.
  • Page 130: Circular Interpolation With Radius And End Point (g2/g3, Cr)

    Programming Motion Commands 4.7 Circular interpolation with radius and end point (G2/G3, CR) Circular interpolation with radius and end point (G2/G3, CR) The circular movement is described by the: • Circle radius CR= and • the end point in Cartesian coordinates X, Y, Z. In addition to the circle radius, you must also specify the leading sign +/–...
  • Page 131 Programming Motion Commands 4.7 Circular interpolation with radius and end point (G2/G3, CR) Example of milling Programming a circle with radius and end point N10 G0 X67.5 Y80.211 N20 G3 X17.203 Y38.029 CR=34.913 F500 Example of turning Programming a circle with radius and end point N125 G1 X40 Z-25 F0.2 N130 G3 X70 Z-75 CR=30 N135 G1 Z-95...
  • Page 132: Circular Interpolation With Arc Angle And Center Point (g2/g3, Ar=)

    Programming Motion Commands 4.8 Circular interpolation with arc angle and center point (G2/G3, AR=) Circular interpolation with arc angle and center point (G2/G3, AR=) Programming a circle with arc angle and center point or end point The circular movement is defined by: •...
  • Page 133 Programming Motion Commands 4.8 Circular interpolation with arc angle and center point (G2/G3, AR=) Further information Full circles (traversing angle 360°) cannot be programmed with AR=, but must be programmed using the circle end point and interpolation parameters. The center point coordinates I, J, K are normally entered in incremental dimensions with reference to the circle starting point.
  • Page 134: Circular Interpolation With Polar Coordinates (g2/g3, Ap=, Rp=)

    Programming Motion Commands 4.9 Circular interpolation with polar coordinates (G2/G3, AP=, RP=) Example for turning 54.25 54.25 Programming a circle with arc angle and center point or end point N125 G1 X40 Z-25 F0.2 N130 G3 X70 Z-75 AR=135.944 N130 G3 I-3.335 K-29.25 AR=135.944 N130 G3 I=AC(33.33) K=AC(-54.25) AR=135.944 N135 G1 Z-95 Circular interpolation with polar coordinates (G2/G3, AP=, RP=)
  • Page 135 Programming Motion Commands 4.9 Circular interpolation with polar coordinates (G2/G3, AP=, RP=) X Y Z End point in Cartesian coordinates End point in polar coordinates, in this case the polar angle End point in polar coordinates, in this case polar radius corresponding to circle radius Example for milling Programming a circle with polar coordinates...
  • Page 136: Circular Interpolation With Intermediate And End Points (cip)

    Programming Motion Commands 4.10 Circular interpolation with intermediate and end points (CIP) Programming a circle with polar coordinates N125 G1 X40 Z-25 F0.2 N130 G111 X33.33 Z-54.25 N135 G3 RP=30 AP=142.326 N140 G1 Z-95 4.10 Circular interpolation with intermediate and end points (CIP) You can use CIP to program arcs.
  • Page 137 Programming Motion Commands 4.10 Circular interpolation with intermediate and end points (CIP) K: Coordinate of the circle center point in the direction =AC(…) Absolute dimensions (non-modal) =IC(...) Incremental dimensions (non-modal) Note CIP is modal. Input in absolute and incremental dimensions The G90/G91 defaults for absolute or incremental dimensions are valid for the intermediate and circle end points.
  • Page 138: Circular Interpolation With Tangential Transition (ct)

    Programming Motion Commands 4.11 Circular interpolation with tangential transition (CT) Example of turning N125 G1 X40 Z-25 F0.2 N130 CIP X70 Z-75 I1=IC(26.665) K1=IC(-29.25) N130 CIP X70 Z-75 I1=93.33 K1=-54.25 N135 G1 Z-95 4.11 Circular interpolation with tangential transition (CT) Function The Tangential transition function is an expansion of the circle programming.
  • Page 139 Programming Motion Commands 4.11 Circular interpolation with tangential transition (CT) Determining the direction of the tangent The direction of tangent at the start point of a CT block is determined from the end tangent of the programmed contour of the previous block with a traversing movement. Any number of blocks without traversing information may lie between this block and the current block.
  • Page 140 Programming Motion Commands 4.11 Circular interpolation with tangential transition (CT) Example of milling Milling a circular arc with CT following a straight line: N10 G0 X0 Y0 Z0 G90 T1 D1 N20 G41 X30 Y30 G1 F1000 ;Activate tool radius compensation (TRC) N30 CT X50 Y15 ;Program circle with tangential ;transition...
  • Page 141 Programming Motion Commands 4.11 Circular interpolation with tangential transition (CT) N110 G1 X23.293 Z0 F10 N115 X40 Z-30 F0.2 N120 CT X58.146 Z-42 ;Program circle with tangential ;transition N125 G1 X70 Description In the case of splines, the tangential direction is defined by the straight line through the last two points.
  • Page 142: Helical Interpolation (g2/g3, Turn=)

    Programming Motion Commands 4.12 Helical interpolation (G2/G3, TURN=) 4.12 Helical interpolation (G2/G3, TURN=) Function Helical interpolation (helix interpolation) can be used to manufacture threads and oil grooves, for example. In helical interpolation, two movements are superimposed and executed in parallel: •...
  • Page 143 Programming Motion Commands 4.12 Helical interpolation (G2/G3, TURN=) Parameters Travel on a circular path in clockwise direction Travel on a circular path in counterclockwise direction X Y Z End point in Cartesian coordinates I J K Circle center point in Cartesian coordinates Aperture angle TURN= Number of additional circle passes within the range 0 to...
  • Page 144: Involute Interpolation (invcw, Invccw)

    Programming Motion Commands 4.13 Involute interpolation (INVCW, INVCCW) Sequence of motions 1. Approach starting point 2. With TURN= execute the full circles programmed 3. Approach circle end position, e.g., as part rotation 4. Execute steps 2 and 3 across the infeed depth. The lead, with which the helix is to be machined is calculated from the number of full circles plus the programmed end point (executed across the infeed depth).
  • Page 145 Programming Motion Commands 4.13 Involute interpolation (INVCW, INVCCW) When paths perpendicular to the active plane are also programmed, it is possible to traverse an involute in space (comparable to helical interpolation with circles). Programming INVCW X... Y... Z... I... J... K... CR=... INVCCW X...
  • Page 146 Programming Motion Commands 4.13 Involute interpolation (INVCW, INVCCW) Note For more information about machine data and supplementary conditions that are relevant to involute interpolation, please see References: /FB1/, A2 section "Settings for involute interpolation". Example of counterclockwise involute and back as clockwise involute Counterclockwise involute according to programming method 1 from start to end point and back again (clockwise involute) N10 G1 X10 Y0 F5000...
  • Page 147 Programming Motion Commands 4.13 Involute interpolation (INVCW, INVCCW) Example of counterclockwise involute with end point over angle of rotation Specification of end point via angle of rotation N10 G1 X10 Y0 F5000 ;Approach start position N15 G17 ;Select X/Y plane N20 INVCCW CR=5 I-10 J0 AR=360 ;Counterclockwise involute, away from ;base circle (pos.
  • Page 148 Programming Motion Commands 4.13 Involute interpolation (INVCW, INVCCW) Options 1. and 2. are mutually exclusive. Only one of these notations may be used each block. Further information There are further options when the angle of rotation is programmed with AR. Two different involutes can be implemented (see diagram) by specifying the radius and center point of the base circle as well as the start point and direction of rotation (INVCW/INVCCW).
  • Page 149: Contour Definitions

    Programming Motion Commands 4.14 Contour definitions 4.14 Contour definitions 4.14.1 Straight line with angle (X2... ANG...) Function The end point is defined through specification of • the angle ANG and • one of the two coordinates X2 or Z2. Programming X2…...
  • Page 150: Two Straight Lines (ang1, X3

    Programming Motion Commands 4.14 Contour definitions Parameters X2 or Z2 End point in Cartesian coordinates X or Z Angle Machine manufacturer The names for angle (ANG), radius (RND) and chamfer (CHR) can be set in MD, see /FBFA/FB ISO Dialects. Example N10 X5 Z70 F1000 G18 ;Approach start position...
  • Page 151: Three Straight Lines (ang1, X3

    Programming Motion Commands 4.14 Contour definitions X1… Z1… X3… Z3… Parameters ANG1= Angle of the first straight line ANG2= Angle of the second straight line Chamfer X1, Z1= Start coordinates X2, Z2= Intersection of the two straight lines X3=, Z3= End point of the second straight line Machine manufacturer The names for angle (ANG), radius (RND) and chamfer (CHR) can be set in MD, see...
  • Page 152 Programming Motion Commands 4.14 Contour definitions Programming ANG1… X3… Z3… ANG2… X4… Z4… X2… Z2… X3… Z3… X4… Z4… Parameters ANG, ANG2= Angle of the first/second straight line relative to the abscissa Chamfer Rounding X1, Z1 Start coordinates of the first straight line X2, Z2 End point coordinates of the first straight line or starting point of the second straight line.
  • Page 153: End Point Programming With Angle

    Programming Motion Commands 4.15 Thread cutting with constant lead (G33) Example N10 X10 Z100 F1000 G18 ;Approach start position N20 ANG1=140 CHR=7.5 ;Straight line with specified angle and chamfer N30 X80 Z70 ANG2=95.824 RND=10 Straight line on intersection with specified angle and ;rounding N40 X70 Z50 ;Straight line on end point 4.14.4...
  • Page 154 Programming Motion Commands 4.15 Thread cutting with constant lead (G33) Thread chains By programming several G33 blocks consecutively, you can align several sets of threads in a sequence. With G64 continuous-path mode, the blocks are interconnected in a look ahead velocity control so that no speed jumps are produced.
  • Page 155 Programming Motion Commands 4.15 Thread cutting with constant lead (G33) Programming Cylinder thread G33 Z… K … SF=… Face thread G33 X… I… SF=… Taper thread G33 X… Z… K… SF=… G33 X… Z… I… SF=… Parameters Thread cutting with constant speed X Y Z End point in Cartesian coordinates Thread lead in X direction...
  • Page 156 Programming Motion Commands 4.15 Thread cutting with constant lead (G33) N10 G1 G54 X99 Z10 S500 F100 M3 ;Zero offset, approach ;start point, spindle on N20 G33 Z-100 K4 ;Cylindrical thread: end point in Z N30 G0 X102 ;Retract to starting position N40 G0 Z10 N50 G1 X99 N60 G33 Z-100 K4 SF=180...
  • Page 157 Programming Motion Commands 4.15 Thread cutting with constant lead (G33) N10 G1 X50 Z0 S500 F100 M3 ;Approach starting point, activate spindle N20 G33 X110 Z-60 K4 ;Taper thread: End point on Z and X, ;lead K in Z direction, since angle < 45° N30 G0 Z0 M30 ;Retraction, end of program Requirements...
  • Page 158 Programming Motion Commands 4.15 Thread cutting with constant lead (G33) Face thread The face thread is described by • Thread diameter, preferentially in X direction and • Thread lead, preferentially with I. Otherwise, the procedure is the same as for cylindrical threads. Taper thread The taper thread is described by the end point in the longitudinal and facing direction (taper contour) and the thread lead.
  • Page 159 Programming Motion Commands 4.15 Thread cutting with constant lead (G33) The parameter for the lead is based on the taper angle (calculated from the longitudinal axis lead angle <45° to the outside of the taper lead angle >45°). Start point offset SF - production of multi-turn threads Threads with offset cuts are programmed by specifying starting point offsets in the G33 block.
  • Page 160: Programmable Run-in And Run-out Paths (dits, Dite)

    Programming Motion Commands 4.15 Thread cutting with constant lead (G33) Note If no starting point offset is specified, the "starting angle for thread" defined in the setting data is used. 4.15.1 Programmable run-in and run-out paths (DITS, DITE) Function The commands DITS (Displacement Thread Start) and DITE (Displacement Thread End) can be used to define the path ramp for acceleration and deceleration, in order to modify the feedrate if the tool run-in and run-out paths are too short: •...
  • Page 161 Programming Motion Commands 4.15 Thread cutting with constant lead (G33) Parameters DITS Thread run-in path DITE Thread run-out path Value Specification of the run-in and run-out path: -1.0,...n Note Only paths, and not positions, are programmed with DITS and DITE. Machine manufacturer The DITS and DITE commands are related to the setting data SD 42010: THREAD_RAMP_DISP[0,1], in which the programmed paths are written.
  • Page 162: Linear Progressive/degressive Thread Pitch Change (g34, G35)

    Programming Motion Commands 4.16 Linear progressive/degressive thread pitch change (G34, G35) Note DITE acts at the end of the thread as an approximate distance. This achieves a smooth change in the axis movement. When a block containing command DITS and/or DITE is loaded to the interpolator, the path programmed in DITS is transferred to SD 42010: THREAD_RAMP_DISP[0] and the path programmed in DITE to SD 42010 THREAD_RAMP_DISP[1].
  • Page 163: Tapping Without Compensating Chuck (g331, G332)

    Programming Motion Commands 4.17 Tapping without compensating chuck (G331, G332) Example of lead decrease N1608 M3 S10 ;Spindle speed N1609 G0 G64 Z40 X216 ;Approach start point and thread N1610 G33 Z0 K100 SF=R14 ;With constant pitch 100 mm/rev N1611 G35 Z-200 K100 F17.045455 ;Lead decrease 17.0454 mm/rev ;lead at block end 50 mm/rev N1612 G33 Z-240 K50...
  • Page 164 Programming Motion Commands 4.17 Tapping without compensating chuck (G331, G332) Right-hand/left-hand threads Right-hand or left-hand threads are defined in axis mode by the sign qualifying the lead: • Positive lead, clockwise (same as M3) • Negative lead, counterclockwise (same as M4) The desired speed is also programmed at address S.
  • Page 165: Tapping With Compensating Chuck (g63)

    Programming Motion Commands 4.18 Tapping with compensating chuck (G63) Note Both functions G331/G332 are modal. After G332 (retraction), the next thread can be tapped with G331. Equipment required: position-controlled spindle with position measurement system. The spindle must be prepared for tapping with SPOS/SPOSA. It does not work in axis operation, but as a position-controlled spindle, see section Feed control and spindle movement, "Position-controlled spindle operation".
  • Page 166 Programming Motion Commands 4.18 Tapping with compensating chuck (G63) Parameters Tapping with compensating chuck. X Y Z Drilling depth (end point) in a Cartesian coordinate Note G63 is modal. The last programmed interpolation command G0, G1, G2, etc., is reactivated after a block with programmed G63.
  • Page 167: Stop With Thread Cutting(lfof, Lfon, Lftxt, Lfwp, Lfpos)

    Programming Motion Commands 4.19 Stop with thread cutting(LFOF, LFON, LFTXT, LFWP, LFPOS) N10 G1 X0 Y0 Z2 S200 F1000 M3 ;Approach starting point, activate spindle N20 G63 Z-50 F160 ;Tap, drilling depth 50 N30 G63 Z3 M4 ;Retract, programmed reversal of direction N40 M30 ;End of program...
  • Page 168 Programming Motion Commands 4.19 Stop with thread cutting(LFOF, LFON, LFTXT, LFWP, LFPOS) Note LFON or LFOF can always be programmed, they are evaluated only during thread cutting (G33). Example of enabling fast retraction in tapping N55 M3 S500 G90 G18 ;Active machining plane ;Approach start position N65 MSG ("thread cutting")
  • Page 169: Lifting On Retraction (lftxt, Lfwp, Lfpos, Polf, Polfmask; Polfmlin)

    Programming Motion Commands 4.19 Stop with thread cutting(LFOF, LFON, LFTXT, LFWP, LFPOS) Trigger criteria for retraction • Fast inputs, programmable with SETINT LIFTFAST (if LIFTFAST option is enabled) • NC Stop/NC Reset If fast retraction is enabled with LFON, it is active for every movement Retraction path (DILF) The retraction path can be defined in the machine data or by programming.
  • Page 170 Programming Motion Commands 4.19 Stop with thread cutting(LFOF, LFON, LFTXT, LFWP, LFPOS) POLF[geo axis name | machine axis name]= POLFMASK(axisname1, axisname2, etc.) POLFMLIN Parameters LFTXT Retraction direction on lifting from the path tangent, default LFWP Retraction direction from the active working plane G17, G18, G19 LFPOS Retraction direction toward position programmed with POLF...
  • Page 171 Programming Motion Commands 4.19 Stop with thread cutting(LFOF, LFON, LFTXT, LFWP, LFPOS) Description Retraction direction (ALF) The retraction direction in connection with ALF is controlled using the following keywords: • LFTXT The plane in which the fast retraction is executed is calculated from the path tangent and the tool direction (default setting).
  • Page 172: Approaching A Fixed Point (g75)

    Programming Motion Commands 4.20 Approaching a fixed point (G75) 4.20 Approaching a fixed point (G75) Function G75 can be used to approach fixed points, such as tool change locations, loading points, pallet changing points, etc. The positions of the individual points are specified in the machine coordinate system and stored in the machine parameters.
  • Page 173: Travel To Fixed Stop (fxs, Fxst, Fxsw)

    Programming Motion Commands 4.21 Travel to fixed stop (FXS, FXST, FXSW) Example The tool change location is a fixed point, which is defined in the machine data. This point can be approached in any NC program with G75. N10 G75 FP=2 X1=0 Y1=0 Z1=0 ;Retract from fixed point 2 on X, Y and ;e.g., for tool change N20 G75 X1=0...
  • Page 174 Programming Motion Commands 4.21 Travel to fixed stop (FXS, FXST, FXSW) Parameters Select/deselect "travel to fixed stop" function = select; 0 = deselect FXST Setting clamping torque Specification in % of maximum drive torque, parameter optional FXSW Window width for fixed stop monitoring in mm, inches or degrees;...
  • Page 175 Programming Motion Commands 4.21 Travel to fixed stop (FXS, FXST, FXSW) Example of deactivating travel to fixed end stop FXS=0 Deselection of the function triggers a preprocessor stop. Traversing movements may and should be programmed in a block with FXS=0: X200 Y400 G01 G94 F2000 FXS[X1] = 0 Meaning: Axis X1 is retracted from the fixed stop to position X= 200 mm.
  • Page 176 Programming Motion Commands 4.21 Travel to fixed stop (FXS, FXST, FXSW) The "Travel to fixed stop" commands can be called from synchronized actions/technology cycles. They can be activated without initiation of a motion, the torque is limited instantaneously. As soon as the axis is moved via a setpoint, the limit stop monitor is activated.
  • Page 177: Chamfer, Rounding (chf, Chr, Rnd, Rndm, Frc, Frcm)

    Programming Motion Commands 4.22 Chamfer, rounding (CHF, CHR, RND, RNDM, FRC, FRCM) Combinability Note "Measure and delete distance-to-go" ("MEAS" command) and "Travel to fixed stop" cannot be programmed in the same block. Exception: One function acts on a path axis and the other on a positioning axis or both act on positioning axes.
  • Page 178 Programming Motion Commands 4.22 Chamfer, rounding (CHF, CHR, RND, RNDM, FRC, FRCM) If FRC/FRCM is not programmed, then the normal path feedrate F is applicable. Programming CHF=… CHR=… RND=… RNDM=… FRC=… FRCM=… Parameters CHF=… Chamfer the contour corner Value = Length of the chamfer (unit of measurement according to G70/G71) CHR=…...
  • Page 179 Programming Motion Commands 4.22 Chamfer, rounding (CHF, CHR, RND, RNDM, FRC, FRCM) Example of chamfer, CHF/CHR For the chamfer insert another linear part, the chamfer, between the linear and the circle contours in any combination. The following two options are available: N30 G1 X…...
  • Page 180 Programming Motion Commands 4.22 Chamfer, rounding (CHF, CHR, RND, RNDM, FRC, FRCM) Example of rounding, RND A circle contour element can be inserted with tangential link between the linear and the circle contours in any combination. N30 G1 X… Z… F… RND=2 The rounding is always in the plane activated with G17 to G19.
  • Page 181 Programming Motion Commands 4.22 Chamfer, rounding (CHF, CHR, RND, RNDM, FRC, FRCM) Example of modal rounding, RNDM Deburring sharp workpiece edges: N30 G1 X… Z… F… RNDM=2 ;modal rounding 2 mm N40... N120 RNDM=0 ;deactivate modal rounding Example of chamfer CHF, rounding FRCM of the following block MD CHFRND_MODE_MASK Bit0 = 0: Accept technology from following block (default) N10 G0 X0 Y0 G17 F100 G94 N20 G1 X10 CHF=2...
  • Page 182 Programming Motion Commands 4.22 Chamfer, rounding (CHF, CHR, RND, RNDM, FRC, FRCM) Description Note Chamfer/rounding If the programmed values for chamfer (CHF/CHR) or rounding (RND/RNDM) are too large for the associated contour elements, then the chamfer or rounding are automatically reduced to a suitable value.
  • Page 183: Path Action

    Path Action General notes 5.1.1 Programming path travel behavior In this section you will find descriptions of commands, with which you can adapt the travel behavior at the block boundaries optimally for special requirements. For instance, you can position axes quickly enough or correspondingly reduce path contours over several blocks taking into account an acceleration limit and the overload factor of the axes.
  • Page 184 Path Action 5.1 General notes Functions for optimizing travel behavior at block boundaries The travel behavior at the block boundaries can be optimized with the following functions: • Setting exact stop to be modally and non-modally effective • Defining exact stop with additional exact stop windows •...
  • Page 185 Path Action 5.1 General notes Overview of the various velocity controls Fundamentals Programming Manual, 10.2004 Edition, 6FC5 298-7AB00-0BP1...
  • Page 186: Exact Stop (g60, G9, G601, G602, G603)

    Path Action 5.2 Exact stop (G60, G9, G601, G602, G603) Exact stop (G60, G9, G601, G602, G603) Function The exact positioning stop functions are used to machine sharp outside corners or to finish inside corners to size. With the exact stop criteria exact stop window fine and exact stop window coarse, you determine how accurately the corner point is approached and when the change to the next block takes place.
  • Page 187 Path Action 5.2 Exact stop (G60, G9, G601, G602, G603) N100 G0 G9 :Exact stop acts only in this block N111 ... ;Again continuous-path mode Description Exact stop, G60, G9 G9 generates the exact stop in the current block. G60 generates the exact stop in the current block and all subsequent blocks.
  • Page 188 Path Action 5.2 Exact stop (G60, G9, G601, G602, G603) Command outputs In all three cases the following applies: The auxiliary functions programmed in the NC block are enabled after the end of the movement. Machine manufacturer Note A machine data can be set for specific channels which determines that the default exact stop criteria, which deviate from the programmed criteria, will be applied automatically.
  • Page 189: Continuous-path Mode (g64, G641, G642, G643, G644)

    Path Action 5.3 Continuous-path mode (G64, G641, G642, G643, G644) Continuous-path mode (G64, G641, G642, G643, G644) Function In continuous-path mode, the contour is machined with a constant path velocity. The uniform velocity also establishes better cutting conditions, improves the surface quality and reduces the machining time.
  • Page 190 Path Action 5.3 Continuous-path mode (G64, G641, G642, G643, G644) G643 ADIS=… G643 ADISPOS=… G644 Parameters Continuous-path mode G641 Continuous-path mode with programmable transition rounding G642 Transition rounding with axial tolerance, with modal activated G643 Block-internal corner rounding G644 Corner rounding with greatest possible dynamic response ADIS=...
  • Page 191: Path Action

    Path Action 5.3 Continuous-path mode (G64, G641, G642, G643, G644) N05DIAMOF ;Radius as dimension N10 G17 T1 G41 G0 X10 Y10 Z2 S300 M3 ;Approach starting position, activate ;spindle, path compensation N20 G1 Z-7 F8000 ;Tool infeed N30 G641 ADIS=0.5 ;Contour transitions are smoothed N40 Y40 N50 X60 Y70 G60 G601...
  • Page 192 Path Action 5.3 Continuous-path mode (G64, G641, G642, G643, G644) Corners are also traversed at a constant velocity. In order to minimize the contour error, the velocity is reduced according to an acceleration limit and an overload factor. References: /FB1/Description of Functions, B1, Continuous-Path Mode. Note The overload factor can be set in the machine data 32310.
  • Page 193 Path Action 5.3 Continuous-path mode (G64, G641, G642, G643, G644) Continuous-path mode G64/G641 over several blocks The following points should be noted in order to prevent an undesired stop in the path motion (relief cutting): Auxiliary function outputs trigger a stop (exception: high-speed auxiliary functions and auxiliary functions during movements).
  • Page 194 Path Action 5.3 Continuous-path mode (G64, G641, G642, G643, G644) With G642, the rounding travel is determined based on the shortest rounding travel of all axes. This value is taken into account when generating a rounding block. Block-internal corner rounding with G643 The maximum deviations from the exact contour are specified for each axis by machine data MD 33100: COMPRESS_POS_TOL[...] when a contour is smoothed with G643.
  • Page 195 Path Action 5.3 Continuous-path mode (G64, G641, G642, G643, G644) Input the maximum possible frequencies of each axis in the rounding area using MD 32440: LOOKAH_FREQUENCY. The rounding area is defined such that no frequencies in excess of the specified maximum can occur while the rounding motion is in progress. When rounding with G644, neither the tolerance nor the rounding distance are monitored.
  • Page 196 Path Action 5.3 Continuous-path mode (G64, G641, G642, G643, G644) – MD 20490: IGNORE_OVL_FACTOR_FOR_ADIS can be set to TRUE to set this behavior for G641 and G642. 3. Rounding is not parameterized. This occurs with G641 when ... – ADISPOS == 0 in G0 blocks (default). –...
  • Page 197: Acceleration Behavior

    Path Action 5.4 Acceleration behavior Continuous-path mode in rapid traverse G0 One of the functions G60/G9 or G64/G641 must also be specified for rapid traverse. Otherwise, the default in the machine data is used. By setting MD 20490: IGNORE_OVL_FACTOR_FOR_ADIS results in block transitions being smoothed irrespective of the programmed overload factor.
  • Page 198 Path Action 5.4 Acceleration behavior DRIVEA axis1,axis2,…) Reduction of acceleration above a speed for programmed axes that can be set in $MA_ACCEL_REDUCTION_SPEED_POINT (only applicable for FM-NC) axis1,axis2,…) The acceleration behavior set in machine data $MA_POS_AND JOG_JERK_ENABLE or $MA_ACCEL_TYPE_DRIVE is active for the programmed axes Further information A change between BRISK and SOFT causes a stop at the block transition.
  • Page 199: Influence Of Acceleration On Following Axes (velolima, Acclima, Jerklima)

    Path Action 5.4 Acceleration behavior Example of DRIVE, DRIVEA N05 DRIVE N10 G1 X… Y… F1000 N20 DRIVEA (AX4, AX6) 5.4.2 Influence of acceleration on following axes (VELOLIMA, ACCLIMA, JERKLIMA) Function The axis couplings described in the Programming Guide, Advanced: Tangential correction, coupled-motion axes, master value coupling, and electronic gearbox have the property of moving following axes/spindles as a function of one or more leading axes/spindles.
  • Page 200 Path Action 5.4 Acceleration behavior Parameters VELOLIMA[Ax], Change to limit for maximum velocity for following axis ACCLIMA[Ax], Change to limit for maximum acceleration for following axis JERKLIMA[Ax], Change to limit for maximum jerk for following axis Note JERLIMA[ax] is not available for all types of connection. Details about the function are described in: References: Functional description/FB3/, M3, Coupled axes and ESR,/FB2/, S3, synchronized spindles.
  • Page 201: Technology G Groups (dynnorm, Dynpos, Dynrough, Dynsemifin, Dynfish)

    Path Action 5.4 Acceleration behavior 5.4.3 Technology G groups (DYNNORM, DYNPOS, DYNROUGH, DYNSEMIFIN, DYNFISH) Function Using the "Technology" G group, the appropriate dynamic response can be activated for five varying technological machining steps. Machine manufacturer Dynamic values and G codes can be configured and are, therefore, dependent on machine data settings.
  • Page 202: Smoothing The Path Velocity

    Path Action 5.5 Smoothing the path velocity Example Dynamic values by technology group G code DYNNORM G1 X10 ;Initial setting DYNPOS G1 X10 Y20 Z30 F… ;Positioning mode, tapping DYNROUGH G1 X10 Y20 Z30 F10000 ;Roughing DYNSEMIFIN G1 X10 Y20 Z30 F2000 ;Finishing DYNFINISH G1 X10 Y20 Z30 F1000 ;Smooth-finishing...
  • Page 203: Traversing With Feedforward Control, Ffwon, Ffwof

    Path Action 5.6 Traversing with feedforward control, FFWON, FFWOF Note Variations in path velocity due to the input of a new feedrate are not changed either. This remains the responsibility of the programmer of the subprogram. Note If a short acceleration takes place during a machining function with high path velocity, and is thus followed almost immediately by braking, the reduction in the machining time is only minimal.
  • Page 204: Contour Accuracy, Cprecon, Cprecof

    Path Action 5.7 Contour accuracy, CPRECON, CPRECOF Note:The type of feedforward control and the path axes to which feedforward is to be applied are determined via machine data. Default: Velocity-dependent feedforward control Option: Acceleration-dependent feedforward control (not possible with 810D) Example N10 FFWON N20 G1 X…...
  • Page 205 Path Action 5.7 Contour accuracy, CPRECON, CPRECOF Note: A minimum speed can be defined via the setting datum $SC_MINFEED which is not fallen short of and the same value can also be written directly out from the part program via the system variable $SC_CONTPREC.
  • Page 206: Dwell Time, G4

    Path Action 5.8 Dwell time, G4 Dwell time, G4 Function You can use G4 to interrupt workpiece machining between two NC blocks for the programmed length of time, e.g., for relief cutting. Programming G4 F… G4 S… Programming in a separate NC block Parameters Activate dwell time, G4 interrupts the continuous-path mode F…...
  • Page 207: Internal Preprocessor Stop

    Path Action 5.9 Internal preprocessor stop Example N10 G1 F200 Z-5 S300 M3 ;Feed F; spindle speed S N20 G4 F3 ;Dwell time 3 s N30 X40 Y10 N40 G4 S30 ;Dwelling 30 revolutions of the spindle, corresponds ;at S=300 rpm and 100% speed override to: ;t=0.1 min N40 X...
  • Page 209: Frames

    Frames General Function Frames are used to describe the position of a destination coordinate system by specifying coordinates or angles starting from the current workpiece coordinate system. Possible frames: • Basic frame (basic offset) • Settable frames (G54...G599) • Programmable frames Programming Frame is the conventional term for a geometrical expression that describes an arithmetic rule, such as translation, rotation and scaling or mirroring.
  • Page 210 Frames 6.1 General Parameters Machine manufacturer Settable frames (G54...G57, G505... G599): See machine manufacturer's specifications. Frame components for the programmer A frame can consist of the following arithmetic rules: • Zero point offset, TRANS, ATRANS • Rotation, ROT, AROT • Scale, SCALE, ASCALE •...
  • Page 211 Frames 6.1 General Example of frame components in milling Example of frame components in turning Fundamentals Programming Manual, 10.2004 Edition, 6FC5 298-7AB00-0BP1...
  • Page 212: Frame Instructions

    Frames 6.2 Frame instructions Frame instructions Function For the possible frames the position of one of the target coordinate systems is defined: • Basic frame (basic offset) • Settable frames (G54...G599) • Programmable frames In addition to these frames, you can program replacing and additive statements or generate frames as well as frame rotations for tool orientation.
  • Page 213 Frames 6.2 Frame instructions Caution The above frame instructions are programmed in separate NC blocks and executed in the programmed order. TRANS, ROT, SCALE and MIRROR instructions. Substituting instructions TRANS, ROT, SCALE and MIRROR are substituting instructions. Note This means that each of these instructions cancels all other previously programmed frame instructions.
  • Page 214: Programmable Zero Offset

    Frames 6.3 Programmable zero offset References: /PGA/ Programming Guide Advanced, Section "Subroutines, Macros" Programmable zero offset 6.3.1 Zero offset (TRANS, ATRANS) Function TRANS/ATRANS can be used to program translations for all path and positioning axes in the direction of the specified axis. This allows you to work with different zero points, for example when performing recurring machining processes at different workpiece positions.
  • Page 215 Frames 6.3 Programmable zero offset Milling: Turning: Deactivate programmable zero offset: For all axes: TRANS (without axis parameter) Programming TRANS X… Y… Z… (substituting instruction programmed in a separate NC block) ATRANS X… Y… Z… (additive instruction programmed in a separate NC block) Fundamentals Programming Manual, 10.2004 Edition, 6FC5 298-7AB00-0BP1...
  • Page 216 Frames 6.3 Programmable zero offset Parameters TRANS Absolute zero offset, with reference to the currently valid workpiece zero set with G54 to G599 ATRANS as TRANS, but with additive zero offset X Y Z Offset value in the direction of the specified geometry axis Example of milling With this workpiece, the illustrated shapes recur several times in the same program.
  • Page 217 Frames 6.3 Programmable zero offset Example of turning N..N10 TRANS X0 Z150 ;Absolute offset N15 L20 ;Subprogram call N20 TRANS X0 Z140 (or ATRANS Z-10) ;Absolute offset N25 L20 ;Subprogram call N30 TRANS X0 Z130 (or ATRANS Z-10) ;Absolute offset N35 L20 ;Subprogram call...
  • Page 218 Frames 6.3 Programmable zero offset Note You can use ATRANS to program a translation, which is to be added to existing frames. Additive instruction, ATRANS X Y Z Translation through the offset values programmed in the specified axis directions. The currently set or last programmed zero point is used as the reference.
  • Page 219: Axial Zero Offset (g58, G59)

    Frames 6.3 Programmable zero offset Note Previously programmed frames are canceled. The settable zero offset remains programmed. 6.3.2 Axial zero offset (G58, G59) Function G58 and G59 allow translation components of the programmable zero offset (frame) to be replaced for specific axes. The translation function comprises: •...
  • Page 220 Frames 6.3 Programmable zero offset Parameters Replaces the absolute translation component of the programmable zero offset for the specified axis, but the programmed additive offset remains valid, (in relation to the workpiece zero set with G54 to G599) Replaces the absolute translation component of the programmable zero offset for the specified axis, but the programmed absolute offset remains valid X Y Z...
  • Page 221: Programmable Rotation (rot, Arot, Rpl)

    Frames 6.4 Programmable rotation (ROT, AROT, RPL) Effect of the additive/absolute offset: command Coarse or Fine or additive Comment absolute offset offset TRANS X10 unchanged Absolute offset for X G58 X10 unchanged Overwrites absolute offset for X $P_PFRAME[X,TR] = unchanged Progr.
  • Page 222 Frames 6.4 Programmable rotation (ROT, AROT, RPL) Programming ROT X… Y… Z… Substituting instruction for rotation in space ROT RPL=… Substituting instruction for rotation in the plane AROTX… Y… Z… Additive instruction for rotation in space AROT RPL=… Additive instruction for rotation in the plane Each instruction must be programmed in a separate NC block.
  • Page 223 Frames 6.4 Programmable rotation (ROT, AROT, RPL) Example: Rotation in the plane With this workpiece, the illustrated shapes recur several times in the same program. Rotations have to be performed in addition to the translation, because the shapes are not arranged parallel to the axes.
  • Page 224 Frames 6.4 Programmable rotation (ROT, AROT, RPL) Example: Rotation in space In this example, paraxial and inclined workpiece surfaces are to be machined in one setting. Requirement: The tool must be aligned perpendicular to the inclined surface in the rotated Z direction.
  • Page 225 Frames 6.4 Programmable rotation (ROT, AROT, RPL) Example of multi-side machining In this example, identical shapes on two perpendicular workpiece surfaces are machined by using subprograms. The setup of the infeed direction, working plane and zero point in the new coordinate system on the right-hand workpiece surface matches that of the top surface. The conditions required for subprogram execution apply as before: Working plane G17, coordinate plane X/Y, infeed direction Z.
  • Page 226 Frames 6.4 Programmable rotation (ROT, AROT, RPL) AROT Y90 N50 AROT Z90 ;Rotation of the coordinate system through Z AROT Z90 N60 L10 ;Subprogram call N70 G0 X300 Y100 M30 ;Retraction, end of program Rotation in the plane The coordinate system is •...
  • Page 227 Frames 6.4 Programmable rotation (ROT, AROT, RPL) Plane change Warning If you program a change of plane (G17 to G19) after a rotation, the angles of rotation programmed for the axes are retained and continue to apply in the new working plane. It is therefore advisable to deactivate the rotation before a change of plane.
  • Page 228 Frames 6.4 Programmable rotation (ROT, AROT, RPL) Caution The ROT command cancels all frame components of the previously activated programmable frame. Note A new rotation based on existing frames is programmed with AROT. Additive instruction, AROT X Y Z Rotation through the angle values programmed in the axis direction parameters. The center of rotation is the currently set or last programmed zero point.
  • Page 229 Frames 6.4 Programmable rotation (ROT, AROT, RPL) Note For both instructions, please note the order and direction of rotation, in which the rotations are performed (see next page)! Direction of rotation The following is defined as the positive direction of rotation: The view in the direction of the positive coordinate axis and clockwise rotation.
  • Page 230 Frames 6.4 Programmable rotation (ROT, AROT, RPL) Order of rotation You can rotate up to three geometry axes simultaneously in one NC block. The order of the RPY notation or Euler angle, through which the rotations are performed can be defined in machine data. MD 10600: FRAME_ANGLE_INPUT_MODE = •...
  • Page 231 Frames 6.4 Programmable rotation (ROT, AROT, RPL) Examples of reading back in RPY $P_UIFR[1] = CROT(X, 10, Y, 90, Z, 40) returns on reading back $P_UIFR[1] = CROT(X, 0, Y, 90, Z, 30) $P_UIFR[1] = CROT(X, 190, Y, 0, Z, -200) returns on reading back $P_UIFR[1] = CROT(X, -170, Y, 0, Z, 160) When frame rotation components are read and written, the value range limits must be...
  • Page 232: Programmable Frame Rotations With Solid Angles (rots, Arots, Crots)

    Frames 6.5 Programmable frame rotations with solid angles (ROTS, AROTS, CROTS) Requirement: The tool must be positioned perpendicular to the working plane. The positive direction of the infeed axis points in the direction of the toolholder. Specifying CUT2DF activates the tool radius compensation in the rotated plane.
  • Page 233: Programmable Scale Factor (scale, Ascale)

    Frames 6.6 Programmable scale factor (SCALE, ASCALE) AROTS Z... X... CROTS Z... X... When programming the solid angles Y and Z the new Y-axis lies in the old XY plane. ROTS Y... Z... AROTS Y... Z... CROTS Y... Z... Parameters ROTS, Frame rotations with solid angles for spatial orientation of a plane absolute, referred to the currently valid frame with...
  • Page 234 Frames 6.6 Programmable scale factor (SCALE, ASCALE) Programming SCALE X… Y… Z… (substituting instruction programmed in a separate NC block) ASCALE X… Y… Z… (additive instruction programmed in a separate NC block) Parameters SCALE, Absolute enlargement/reduction with reference to the currently valid coordinate system set with G54 to G599 ASCALE, Additive enlargement/reduction with reference to the...
  • Page 235 Frames 6.6 Programmable scale factor (SCALE, ASCALE) N60 ASCALE X0.7 Y0.7 ;Scale factor for the small pocket N70 L10 ;Machine small pocket N80G0 X300 Y100 M30 ;Retraction, end of program Substituting instruction, SCALE X Y Z You can specify an individual scale factor for each axis, by which the shape is to be reduced or enlarged.
  • Page 236 Frames 6.6 Programmable scale factor (SCALE, ASCALE) AROT TRANS Note If you program an offset with ATRANS after SCALE, the offset values are also scaled. Caution Please take great care when using different scale factors! Example: Circular interpolations can only be scaled using identical factors. You can, however, use different scale factors to program distorted circles, for example.
  • Page 237: Programmable Mirroring (mirror, Amirror)

    Frames 6.7 Programmable mirroring (MIRROR, AMIRROR) Programmable mirroring (MIRROR, AMIRROR) Function MIRROR/AMIRROR can be used to mirror workpiece shapes on coordinate axes. All traversing movements, which are programmed after the mirror call, e.g., in the subprogram, are executed in the mirror image. Programming MIRROR X0 Y0 Z0 (substituting instruction programmed in a separate NC block) AMIRROR X0 Y0 Z0 (additive instruction programmed in a separate NC block)
  • Page 238 Frames 6.7 Programmable mirroring (MIRROR, AMIRROR) N10 G17 G54 ;Working plane X/Y, workpiece zero N20 L10 ;Machine first contour, top right N30 MIRROR X0 ;Mirror X axis (the direction is changed in N40 L10 ;Machine second contour, top left N50 AMIRROR Y0 ;Mirror Y axis (the direction is changed in N60 L10 ;Machine third contour, bottom left...
  • Page 239 Frames 6.7 Programmable mirroring (MIRROR, AMIRROR) N10 TRANS X0 Z140 ;Zero offset to W N..;Machine first side with spindle 1 N30 TRANS X0 Z600 ;Zero offset to spindle 2 N40 AMIRROR Z0 ;Mirroring of the Z axis N50 ATRANS Z120 ;Zero offset to W N..
  • Page 240 Frames 6.7 Programmable mirroring (MIRROR, AMIRROR) The mirror image refers to the coordinate axes set with G54 to G57. Caution The MIRROR command cancels all previously set programmable frames. Additive instruction, AMIRROR X Y Z A mirror image, which is to be added to an existing transformation, is programmed with AMIRROR.
  • Page 241 Frames 6.7 Programmable mirroring (MIRROR, AMIRROR) Deactivate mirroring For all axes: MIRROR (without axis parameter) All frame components of the previously programmed frame are reset. Note The mirror command causes the control to automatically change the path compensation commands (G41/G42 or G42/G41) according to the new machining direction. The same applies to the direction of circle rotation (G2/G3 or G3/G2).
  • Page 242: Frame Generation According To Tool Orientation (toframe, Torot, Parot)

    Frames 6.8 Frame generation according to tool orientation (TOFRAME, TOROT, PAROT) Note If you program an additive rotation with AROT after MIRROR, you may have to work with reversed directions of rotation (positive/negative or negative/positive). Mirrors on the geometry axes are converted automatically by the control into rotations and, where appropriate, mirrors on the mirror axis specified in the machine data.
  • Page 243 Frames 6.8 Frame generation according to tool orientation (TOFRAME, TOROT, PAROT) Programming Frame rotation in tool direction TOFRAME TOFRAMEZ or TOFRAMEY or Z/Y/X axis parallel to tool orientation TOFRAMEX Frame rotation in tool direction OFF TOROTOF Or frame rotation on with TOROT or TOROTZ or TOROTY or Z/Y/X axis parallel to tool orientation TOROTX...
  • Page 244 Frames 6.8 Frame generation according to tool orientation (TOFRAME, TOROT, PAROT) defined with TOFRAME. TOROTZ Frame rotation ON Z axis parallel to tool orientation TOROTY Frame rotation ON Y axis parallel to tool orientation TOROTX Frame rotation ON X axis parallel to tool orientation PAROT Align workpiece coordinate system (WCS) on workpiece.
  • Page 245 Frames 6.8 Frame generation according to tool orientation (TOFRAME, TOROT, PAROT) Milling with working plane G17 TOFRAME or TOROT defines frames whose Z axes point in the tool direction. This definition is tailored to milling operations, for which working plane G17 X/Y of the 1st – 2nd geometry axis is typically active.
  • Page 246: Deselect Frame (g53, G153, Supa, G500)

    Frames 6.9 Deselect frame (G53, G153, SUPA, G500) Note NC command TOROT ensures consistent programming with active orientable tool carriers for each kinematic type. Just as in the situation for rotatable toolholders, PAROT can be used to activate a rotation of the work table. This defines a frame, which changes the position of the workpiece coordinate system in such a way that no compensatory movement is performed on the machine.
  • Page 247: Deselect Drf (handwheel) Offsets, Overlaid Motions And Transformation (drfof, Corrof, Trafoof)

    Frames 6.10 Deselect DRF (handwheel) offsets, overlaid motions and transformation (DRFOF, CORROF, TRAFOOF) Parameters Non-modal suppression: Deactivation of all programmable and settable frames G153 Deactivation of all programmable, settable and basic frames SUPA Deactivation of all programmable, settable frames, DRF handwheel offsets, external zero offsets and preset offset Modal deactivation: G500...
  • Page 248 Frames 6.10 Deselect DRF (handwheel) offsets, overlaid motions and transformation (DRFOF, CORROF, TRAFOOF) CORROF() TRAFOOF Parameters Modal deactivation: DRFOF Deactivation (deselection) of DRF handwheel offsets for all active axes in the channel CORROF(axis,DRF[AXIS Deactivation (deselection) of axial DRF offsets and the ,AA_OFF]) position offset for individual axes as a result of $AA_OFF CORROF(axis)
  • Page 249 Frames 6.10 Deselect DRF (handwheel) offsets, overlaid motions and transformation (DRFOF, CORROF, TRAFOOF) Example of axial DRF deselection and $AA_OFF deselection A DRF offset is generated in the X axis by DRF handwheel traversal. No DRF offsets are operative for any other axes in the channel. N10 WHEN TRUE DO $AA_OFF[X] = 10 ;A position offset == 10 is ;interpolated G4 F5...
  • Page 250 Frames 6.10 Deselect DRF (handwheel) offsets, overlaid motions and transformation (DRFOF, CORROF, TRAFOOF) Note CORROF is possible only from the parts program, not via synchronized actions. Alarm 21660 is output if a synchronized action is active when the position offset is deselected via parts program command CORROF(axis,"AA_OFF").
  • Page 251: Feedrate Control And Spindle Motion

    Feedrate Control and Spindle Motion Feedrate (G93, G94, G95 or F..., FGROUP, FGREF) Function You can use the above commands to set the feedrates in the NC program for all axes participating in the machining sequence. The path feedrate is generally composed of the individual speed components of all geometry axes participating in the movement and refers to the center point of the cutter or the tip of the turning tool.
  • Page 252: Feedrate Control And Spindle Motion

    Feedrate Control and Spindle Motion 7.1 Feedrate (G93, G94, G95 or F..., FGROUP, FGREF) Note The inverse-time feedrate 1/min G93 is not implemented for 802D. Programming G93 or G94 or G95 F… FGROUP (X, Y, Z, A, B, …) FL[axis]=… FGREF[axis name]=reference radius Parameters Inverse-time feedrate 1/rpm...
  • Page 253 Feedrate Control and Spindle Motion 7.1 Feedrate (G93, G94, G95 or F..., FGROUP, FGREF) N230 X10 ;Feedrate=2540 mm/min, path dist.=254 mm, R5=approx. N240 DO $R6=$AC_TIME N250 X10 A10 ;Feedrate=2540 mm/min, path dist.=254.2 mm, R6=approx. 6 s N260 DO $R7=$AC_TIME N270 A10 ;Feedrate=100 degrees/min, path dist.=10 degrees, R7=approx.
  • Page 254 Feedrate Control and Spindle Motion 7.1 Feedrate (G93, G94, G95 or F..., FGROUP, FGREF) N10 G17 G94 G1 Z0 F500 ;Tool infeed N20 X10 Y20 ;Approach start position N25 FGROUP(X, Y) ;Axes X/Y are path axes, Z is a ;synchronized axis N30 G2 X10 Y20 Z-15 I15 J0 F1000 ;On the circular path, the feedrate is 1000 FL[Z]=200...
  • Page 255 Feedrate Control and Spindle Motion 7.1 Feedrate (G93, G94, G95 or F..., FGROUP, FGREF) Feedrate for synchronized axes The feedrate F programmed at address F applies to all the path axes programmed in the block, but not to synchronized axes. The synchronized axes are controlled such that they require the same time for their path as the path axes, and all axes reach their end point at the same time.
  • Page 256 Feedrate Control and Spindle Motion 7.1 Feedrate (G93, G94, G95 or F..., FGROUP, FGREF) Units of measurement and calculation Machine manufacturer See machine manufacturer's specifications. Units of measurement for feedrate F You can use the following G commands to define the units of measurement for the feed input.
  • Page 257 Feedrate Control and Spindle Motion 7.1 Feedrate (G93, G94, G95 or F..., FGROUP, FGREF) Unit of measurement for synchronized axes with limit speed FL The unit of measurement set for F by G command (G70/G71) also applies to FL. If FL is not programmed, rapid traverse velocity is used.
  • Page 258 Feedrate Control and Spindle Motion 7.1 Feedrate (G93, G94, G95 or F..., FGROUP, FGREF) In order to ensure compatibility with the behavior with no FGREF programming, the factor 1 degree = 1mm is activated on system powerup and RESET. This corresponds to a reference radius of FGREF=360 mm/(2π)=57.296 mm.
  • Page 259: Traversing Positioning Axes (pos, Posa, Posp, Fa, Waitp, Waitmc)

    Feedrate Control and Spindle Motion 7.2 Traversing positioning axes (POS, POSA, POSP, FA, WAITP, WAITMC) Traversing positioning axes (POS, POSA, POSP, FA, WAITP, WAITMC) Function Positioning axes are traversed independently of the path axes at a separate, axis-specific feedrate. There are no interpolation commands. With the POS/POSA/POSP commands, the positioning axes are traversed and the sequence of motions coordinated at the same time.
  • Page 260 Feedrate Control and Spindle Motion 7.2 Traversing positioning axes (POS, POSA, POSP, FA, WAITP, WAITMC) Example of traveling with POSA[…]= On accessing status data of the machine ($A...), the control generates an internal preprocessing stop, processing is halted until all previously prepared and stored blocks have been executed in full.
  • Page 261: Position-controlled Spindle Operation (spcon, Spcof)

    Feedrate Control and Spindle Motion 7.3 Position-controlled spindle operation (SPCON, SPCOF) Caution Internal preprocessor stop If a command, which implicitly causes a preprocessing stop, is read in a following block, this block is not executed until all other blocks, which are already preprocessed and stored have been executed.
  • Page 262: Positioning Spindles (position-controlled Axis Operation) (spos, M19 And Sposa)

    Feedrate Control and Spindle Motion 7.4 Positioning spindles (position-controlled axis operation) (SPOS, M19 and SPOSA) Programming SPCON or SPCON(n) activate position control SPCOF or SPCOF(n) deactivate position control, switch to speed control SPCON(n, m, 0) activate position control for multiple spindles in a set SPCOF(n, m, 0) deactivate position control for multiple spindles in a block Parameters SPCON...
  • Page 263 Feedrate Control and Spindle Motion 7.4 Positioning spindles (position-controlled axis operation) (SPOS, M19 and SPOSA) The spindle can also be operated as a path axis, synchronized axis or positioning axis at the address defined in the machine data. When the axis identifier is specified, the spindle is in axis mode.
  • Page 264 Feedrate Control and Spindle Motion 7.4 Positioning spindles (position-controlled axis operation) (SPOS, M19 and SPOSA) Parameters SPOS= Position master spindle (SPOS) or spindle number n (SPOS[n]); the next NC block is not enabled until the SPOS[n]= position has been reached. Position master spindle (M19) or spindle number n (M[n]=19);...
  • Page 265 Feedrate Control and Spindle Motion 7.4 Positioning spindles (position-controlled axis operation) (SPOS, M19 and SPOSA) Example of positioning spindle with negative direction of rotation Position spindle 2 at 250° in negative direction of rotation. N10 SPOSA[2]=ACN(250) ;The spindle decelerates if necessary and accelerates in the ;opposite direction to the positioning ;movement Example of positioning spindles for position-controlled axis operation...
  • Page 266 Feedrate Control and Spindle Motion 7.4 Positioning spindles (position-controlled axis operation) (SPOS, M19 and SPOSA) Example of drilling cross holes in turned part Cross holes are to be drilled in this turned part. The running drive spindle (master spindle) is stopped at zero degrees and then successively turned through 90°, stopped and so on.
  • Page 267 Feedrate Control and Spindle Motion 7.4 Positioning spindles (position-controlled axis operation) (SPOS, M19 and SPOSA) Requirements The spindle must be capable of operation in position-control mode. Position with SPOSA=, SPOSA[n]= The block step enable or program execution is not affected by SPOSA. The spindle positioning can be performed during execution of subsequent NC blocks.
  • Page 268 Feedrate Control and Spindle Motion 7.4 Positioning spindles (position-controlled axis operation) (SPOS, M19 and SPOSA) The program advances to the next block if the end of motion criteria for all spindles or axes programmed in the current block plus the block change criterion for path interpolation are fulfilled.
  • Page 269: Milling On Turned Parts (transmit)

    Feedrate Control and Spindle Motion 7.5 Milling on turned parts (TRANSMIT) There is no difference between DC and AC dimensioning. In both cases, rotation continues in the direction selected by M3/M4 until the absolute end position is reached. With ACN and ACP, deceleration takes place if necessary, and the appropriate approach direction is followed.
  • Page 270 Feedrate Control and Spindle Motion 7.5 Milling on turned parts (TRANSMIT) Programming TRANSMIT or TRANSMIT(n) TRAFOOF Parameters TRANSMIT Activates the first declared TRANSMIT function TRANSMIT(n) Activates the nth declared TRANSMIT function; n can be up to 2 (TRANSMIT(1) is the same as TRANSMIT). TRAFOOF Deactivates an active transformation Note...
  • Page 271: Cylinder Surface Transformation (tracyl)

    Feedrate Control and Spindle Motion 7.6 Cylinder surface transformation (TRACYL) Example of activating TRANSMIT function N10 T1 D1 G54 G17 G90 F5000 G94 ;Tool selection N20 G0 X20 Z10 SPOS=45 ;Approach start position N30 TRANSMIT ;Activate TRANSMIT function N40 ROT RPL=– ;Set frame N50 ATRANS X N60 G1 X10 Y...
  • Page 272 Feedrate Control and Spindle Motion 7.6 Cylinder surface transformation (TRACYL) The path of the grooves is programmed with reference to the unwrapped, level surface of the cylinder. References:/PGA/ Programming Guide, Advanced, chapter "Transformations" Programming TRACYL(d) or TRACYL(d,t) TRAFOOF Parameters TRACYL (d) Activates the first declared TRACYL function TRACYL(d,n) Activates the nth declared TRACYL function.
  • Page 273: Feedrate For Positioning Axes/spindles (fa, Fpr, Fpraon, Fpraof)

    Feedrate Control and Spindle Motion 7.7 Feedrate for positioning axes/spindles (FA, FPR, FPRAON, FPRAOF) Feedrate for positioning axes/spindles (FA, FPR, FPRAON, FPRAOF) Function Positioning axes, such as workpiece transport systems, tool turrets and end supports, are traversed independently of the path and synchronized axes. A separate feedrate is therefore defined for each positioning axis.
  • Page 274 Feedrate Control and Spindle Motion 7.7 Feedrate for positioning axes/spindles (FA, FPR, FPRAON, FPRAOF) Note The programmed feedrate FA[...] is modal. Up to 5 feeds for positioning axes or spindles can be programmed in each NC block. Example of synchronous spindle link With synchronous spindle link, the positioning speed of the following spindle can be programmed independently of the master spindle –...
  • Page 275: Percentage Feedrate Override (ovr, Ovra)

    Feedrate Control and Spindle Motion 7.8 Percentage feedrate override (OVR, OVRA) Feedrate FPR[...] As an extension of the G95 command (revolutional feedrate referring to the master spindle), FPR allows the revolutional feedrate to be derived from any chosen spindle or rotary axis. G95 FPR(...) is valid for path and synchronized axes.
  • Page 276: Feedrate With Handwheel Override (fd, Fda)

    Feedrate Control and Spindle Motion 7.9 Feedrate with handwheel override (FD, FDA) Parameters Feedrate change in percent for path feedrate F OVRA Feedrate change in percent for positioning feedrate FA for spindle speed S Converts the spindle number into an axis identifier; the transfer parameter must contain a valid spindle number.
  • Page 277 Feedrate Control and Spindle Motion 7.9 Feedrate with handwheel override (FD, FDA) Programming FD=… FDA[axis]=0 or FDA[axis]=… FDA[axis]=... Parameters FD=… Handwheel travel for path axes with feedrate override FDA[axis]=0 Handwheel travel for positioning axes according to position parameter FDA[axis]=... Handwheel travel for positioning axes with feedrate override Axis Positioning axes or geometry axes...
  • Page 278 Feedrate Control and Spindle Motion 7.9 Feedrate with handwheel override (FD, FDA) Requirements A handwheel must be assigned to the axes to be traversed for the handwheel override function. For the precise approach see HMI Operator's Guide. The number of handwheel pulses per graduated position is defined in machine data.
  • Page 279 Feedrate Control and Spindle Motion 7.9 Feedrate with handwheel override (FD, FDA) Example: N20 POS[V]=90 FDA[V]=0 The automatic travel movement is stopped in block N20. The operator can now move the axis manually using the handwheel. Direction of movement, travel velocity The axes accurately follow the path set by the handwheel in the direction of the leading sign.
  • Page 280: Percentage Acceleration Override (acc Option)

    Feedrate Control and Spindle Motion 7.10 Percentage acceleration override (ACC option) Manual override in automatic mode The manual override function in automatic mode for POS/A axes has two different effects that are analogous to Jog functions. 1. Path override: FDA [ax] = 0 The axis does not move.
  • Page 281 Feedrate Control and Spindle Motion 7.10 Percentage acceleration override (ACC option) Note Please note that the maximum permissible values of the machine manufacturer can be exceeded with a higher acceleration rate. Example N50 ACC[X]=80 Meaning: Traverse the axis slide in the X direction with only 80% acceleration. N60 ACC[SPI(1)]=50 ACC[S1]=50 Meaning: Accelerate or decelerate spindle 1 with only 50% of the maximum acceleration.
  • Page 282: Feedrate Optimization For Curved Path Sections (cftcp, Cfc, Cfin)

    Feedrate Control and Spindle Motion 7.11 Feedrate optimization for curved path sections (CFTCP, CFC, CFIN) 7.11 Feedrate optimization for curved path sections (CFTCP, CFC, CFIN) Function The programmed feedrate initially refers to the cutter center path when the G41/G42 override is activated for the cutter radius (cf. chapter "Frames"). When you mill a circle –...
  • Page 283 Feedrate Control and Spindle Motion 7.11 Feedrate optimization for curved path sections (CFTCP, CFC, CFIN) Parameters CFTCP Constant feedrate on cutter center-point path. The control keeps the feedrate constant, feed overrides are deactivated. Constant feed at contour (tool edge). This function is set as the default. CFIN Constant feed at tool edge for concave contours only, otherwise on the cutter center path.
  • Page 284: Spindle Speed (s), Direction Of Spindle Rotation (m3, M4, M5)

    Feedrate Control and Spindle Motion 7.12 Spindle speed (S), direction of spindle rotation (M3, M4, M5) Constant feedrate on contour with CFC The feedrate is reduced for inside radii and increased for outside radii. This ensures a constant speed at the tool edge and thus at the contour. 7.12 Spindle speed (S), direction of spindle rotation (M3, M4, M5) Function...
  • Page 285 Feedrate Control and Spindle Motion 7.12 Spindle speed (S), direction of spindle rotation (M3, M4, M5) S… Sn=… SETMS(n) or SETMS Parameters M1=3 M1=4 M1=5 Spindle rotation clockwise/counterclockwise, spindle stop for spindle 1. Other spindles are defined according to M2=… M3=… Direction of spindle rotation clockwise for master spindle Direction of spindle rotation counterclockwise for master spindle...
  • Page 286 Feedrate Control and Spindle Motion 7.12 Spindle speed (S), direction of spindle rotation (M3, M4, M5) N10 S300 M3 ;Speed and direction of rotation ;for drive spindle = preset master spindle N20…N90 ;Machining of right side of workpiece N100 SETMS(2) ;S2 is now master spindle N110 S400 G95 F…...
  • Page 287: Constant Cutting Rate (g96, G961, G97, G971, Lims)

    Feedrate Control and Spindle Motion 7.13 Constant cutting rate (G96, G961, G97, G971, LIMS) Working with multiple spindles 5 spindles – master spindle plus 4 additional spindles – can be available in one channel at the same time. One of the spindles is defined in machine data as the master spindle. Special functions apply to this spindle, such as thread cutting, tapping, revolutional feed, dwell time.
  • Page 288 Feedrate Control and Spindle Motion 7.13 Constant cutting rate (G96, G961, G97, G971, LIMS) This increases the uniformity and thus the surface quality of turned parts, and also protects the tool. The LIMS command is used to specify a maximum speed limitation for the master spindle; for machines with switchable master spindles, this can be extended to up to four limits, one for each of the master spindles in the parts program.
  • Page 289 Feedrate Control and Spindle Motion 7.13 Constant cutting rate (G96, G961, G97, G971, LIMS) Example of speed limitation for the master spindle N10 SETMS (3) N20 G96 S100 LIMS=2500 ;Speed limitation at 2500 rpm N60 G96 G90 X0 Z10 F8 S100 ;Max.
  • Page 290 Feedrate Control and Spindle Motion 7.13 Constant cutting rate (G96, G961, G97, G971, LIMS) Note On loading the block into the main run, all programmed values are transferred into the setting data. Deactivate constant cutting rate, G97/G971 After G97/G971 the control interprets an S word as a spindle speed in rpm again. If you do not specify a new spindle speed, the last speed set by G96/G961 is retained.
  • Page 291: Constant Grinding Wheel Peripheral Speed (gwpson, Gwpsof)

    Feedrate Control and Spindle Motion 7.14 Constant grinding wheel peripheral speed (GWPSON, GWPSOF) 7.14 Constant grinding wheel peripheral speed (GWPSON, GWPSOF) Function With the function "Constant grinding wheel peripheral speed" (=GWPS), you can set the grinding wheel speed such that, taking account of the current radius, the grinding wheel peripheral speed remains constant.
  • Page 292: Programmable Spindle Speed Limitation (g25, G26)

    Feedrate Control and Spindle Motion 7.15 Programmable spindle speed limitation (G25, G26) Tool-specific parameters In order to activate the function "Constant peripheral speed", the tool-specific grinding data $TC_TPG1, $TC_TPG8 and $TC_TPG9 must be set accordingly. When the GWPS function is active, even online offset values (= wear parameters; cf. "Grinding-specific tool monitoring in the parts program TMON, TMOF"...
  • Page 293: Multiple Feedrate Values In One Block (f

    Feedrate Control and Spindle Motion 7.16 Multiple feedrate values in one block (F.., ST=.., SR=.., FMA.., STA=.., SRA=..) Parameters Lower spindle speed limitation Upper spindle speed limitation S S1 S2=…=… Minimum or maximum spindle speed Range of values Value assignment for the spindle speed can be between rpm ...
  • Page 294 Feedrate Control and Spindle Motion 7.16 Multiple feedrate values in one block (F.., ST=.., SR=.., FMA.., STA=.., SRA=..) FMA[2,x]= to FMA[7,x]=Multiple axial motions in 1 block STA= SRA= Parameters F2=... to F7=...== In addition to the path feed, you can program up to 6 further feedrates in the block;...
  • Page 295 Feedrate Control and Spindle Motion 7.17 Blockwise feed (FB...) Example of programming axial motion The axial path feed is programmed under the address FA and remains valid until an input signal is present. FMA[7,x]= to FMA[2,x]= can be used to program up to 6 further feeds per axis in the block. The first expression in the square brackets indicates the bit number of the input;...
  • Page 296: Blockwise Feed (fb

    Feedrate Control and Spindle Motion 7.17 Blockwise feed (FB...) Programming FB=<Wert> Feed motion only in one block Parameters FB=...= Instead of the modal feedrate active in the previous block, you can program a separate feedrate for this block; in the block that follows, the previously active modal feedrate applies.
  • Page 297: Tool Offsets

    Tool offsets General notes 8.1.1 Tool offsets When writing a program, it is not necessary to specify the cutter diameter, the tool point direction of the turning tool (left/right-handed turning tools) or tool length. You program the workpiece dimensions directly, for example, following the production drawing.
  • Page 298: Tool Offsets In The Control's Offset Memory

    Tool offsets 8.1 General notes During program execution, the control fetches the offset data from the tool files and corrects the tool path individually for different tools. Enter tool offsets into the offset memory In the offset memory enter the following: •...
  • Page 299 Tool offsets 8.1 General notes They consist of several components (geometry, wear). The control computes the components to a certain dimension (e.g. overall length 1, total radius). The respective overall dimension becomes active when the offset memory is activated. The way in which these values are computed in the axes is determined by the tool type and the current plane G17 G18 G19.
  • Page 300 Tool offsets 8.1 General notes Any unneeded tool parameters must be set to "zero". Description Tool length compensation This value compensates for the differences in length between the tools used. The tool length is the distance between the toolholder reference point and the tip of the tool. This length is measured and entered in the control together with definable wear values.
  • Page 301: List Of Tool Types

    Tool offsets 8.2 List of tool types Note The compensation value of the tool length depends on the spatial orientation of the tool. See also chapter "Tool orientation and tool length compensation" for more information. Tool radius compensation The contour and tool path are not identical. The cutter or tool nose radius center must travel along a path that is equidistant from the contour.
  • Page 302 Tool offsets 8.2 List of tool types 3. Group with type 3xy reserved 4. Group with type 4xy grinding tools 5. Group with type 5xy turning tools 6. Group with type 6xy reserved 7. Group with type 7xy special tools such as slotting saw Codings of tool types for milling tools Group with type 1xy (milling tool): 100 Milling tool according to CLDATA...
  • Page 303 Tool offsets 8.2 List of tool types Fundamentals Programming Manual, 10.2004 Edition, 6FC5 298-7AB00-0BP1...
  • Page 304 Tool offsets 8.2 List of tool types Coding of tool types for drills Group type 2xy (drills): 200 Twist drill 205 Drill 210 Boring bar 220 Center drill 230 Countersink 231 Counterbore 240 Regular thread tap 241 Fine thread tap 242 Whitworth-thread tap 250 Reamer Coding of tool types for grinding tools...
  • Page 305 Tool offsets 8.2 List of tool types Coding of tool types for turning tools Group type 5xy (turning tools): 500 Roughing tool 510 Finishing tool 520 Plunge cutter 530 Parting tool 540 Threading tool 550 Mushroom tool/form tool (TOOLMAN) 560 Rotary drill (ECOCUT) 580 Probe with cutting edge position parameter Fundamentals Programming Manual, 10.2004 Edition, 6FC5 298-7AB00-0BP1...
  • Page 306 Tool offsets 8.2 List of tool types Chaining rule The tool length offsets • Geometry, • Wear and • Tool base dimension can be chained for the left and right wheel correction in each case, i.e., if the length offsets for the left tool edge are altered, the values for the right edge are automatically entered and Fundamentals 8-10...
  • Page 307 Tool offsets 8.2 List of tool types vice versa. Please refer to /FB 2/Description of Functions, W4 "Grinding". Coding of tool types for special tools Group type 7xy (special tools): 700 Slotting saw 710 3D probe 711 Edge probe 730 Stop Slotting saw Group with type: 700 Slotting saw...
  • Page 308: Tool Selection/tool Call T

    Tool offsets 8.3 Tool selection/tool call T Tool selection/tool call T 8.3.1 Tool change with T commands (turning) Function A direct tool change takes place when the T word is programmed. Tool selection without tool management Free selection of D No. (flat D No.) relative to cutting edges Tabulated D No.: D1 ...
  • Page 309 Tool offsets 8.3 Tool selection/tool call T T... [8-digit] • • • D32000 • Tabulated D No.: D1 D8 • • • • • T... 2. Tool selection with tool management • Free selection of D No. (flat D No.) relative to cutting edges •...
  • Page 310 Tool offsets 8.3 Tool selection/tool call T Parameters Tx or T=x or Ty=x Tool selection with T No. x stands for T No.: 0-32000 Tool deselection Tool change, then tool T... and tool offset D are active Number of tools: 1200 (depending on the machine manufacturer's configuration) Machine manufacturer The effect of the T number call is defined in machine data.
  • Page 311: Tool Offset D

    Tool offsets 8.4 Tool offset D Creating a new D number Creating a new D number with the associated tool compensation blocks is performed exactly as for the normal D number via tool parameters $TC_DP1 to $TC_DP25. The T number need not be entered any more.
  • Page 312 Tool offsets 8.4 Tool offset D Tool length compensations take immediate effect when the D number is programmed. If no D word is programmed, the default setting from the machine data is valid for tool change. A tool radius compensation must also be G41/G42/ activated. Programming D...
  • Page 313: Tool Selection T With Tool Management

    Tool offsets 8.5 Tool selection T with tool management Example of turning Tool change with T command N10 T1 D1 ;Tool T1 is replaced and activated with ;associated N11 G0 X... Z... ;The length offsets are traversed N50 T4 D2 ;Load tool T4, D2 from T4 is active N70 G0 Z...
  • Page 314: Turning Machine With Circular Magazine (t Selection)

    Tool offsets 8.5 Tool selection T with tool management 1. Programming of T1 or T=1: Location number 1 of the magazine associated with the toolholder is selected. 2. Identifier "Drill" of tool in location is determined. The selection procedure is completed. 3.
  • Page 315: Milling Machine With Chain Magazine (t Selection)

    Tool offsets 8.5 Tool selection T with tool management Parameters T = location or identifier Location or identifier, T triggers the tool change. Extended address, tool for spindle 2 T2 = identifier Magazine location not occupied 1 to n (n ≤ 32000) D = offset If the relative D No.
  • Page 316: Tool Offset Call D With Tool Management

    Tool offsets 8.6 Tool offset call D with tool management Selection • With integrated tool management (inside NC) relative D no. structure with internal reference to the associated tools (e.g., replacement tool management and monitoring function possible) • Without integrated tool management (outside NC) flat D no.
  • Page 317: Milling Machine With Chain Magazine (d Call)

    Tool offsets 8.6 Tool offset call D with tool management Direct, absolute programming Programming is performed with the D number structure. The compensation blocks to be used are called directly via their D number. Assignment of the D number to a specific tool does not take place in the NC kernel. Machine manufacturer Direct programming is defined by machine data.
  • Page 318: Activating The Active Tool Offset Immediately

    Tool offsets 8.7 Activating the active tool offset immediately Programming The following sequence usually applies: T = "Ident" or T = number or T = duplo number M06 triggers the tool change D = offset Tool edge number 1 to n (n ≤ 12) Selection •...
  • Page 319: Tool Radius Compensation (g40, G41, G42)

    Tool offsets 8.8 Tool radius compensation (G40, G41, G42) Tool radius compensation (G40, G41, G42) Function When tool radius compensation is active, the control automatically calculates the equidistant tool paths for different tools. You can generate equidistant paths with OFFN, e.g., for rough-finishing. Programming OFFN= Parameters...
  • Page 320 Tool offsets 8.8 Tool radius compensation (G40, G41, G42) Example 1 milling N10 G0 X50 T1 D1 N20 G1 G41 Y50 F200 N30 Y100 Only tool length compensation is activated in block N10. X50 is approached without compensation. In block N20, the radius compensation is activated, point X50/Y50 is approached with compensation.
  • Page 321 Tool offsets 8.8 Tool radius compensation (G40, G41, G42) N10 G0 Z100 ;Retract to tool change point N20 G17 T1 M6 ;Change tool N30 G0 X0 Y0 Z1 M3 S300 D1 ;Call tool offset values, ;select length compensation N40 Z-7 F500 ;Tool infeed N50 G41 X20 Y20 ;Activate tool radius compensation, tool...
  • Page 322 Tool offsets 8.8 Tool radius compensation (G40, G41, G42) Example 2 turning %_N_1001_MPF ;Program name N5 G0 G53 X280 Z380 D0 ;Start point N10 TRANS X0 Z250 ;Zero offset N15 LIMS=4000 ;Speed limitation (G96) N20 G96 S250 M3 ;Select constant feed N25 G90 T1 D1 M8 ;Select tool and offset N30 G0 G42 X-1.5 Z1...
  • Page 323 Tool offsets 8.8 Tool radius compensation (G40, G41, G42) N100 T2 D2 ;Call up tool and select offset N105 G96 S210 M3 ;Select constant cutting speed N110 G0 G42 X50 Z-60 M8 ;Activate tool with tool radius compensation N115 G1 Z-70 F0.12 ;Rotate diameter 50 N120 G2 X50 Z-80 I6.245 K-5 ;Rotate radius 8...
  • Page 324 Tool offsets 8.8 Tool radius compensation (G40, G41, G42) Direction of machining G41, G42 From this information, the control detects the direction, in which the tool path is to be displaced. Note A negative offset value is the same as a change of offset side (G41, G42). You can generate equidistant paths with OFFN, e.g., for rough-finishing.
  • Page 325 Tool offsets 8.8 Tool radius compensation (G40, G41, G42) Tool length compensation The wear parameter assigned to the diameter axis on tool selection can be defined as the diameter value (MD). This assignment is not automatically altered when the plane is subsequently changed.
  • Page 326 Tool offsets 8.8 Tool radius compensation (G40, G41, G42) A contour is deemed to be (virtually) closed if the distance between the starting point of the first block and the end point of the second block is less than 10% of the effective compensation radius, but not more than 1000 path increments (equals 1 mm with three decimal places).
  • Page 327 Tool offsets 8.8 Tool radius compensation (G40, G41, G42) With linear movements, the tool travels along an inclined path between the starting point and end point; with circular interpolation spiral movements are produced. Changing the tool radius This can be achieved, for example, using system variables. The execution is the same as for changes in the D number.
  • Page 328: Contour Approach And Retraction (norm, Kont, Kontc, Kontt)

    Tool offsets 8.9 Contour approach and retraction (NORM, KONT, KONTC, KONTT) Contour approach and retraction (NORM, KONT, KONTC, KONTT) Function You can use these functions to adapt the approach and retraction paths, for example, according to the desired contour or shape of the blanks. Only G1 blocks are permitted as original approach/retraction blocks for the two functions KONTC and KONTT.
  • Page 329 Tool offsets 8.9 Contour approach and retraction (NORM, KONT, KONTC, KONTT) Example of KONTC The full circle is approached beginning at the circle center point. The direction and curvature radius of the approach circle at the block end point are identical to the values of the next circle.
  • Page 330 Tool offsets 8.9 Contour approach and retraction (NORM, KONT, KONTC, KONTT) 3D representation: At the same time the curvature is adjusted to the circular path of the full circle, the axes moves from Z60 to the plane of circle Z0. Direct approach to perpendicular position, G41, G42, NORM The tool travels in a straight line directly to the contour and is positioned perpendicular to the path tangent at the starting point.
  • Page 331 Tool offsets 8.9 Contour approach and retraction (NORM, KONT, KONTC, KONTT) Deactivate compensation mode, G40, NORM The tool is positioned perpendicular to the last compensated path end point and then travels directly in a straight line to the next uncompensated position, e.g., to the tool change location.
  • Page 332 Tool offsets 8.9 Contour approach and retraction (NORM, KONT, KONTC, KONTT) Travel round contour at starting point, G41, G42, KONT Two cases are distinguished here: 1. Starting point lies in front of the contour The approach strategy is the same as with NORM. The path tangent at the starting point serves as a dividing line between the front and rear of the contour.
  • Page 333 Tool offsets 8.9 Contour approach and retraction (NORM, KONT, KONTC, KONTT) G450 G451 G450 G451 Generation of the approach path In both cases (G450/G451), the following approach path is generated: A straight line is drawn from the uncompensated approach point. This line is a tangent to a circle with circle radius = tool radius.
  • Page 334: Compensation At The Outside Corners (g450, G451)

    Tool offsets 8.10 Compensation at the outside corners (G450, G451) Description of KONTC and KONTT The continuity conditions are observed in all three axes. It is therefore permissible to program a path component perpendicular to the offset plane simultaneously. Exception: KONTT and KONTC are not available in the 3D variants of the tool radius compensation (CUT3DC, CUT3DCC, CUT3DF).
  • Page 335 Tool offsets 8.10 Compensation at the outside corners (G450, G451) Programming G450 DISC=… G451 Parameters G450 Transition circle: the tool travels around workpiece corners on a circular path with tool radius DISC= Flexible programming of the approach and retraction instruction. In steps of 1 from DISC=0 circle to DISC=100 intersection G451 Intersection, the tool backs off from the workpiece corner...
  • Page 336 Tool offsets 8.10 Compensation at the outside corners (G450, G451) Corner behavior, transition circle, G41, G42, G450 The tool center point travels around the workpiece corner across an arc with tool radius. At intermediate point P*, the control executes instructions such as infeed movements or switching functions.
  • Page 337 Tool offsets 8.10 Compensation at the outside corners (G450, G451) DISC is programmed in steps of 1. When DISC values greater than 0 are specified, intermediate circles are shown with a magnified height – the result is transition ellipses or parabolas or hyperbolas. An upper limit can be defined in machine data –...
  • Page 338: Smooth Approach And Retraction

    Tool offsets 8.11 Smooth approach and retraction At intermediate point P*, the control executes instructions such as infeed movements or switching functions. These instructions are programmed in blocks inserted between the two blocks forming the corner. Note Superfluous non-cutting tool paths can result from liftoff movements at acute contour angles. A parameter can be used in the machine data to define automatic switchover to transition circle in such cases.
  • Page 339 Tool offsets 8.11 Smooth approach and retraction The function is mainly used in conjunction with the tool radius offset, but is not mandatory. The approach and retraction motion consists of a maximum of 4 sub-movements: • Start point of the movement P •...
  • Page 340 Tool offsets 8.11 Smooth approach and retraction Parameters G140 Approach and retraction direction independent of the current compensation side (basic setting) G141 Approach from the left or retraction to the left G142 Approach from the right or retraction to the right G143 Approach and retraction direction depends on the relative position of the start and end point with respect to the...
  • Page 341 Tool offsets 8.11 Smooth approach and retraction Example • Smooth approach (block N20 activated) • Approach motion with quadrant (G247) • Approach direction not programmed, G140 is operative, i.e., TRC is active (G41) • Contour offset OFFN=5 (N10) • Current tool radius=10; thus the effective offset radius for TRC=15, the radius of the SAR contour=25, so that the radius of the tool center point path is then DISR=10.
  • Page 342 Tool offsets 8.11 Smooth approach and retraction N60 G248 G340 X70 Y0 Z20 DISCL = ;Retract (P 3ret 6 DISR = 5 G40 F10000 N70 X80 Y0 0ret N80 M30 Selecting the approach and retraction contour The appropriate G command can be used •...
  • Page 343 Tool offsets 8.11 Smooth approach and retraction Selecting the approach and retraction direction Use the tool radius compensation (G140, basic setting) to determine the approach and retraction direction with positive tool radius: • G41 active → approach from left • G42 active → approach from right G141, G142 and G143 provide further approach options.
  • Page 344 Tool offsets 8.11 Smooth approach and retraction Motion steps between start point and end point (G340 and G341) The approach characteristic from P to P is shown in the adjacent image. In cases which include the position of the active plane G17 to G19 (circular plane, helical axis, infeed motion perpendicular to the active plane), any active rotating FRAME is taken into account.
  • Page 345 Tool offsets 8.11 Smooth approach and retraction • On detection of a direction reversal, a tolerance defined by the machine data SAR_CLEARANCE_TOLERANCE is permitted. Programming the end point P4 for approach or P0 for retraction The end point is generally programmed with X... Y... Z... •...
  • Page 346 Tool offsets 8.11 Smooth approach and retraction • Programming during retraction – For an SAR block without programmed geometry axis, the contour ends in P . The position in the axes that form the machining plane are obtained from the retraction contour. The axis component perpendicular to this is defined by DISCL.
  • Page 347 Tool offsets 8.11 Smooth approach and retraction Approach and retraction velocities • Speed of the previous block (G0): All motions from P up to P are executed at this speed, i.e., the motion parallel to the machining plane and the part of the infeed motion up to the safety clearance. •...
  • Page 348 Tool offsets 8.11 Smooth approach and retraction During retraction, the rolls of the modally active feedrate from the previous block and the programmed feedrate value in the SAR block are changed round, i.e., the actual retraction contour is traversed with the old feedrate value and a new speed programmed with the F word applies from P up to P Fundamentals...
  • Page 349 Tool offsets 8.11 Smooth approach and retraction Fundamentals 8-53 Programming Manual, 10.2004 Edition, 6FC5 298-7AB00-0BP1...
  • Page 350: Approach And Retraction With Enhanced Retraction Strategies (g460, G461, G462)

    Tool offsets 8.11 Smooth approach and retraction Reading positions Points P and P can be read in the WCS as a system variable during approach. • $P_APR: reading P (initial point) • • $P_AEP: reading P (contour starting point) • •...
  • Page 351 Tool offsets 8.11 Smooth approach and retraction intersection. G462 Insertion of a straight line in the TRC block if no intersection point is possible; the block is extended by its end tangent (default setting) Machining is done up to the extension of the last contour element (i.e.
  • Page 352 Tool offsets 8.11 Smooth approach and retraction G461 If no intersection is possible between the last TRC block and a preceding block, the offset curve of this block is extended with a circle whose center point lies at the end point of the uncorrected block and whose radius is equal to the tool radius.
  • Page 353 Tool offsets 8.11 Smooth approach and retraction Retraction behavior with G462 (see example) With G462, the corner generated by N10 and N20 in the example program is not machined to the full extent actually possible with the tool used. However, this behavior may be necessary if the part contour (as distinct from the programmed contour), to the left of N20 in the example, is not permitted to be violated even with y values greater than 10 mm.
  • Page 354: Collision Monitoring (cdon, Cdof, Cdof2)

    Tool offsets 8.12 Collision monitoring (CDON, CDOF, CDOF2) 8.12 Collision monitoring (CDON, CDOF, CDOF2) Function When CDON (Collision Detection ON) and tool radius compensation are active, the control monitors the tool paths with Look Ahead contour calculation. This Look Ahead function allows possible collisions to be detected in advance and permits the control to actively avoid them.
  • Page 355 Tool offsets 8.12 Collision monitoring (CDON, CDOF, CDOF2) CDOF helps prevent the incorrect detection of bottlenecks, e.g., due to missing information, which is not available in the NC program. Machine manufacturer The number of NC blocks monitored can be defined in the machine data (see machine manufacturer).
  • Page 356 Tool offsets 8.12 Collision monitoring (CDON, CDOF, CDOF2) Bottleneck detection Since the tool radius selected is too wide to machine this inside contour, the "bottleneck" is bypassed. An alarm is output. Contour path shorter than tool radius The tool travels round the workpiece corner on a transition circle and then continues to follow the programmed contour exactly.
  • Page 357: ½ D Tool Offset (cut2d, Cut2df)

    Tool offsets 8.13 2 ½ D tool offset (CUT2D, CUT2DF) Tool radius too wide for inside machining In such cases, the contours are machined only to the extent possible without damaging the contour.. 8.13 2 ½ D tool offset (CUT2D, CUT2DF) Function With CUT2D or CUT2DF you define how the tool radius compensation is to act or to be interpreted when machining in inclined planes.
  • Page 358 Tool offsets 8.13 2 ½ D tool offset (CUT2D, CUT2DF) CUT2D is used when the orientation of the tool cannot be changed and the workpiece is rotated for machining on inclined surfaces. CUT2D is generally the standard setting and does not, therefore, have to be specified explicitly.
  • Page 359: Tool Length Compensation For Orientable Toolholders (tcarr, Tcoabs, Tcofr)

    Tool offsets 8.14 Tool length compensation for orientable toolholders (TCARR, TCOABS, TCOFR) If a frame containing a rotation is programmed, the compensation plane is also rotated with CUT2DF. The tool radius compensation is calculated in the rotated machining plane. Note The tool length compensation continues to be active relative to the non-rotated working plane.
  • Page 360 Tool offsets 8.14 Tool length compensation for orientable toolholders (TCARR, TCOABS, TCOFR) After a reset, e.g., through manual setting or change of the toolholder with a fixed spatial orientation, the tool length components also have to be determined again. This is performed using the TCOABS and TCOFR path commands.
  • Page 361 Tool offsets 8.14 Tool length compensation for orientable toolholders (TCARR, TCOABS, TCOFR) Determine tool length compensation from the orientation of the toolholder, TCOABS TCOABS calculates the tool length compensation from the current orientation angles of the toolholder; stored in system variables $TC_CARR13 and $TC_CARR14. For a definition of toolholder kinematics with system variables, see References: /PGA/Programming Guide, Advanced, Chapter "Toolholder kinematics"...
  • Page 362: Grinding-specific Tool Monitoring In Parts Programs (tmon, Tmof)

    Tool offsets 8.15 Grinding-specific tool monitoring in parts programs (TMON, TMOF) Note Tool orientation It is not possible for the control to check whether the rotation angles calculated by means of the frame orientation are settable on the machine. If the rotary axes of the toolholder are arranged such that the tool orientation calculated by means of the frame orientation cannot be reached, then an alarm is output.
  • Page 363 Tool offsets 8.15 Grinding-specific tool monitoring in parts programs (TMON, TMOF) Parameters TMON (T no.) Activate tool monitoring It is only necessary to specify the T TMOF (T no.) Deselect tool monitoring number if the tool with this T No. = 0: Deactivate monitoring T number is not for all tools active.
  • Page 364: Additive Offsets

    Tool offsets 8.16 Additive offsets Working without a T or D number In the machine data, a default T and D number • T number, and • D number can be set, that do not have to be reprogrammed and are effective after Power ON/Reset. Example All machining is performed with the same grinding wheel.
  • Page 365: Specify Wear And Setup Values ($tc_scpxy[t,d], $tc_ecpxy[t,d])

    Tool offsets 8.16 Additive offsets Location 2 Location 1 Fine offset: Location-dependent allowances can be made for over/under-dimensioning. Parameters Machine data are used to activate and define the number of additive offsets. Please refer to the machine manufacturer's instructions. Example N110 T7 D7 ;The tool turret is positioned at location 7 ;D7 and DL=1 are activated and traversed in the...
  • Page 366: Delete Additive Offsets (deldl)

    Tool offsets 8.16 Additive offsets Programming $TC_SCPxy[t,d] wear values $TC_ECPxy[t,d] setup values Parameters $TC_SCPxy Wear values are assigned to the corresponding geometry parameters via xy, where x is the number of the wear value and y is the reference to the geometry parameter. $TC_ECPxy Setup values are assigned to the corresponding geometry parameters via xy, where x is the number of the setup...
  • Page 367: Special Handling Of Tool Offsets

    Tool offsets 8.17 Special handling of tool offsets Programming status = DELDL [t,d] Parameters DELDL [t,d] All additive offsets of the tool edge with D number d of tool t are deleted DELDL[t] All additive offsets of all tool edges of tool t are deleted DELDL All additive offsets of the tool edges of all tools of the...
  • Page 368 Tool offsets 8.17 Special handling of tool offsets SD42900 Mirroring of tool length components and components of the MIRROR_TOOL_LENGTH tool base dimension D42910 MIRROR_TOOL_WEAR Mirroring of wear values of the tool length components SD42920 WEAR_SIGN_CUTPOS Sign evaluation of the wear components depending on the tool point direction SD42930 WEAR_SIGN Inverts the sign of the wear dimensions...
  • Page 369: Mirroring Of Tool Lengths

    Tool offsets 8.17 Special handling of tool offsets Further information When orientatable toolholders are used, it is frequently practical to define all tools for a non- mirrored basic system, even those which are only used for mirrored machining. When machining with mirrored axes, the toolholder is then rotated such that the actual position of the tool is described correctly.
  • Page 370: Wear Sign Evaluation

    Tool offsets 8.17 Special handling of tool offsets The wear values are not mirrored. If these are also to be mirrored, setting data $SC_MIRROR_TOOL_WEAR must be enabled. SD 42910 MIRROR_TOOL_WEAR Setting data not equal to zero: The wear values of the tool length components, whose associated axes are mirrored, are also mirrored - by sign inversion.
  • Page 371: Coordinate System Of The Active Machining Operation (towstd/towmcs/towwcs/towbcs/towtcs/towkcs)

    Tool offsets 8.17 Special handling of tool offsets SD 42930 WEAR_SIGN Setting data not equal to zero: the sign of all wear dimensions is inverted. This affects both the tool length and other variables such as tool radius, rounding radius, etc. If a positive wear dimension is entered, the tool becomes "shorter"...
  • Page 372 Tool offsets 8.17 Special handling of tool offsets TOWSTD Initial setting value for offsets in tool length wear value TOWMCS Offsets in tool length in MCS TOWWCS Offsets in tool length in WCS TOWBCS Offsets in tool length in BCS TOWTCS Offsets of tool length at toolholder reference point (orientable toolholder)
  • Page 373 Tool offsets 8.17 Special handling of tool offsets No kinematic transformation and no orientable toolholder If neither a kinematic transformation nor an orientable toolholder is active, then all the other four coordinate systems (except for the WCS) are combined. It is then only the WCS, which is different to the other systems.
  • Page 374: Tool Length And Plane Change

    Tool offsets 8.17 Special handling of tool offsets 8.17.4 Tool length and plane change Function With the set setting data SD 42940 TOOL_LENGTH_CONST not equal to zero, you can assign tool length components such as length, wear and base dimension to the geometry axes for turning and grinding tools at a plane change.
  • Page 375: Tools With A Relevant Cutting Edge Length

    Tool offsets 8.18 Tools with a relevant cutting edge length 8.18 Tools with a relevant cutting edge length Function In the case of tools with a relevant tool point direction (turning and grinding tools – tool types 400–599; see chapter "Sign evaluation wear"), a change from G40 to G41/G42 or vice-versa is treated as a tool change.
  • Page 376 Tool offsets 8.18 Tools with a relevant cutting edge length • In circle blocks and in motion blocks containing rational polynomials with a denominator degree > 4, it is not permitted to change a tool with active tool radius compensation in cases where the distance between the tool edge center point and the tool edge reference point changes.
  • Page 377: Special Functions

    Special functions Auxiliary function outputs Function The auxiliary function output sends information to the PLC indicating when the NC program needs the PLC to perform specific switching operations on the machine tool. The auxiliary functions are output, together with their parameters, to the PLC interface. The values and signals must be processed by the PLC user program.
  • Page 378 Special functions 9.1 Auxiliary function outputs Programming Letter[address extension]=Value The letters, which can be used for auxiliary functions, are: Parameters In the following table you will find information about the meaning and value ranges for the address extension and the value in auxiliary function outputs. The maximum number of auxiliary functions of the same type per block is also specified.
  • Page 379 Special functions 9.1 Auxiliary function outputs 0 - 99 ±(max. Functions have no effect INT value) REAL in the NCK; only to be implemented on the PLC ±3.4028 ex 38 Spindle 1 - 12 0 - 32000 Tool Tool names are not (or tool selection passed to the PLC...
  • Page 380 Special functions 9.1 Auxiliary function outputs Description Number of functions outputs per NC block Up to 10 function outputs can be programmed in one NC block. Auxiliary functions can also be output from the action component of synchronized actions. See /FBSY/ Grouping The functions described can be grouped together.
  • Page 381: M Functions

    Special functions 9.1 Auxiliary function outputs Caution Function outputs in continuous-path mode Function outputs before the traversing movements interrupt continuous-path mode (G64/G641) and generate an exact stop for the previous block. Function outputs after the traversing movements interrupt continuous-path mode (G64/G641) and generate an exact stop for the current block.
  • Page 382 Special functions 9.1 Auxiliary function outputs Notice Extended address notation cannot be used for the functions marked with *. The commands M0, M1, M2, M17 and M30 are always initiated after the traversing movement. Machine manufacturer All free M function numbers can be assigned by the machine manufacturer, e.g., with switching functions for controlling clamping fixtures or for activating/deactivating other machine functions, etc.
  • Page 383: H Functions

    Special functions 9.1 Auxiliary function outputs End of program, M2, M17, M30 A program is terminated with M2, M17 or M30 and reset to the beginning of the program. If the main program is called from another program (as a subprogram), M2/M30 has the same effect as M17 and vice versa, i.e., M17 has the same effect in the main program as M2/M30.
  • Page 385: Arithmetic Parameters And Program Jumps

    Arithmetic Parameters and Program Jumps 10.1 Arithmetic parameter (R) Function The arithmetic parameters are used, for example, if an NC program is not only to be valid for values assigned once, or if you need to calculate values. The required values can be set or calculated by the control during program execution.
  • Page 386: Arithmetic Parameters And Program Jumps

    Arithmetic Parameters and Program Jumps 10.1 Arithmetic parameter (R) Example of assignment of axis values N10 G1 G91 X=R1 Z=R2 F300 N20 Z=R3 N30 X=-R4 N40 Z=-R5 Value assignments You can assign values in the following range to the arithmetic parameters: ±(0.000 0001 ...
  • Page 387: Unconditional Program Jumps

    Arithmetic Parameters and Program Jumps 10.2 Unconditional program jumps Assignments to other addresses The flexibility of an NC program lies in assigning these arithmetic parameters or expressions with arithmetic parameters to other NC addresses. Values, expressions and arithmetic parameters can be assigned to all addresses; Exception: address N, G and L. When assigning, write the character "...
  • Page 388 Arithmetic Parameters and Program Jumps 10.2 Unconditional program jumps <destination> Destination parameters for label, block number, or string variable Label Destination for a jump command Label: Labeling of destination within the program Block number Destination as main block or subblock number (e.g. 200, N300) String variable Variable of type string containing a label or block number.
  • Page 389: Conditional Program Jumps (if, Gotob, Gotof, Goto, Gotoc)

    Arithmetic Parameters and Program Jumps 10.3 Conditional program jumps (IF, GOTOB, GOTOF, GOTO, GOTOC) Jump forward Jump with block number GOTOF N100 ..N100 ;destination Indirect jumps Jump to block number N5 R10=100 N10 GOTOF "N"<<R10 ;jump to block whose number is in R10 N100 ;destination N110 Jump to labels...
  • Page 390 Arithmetic Parameters and Program Jumps 10.3 Conditional program jumps (IF, GOTOB, GOTOF, GOTO, GOTOC) Parameters Keyword for condition GOTOB "Jump instruction" with jump destination backward (toward the beginning of program) GOTOF Jump instruction with forward jump destination (toward program end) GOTO Jump instruction with destination search first forward then backward (first toward end of program and then toward...
  • Page 391 Arithmetic Parameters and Program Jumps 10.3 Conditional program jumps (IF, GOTOB, GOTOF, GOTO, GOTOC) Note For more information, see /PGA/Programming Guide Advanced, chapter "Flexible NC Programming". Example N40 R1=30 R2=60 R3=10 R4=11 R5=50 R6=20 ;Assignment of initial values N41 MA1: G0 X=R2*COS(R1)+R5 -> ;Calculation and assignment to ->...
  • Page 393: Subprograms And Repetition Of Program Sections

    Subprograms and Repetition of Program Sections 11.1 Use of subprograms Function In principle, a subprogram has the same structure as a parts program. It consists of NC blocks with traversing and switching commands. Basically, there is no difference between a main program and a subprogram.
  • Page 394: Subprograms And Repetition Of Program Sections

    Subprograms and Repetition of Program Sections 11.1 Use of subprograms Note Observe functional differences of the machine, such as spindle stop at M30! Example N10 POCKET1 It is also possible to use the address word L... in subprograms The value can have 7 decimal places (integers only).
  • Page 395 Subprograms and Repetition of Program Sections 11.1 Use of subprograms Note A program header with parameter definitions can also be programmed in the subprogram. You will find a more detailed description in the Programming Guide "Advanced". End of subprogram with RET The instruction RET can also be used in subprograms as a substitute for the backward jump with M17.
  • Page 396: Subprogram Call

    Subprograms and Repetition of Program Sections 11.2 Subprogram call Note If you are working with SIEMENS machining and measuring cycles, then three levels are required. If a cycle is to be called from a subprogram, this call cannot be issued from beyond level 9.
  • Page 397 Subprograms and Repetition of Program Sections 11.2 Subprogram call Example of R parameter transfer N10 G0 X0 Y0 G90 T1 ;Tool T1 in rapid traverse to the first ;position, absolute dimension N20 R10=10 R11=20 ;Describe ;arithmetic parameters R10 and R11 N30 RECTANGLE ;Call the rectangle subprogram ;"RECTANGLE.SPF"...
  • Page 398: Subprogram With Program Repetition

    Subprograms and Repetition of Program Sections 11.3 Subprogram with program repetition Note Search strategy of the control: Are there any *_MPF? Are there any *_SPF? This means: if the name of the subprogram to be called is identical to the name of the main program, the main program that issues the call is called again.
  • Page 399: Program Section Repetition

    Subprograms and Repetition of Program Sections 11.4 Program section repetition Caution The following applies to every subprogram call: The subprogram call must always be programmed in a separate NC block. Subprogram call with program repetition and parameter transfer:Parameters are transferred only when the program is called, i.e.
  • Page 400 Subprograms and Repetition of Program Sections 11.4 Program section repetition Programming repeat block LABEL: xxx REPEATB LABEL P=n The program line identified by a label is repeated P=n times. If P is not specified, the program section is repeated exactly once. After the last repetition, the program is continued at the line zzz following the REPEATB line.
  • Page 401 Subprograms and Repetition of Program Sections 11.4 Program section repetition Note The program section to be repeated can appear before or after the REPEAT statement. The search initially commences toward the start of the program. If the start label is not found in this direction, the search resumes from the REPEAT statement toward the end of the program.
  • Page 402 Subprograms and Repetition of Program Sections 11.4 Program section repetition Example of repetition of positions N10 POSITION1: X10 Y20 N20 POSITION2: CYCLE(0,,9,8) ;Position cycle N30 ... N40 REPEATB POSITION1 P=5 ;Execute BLOCK N10 five times N50 REPEATB POSITION2 ;Execute block N20 once N60 ...
  • Page 403 Subprograms and Repetition of Program Sections 11.4 Program section repetition Example of ENDLABEL N10 G1 F300 Z-10 N20 BEGIN1: N30 X10 N40 Y10 N50 BEGIN2: N60 X20 N70 Y30 N80 ENDLABEL: Z10 N90 X0 Y0 Z0 N100 Z-10 N110 BEGIN3: X20 N120 Y30 N130 REPEAT BEGIN3 P=3 ;Execute area from N110 to N120 three times...
  • Page 404 Subprograms and Repetition of Program Sections 11.4 Program section repetition Supplementary conditions • Program section repetitions can be nested. Each call uses a subprogram level. • If M17 or RET is programmed during processing of a program section repetition, the repetition is aborted.
  • Page 405 Subprograms and Repetition of Program Sections 11.4 Program section repetition N60 ENDLABEL: N70 BEGIN2: N80 X20 N90 Y30 N100 ENDLABEL: Z10 N110 X0 Y0 Z0 N120 Z-10 N130 REPEAT BEGIN1 P=2 N140 Z10 N150 X0 Y0 N160 M30 Note Program section repetition is activated by programming. The REPEAT instruction should be placed behind the traveling blocks.
  • Page 407: Tables

    Tables 12.1 List of statements List of statements The list of instructions summarizes all basic programming commands. Legend: Default setting at beginning of program (factory settings of the control, if nothing else programmed). The groups are numbered according to the table in section "List of G functions/preparatory functions" Absolute end points: modal;...
  • Page 408 Tables 12.1 List of statements Axis Real Tool orientation: Euler angles Real Tool orientation: Direction vector Real component Tool orientation for start of block Real Tool orientation for end of block; Real normal vector component Input of absolute dimensions 0, ..., X=AC(100) 359.9999°...
  • Page 409 Tables 12.1 List of statements AROTS Programmable frame rotations with solid angles AROTS X... Y... (additive rotation) AROTS Z... X... AROTS Y... Z... ;separate AROTS RPL= block ASCALE Programmable scaling (additive scale) ASCALE X... Y... Z... ;separate block ASPLINE Akima spline ATRANS Additive programmable shift ATRANS X...
  • Page 410 Tables 12.1 List of statements CFTCP Constant feed in tool-center- point (center-point path) CFIN Constant feed at internal radius only, not at external radius Chamfer; value = length of Real, w/o signs chamfer Chamfer; value = width of chamfer in direction of movement (chamfer) CHKDNO Check for unique D numbers...
  • Page 411 Tables 12.1 List of statements CUT3DF 3D cutter compensation type 3-dimensional face milling CUT3DFF 3D cutter compensation type 3-dimensional face milling with constant tool orientation dependent on the current frame CUT3DFS 3D cutter compensation type 3-dimensional face milling with constant tool orientation independent of the current frame CUTCONOF Constant radius compensation OFF...
  • Page 412 Tables 12.1 List of statements DYNFINISH Dynamic for smooth-finishing Technology G DYNFINISH G1 X10 group Y20 Z30 F1000 DYNNORM Standard dynamic, as previously DYNORM G1 X10 DYNPOS Dynamic for positioning mode, tapping DYNPOS G1 X10 Y20 Z30 F... DYNROUGH Dynamic for roughing DYNROUGH G1 X10 Y20 Z30 F10000 DYNSEMIFIN Dynamic for finishing...
  • Page 413 Tables 12.1 List of statements FIFOCTRL Control of preprocessing buffer Speed limit for synchronized axes Real, w/o The unit set with FL[axis] =… (feed limit) signs G93, G94, G95 is applicable (max. rapid traverse) FLIN Feed linear variable (feed linear) Acts on feed with G93 and Feed multiple axial...
  • Page 414 Tables 12.1 List of statements Linear interpolation with rapid traverse (rap. traverse Motion G0 X... Z... motion) commands Linear interpolation with feedrate (linear interpolation) G1 X... Z... F... Circular interpolation clockwise G2 X... Z... I... K... F... ;Center point and end point G2 X...
  • Page 415 Tables 12.1 List of statements Tool radius compensation right of contour Suppression of current zero offset (non-modal) including programme d offsets 1st settable zero offset 2. Settable zero offset 3. Settable zero offset 4. Settable zero offset Axial programmable zero offset, absolute Axial programmable zero offset, additive Exact stop - deceleration Corner deceleration at inside corners when tool radius...
  • Page 416 Tables 12.1 List of statements G148 Soft retraction with straight line G153 Suppress current frames including base frame Incl. system frame G247 Soft approach with quadrant G248 Soft retraction with quadrant G290 Switch to SINUMERIK mode ON G291 Switch to ISO2/3 mode ON G331 Tapping ±0.001, ...,...
  • Page 417 Tables 12.1 List of statements G810 G group reserved for the OEM ..., G819 G820 G group reserved for the OEM ..., G829 G931 Feedrate specified by travel time Travel time G942 Freeze linear feedrate and constant cutting rate or spindle speed G952 Freeze revolutional feedrate and constant cutting rate or...
  • Page 418 Tables 12.1 List of statements Radius with INCW/INCCW I... J... INCCW Travel on a circle involute in Real CR > 0: K... CCW direction with interpolation INCW/INCCW CR=... of involute by G17/G18/G19 Angle of rotation AR... in degrees between start Direct programming: and end vectors INCW/INCCW I...
  • Page 419 Tables 12.1 List of statements Direction of spindle rotation counterclockwise for master spindle Spindle stop for master spindle Tool change End of subprogram For SSL accumulated spindle programming End of program, same effect as M2 Automatic gear change M41... M45 Gear stage 1, ..., 5 Transition to axis mode MEAC...
  • Page 420 Tables 12.1 List of statements ORID Orientation changes are performed before the circle block (orientation change discontinuously) ORIAXPOS Orientation angle via virtual orientation axes with rotary axis positions ORIEULER Orientation angle via Euler angle ORIAXES Linear interpolation of machine axes or Final orientation: Parameter settings as orientation axes...
  • Page 421 Tables 12.1 List of statements Oscillation on/off Integer, w/o signs Continuous tool orientation smoothing OSCILL Axis assignment for oscillation- Axis: 1 - 3 infeed activate oscillation axes OSCTRL Oscillation control options Integer, w/o signs Oscillating: Start point Oscillating: End point OSNSC Oscillating: Number of spark-out cycles...
  • Page 422 Tables 12.1 List of statements Axis positioning POS[X]=20 POSA Position axis across block POSA[Y]=20 boundary POLF LIFTFAST position PRESETON Sets the actual value for programmed axes One axis PRESETON(X,10,Y,4.5) identifier is programmed at a time, with its respective value in the next parameter.
  • Page 423 Tables 12.1 List of statements Repositioning at beginning of block (Repos mode begin of block) Repositioning at end of block (Repos mode end of block) Repositioning at interruption point (Repos mode interrupt) Reapproach to nearest path point (Repos mode of nearest orbital block) Round the contour corner Real, w/o RND=...
  • Page 424 Tables 12.1 List of statements Spline degree Integer, w/o signs SETMS Reset to the master spindle defined in machine data SETMS(n) Set spindle n as master spindle Starting point offset for thread 0.0000,..., cutting (spline offset) 359.999° SOFT Soft smoothed path acceleration Nibbling ON (stroke ON) SONS Nibbling ON in IPO cycle (stroke ON slow)
  • Page 425 Tables 12.1 List of statements STARTFIFO Execute; simultaneously fill preprocessing memory STOPFIFO Stop machining; fill preprocessing memory until STARTFIFO is detected, FIFO full or end of program SUPA Suppression of current zero offset, including programmed offsets, system frames, handwheel offsets (DRF), external zero offset and overlaid motion Call tool 1, ...,...
  • Page 426 Tables 12.1 List of statements TOROT Z axis parallel to tool orientation Frame rotations TOROTX X axis parallel to tool orientation Rotation TOROTY Y axis parallel to tool orientation component of TOROTZ Z axis parallel to tool orientation programmable frame TOWSTD Initial setting value for offsets in tool length Inclusion of tool...
  • Page 427 Tables 12.1 List of statements Legend: Default setting at beginning of program (factory settings of the control, if nothing else programmed). The groups are numbered according to the table in section "List of G functions/preparatory functions" Absolute end points: modal; incremental end points: non-modal; otherwise modal/non-modal (m, n) depending on syntax of G function.
  • Page 428: List Of Addresses

    Tables 12.2 List of addresses 12.2 List of addresses List of addresses The list of addresses consists of • Address letters • Fixed addresses • Fixed addresses with axis extension • Settable addresses Address letters Available address letters Letter Meaning Numeric extension Variable address identifier...
  • Page 429 Tables 12.2 List of addresses Variable address identifier Start character and separator for file transfer Main block number Skip identifier Available fixed addresses Address Address type Modal/ G70/ G700/ G90/ CIC, Data type identifier non- G710 ACN, CAC, modal CDC, CACN, CACP Subprogram...
  • Page 430 Tables 12.2 List of addresses Fixed addresses with axis extension Address Address type Modal/ G70/ G700/ G90/ CIC, Data type identifier non- G710 ACN, CAC, modal CDC, CACN, CACP AX: Axis Variable axis Real identifier Variable Real Interpolatio interpolation n parameter parameter POS: Positioning...
  • Page 431 Tables 12.2 List of addresses OST1: Stopping time Real Oscillating at left reversal time 1 point (oscillation) OST2: Stopping time Real Oscillating at right time 2 reversal point (oscillation) OSP1: Left reversal Real Oscillating point position 1 (oscillation) OSP2: Right reversal Real Oscillating point...
  • Page 432 Tables 12.2 List of addresses FXSW: Monitoring Real Fixed stop window for window travel to fixed stop In these addresses, an axis or an expression of axis type is specified in square brackets. The data type in the above column shows the type of value assigned. *) Absolute end points: modal, incremental end points: non-modal, otherwise modal/non- modal depending on syntax of G function.
  • Page 433 Tables 12.2 List of addresses Interpolation parameters I, J, K** Interpolatio Real n parameter I1, J1, K1 Intermediat Real e point coordinate RPL: Rotation in Real Rotation the plane plane Circle Real without Circle radius radius sign Aperture Real without Angle circular angle sign...
  • Page 434 Tables 12.2 List of addresses RNDM: Modal Real without Round modal rounding sign RND: Non-modal Real without Round rounding sign CHF: Chamfer Real without Chamfer non-modal sign CHR: Chamfer in Real without Chamfer initial sign direction of motion ANG: Angle Contour Real angle...
  • Page 435 Tables 12.2 List of addresses Measurement MEAS: Measure Integer Measure with touch- without sign trigger probe MEAW: Measure Integer Measure without without sign without deleting deleting distance-to- distance-to-go Axis, spindle behavior LIMS: Spindle Real without Limit spindle speed sign speed limitation Feedrates Speed of...
  • Page 436: List Of G Functions/preparatory Functions

    No.: internal number for, e.g., PLC interface X: No. for GCODE_RESET_VALUES not permitted m: modal or n: non-modal Def.: Siemens AG (SAG) default setting, M: Milling: T: Turning or other conventions MM.: Default setting, please see machine manufacturer's instructions Group 1: Modally valid motion commands...
  • Page 437 Tables 12.3 List of G functions/preparatory functions Group 2: Non-modally valid motions, dwell time Name Meaning X m/n Dwell time preset Tapping without synchronization Reference point approach with synchronization Fixed point approach REPOSL Repositioning linear: Linear repositioning REPOSQ Repositioning quadrant: Repositioning in a quadrant REPOSH Repositioning semicircle: Repositioning in semicircle REPOSA...
  • Page 438 Tables 12.3 List of G functions/preparatory functions Programmable offset, additive axial substitution ROTS Rotation with solid angles AROTS Additive rotation with solid angles Group 4: FIFO Name No. Meaning X m/n STARTFIFO Start FIFO Def. Execute and simultaneously fill preprocessing memory STOPFIFO STOP FIFO, Stop machining;...
  • Page 439 Tables 12.3 List of G functions/preparatory functions The number of settable user frames and, therefore, the number of G functions in this group can be configured in the machine data $MC_MM_NUM_USER_FRAMES. Group 9: Frame suppression Name Meaning X m/n Suppression of current frames: Programmable frame including system frame for TOROT and TOFRAME and active settable frame G54 ...
  • Page 440 Tables 12.3 List of G functions/preparatory functions Group 13: Workpiece measuring inch/metric Name Meaning X m/n Input system inches (lengths) Input system metric (lengths) Def. G700 Input system in inches; inch/min (lengths + velocity + system variable) G710 Input system, metric; mm; mm/min (lengths + velocity + system variable) Group 14: Workpiece measuring absolute/incremental Name...
  • Page 441 Tables 12.3 List of G functions/preparatory functions Group 17: Approach and retraction response, tool offset Name Meaning X m/n NORM Normal position at start and end points Def. KONT Travel around contour at start and end points KONTT Approach/traverse with continuous-tangent polynomial KONTC Approach/traverse with continuous-curvature polynomial Group 18: Corner behavior, tool offset...
  • Page 442 Tables 12.3 List of G functions/preparatory functions Group 22: Tool offset types Name No. Meaning X m/n CUT2D Cutter compensation type 2-dimensional 2 1/2D tool offset determined by Def. G17 – G19 CUT2DF Cutter compensation type 2-dimensional frame – relative: 2 1/2D tool offset determined by frame The tool offset is effective in relation to the current frame (inclined plane)
  • Page 443 Tables 12.3 List of G functions/preparatory functions Group 26: Repositioning point for REPOS Name Meaning X m/n REPOS mode beginning of block: Reapproach to start of block position REPOS – Mode interrupt: Reapproach to interruption point Def. REPOS mode end of block: Repositioning to end-of-block position REPOS mode end of nearest orbital block: Reapproach to nearest path point Group 27: Tool offset for change in orientation at outside corners...
  • Page 444 Tables 12.3 List of G functions/preparatory functions Group 31: OEM - G group Name Meaning X m/n G810 # OEM - G function Def. G811 # OEM - G function G812 # OEM - G function G813 # OEM - G function G814 # OEM - G function G815 #...
  • Page 445 Tables 12.3 List of G functions/preparatory functions OSC # Continuous tool orientation smoothing OSS # Tool orientation smoothing at end of block OSSE # Tool orientation smoothing at start and end of block Group 35: Punching and nibbling Name Meaning X m/n SPOF# Stroke/punch OFF: Stroke OFF, nibbling, punching OFF...
  • Page 446 Tables 12.3 List of G functions/preparatory functions Group 40: Tool radius compensation constant Name No. Meaning X m/n CUTCONOF Constant radius compensation OFF Def. CUTCONON Constant radius compensation ON Group 41: Interrupt thread cutting Name Meaning X m/n LFOF Interrupt thread cutting OFF Def.
  • Page 447 Tables 12.3 List of G functions/preparatory functions Group 46: Plane definition for rapid lift: Name Meaning X m/n LFTXT Tangential tool direction on retraction Def. LFWP Non-tangential tool direction on retraction LFPOS Axial retraction to a position Group 47: Mode switchover for external NC code Name Meaning X m/n...
  • Page 448 Tables 12.3 List of G functions/preparatory functions Group 51: Orientation interpolation Name Meaning X m/n ORIVECT Large-radius circular interpolation (identical to ORIPLANE) Def. ORIAXES Linear interpolation of machine axes or orientation axes ORIPATH Tool orientation trajectory referred to path ORIPLANE Interpolation in plane (identical to ORIVECT) ORICONCW Interpolation on a peripheral surface of the cone in clockwise direction...
  • Page 449 Tables 12.3 List of G functions/preparatory functions ORIROTR Orientation rotation relative: Angle of rotation relative to the plane between the start and end orientation. ORIROTT Orientation rotation tangential: Angle of rotation relative to change in orientation vector Group 55: Rapid traverse with/without linear interpolation Name Meaning X m/n...
  • Page 450: List Of Predefined Subprograms

    Tables 12.4 List of predefined subprograms Group 59: Technology G groups Name No. Meaning X m/n DYNNORM Standard dynamic, as previously Def. DYNPOS Positioning mode, tapping DYNROUGH Roughing DYNSEMIFIN 4. Finishing DYNFINISH Smooth-finishing 12.4 List of predefined subprograms 12.4.1 Predefined subprogram calls List of predefined subprograms The list of predefined subprograms contains all available subprograms grouped according to function.
  • Page 451 Tables 12.4 List of predefined subprograms Predefined subprogram calls 2. Axis groupings 1st-8th Explanation parameter FGROUP Channel axis Variable F value reference: defines the axes to which the path feed refers. identifiers Maximum axis number: 8 The default setting for the F value reference is activated with FGROUP ( ) without parameters.
  • Page 452 Tables 12.4 List of predefined subprograms TANGOF AXIS: Axis Tangential follow-up mode name Following axis TLIFT AXIS: Following REAL: REAL: Tangential lift: tangential axis Lift-off Factor follow-up mode, stop at path contour end rotary axis lift-off possible TRAILON AXIS: Following AXIS: REAL: Trailing ON: Asynchronous...
  • Page 453 Tables 12.4 List of predefined subprograms 7. Transformations Vocabulary 1st parameter 2nd parameter Explanation word/ function identifier TRACYL REAL: Working INT: Number Cylinder: Peripheral surface transformation diameter Several transformations can be set per channel. The transformation transformation number specifies which transformation is to be activated. If the second parameter is omitted, the transformation group defined in the MD is activated.
  • Page 454 Tables 12.4 List of predefined subprograms 9. Grinding Vocabulary 1st parameter Explanation word/ subprogram identifier GWPSON INT: Spindle Grinding wheel peripheral speed ON: Constant grinding wheel peripheral speed ON number If the spindle number is not programmed, then grinding wheel peripheral speed is selected for the spindle of the active tool.
  • Page 455 Tables 12.4 List of predefined subprograms 11. Execute table Vocabulary 1st parameter Explanation word/ subprogram identifier EXECTAB REAL [ 11]: Execute table: Execute an element from a motion table. Element from motion table 12. Protection zones Vocabulary 1st parameter 2nd parameter 3rd parameter 4th parameter 5th parameter...
  • Page 456 Tables 12.4 List of predefined subprograms CPROT INT: Number of INT: Option REAL: Offset of REAL: Offset of REAL: Offset of Channel- protection zone protection zone protection zone protection zone specific 0: protection in 1st channel in 2nd channel in 3rd channel protection zone axis...
  • Page 457 Tables 12.4 List of predefined subprograms 15. Motion synchronization CANCEL INT: Number of Aborts the modal motion-synchronous action with the specified ID synchronized action 16. Function definition 1st parameter 2nd parameter 3rd parameter 4th-7th Explanation parameter FCTDEF INT: Function REAL: Lower REAL: Upper REAL: Define polynomial.
  • Page 458 Tables 12.4 List of predefined subprograms WAITE # INT: INT: Wait for end of program: Wait Channel Channel for end of program on another number number channel WAITM # INT: Marker INT: INT: INT: Wait: Wait for a marker to be number Channel Channel...
  • Page 459 Tables 12.4 List of predefined subprograms The acknowledgment behavior is defined for some commands and programmable for others. The acknowledgment behavior is always synchronous for program coordination commands. If the acknowledgment mode is omitted, synchronous acknowledgment is taken as the default.
  • Page 460 Tables 12.4 List of predefined subprograms 24. Tool management 1st parameter 2nd parameter 3rd Explanation parameter DELT STRING[32]: Tool INT: Duplo Delete tool. Duplo number can be designation number omitted. GETSELT VAR INT: INT: Spindle Get selected T number. If no spindle T number (return number number is specified, the command...
  • Page 461 Tables 12.4 List of predefined subprograms 25. Synchronous spindle 1st para- 3rd para- 4th para- 5th parameter Explanation meter para- meter meter parameter meter COUPDEF AXIS: AXIS: REAL: REAL: STRING[8]: Block change behavior: STRING[2]: Couple Followin Leadin Counter Denomin "NOC": no block change control, "DV": definition: g axis...
  • Page 462 Tables 12.4 List of predefined subprograms 26. Structure instructions in the STEP editor (editor-based program support) 1st parameter 2nd parameter 3rd parameter Explanation SEFORM STRING[128]: INT: level STRING[128]: Current section name for STEP section name icon editor #) The vocabulary word is not valid for SINUMERIK 810 D. Vocabulary Explanation word/subpro...
  • Page 463: Predefined Subprogram Calls In Motion-synchronous Actions

    Tables 12.4 List of predefined subprograms 12.4.2 Predefined subprogram calls in motion-synchronous actions Predefined subprogram calls in motion-synchronous actions 27. Synchronous procedures Vocabulary 1st parameter 2nd parameter 3rd parameter Explanation word/ function 5th parameter identifier STOPREOF Stop preparation OFF: A synchronized action with a STOPREOF command causes a preprocessing stop after the next output block (= block for the main run).
  • Page 464: Predefined Functions

    Tables 12.4 List of predefined subprograms 12.4.3 Predefined functions Predefined functions Predefined functions are invoked by means of a function call. Function calls return a value. They can be included as an operand in an expression. 1. Coordinate system Vocabulary Result 1st parameter 2nd parameter...
  • Page 465 Tables 12.4 List of predefined subprograms Frame functions CTRANS, CSCALE, CROT and CMIRROR are used to generate frame expressions. 2. Geometry functions Vocabulary Result 1st parameter 2nd parameter 3rd parameter Explanation word/ function identifier CALCDAT BOOL: VAR REAL [,2]: INT: Number of VAR REAL [3]: CALCDAT: Calculate circle data Error status...
  • Page 466 Tables 12.4 List of predefined subprograms 3. Axis functions Result 1st parameter 2nd parameter Explanation AXNAME AXIS: STRING [ ]: AXNAME: Get axis identifier Axis identifier Input string Converts the input string to an axis identifier. An alarm is generated if the input string does not contain a valid axis identifier.
  • Page 467 Tables 12.4 List of predefined subprograms Result 1st par. 2nd par. 3rd par. 4th par. 5th par. 6th par. Explanation GETTCOR INT: REAL: STRING: STRING: INT: INT: INT: Read tool lengths and tool length components from tool Status Length Compon Tool Int.
  • Page 468 Tables 12.4 List of predefined subprograms 6. String functions Result 1st parameter 2nd parameter Explanation 3rd parameter ISNUMBER BOOL STRING Check whether the input string can be converted to a number. Result is TRUE if conversion is possible. ISVAR BOOL STRING Check whether the transfer parameter contains a variable known in the NC.
  • Page 469: Data Types

    Tables 12.4 List of predefined subprograms 12.4.4 Data types Data types Data types Type Note Value range Integers with sign ± (2 REAL Real numbers (fractions with decimal point, LONG ± (10 ... 10 -300 +300 REAL to IEEE) BOOL Boolean value TRUE, FALSE or 1, 0 1, 0 CHAR...
  • Page 471: List Of Abbreviations

    List of abbreviations Abbreviations Abbreviations Output Automation System ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange: American coding standard for the exchange of information ASIC Application Specific Integrated Circuit: User switching circuit ASUB Asynchronous Subroutine Job Planning Statement List Operating Mode Mode Group Mode Group Ready to Run...
  • Page 472: List Of Abbreviations

    List of abbreviations A.1 Abbreviations Clear To Send: Signal from serial data interfaces CUTOM Cutter Radius Compensation: Tool radius compensation Digital-to-Analog Converter Data Block in the PLC Data Block Byte in the PLC Data Block Word in the PLC Data Block Bit in the PLC Direct Control: Movement of the rotary axis via the shortest path to the absolute position within one revolution Data Carrier Detect...
  • Page 473 List of abbreviations A.1 Abbreviations Function Module FM-NC Function Module – Numerical Control Floating Point Unit Floating Point Unit Frame Block FRAME Data Record (frame) Cutter Radius Compensation Feed Stop: Feed stop Function Plan (PLC programming method) Basic Program Global User Data: Global user data Hard Disk: Hard disk HEXadecimal Number AuxF...
  • Page 474 List of abbreviations A.1 Abbreviations Position Controller Local User Data Megabyte Machine Data Manual Data Automatic: Manual input Measuring Circuit Machine Coordinate System MLFB Machine-Readable Product Designation Man-Machine Communication: User interface on numerical control systems for operator control, programming and simulation Main Program File: NC parts program (main program) Multiport Interface: Multiport Interface Microsoft (software manufacturer)
  • Page 475 List of abbreviations A.1 Abbreviations R-Parameter Active: Memory area in NCK for R-NCK for R parameter numbers Roll Pitch Yaw: Rotation type of a coordinate system Request To Send: RTS, control signal of serial data interfaces Single Block: Single block Setting Data System Data Block Setting Data Active: Identifier (file type) for setting data...
  • Page 477: Glossary

    Glossary Absolute dimensions A destination for an axis movement is defined by a dimension that refers to the origin of the currently active coordinate system. See -> incremental dimension. Acceleration with jerk limitation In order to optimize the acceleration response of the machine whilst simultaneously protecting the mechanical components, it is possible to switch over in the machining program between abrupt acceleration and continuous (jerk-free) acceleration.
  • Page 478 Glossary A-Spline The Akima-Spline runs under a continuous tangent through the programmed interpolation points (3rd order polynomial). Asynchronous subroutine A parts program, which can be started asynchronously to (independently of) the current program status by an interrupt signal (e.g., "rapid NC input" signal). Automatic Operating mode of the control (block sequence operation according to DIN): Operating Mode in NC systems, in which a ->...
  • Page 479 Glossary Backup Saving the memory contents to an external memory device. Backup battery The backup battery ensures that the -> user program is reliably backed up in the -> CPU against mains failure and that fixed data areas and markers, times and counters are kept in non-volatile memory.
  • Page 480 Glossary B-spline With the B-Spline, the programmed positions are not interpolation points, as they are just "control points" instead. The generated curve only runs near to the control points, not directly through them (optional 1st, 2nd or 3rd order polynomials). Bus connector A bus connector is an S7-300 accessory part, which is supplied together with the ->...
  • Page 481 Glossary Compensation table Table containing interpolation points. It provides the compensation values of the compensation axis for selected positions on the basic axis. Compensation value Difference between the axis position measured by the position sensor and the desired, programmed axis position. Continuous-path mode The purpose of continuous-path mode is to prevent excessive deceleration of the ->...
  • Page 482 Glossary Data Block 1. Data unit of the -> PLC, which the -> HIGHSTEP programs can access. 2. Data unit of the -> NC: Data blocks contain data definitions for global user data. These data can be initialized directly when they are defined. Data transfer program PCIN PCIN is an auxiliary program, which is used to send and receive CNC user data via the serial interface, such as parts programs, tool offsets, etc.
  • Page 483 Glossary Editor The editor is used to create, modify, add to, compress, and insert programs/texts/program blocks. Electronic handwheel The electronic handwheels can be used to simultaneously traverse selected axes manually. The meaning of the lines on the handwheels is defined by zero offset external increment weighting.
  • Page 484 Glossary Frame A frame is an arithmetic rule that transforms one Cartesian coordinate system into another Cartesian coordinate system. A frame contains the components -> zero offset, -> rotation, -> scaling, -> mirroring. Geometry Description of a -> workpiece in the -> workpiece coordinate system. Geometry axis Geometry axes are used to describe a 2- or 3-dimensional range in the workpiece coordinate system.
  • Page 485 Glossary I/O module I/O modules represent the link between the CPU and the process. I/O modules are: • ->Digital input/output modules • ->Analog input/output modules • ->Simulator modules Inch system Dimension system, which defines distances in inches and fractions of inches. Inclined surface machining Drilling and milling operations on workpiece surfaces that do not lie in the coordinate planes of the machine can be performed easily using the function "inclined-surface machining".
  • Page 486 Glossary Interpolator Logical unit of the -> NCK, which determines intermediate values for the movements to be traversed on the individual axes on the basis of destination positions specified in the parts program. Interpolatory compensation With the aid of interpolatory compensation, manufacturing leadscrew errors and measuring system errors can be compensated (LEC, MSEC).
  • Page 487 Glossary Speed ratio Servo gain factor, a control variable in a control loop. Leadscrew error compensation Compensation for the mechanical inaccuracies of a leadscrew participating in the feed. The control uses stored deviation values for the compensation. Limit speed Maximum/minimum (spindle) speed: The maximum speed of a spindle may be limited by values defined in the machine data, the ->...
  • Page 488 Glossary Machine control panel An operator panel on a machine tool with operating elements such as keys, rotary switches, etc., and simple indicators such as LEDs. It is used to control the machine tool directly via the PLC. Machine coordinate system System of coordinates based on the axes of the machine tool.
  • Page 489 Glossary Messages All messages programmed in the parts program and -> alarms recognized by the system are output on the operator panel in plain text with the date and time and a symbol indicating the cancel criterion. The display is divided into alarms and messages. Metric measuring system Standardized system of units: for lengths in millimeters (mm), meters (m), etc.
  • Page 490 Glossary Note CNC (Computerized Numerical Control) is a more accurate term for the SINUMERIK 840D controls. MARS and Merkur controls. Numerical Control Kernel: Component of the NC control, which executes -> parts programs and essentially coordinates the movements on the machine tool. Network The term "network"...
  • Page 491 Glossary Oriented spindle stop Stops the workpiece spindle with a specified orientation angle, e.g., to perform an additional machining operation at a specific position. Oriented tool retraction RETTOOL: If machining is interrupted (because of tool breakage, for example), a program command can be used retract the tool with a defined orientation by a defined path.
  • Page 492 Glossary Path feed Path feed acts on -> path axes. It represents the geometrical sum of the feeds on the participating -> geometry axes. Path velocity The maximum programmable path velocity depends on the input resolution. For example, with a resolution of 0.1 mm the maximum programmable path velocity is 1000 m/min. Programming device Programmable Logic Control: ->...
  • Page 493 Glossary Position axis Axis, which performs an auxiliary movement on a machine tool (e.g., tool magazine, pallet transport). Positioning axes are axes that do not interpolate with -> path axes. Power on Switching the control off and back on again. Preset The preset function can be used to redefine the control zero in the machine coordinate system.
  • Page 494 Glossary Protection zone Three-dimensional space within the -> working area, which the tool tip is not permitted to enter. Quadrant error compensation Contour errors at quadrant transitions, which arise as a result of changing friction conditions on the guideways, can be virtually entirely eliminated with the quadrant error compensation. Parameterization of the quadrant error compensation is performed by means of a circuit test.
  • Page 495 Glossary cut to a precise final drilling depth, e.g., for blind hole threads (requirement: spindles in axis operation). Rotary axis Rotary axes rotate a workpiece or tool to a defined angular position. Rotary axis, continuously turning Depending on the application, the traversing range of a rotary axis can be selected to be limited to less than 360 degrees or to be endlessly turning in both directions.
  • Page 496 Glossary • a serial RS-232-C interface on the MMC module MMC100, and on • the MMC modules MMC101 and MMC102 two RS-232-C interfaces are available. Machining programs and manufacturer and user data can be loaded and saved via these interfaces. Services Control operating area A section of a ->...
  • Page 497 Glossary Standard cycles Standard cycles are available for frequently recurring machining tasks. • for drilling/milling technology • for turning technology In the "Program" operating area, the available cycles are listed under the menu "Cycle Support". After selecting the desired machining cycle the required parameters for the value assignment are displayed in clear text.
  • Page 498 Glossary System memory The system memory is a memory in the CPU, in which the following data are stored: • Data required by the operating system • The operands times, counters, markers System variable A variable, which exists although it has not been programmed by the -> parts program programmer.
  • Page 499 Glossary then takes it into account. The curvature center is maintained equidistantly around the contour offset by the radius of curvature. Tool offset By programming a T function (5 integer decades) in the block, you can select the tool. Up to 9 cutting edges (D addresses) can be assigned to every T number.
  • Page 500 Glossary Variable definition A variable definition includes the specification of a data type and a variable name. The variable names can be used to access the value of the variables. Velocity control In order to be able to achieve an acceptable traversing velocity on very short traverse movements within a single block, predictive velocity control can be set over several blocks (- >...
  • Page 501 Glossary Zero offset Specification of a new reference point for a coordinate system through reference to an existing zero point and a -> frame. 1. Adjustable SINUMERIK 840D: A configurable number of adjustable zero offsets is available for each CNC axis. The offsets, which can be selected via G functions are effective on an alternating basis.
  • Page 503: Index

    Index -number, 2-20 -text, 2-20 ALF, 4-61, 4-65 AMIRROR, 6-5, 6-29 $AA_ACC, 7-31 ANG, 12-2 $AA_OFF deselection, 6-41 ANG1, 4-45 $P_GWPS, 7-42 ANG2, 4-45, 4-46 $TC_ECPxy, 8-70 AP, 2-8, 4-4, 4-6, 4-8, 4-17, 4-29, 4-37 $TC_SCPxy, 8-70 Aperture angle AC, 2-8 $TC_TPG1, ..., ...9, 8-67 Approach point/angle, 8-34 $TC_TPG1/...8/...9, 7-42...
  • Page 504 Index Binary constants, 2-16 Hexadecimal constants, 2-16 C, 3-10, 7-2 Integer constants, 2-16 CALCPOSI, 3-31, 12-59 Continuous-path mode, 5-5, 5-7 CDOF, 8-58 Look ahead, 5-14 CDOF2, 8-58 with programmable transition rounding, 5-8 CDON, 8-58 Contour CFC, 7-33 damage, 8-61 CFCFGROUP, 4-38 point, 8-32 CFIN, 7-33 Roughing, 2-19...
  • Page 505 Index DIAMON, 3-16 for positioning axes, 7-23 DILF, 4-61 for synchronized axes, F, 7-5 Dimensions, 3-12 FPRAON, FPRAOFF, 7-25 Absolute dimensioning, 3-4 FPRAON, FPRAOFFfeedrate:FPRAON, Incremental dimensioning, 3-6 FPRAOFFfeedrate:FPRAON, Metric/inch, G70/G71, 3-12 FPRAOFFfeedrate:FPRAON, Metric/inch, G700/G710, 3-12 FPRAOFFfeedrate:FPRAON, Rotary axes and spindles, 3-10 FPRAOFFfeedrate:FPRAON, DISC, 8-39 FPRAOFFfeedrate:FPRAON,...
  • Page 506 Index Frame rotation in working direction G460, 8-54 G18, 6-36, 6-37 G461, 8-54 G18 or G19, 6-36, 6-37 G462, 8-55 Frame system, 1-18, 6-1 G500, 3-21, 6-39 FRC, 4-72, 12-6, 12-7 G505, 3-21, 3-24 FRCM, 4-72, 12-7 G53, 3-21, 6-39 Function outputs G54, 3-21 for travel commands, 9-4...
  • Page 507 Index GWPSOF, 7-41 Jump destinations, 2-18 GWPSON, 7-41 Jump instruction, 10-3, 10-6 H, 2-5, 2-7, 2-9 K, 2-7, 3-13, 4-49, 4-56, 4-58 H functions, 9-7 K1, 3-13 High-speed function outputs, QU, 9-4 KONT, 8-32, 8-38 Halt at cycle end, 9-6 KONTC, 8-32 Handwheel jogging KONTT, 8-32...
  • Page 508 Index M30, 9-5, 11-1, 11-5 OVR, 2-7, 7-26 M4, 4-48, 7-13, 7-34, 7-35, 9-5 OVRA, 7-26 M40, 9-5 M41, 7-13, 9-5 M42, 9-5 M43, 9-5 P, 2-7 M44, 9-5 Parameterizing cycle alarms, 2-20 M45, 7-13, 9-5 PAROT, 6-36 M5, 7-13, 7-34, 7-35, 9-5 PAROTOF, 6-36 M6, 8-14, 9-5 Path action, depending on DISC values, 8-41...
  • Page 509 Setting clamping torque, 4-68 Programming the end point, 8-49 Setup value, 8-69 PUTFTOC, 7-42 SF, 4-49, 4-56 PUTFTOCF, 7-42 SIEMENS cycles, 2-20 Skip block Ten skip levels, 2-18 Skip levels, 2-18 Q, 2-7, 3-10, 7-2 Smooth approach and retraction, 8-42...
  • Page 510 Index Statement list, 12-1 compensation:from toolholder orientation, Straight line with angle, 4-43 TCOABS, 8-65 String variable, 10-4, 10-6 component, 8-64 Subblock N, 2-7 offset, 8-63 Subprogram list, 12-44 Tool monitoring Subprogram, call, 11-4 Deactivate, 8-67 Subprograms, 11-1 Selection/deselection, 8-67 Program repetition, 11-6 Tool offset Subroutine Coordinate system for wear values, 8-75...
  • Page 511 Index Traversing path axes as positioning axes with Workpiece coordinate system, 1-17 G0, 4-12 Traversing with feedforward control, 5-21 TRUE, 2-15 TURN, 4-37 X, 2-5, 2-8, 3-3, 3-6, 3-13, 3-25, 3-26 Turning functions X1, 3-32, 4-66 Dimensioning for transverse axis, 3-15 X2, 4-44 Turning Functions X3, 4-45...
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    Suggestions SIEMENS AG Corrections For publication: A&D MC BMS P.O. Box 3180 SINUMERIK 840D/840Di/810D Fundamentals D-91050 Erlangen, Germany User Documentation Phone: +49 (0) 180 5050 – 222 [Hotline] Fax: +49 (0) 9131 98 – 2176 [Documentation] Email: motioncontrol.docu@erlf.siemens.de From Programming Manual Order No.:...
  • Page 515 Dokumentationsübersicht SINUMERIK 840D/840Di/810D (10.2004) General Documentation User Documentation Safety Integrated SINUMERIK SINUMERIK SINUMERIK SINUMERIK SINUMERIK SINUMERIK 840D/810D Application 840D/810D/ 840D/840Di 840D/840Di/ 840D/840Di/ 840D/840Di/ Manual FM–NC 810D 810D 810D 810D/ Brochure Catalog Safety AutoTurn Operator ’s Guide Diagnostics– Operators Guide *) Ordering info.
  • Page 516 Siemens AG Automation & Drives Motion Control Systems © Siemens AG, 2004 P. O. Box 3180, D – 91050 Erlangen Subject to change without prior notice Germany Order No. 6FC5298-7AB00-0BP1 Printed in Germany www.ad.siemens.de...

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