KNOW YOUR INGREDIENTS
ll-purpose flour is blend of refined hard and soft wheat flours ideally suited for
making quick breads and cakes.
Bran (unprocessed) is coarse outer portion of wheat or rye grains that is separated
from flour by sifting or bolting. It is often added to bread in small quantities for
nutritional enrichment, heartiness and flavor. It is also used to enhance bread
Bread flour is a high gluten/protein flour that typically has higher gluten
concentration than all-purpose flour. Using bread flour with will produce loaves
with better volume and structure.
Cornmeal and Oatmeal
Cornmeal and oatmeal come from coarsely ground white or yellow corn and from
rolled or steel-cut oats. They are used primarily to enhance flavor and texture of
Cracked wheat has very coarse texture. It comes from wheat kernels cut into
angular fragments. It gives whole grain breads a nutty flavor and crunchy texture.
Rye flour must always be mixed with high proportion of bread flour, as it does not
contain enough gluten to develop structure for high, even-grained loaf.
Self-rising flour contains leavening ingredients that will interfere with bread and
cake making. Self-Rising Flour is NOT RECOMMENDED for use.
7 Grain Cereal Blend
7 grain cereal blend is blend of cracked wheat, oats, bran, rye, cornmeal, flax seeds
and hulled millet.
Vital Wheat Gluten
Gluten is manufactured from wheat flour that has been treated to remove nearly all
of the starch to leave a very high protein content. (Gluten is the protein in
wheat that makes dough elastic.) Gluten is available at most health food stores and
in baking aisle in many markets. It is sometimes used in small portions with dense,
low-gluten flours (such as whole wheat) to increase volume and lighten texture.
Whole Wheat Flour
Whole wheat flour is milled from the entire wheat kernel, which contains the bran
and germ. This high fiber flour is richer in nutrients than all-purpose or bread flour.
Breads made with this flour are usually smaller and heavier than white loaves.
Many recipes mix whole wheat flour with bread flour or vital wheat gluten to
produce high, light-textured bread.
Keep flour in a secure, airtight container. Keep rye and whole wheat flours stored in
a refrigerator, freezer or a cool area to prevent them from becoming rancid. llow
flour to come to room temperature before using.
Note: Flours, while visibly similar, can be very different by virtue of how they were
ground, milled, stored, etc. You may have to experiment with different brands
of flour to help you make the perfect loaf. See RECIPE TIPS to assist with these
ctive yeast, through a fermentation process, produces carbon dioxide gas
necessary to make bread rise. Yeast feeds on carbohydrates in sugar and flour to
produce this gas. Three different types of yeast are available: fresh (cake), active dry
and quick-acting. Quick, rapid rise and breadmaker yeasts are quick-acting. Fresh
(cake) yeast is NOT RECOMMENDED for use with your breadmaker.
Ensure your yeast is fresh by checking its expiration date. Once a package or jar of
yeast is opened, it is important that the remaining contents be immediately resealed
and refrigerated or frozen for future use. Often dough that fails to rise is due to stale
Note: Basic bread and dough recipes in this booklet were developed using
active dry yeast. You may use chart below to substitute any quick-acting yeast
(quick rise, fast rise or breadmaker yeast) for active dry yeast.
Conversion Chart for Quick Rise Yeast
¾ tsp. active dry yeast = ½ tsp. quick-acting yeast
1 tsp. active dry yeast = ¾ tsp. quick-acting yeast
1½ tsp. active dry yeast = 1 tsp. quick-acting yeast
2¼ tsp. active dry yeast = 1½ tsp. quick-acting yeast
1 tbsp. active dry yeast = 2 tsp. quick-acting yeast
Rapid Course Yeast ddition
Rapid Course settings for White, French, Whole Wheat and Fruit & Nut decrease
time for making your favorite bread by approximately 1 hour. Choose recipe, then
add an additional ½ tsp. of active dry or quick-acting yeast to the recipe. The bread
may be shorter and denser.
Sugar is important for color and flavor of breads. It also serves as food for yeast
since it supports fermentation process. Recipes in this book that call for sugar
require granulated sugar.
Important: Do not substitute powdered sugar or artificial sweeteners cannot be
used as substitute, as yeast will not react properly with them.
Salt is necessary to balance flavor in breads and cakes; it also limits growth of
yeast. Do not increase or decrease amount of salt shown in recipes.
ll liquids should be warm 80ºF/27ºC for all recipes. Liquids, such as milk, water
or a combination of powdered milk and water, can be used when making bread.
Milk will improve flavor, provide velvety texture and soften the crust, while water
alone will produce a crispier crust. Vegetable or fruit juices and potato water
may be used for flavor variety.
Eggs add richness and velvety texture to bread dough and cakes. When recipe calls
for egg(s) at room temperature, large egg(s) should be used.