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2610
2610-PWR
ProCurve Switches
R.11.XX
www.procurve.com
Advanced Traffic
Management Guide

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   Summary of Contents for HP PROCURVE 2610

  • Page 1

    Advanced Traffic Management Guide 2610 2610-PWR ProCurve Switches R.11.XX www.procurve.com...

  • Page 3

    ProCurve Switch 2610 Series Switch 2610-PWR Series December 2007 Advanced Traffic Management Guide...

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    December 2007 consequential damages in connection with the furnishing, performance, or use of this material. The only warranties for HP products and services are set Applicable Products forth in the express warranty statements accompanying such products and services. Nothing herein should be...

  • Page 5: Table Of Contents, Getting Started, Static Virtual Lans (vlans), Static Virtual Lans (vlans)

    Contents Product Documentation Software Feature Index ......... . xiv 1 Getting Started Contents .

  • Page 6: Table Of Contents

    Multiple VLAN Considerations ....... 2-10 Single-Forwarding Database Operation ....2-12 Example of an Unsupported Configuration and How to Correct It .

  • Page 7: Table Of Contents

    Per-Port Options for Dynamic VLAN Advertising and Joining ..3-8 GVRP and VLAN Access Control ......3-10 Port-Leave From a Dynamic VLAN .

  • Page 8: Table Of Contents

    Using the Switch as Querier ........4-22 Querier Operation .

  • Page 9: Table Of Contents

    How MSTP Operates ........5-49 MST Regions .

  • Page 10: Table Of Contents

    Planning a QoS Configuration ....... . 6-15 Prioritizing and Monitoring QoS Configuration Options ..6-15 Policy Enforcement Engine .

  • Page 11: Table Of Contents, Ip Routing Features

    QoS Messages in the CLI ........6-65 QoS Operating Notes and Restrictions .

  • Page 12: Table Of Contents, Procurve Stack Management

    Displaying IRDP Information ....... . . 7-25 Configuring DHCP Relay ........7-26 Overview .

  • Page 13: Table Of Contents

    Operating Rules for Stacking ........8-7 General Rules ......... . . 8-7 Specific Rules .

  • Page 14

    xii...

  • Page 15: Product Documentation

    Product Documentation Note For the latest version of all ProCurve switch documentation, including release notes covering recently added features, visit the ProCurve Networking website at www.procurve.com. Click on Technical support, and then click on Product manuals. Printed Publications The two publications listed below are printed and shipped with your switch. The latest version of each is also available in PDF format on the ProCurve Web site, as described in the Note at the top of this page.

  • Page 16

    Product Documentation Software Feature Index For the software manual set supporting your switch model, the following feature index indicates which manual to consult for information on a given software feature. (Note that some software features are not supported on all switch models.) Feature Management and...

  • Page 17

    Product Documentation Feature Management and Advanced Traffic Access Security Configuration Management Guide File Transfers Friendly Port Names GVRP IGMP Interface Access (Telnet, Console/Serial, Web) Jumbo Packets IP Addressing IP Routing LACP Link LLDP LLDP-MED MAC Address Management MAC Lockdown MAC Lockout MAC-based Authentication Monitoring and Analysis Multicast Filtering...

  • Page 18

    Product Documentation Feature Management and Advanced Traffic Access Security Configuration Management Guide Port-Based Access Control Port-Based Priority (802.1Q) Power over Ethernet (PoE) Quality of Service (QoS) RADIUS ACLs RADIUS Authentication and Accounting Routing Secure Copy sFlow SFTP SNMP Software Downloads (SCP/SFTP, TFTP, Xmodem) Source-Port Filters Spanning Tree (STP, RSTP, MSTP) SSH (Secure Shell) Encryption...

  • Page 19

    Product Documentation Feature Management and Advanced Traffic Access Security Configuration Management Guide VLANs Web-based Authentication Xmodem xvii...

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    Product Documentation xviii...

  • Page 21: Contents

    Getting Started Contents Contents ............1-1 Introduction .

  • Page 22: Introduction, Conventions, Feature Descriptions By Model, Command Syntax Statements

    Getting Started Introduction Introduction This Advanced Traffic Management Guide describes how to manage and configure advanced traffic management features on your switch. It supports the following switches: ProCurve Series 2610 ■ ProCurve Series 2610-PWR ■ For an overview of other product documentation for the above switches, refer to “Product Documentation”...

  • Page 23: Command Prompts, Screen Simulations

    Getting Started Conventions Braces within square brackets ( [ < > ] ) indicate a required element ■ within an optional choice. Boldface indicates use of a CLI command, part of a CLI command ■ syntax, or other displayed element in general text. For example: “Use the copy tftp command to download the key from a TFTP server.”...

  • Page 24: Port Identity Examples, Sources For More Information

    Getting Started Sources for More Information Port Identity Examples This guide describes software applicable to both chassis-based and stackable ProCurve switches. Where port identities are needed in an example, this guide uses the chassis-based port identity system, such as “A1”, “B3 - B5”, “C7”, etc. However, unless otherwise noted, such examples apply equally to the stackable switches, which for port identities typically use only numbers, such as “1”, “3-5”, “15”, etc.

  • Page 25: Need Only A Quick Start?, Ip Addressing, Need Only A Quick Start

    Getting Started Need Only a Quick Start? For information on a specific command in the CLI, type the command ■ name followed by “help”. For example: Figure 1-3. Getting Help in the CLI ■ For information on specific features in the Web browser interface, use the online help.

  • Page 26: To Set Up And Install The Switch In Your Network

    Getting Started Need Only a Quick Start? To Set Up and Install the Switch in Your Network I m po r t a n t ! Use the Installation and Getting Started Guide shipped with your switch for the following: Notes, cautions, and warnings related to installing and using the ■...

  • Page 27

    Static Virtual LANs (VLANs) Contents Overview ............2-3 Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs) .

  • Page 28

    Static Virtual LANs (VLANs) Contents Effect of VLANs on Other Switch Features ..... 2-38 Spanning Tree Operation with VLANs ..... 2-38 IP Interfaces .

  • Page 29: Overview

    Static Virtual LANs (VLANs) Overview Overview This chapter describes how to configure and use static, port-based VLANs on the switches covered by this manual. For general information on how to use the switch’s built-in interfaces, refer to these chapters in the Management and Configuration Guide for your switch: ■...

  • Page 30: Port-based Virtual Lans (static Vlans), Port-based Virtual Lans (static Vlans), Port-based Virtual Lans (static Vlans)

    Static Virtual LANs (VLANs) Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs) Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs) VLAN Features Feature Default Menu view existing VLANs n/a page 2-15 page 2-22 page 2-29 thru 2-21 configuring static default VLAN with page 2-15 page 2-21 page 2-29 VLANs VID = 1 thru 2-21...

  • Page 31

    Static Virtual LANs (VLANs) Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs) General Use and Operation. Port-based VLANs are typically used to reduce broadcast traffic and to increase security. A group of network users assigned to a VLAN forms a broadcast domain that is separate from other VLANs that may be configured on a switch.

  • Page 32

    Static Virtual LANs (VLANs) Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs) ProCurve Switch Figure 2-2. Example of Overlapping VLANs Using the Same Server Similarly, using 802.1Q-compliant switches, you can connect multiple VLANs through a single switch-to-switch link. ProCurve ProCurve Switch Switch Figure 2-3. Example of Connecting Multiple VLANs Through the Same Link Introducing Tagged VLAN Technology into Networks Running Legacy (Untagged) VLANs.

  • Page 33: Overview Of Using Vlans, Vlan Support And The Default Vlan, The Primary Vlan

    Static Virtual LANs (VLANs) Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs) Switch 2524 ProCurve ProCurve Switch Switch Switch Tagged VLAN Link Untagged VLAN Links Non-802.1Q- compliant switch Figure 2-4. Example of Tagged and Untagged VLAN Technology in the Same Network For more information on VLANs, refer to: “Overview of Using VLANs”...

  • Page 34

    Static Virtual LANs (VLANs) Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs) features and ensure that multiple instances of DHCP or Bootp on different VLANs do not result in conflicting configuration values for the switch. The primary VLAN is the VLAN the switch uses to run and manage these features and data.

  • Page 35: Per-port Static Vlan Configuration Options

    Static Virtual LANs (VLANs) Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs) Per-Port Static VLAN Configuration Options The following figure and table show the options you have for assigning individual ports to a static VLAN. Note that GVRP, if configured, affects these options and VLAN behavior on the switch. The display below shows the per- port VLAN configuration options.

  • Page 36: General Steps For Using Vlans, Vlan Operating Notes, Multiple Vlan Considerations

    Static Virtual LANs (VLANs) Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs) General Steps for Using VLANs 1. Plan your VLAN strategy and create a map of the logical topology that will result from configuring VLANs. Include consideration for the interaction between VLANs and other features such as Spanning Tree Protocol, load balancing, and IGMP.

  • Page 37

    Static Virtual LANs (VLANs) Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs) showing the (different) source VLAN and source port. Other switch models have a single-forwarding database, which means they allow only one data­ base entry of a unique MAC address, along with the source VLAN and source port on which it is found (see Table 2-6).

  • Page 38: Single-forwarding Database Operation, To Correct It

    Static Virtual LANs (VLANs) Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs) Multiple-Forwarding Databases* Single-Forwarding Database* Series 2600/2600-PWR switches Series 2510 switches *To determine whether other vendors’ devices use single-forwarding or multiple-forwarding database architectures, refer to the documentation provided for those devices. Single-Forwarding Database Operation When a packet arrives with a destination MAC address that matches a MAC address in the switch’s forwarding table, the switch tries to send the packet to the port listed for that MAC address.

  • Page 39

    Static Virtual LANs (VLANs) Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs) Switch 8000M VLAN 2 VLAN 1 PC “A” PC “B” This switch has a single forwarding database. VLAN 1 VLAN 2 This switch has multiple Multiple-Forwarding forwarding databases. Database Switch Routing Enabled (Same MAC address for all VLANs.) Figure 2-8.

  • Page 40: Multiple-forwarding Database Operation

    Static Virtual LANs (VLANs) Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs) The Solution. To avoid the preceding problem, use only one cable or port trunk between the single-forwarding and multiple-forwarding database devices, and configure the link with multiple, tagged VLANs. Switch 8000M VLAN VLAN 2 VLAN 1...

  • Page 41: Menu: Configuring Vlan Parameters, To Change Vlan Support Settings

    Static Virtual LANs (VLANs) Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs) 2610 Switch VLAN 2 VLAN 1 VLAN 1 Both switches have VLAN 2 multiple forwarding Multiple-Forwarding databases. Database Switch Figure 2-10. Example of a Valid Topology for Devices Having Multiple-Forwarding Databases in a Multiple VLAN Environment Menu: Configuring VLAN Parameters In the factory default state, support is enabled for up to eight VLANs.

  • Page 42

    Static Virtual LANs (VLANs) Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs) Figure 2-11. The Default VLAN Support Screen (for Edit), then do one or more of the following: 2. Press ■ To change the maximum number of VLANs, type the new number. (For the maximum number of VLANs allowed, refer to table 2-1 on page 2-4.) To designate a different VLAN as the primary VLAN, select the Primary ■...

  • Page 43: Adding Or Editing Vlan Names

    Static Virtual LANs (VLANs) Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs) An asterisk indicates you must reboot the switch to implement the new Maximum VLANs setting. Figure 2-12. VLAN Menu Screen Indicating the Need To Reboot the Switch – If you changed the VLAN Support option, you must reboot the switch before the Maximum VLANs change can take effect.

  • Page 44

    Static Virtual LANs (VLANs) Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs) Default VLAN and VLAN ID Figure 2-13. The Default VLAN Names Screen 2. Press [A] (for Add). You will then be prompted for a new VLAN name and VLAN ID: 802.1Q VLAN ID : 1 Name : _ 3. Type in a VID (VLAN ID number).

  • Page 45: Adding Or Changing A Vlan Port Assignment

    Static Virtual LANs (VLANs) Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs) Example of a New VLAN and ID Figure 2-14. Example of VLAN Names Screen with a New VLAN Added 6. Repeat steps 2 through 5 to add more VLANs. Remember that you can add VLANs until you reach the number specified in the Maximum VLANs to support field on the VLAN Support screen (see figure 2-11 on page 2-16).

  • Page 46

    Static Virtual LANs (VLANs) Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs) Default: In this example, the “VLAN-22” has been defined, but no ports have yet been assigned to it. (“No” means the port is not assigned to that VLAN.) Using GVRP? If you plan on using GVRP, any ports you don’t want to join should be changed...

  • Page 47: Cli: Configuring Vlan Parameters

    Static Virtual LANs (VLANs) Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs) Ports A4 and A5 are assigned to both VLANs. Ports A6 and A7 are assigned only to VLAN-22. All other ports are assigned only to the Default VLAN. Figure 2-16. Example of VLAN Assignments for Specific Ports For information on VLAN tags (“Untagged”...

  • Page 48: Displaying The Switch's Vlan Configuration

    Static Virtual LANs (VLANs) Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs) VLAN Commands Used in this Section show vlans below show vlan <vlan-id> page 2-23 max-vlans page 2-26 primary-vlan <vlan-id> page 2-26 [no] vlan <vlan-id> page 2-26 name <vlan-name> page 2-28 [no] tagged <port-list> page 2-28 [no] untagged <port-list>...

  • Page 49: Displaying The Configuration For A Particular Vlan

    Static Virtual LANs (VLANs) Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs) Displaying the Configuration for a Particular VLAN This command uses the VID to identify and display the data for a specific static or dynamic VLAN. Syntax: show vlan <vlan-id> Figure 2-18. Example of “Show VLAN” for a Specific Static VLAN Show VLAN lists this data when GVRP is enabled and at least...

  • Page 50: Showing Port Details For Vlans

    Static Virtual LANs (VLANs) Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs) Showing Port Details for VLANs The show vlan ports detail option allows you to display VLAN memberships on a per-port basis when a range of ports is specified in the command. In addition, user-specified port names will be displayed (if assigned), along with tagged or untagged membership modes.

  • Page 51

    Static Virtual LANs (VLANs) Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs) The follow examples illustrate the displayed output depending on whether the detail option is used. ProCurve(config)# show vlan ports a1-a33 Status and Counters - VLAN Information - for ports A1-A33 VLAN ID Name | Status Voice Jumbo...

  • Page 52: Changing The Number Of Vlans Allowed On The Switch, Changing The Primary Vlan

    Static Virtual LANs (VLANs) Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs) Changing the Number of VLANs Allowed on the Switch By default, the switch allows a maximum of 8 VLANs. You can specify any value from 1 to the upper limit for the switch. (Refer to table 2-1 on page 2-4.) If GVRP is enabled, this setting includes any dynamic VLANs on the switch.

  • Page 53: Converting A Dynamic Vlan To A Static Vlan

    Static Virtual LANs (VLANs) Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs) Syntax: vlan <vlan-id> [name <name-str>] Creates a new static VLAN if a VLAN with that VID does not already exist, and places you in that VLAN’s context level. If you do not use the name option, the switch uses “VLAN” and the new VID to automatically name the VLAN.

  • Page 54: Configuring Static Vlan Name And Per-port Settings

    Static Virtual LANs (VLANs) Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs) For example, suppose a dynamic VLAN with a VID of 125 exists on the switch. The following command converts the VLAN to a static VLAN. ProCurve(config)# static-vlan 125 Configuring Static VLAN Name and Per-Port Settings The vlan <vlan-id>...

  • Page 55: Web: Viewing And Configuring Vlan Parameters

    Static Virtual LANs (VLANs) Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs) ProCurve(config)# vlan 100 name Blue_Team ProCurve(config)# vlan 100 tagged 1-5 To move to the vlan 100 context level and execute the same commands: ProCurve(config)# vlan 100 ProCurve(vlan-100)# name Blue_Team ProCurve(vlan-100)# tagged 1-5 Similarly, to change the tagged ports in the above examples to No (or Auto, if GVRP is enabled), you could use either of the following commands.

  • Page 56: Q Vlan Tagging

    Static Virtual LANs (VLANs) Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs) 802.1Q VLAN Tagging VLAN tagging enables traffic from more than one VLAN to use the same port. (Even when two or more VLANs use the same port they remain as separate domains and cannot receive traffic from each other without going through an external router.) As mentioned earlier, a “tag”...

  • Page 57

    Static Virtual LANs (VLANs) Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs) In switch X: ■ • VLANs assigned to ports X1 - X6 can all be untagged because there is only one VLAN assignment per port. Red VLAN traffic will go out only the Red ports;...

  • Page 58

    Static Virtual LANs (VLANs) Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs) VLAN tagging gives you several options: ■ Since the purpose of VLAN tagging is to allow multiple VLANs on the same port, any port that has only one VLAN assigned to it can be configured as “Untagged”...

  • Page 59

    Static Virtual LANs (VLANs) Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs) The VLANs assigned to ports X3, X4, Y2, Y3, and Y4 can all be untagged because there is only one VLAN assigned per port. Port X1 has multiple VLANs assigned, which means that one VLAN assigned to this port can be untagged and any others must be tagged.

  • Page 60: The Secure Management Vlan

    Static Virtual LANs (VLANs) Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs) The Secure Management VLAN Configures a secure Management VLAN by creating an isolated network for managing the following ProCurve switches that support this feature: • Series 2600 switches • Series 4100gl switches •...

  • Page 61

    Static Virtual LANs (VLANs) Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs) • Switches “A”, “B”, and Server “C” are connected by Switch B Switch A ports belonging to the management VLAN. • Hub “X” is connected Hub X to a switch port that Hub Y belongs to the management VLAN.

  • Page 62: Preparation

    Static Virtual LANs (VLANs) Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs) Figure 2-28. Example of Management VLAN Control in a LAN Table 2-3. VLAN Membership in Figure 2-28 Switch Management VLAN (VID = 7) Marketing VLAN (VID = 12) Shipping Dept. VLAN (VID = 20) DEFAULT-VLAN (VID = 1) Preparation 1. Determine a VID and VLAN name suitable for your Management VLAN.

  • Page 63: Configuration, Operating Notes For Management Vlans

    Static Virtual LANs (VLANs) Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs) Configuration Syntax: [ no ] management-vlan < vlan-id | vlan-name > Default: Disabled To confirm the Management VLAN configuration, use the show running-config command. For example, suppose you have already configured a VLAN named My_VLAN with a VID of 100.

  • Page 64: Effect Of Vlans On Other Switch Features, Spanning Tree Operation With Vlans

    Static Virtual LANs (VLANs) Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs) During a Telnet session to the switch, if you configure the Management- ■ VLAN to a VID that excludes the port through which you are connected to the switch, you will continue to have access only until you terminate the session by logging out or rebooting the switch.

  • Page 65: Ip Interfaces, Vlan Mac Addresses

    Static Virtual LANs (VLANs) Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs) links are in separate VLANs. However, you can use port trunking to prevent Spanning Tree from unnecessarily blocking ports (and to improve overall network performance). Refer to “RSTP and STP Operation with 802.1Q VLANs”...

  • Page 66: Port Trunks, Port Monitoring, Vlan Restrictions, Jumbo Packet Support

    Static Virtual LANs (VLANs) Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs) Port Trunks When assigning a port trunk to a VLAN, all ports in the trunk are automatically assigned to the same VLAN. You cannot split trunk members across multiple VLANs. Also, a port trunk is tagged, untagged, or excluded from a VLAN in the same way as for individual, untrunked ports.

  • Page 67

    GVRP Contents Overview ............3-2 Introduction .

  • Page 68

    GVRP Overview Overview This chapter describes GVRP and how to configure it with the switch’s built- in interfaces, and assumes an understanding of VLANs, which are described in Chapter 2, “Static Virtual LANs (VLANs)”. For general information on how to use the switch’s built-in interfaces, refer to these chapters in the Management and Configuration Guide for your switch: ■...

  • Page 69

    GVRP Introduction Introduction Feature Default Menu view GVRP configuration page 3-12 page 3-13 page 3-16 list static and dynamic VLANs — page 3-15 page 3-16 on a GVRP-enabled switch enable or disable GVRP disabled page 3-12 page 3-14 page 3-16 enable or disable GVRP on enabled page 3-12...

  • Page 70: General Operation

    GVRP Introduction General Operation When GVRP is enabled on a switch, the VID for any static VLANs configured on the switch is advertised (using BPDUs—Bridge Protocol Data Units) out all ports, regardless of whether a port is up or assigned to any particular VLAN. A GVRP-aware port on another device that receives the advertisements over a link can dynamically join the advertised VLAN.

  • Page 71

    GVRP Introduction Note that if a static VLAN is configured on at least one port of a switch, and that port has established a link with another device, then all other ports of that switch will send advertisements for that VLAN. For example, in the following figure, Tagged VLAN ports on switch “A”...

  • Page 72: Per-port Options For Handling Gvrp "unknown Vlans", Per-port Options For Handling Gvrp "unknown Vlans

    GVRP Introduction If the switch already has a static VLAN assignment with the same VID as ■ in the advertisement, and the port is configured to Auto for that VLAN, then the port will dynamically join the VLAN and begin moving that VLAN’s traffic.

  • Page 73

    GVRP Introduction Table 3-1. Options for Handling “Unknown VLAN” Advertisements: Unknown VLAN Operation Mode Learn Enables the port to become a member of any unknown VLAN for which it (the Default) receives an advertisement. Allows the port to advertise other VLANs that have at least one other port on the same switch as a member.

  • Page 74: Per-port Options For Dynamic Vlan Advertising And Joining

    GVRP Introduction Per-Port Options for Dynamic VLAN Advertising and Joining Initiating Advertisements. As described in the preceding section, to enable dynamic joins, GVRP must be enabled and a port must be configured to Learn (the default). However, to send advertisements in your network, one or more static (Tagged, Untagged, or Auto) VLANs must be configured on one or more switches (with GVRP enabled), depending on your topology.

  • Page 75

    GVRP Introduction Table 3-2. Controlling VLAN Behavior on Ports with Static VLANs Per-Port Static VLAN Options—Per VLAN Specified on Each Port “Unknown VLAN” Port Activity: Port Activity: Port Activity: Forbid (Per VLAN) (GVRP) Auto (Per VLAN) Tagged or Untagged (Per VLAN) Configuration Learn The port:...

  • Page 76: Gvrp And Vlan Access Control, Port-leave From A Dynamic Vlan

    GVRP Introduction As the preceding table indicates, when you enable GVRP, a port that has a Tagged or Untagged static VLAN has the option for both generating advertise­ ments and dynamically joining other VLANs. N o t e In table 3-2, above, the Unknown VLAN parameters are configured on a per- port basis using the CLI.

  • Page 77: Planning For Gvrp Operation, Configuring Gvrp On A Switch

    GVRP Introduction Planning for GVRP Operation These steps outline the procedure for setting up dynamic VLANs for a seg­ ment. 1. Determine the VLAN topology you want for each segment (broadcast domain) on your network. 2. Determine the VLANs that must be static and the VLANs that can be dynamically propagated.

  • Page 78: Menu: Viewing And Configuring Gvrp

    GVRP Introduction Menu: Viewing and Configuring GVRP From the Main Menu, select: 2. Switch Configuration . . . 8. VLAN Menu . . . 1. VLAN Support Figure 3-4. The VLAN Support Screen (Default Configuration) Do the following to enable GVRP and display the Unknown VLAN fields: (for Edit).

  • Page 79: Cli: Viewing And Configuring Gvrp

    GVRP Introduction 3. Use the arrow keys to select the port you want, and the Space bar to select Unknown VLAN option for any ports you want to change. 4. When you finish making configuration changes, press [Enter] , then (for Save) to save your changes to the Startup-Config file.

  • Page 80

    GVRP Introduction This example includes non-default settings for the Unknown VLAN field for some ports. Figure 3-7. Example of Show GVRP Listing with GVRP Enabled Enabling and Disabling GVRP on the Switch. This command enables GVRP on the switch. Syntax: gvrp This example enables GVRP: ProCurve(config)# gvrp...

  • Page 81

    GVRP Introduction Figure 3-8. Example of Preventing Specific Ports from Joining Dynamic VLANs Displaying the Static and Dynamic VLANs Active on the Switch. The show vlans command lists all VLANs present in the switch. Syntax: show vlans For example, in the following illustration, switch “B” has one static VLAN (the default VLAN), with GVRP enabled and port 1 configured to Learn for Unknown VLANs.

  • Page 82: Web: Viewing And Configuring Gvrp

    GVRP Introduction Dynamic VLANs Learned from Switch “A” through Port 1 Figure 3-10. Example of Listing Showing Dynamic VLANs Converting a Dynamic VLAN to a Static VLAN. If a port on the switch has joined a dynamic VLAN, you can use the following command to convert that dynamic VLAN to a static VLAN: Syntax: static <dynamic-vlan-id>...

  • Page 83: Gvrp Operating Notes

    GVRP Introduction GVRP Operating Notes A dynamic VLAN must be converted to a static VLAN before it can have ■ an IP address. ■ The total number of VLANs on the switch (static and dynamic combined) cannot exceed the current Maximum VLANs setting. For example, in the factory default state, the switch supports eight VLANs.

  • Page 84

    GVRP Introduction 3-18...

  • Page 85

    Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP) Contents Overview ............4-2 General Operation and Features .

  • Page 86

    Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP) Overview Overview This chapter describes Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP), and explains how to configure IGMP controls to reduce unnecessary bandwidth usage on a per-port basis. For the latest information on IGMP, see the software release notes posted on the ProCurve Networking support web site at www.procurve.com.

  • Page 87: General Operation And Features, Igmp Features

    Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP) General Operation and Features General Operation and Features IGMP Features Feature Default Menu view igmp configuration — page 4-6 — show igmp status for multicast — — groups used by the selected VLAN enabling or disabling IGMP disabled —...

  • Page 88: Igmp Terms

    Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP) General Operation and Features Enabling IGMP allows detection of IGMP queries and report packets in order to manage IP multicast traffic through the switch. If no other querier is detected, the switch will then also function as the querier. (If you need to disable the querier feature, you can do so through the IGMP configuration MIB.

  • Page 89: Igmp Operating Features, Basic Operation, Enhancements

    Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP) General Operation and Features IGMP Operating Features Basic Operation In the factory default configuration, IGMP is disabled. If multiple VLANs are not configured, you must configure IGMP on the default VLAN (DEFAULT_VLAN; VID = 1). If multiple VLANs are configured, you must configure IGMP on a per-VLAN basis for every VLAN where this feature is desired.

  • Page 90: Cli: Configuring And Displaying Igmp

    Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP) CLI: Configuring and Displaying IGMP N o t e s Whenever IGMP is enabled, the switch generates an Event Log message indicating whether querier functionality is enabled. IP multicast traffic groups are identified by IP addresses in the range of 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255.

  • Page 91

    Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP) CLI: Configuring and Displaying IGMP Viewing the Current IGMP Configuration. This command lists the IGMP configuration for all VLANs configured on the switch or for a specific VLAN. Syntax: show ip igmp config IGMP configuration for all VLANs on the switch.

  • Page 92

    Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP) CLI: Configuring and Displaying IGMP IGMP Configuration for the Selected VLAN IGMP Configuration On the Individual Ports in the VLAN Figure 4-2. Example Listing of IGMP Configuration for A Specific VLAN Enabling or Disabling IGMP on a VLAN. You can enable IGMP on a VLAN, along with the last-saved or default IGMP configuration (whichever was most recently set), or you can disable IGMP on a selected VLAN.

  • Page 93

    Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP) CLI: Configuring and Displaying IGMP You can also combine the ip igmp command with other IGMP-related commands, as described in the following sections. Configuring Per-Port IGMP Packet Control. Use this command in the VLAN context to specify how each port should handle IGMP traffic.

  • Page 94

    Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP) CLI: Configuring and Displaying IGMP Configuring IGMP Traffic Priority. This command allows you to prioritize IGMP traffic as either “high” or “normal” (the default). Syntax: [no] vlan < vid > ip igmp high-priority-forward Assigns “high”...

  • Page 95: Web: Enabling Or Disabling Igmp, How Igmp Operates, Message Types

    Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP) Web: Enabling or Disabling IGMP Web: Enabling or Disabling IGMP In the web browser interface you can enable or disable IGMP on a per-VLAN basis. To configure other IGMP features, telnet to the switch console and use the CLI.

  • Page 96: Igmp Operating Notes, Displaying Igmp Data

    Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP) How IGMP Operates assume this function in order to elicit group membership information from the hosts on the network. (If you need to disable the querier feature, you can do so through the CLI, using the IGMP configuration MIB. See “Configuring the Querier Function”...

  • Page 97: Supported Standards And Rfcs, Operation With Or Without Ip Addressing

    2 Querier in the absence of any other Querier on the network. N o t e IGMP is supported in the HP MIB, rather than the standard IGMP MIBs, as the latter reduce Group Membership detail in switched environments. Operation With or Without IP Addressing You can configure IGMP on VLANs that do not have IP addressing.

  • Page 98: Automatic Fast-leave Igmp

    Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP) How IGMP Operates Table 4-1.Comparison of IGMP Operation With and Without IP Addressing IGMP Function Available With IP Addressing Available Operating Differences Configured on the VLAN Without IP Without an IP Address Addressing? Forward multicast group traffic to any port on Yes None the VLAN that has received a join request for...

  • Page 99

    Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP) How IGMP Operates 4-2.Switches Supported for IGMP Features Switch Model Data- IGMP Fast- Default IGMP Behavior or Series Driven Leave Setting IGMP Included? Switch 8212zl Always Drops unjoined mulitcast traffic except for Enabled always-fowarded traffic toward the Querier or Switch 6400cl multicast routers, and out of IGMP-forward...

  • Page 100

    Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP) How IGMP Operates Querier's processing of that Leave. For more on this topic, refer to “Forced Fast-Leave IGMP” on page 4-17. ProCurve recommends that the following settings be used. Use Delayed Group Flush on the Series 2610 switches whenever Fast ■...

  • Page 101: Using Delayed Group Flush, Forced Fast-leave Igmp

    Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP) How IGMP Operates does not wait for the actual Querier to verify that there are no other group members on port A3. If the switch itself is the Querier, it does not query port A3 for the presence of other group members.

  • Page 102: Setting Fast-leave And Forced Fast-leave From The Cli, Setting Forced Fast-leave Using The Mib

    Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP) How IGMP Operates “X” member on that port. If the port does not receive a join request for that group within the forced-leave interval, the switch then blocks any further group “X” traffic to the port. Setting Fast-Leave and Forced Fast-Leave from the CLI In previous software versions, Fast-Leave and Forced Fast-Leave options for a port were set exclusively through the MIB...

  • Page 103: Listing The Mib-enabled Forced Fast-leave Configuration

    Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP) How IGMP Operates N o t e o n V L A N In the ProCurve switches covered in this guide, the walkmib and setmib N u m b e r s commands use an internal VLAN number (and not the VLAN ID, or VID) to display or change many per-vlan features, such as the Forced Fast-Leave state.

  • Page 104: Configuring Per-port Forced Fast-leave Igmp

    Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP) How IGMP Operates To List the Forced Fast-Leave State for a Single Port. (See the “Note on VLAN Numbers” on page 4-19.) Go to the switch’s command prompt and use the getmib command, as shown below.

  • Page 105

    Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP) How IGMP Operates Syntax: setmib hpSwitchIgmpPortForcedLeaveState.< vlan number >< .port number > -i < 1 | 2 > - OR ­ setmib 1.3.6.1.4.1.11.2.14.11.5.1.7.1.15.3.1.5.< vlan number >< .port number > -i < 1 | 2 > where: 1 = Forced Fast-Leave enabled 2 = Forced Fast-Leave disabled...

  • Page 106: Using The Switch As Querier, Querier Operation

    Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP) Using the Switch as Querier Using the Switch as Querier Querier Operation The function of the IGMP Querier is to poll other IGMP-enabled devices in an IGMP-enabled VLAN to elicit group membership information. The switch performs this function if there is no other device in the VLAN, such as a multicast router, to act as Querier.

  • Page 107: Excluding Multicast Addresses From Ip Multicast Filtering

    Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP) Excluding Multicast Addresses from IP Multicast Filtering Excluding Multicast Addresses from IP Multicast Filtering Each multicast host group is identified by a single IP address in the range of 224.0.0.0 through 239.255.255.255. Specific groups of consecutive addresses in this range are termed “well-known”...

  • Page 108

    Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP) Excluding Multicast Addresses from IP Multicast Filtering 4-24...

  • Page 109

    Spanning-Tree Operation Contents Overview ............5-3 The RSTP (802.1w) and STP (802.1D) Spanning Tree Options .

  • Page 110: Table Of Contents

    Spanning-Tree Operation Contents How MSTP Operates ........5-49 MST Regions .

  • Page 111

    Spanning-Tree Operation Overview Overview This chapter describes the operation of the Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) and how to configure it with the switches’ built-in interfaces. Table 5-1. STP Support Spanning Tree Protocol 2610 2610-PWR 802.1D 802.1w 802.1s Table 5-2. 802.1D STP Features 802.1D Spanning Tree Default Menu...

  • Page 112

    Spanning-Tree Operation Overview 802.1w Spanning Tree Default Menu Protocol Reconfiguring Whole- Protocol Version: RSTP page 5-20 page 5-16 — Switch Values Force Version: RSTP-operation Switch Priority: 8 Hello Time: 2 s Max Age: 20 s Forward Delay: 15 s Reconfiguring Per-Port Path Cost: page 5-20 page 5-18 —...

  • Page 113

    Spanning-Tree Operation Overview Without spanning tree, having more than one active path between a pair of nodes causes loops in the network, which can result in duplication of mes­ sages, leading to a “broadcast storm” that can bring down the network. Single-Instance spanning tree operation (802.1D STP and 802.1w RSTP) ensures that only one active path at a time exists between any two nodes in a physical network.

  • Page 114

    Spanning-Tree Operation Overview The logical and physical topologies resulting from these VLAN/Instance groupings result in blocking on different links for different VLANs: Region “A”: Logical Topology Path blocked for VLANs in instance 2. Switch “A” Switch “A” Instance 2 Root for Instance 1 VLANs: 20, 21, 22 VLANs: 10, 11, 12 Switch “B”...

  • Page 115: The Rstp (802.1w) And Stp (802.1d) Spanning Tree Options

    Spanning-Tree Operation The RSTP (802.1w) and STP (802.1D) Spanning Tree Options N o t e f o r 8 0 2 . 1 D You should enable spanning tree operation in any switch that is part of a a n d 8 0 2 . 1 w redundant physical link (loop topology).

  • Page 116: Rstp (802.1w), Stp (802.1d)

    Spanning-Tree Operation The RSTP (802.1w) and STP (802.1D) Spanning Tree Options RSTP (802.1w) The IEEE 802.1D version of spanning tree (STP) can take a fairly long time to resolve all the possible paths and to select the most efficient path through the network.

  • Page 117: How Stp And Rstp Operate

    Spanning-Tree Operation The RSTP (802.1w) and STP (802.1D) Spanning Tree Options How STP and RSTP Operate The switch automatically senses port identity and type, and automatically defines spanning-tree parameters for each type, as well as parameters that apply across the switch. You can use the default values for these parameters, or adjust them as needed.

  • Page 118

    Spanning-Tree Operation The RSTP (802.1w) and STP (802.1D) Spanning Tree Options dant links by using a port trunk. The following example shows how you can use a port trunk with 802.1Q (tagged) VLANs and spanning tree without unnecessarily blocking any links or losing any bandwidth. Problem: Solution: STP enabled with 2...

  • Page 119: Configuring Rapid Reconfiguration Spanning Tree (rstp), Overview, Configuring Rapid Reconfiguration Spanning Tree (rstp)

    Spanning-Tree Operation Configuring Rapid Reconfiguration Spanning Tree (RSTP) Configuring Rapid Reconfiguration Spanning Tree (RSTP) This section describes the operation of the IEEE 802.1w Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP). Overview RSTP Feature Default Menu Viewing the RSTP/STP configuration page 5-20 page 5-14 enable/disable RSTP/STP disabled page 5-20...

  • Page 120: Transitioning From Stp To Rstp

    Spanning-Tree Operation Configuring Rapid Reconfiguration Spanning Tree (RSTP) Transitioning from STP to RSTP IEEE 802.1w RSTP is designed to be compatible with IEEE 802.1D STP. Even if all the other devices in your network are using STP, you can enable RSTP on your switch, and even using the default configuration values, your switch will interoperate effectively with the STP devices.

  • Page 121: Configuring Rstp, Optimizing The Rstp Configuration

    Spanning-Tree Operation Configuring Rapid Reconfiguration Spanning Tree (RSTP) Configuring RSTP The default switch configuration has spanning tree disabled with RSTP as the selected protocol. That is, when spanning tree is enabled, RSTP is the version of spanning tree that is enabled, by default. Optimizing the RSTP Configuration To optimize the RSTP configuration on your switch, follow these steps (note that for the Menu method, all of these steps can be performed at the same...

  • Page 122: Cli: Configuring Rstp

    Spanning-Tree Operation Configuring Rapid Reconfiguration Spanning Tree (RSTP) CLI: Configuring RSTP Spanning Tree Commands in This Section STP RSTP Page for RSTP Use show spanning-tree config Below on this page spanning-tree page 5-15 protocol-version <rstp | stp> page 5-16 force-version page 5-16 <rstp-operation | stp-compatible>...

  • Page 123

    Spanning-Tree Operation Configuring Rapid Reconfiguration Spanning Tree (RSTP) Figure 5-4. Example of the Spanning Tree Configuration Display Enabling or Disabling RSTP. Issuing the command to enable spanning tree on the switch implements, by default, the RSTP version of spanning tree for all physical ports on the switch.

  • Page 124

    Spanning-Tree Operation Configuring Rapid Reconfiguration Spanning Tree (RSTP) Reconfiguring Whole-Switch Spanning Tree Values. You can configure one or more of the following parameters, which affect the spanning tree operation of the whole switch: Table 5-1. Whole-Switch RSTP Parameters Parameter Default Description protocol-version RSTP Identifies which of the spanning tree protocols will be used when spanning tree...

  • Page 125

    Spanning-Tree Operation Configuring Rapid Reconfiguration Spanning Tree (RSTP) N o t e Executing the spanning-tree command alone enables spanning tree. Executing the command with one or more of the whole-switch RSTP parameters shown in the table on the previous page, or with any of the per-port RSTP parameters shown in the table on page 18, does not enable spanning tree.

  • Page 126

    Spanning-Tree Operation Configuring Rapid Reconfiguration Spanning Tree (RSTP) Reconfiguring Per-Port Spanning Tree Values. You can configure one or more of the following parameters, which affect the spanning tree operation of the specified ports only: Table 5-2. Per-Port RSTP Parameters Parameter Default Description edge-port...

  • Page 127

    Spanning-Tree Operation Configuring Rapid Reconfiguration Spanning Tree (RSTP) Syntax: Abbreviations: spanning-tree [ethernet] < port-list > span < port-list > path-cost < 1 - 200000000 > path <1 - 200000000> point-to-point-mac < force-true | force-false | auto > force < force-t | force-f | auto > priority <...

  • Page 128: Menu: Configuring Rstp

    Spanning-Tree Operation Configuring Rapid Reconfiguration Spanning Tree (RSTP) Menu: Configuring RSTP 1. From the console CLI prompt, enter the menu command. ProCurve# menu 2. From the switch console Main Menu, select 2. Switch Configuration … 4. Spanning Tree Operation (for Edit) to highlight the Protocol Version parameter field. 3. Press 4. Press the Space bar to select the version of spanning tree you wish to run: RSTP or STP.

  • Page 129

    Spanning-Tree Operation Configuring Rapid Reconfiguration Spanning Tree (RSTP) Figure 5-5. Example of the RSTP Configuration Screen 7. Press the key or use the arrow keys to go to the next parameter you [Tab] want to change, then type in the new value or press the Space bar to select to select the Actions –>...

  • Page 130: Web: Enabling Or Disabling Rstp

    Spanning-Tree Operation Configuring Rapid Reconfiguration Spanning Tree (RSTP) Web: Enabling or Disabling RSTP In the web browser interface, you can enable or disable spanning tree on the switch. If the default configuration is in effect such that RSTP is the selected protocol version, enabling spanning tree through the web browser interface will enable RSTP with its current configuration.

  • Page 131: D Spanning-tree Protocol (stp), Menu: Configuring 802.1d Stp, D Spanning-tree Protocol (stp)

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1D Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP) 802.1D Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP) Menu: Configuring 802.1D STP 1. From the Main Menu, select: 2. Switch Configuration … 4. Spanning Tree Operation Use this field to select the 802.1D version of STP. Figure 5-6. The Default “Spanning Tree Operation” Screen 2. Press (for ) to highlight the Protocol Version field.

  • Page 132

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1D Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP) Use this field to enable spanning tree. Read-Only Fields Figure 5-7. Enabling Spanning-Tree Operation 6. If the remaining STP parameter settings are adequate for your network, go to step 10. 7. Use [Tab] or the arrow keys to select the next parameter you want to change, then type in the new value or press the Space Bar to select a value.

  • Page 133

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1D Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP) Figure 5-8. The Configuration Menu Indicating a Reboot Is Needed to Implement a Configuration Change 11. Press to return to the Main menu. Figure 5-9. The Main Menu Indicating a Reboot Is Needed To Implement a Configuration Change 12.

  • Page 134: Cli: Configuring 802.1d Stp

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1D Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP) CLI: Configuring 802.1D STP STP Commands Used in This Section show spanning-tree config Below spanning-tree protocol-version page 5-27 forward-delay < 4 - 30 > page 5-28 hello-time < 1 - 10 > page 5-28 maximum-age <...

  • Page 135

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1D Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP) Configuring the Switch To Use the 802.1D Spanning Tree Protocol (STP). In the default configuration, the switch is set to RSTP (that is, 802.1w Rapid Spanning Tree), and spanning tree operation is disabled. To reconfigure the switch to 802.1D spanning tree, you must: 1. Change the spanning tree protocol version to stp.

  • Page 136

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1D Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP) Enabling STP implements the spanning tree protocol for all physical ports on the switch, regardless of whether multiple VLANs are configured. Disabling STP removes protection against redundant loops that can significantly slow or halt a network. This command enables STP with the current parameter settings or disables STP without losing the most-recently configured parameter settings.

  • Page 137

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1D Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP) N o t e Executing spanning-tree alone enables STP. Executing spanning-tree with one or more of the above “STP Operating Parameters” does not enable STP. It only configures the STP parameters (regardless of whether STP is actually running (enabled) on the switch).

  • Page 138: Stp Fast Mode

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1D Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP) You can also include STP general parameters in this command. See “Recon­ figuring General STP Operation on the Switch” on page 5-28. For example, the following configures ports C5 and C6 to a path cost of priority of , and fast mode: ProCurve(config)# spanning-tree c5-c6 path-cost 15 priority 100 mode fas...

  • Page 139: Fast-uplink Spanning Tree Protocol (stp), Fast-uplink Spanning Tree Protocol (stp), Fast-uplink Spanning Tree Protocol (stp)

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1D Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP) To Enable or Disable Fast Mode for a Switch Port: You can use either the CLI or the menu interface to toggle between STP Fast mode and STP Normal mode. (To use the menu interface, see “Menu: Configuring 802.1D STP”...

  • Page 140

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1D Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP) C a u t i o n In general, fast-uplink spanning tree on the switch is useful when running STP in a tiered topology that has well-defined edge switches. Also, ensure that an interior switch is used for the root switch and for any logical backup root switches.

  • Page 141: Terminology

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1D Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP) Terminology Term Definition downlink port A switch port that is linked to a port on another switch (or to an end node) that is sequentially further away from the STP root device. For example, port “C” in figure 5-12, above, is a (downstream port) downlink port.

  • Page 142: Operating Rules For Fast Uplink

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1D Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP) In figure 5-13, STP is enabled and in its default configuration on all switches, unless otherwise indicated in table 5-5, below: Table 5-5. STP Parameter Settings for Figure 5-13 STP Parameter Switch “1” Switch “2” Switch “3”...

  • Page 143: Menu: Viewing And Configuring Fast-uplink Stp

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1D Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP) Edge switches cannot be directly linked together using fast-uplink ports. ■ For example, the connection between switches 4 and 5 in figure 5-14 is not allowed for fast-uplink operation. Switch The ports that make up Switch Switch this link...

  • Page 144

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1D Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP) To View and/or Configure Fast-Uplink STP. This procedure uses the Spanning Tree Operation screen to enable STP and to set the Mode for fast- uplink STP operation. 1. From the Main Menu select: 2. Switch Configuration … 4.

  • Page 145

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1D Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP) 3. If the Protocol Version is set to RSTP (as shown in figure 5-15), do the following: a. Press [E] (Edit) to move the cursor to the Protocol Version field. b. Press the Space bar once to change the Protocol Version field to STP. c. Press [Enter] to return to the command line.

  • Page 146

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1D Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP) In this example, ports 2 and 3 have already been configured as a port trunk (Trk1), which appears at the end of the port listing. All ports (and the trunk) are in their default STP configuration. Note: In the actual menu screen, you must scroll the cursor down the port list to view the trunk configuration...

  • Page 147

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1D Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP) STP is enabled. Port A1 and Trk1 are now configured for fast-uplink STP. Figure 5-18. Example of STP Enabled with Two Redundant Links Configured for Fast-Uplink STP 5. Press (for Save ) to save the configuration changes to flash (non-volatile) memory.

  • Page 148

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1D Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP) Indicates which uplink is the active path to the STP root device. Note: A switch using fast-uplink STP must never be the STP root device. Figure 5-19. Example of STP Status with Trk1 (Trunk 1) as the Path to the STP Root Device Press (for...

  • Page 149: Cli: Viewing And Configuring Fast-uplink Stp

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1D Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP) In figure 5-20: • Port A1 and Trk1 (trunk 1; formed from ports 2 and 3) are redundant fast-uplink STP links, with trunk 1 forwarding (the active link) and port A1 blocking (the backup link). (To view the configuration for port A1 and Trk1, see figure 5-18 on page 5-39.) •...

  • Page 150

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1D Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP) Indicates that Trk1 (Trunk 1) provides the currently active path to the STP root device. Redundant STP link in the Blocking state. Links to PC or Workstation End Nodes Redundant STP link in the Forwarding state.

  • Page 151

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1D Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP) STP Enabled on the Switch Fast-Uplink Configured on Port 1 and Trunk 1 (Trk1) Figure 5-23. Example of a Configuration Supporting the STP Topology Shown in Figure 5-21 Using the CLI To Configure Fast-Uplink STP. This example uses the CLI to configure the switch for the fast-uplink operation shown in figures 5­...

  • Page 152: Operating Notes

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1D Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP) Lists STP configuration. Shows the default STP protocol 1. Changes the Spanning-Tree protocol to STP (required for Fast-Uplink). 2. Saves the change to the startup-configuration 3. Reboots the switch. (Required for this configuration Figure 5-24. Example of Changing the STP Configuration from the Default RSTP (802.1w) to STP (802.1D) Syntax: spanning-tree <...

  • Page 153: Web: Enabling Or Disabling Stp

    Spanning-Tree Operation Web: Enabling or Disabling STP N o t e When you add a port to a trunk, the port takes on the STP mode configured for the trunk, regardless of which STP mode was configured on the port before it was added to the trunk.

  • Page 154: S Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (mstp)

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) The 802.1D and 802.1w spanning tree protocols operate without regard to a network’s VLAN configuration, and maintain one common spanning tree throughout a bridged network. Thus, these protocols map one loop-free, logical topology on a given physical topology.

  • Page 155: Mstp Structure

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) MSTP Structure MSTP maps active, separate paths through separate spanning tree instances and between MST regions. Each MST region comprises one or more MSTP switches. Note that MSTP recognizes an STP or RSTP LAN as a distinct spanning-tree region.

  • Page 156

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) MST Region: An MST region comprises the VLANs configured on physically connected MSTP switches. All switches in a given region must be configured with the same VLANs and Multiple Spanning Tree Instances (MSTIs). Internal Spanning Tree (IST): The IST administers the topology within a given MST region.

  • Page 157: How Mstp Operates, Mst Regions

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) C a u t i o n When you enable MSTP on the switch, the default MSTP spanning tree configuration settings comply with the values recommended in the IEEE 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) standard. Note that inappro­ priate changes to these settings can result in severely degraded network performance.

  • Page 158

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) How Separate Instances Affect MSTP Operation. Assigning different groups of VLANs to different instances ensures that those VLAN groups use independent forwarding paths. For example, in figure 5-26 each instance has a different forwarding path. Path through IST Instance to Other Regions Region “X”...

  • Page 159: Spanning Tree (cst), Mstp Operation With 802.1q Vlans

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) Within a region, traffic routed between VLANs in separate instances can take only one physical path. To ensure that traffic in all VLANs within a region can travel between regions, all of the boundary ports for each region should belong to all VLANs configured in the region.

  • Page 160

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) an instance by using a port trunk. The following example shows how you can use a port trunk with 802.1Q (tagged) VLANs and MSTP without unnecessarily blocking any links or losing any bandwidth. Problem: Solution: An MST instance with two...

  • Page 161

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) and designated port for each region. The CIST includes the Common Spanning Tree (CST), the Internal Spanning Tree (IST) within each region, and any multiple spanning-tree instances (MSTIs) in a region. Common Spanning Tree (CST): Refers to the single forwarding path the switch calculates for STP (802.1D) and RSTP (802.1w) topologies, and for inter-regional paths in MSTP (802.1s) topologies.

  • Page 162: Operating Rules

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) Operating Rules All switches in a region must be configured with the same set of VLANs, ■ as well as the same MST configuration name and MST configuration number. ■ Within a region, a VLAN can be allocated to either a single MSTI or to the region’s IST instance.

  • Page 163: Transitioning From Stp Or Rstp To Mstp

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) the same instance, all but one of those paths will be blocked for that instance. However, if there are different paths in different instances, all such paths are available for traffic. Separate forwarding paths exist through separate spanning tree instances.

  • Page 164: Tips For Planning An Mstp Application

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) incompatibility between devices running the older 802.1D STP and your switch running MSTP or RSTP. Please see the “Note on Path Cost” on page 5-19 for more information on adjusting to this incompatibility. Tips for Planning an MSTP Application ■...

  • Page 165: Steps For Configuring Mstp

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) N o t e o n M S T P Under some circumstances the rapid state transitions employed by MSTP (and R a p i d S t a t e RSTP) can increase the rates of frame duplication and misordering in the Tr a n s i t i o n s switched LAN.

  • Page 166

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) – Force-Version operation spanning-tree force-version – F orward Delay spanning-tree forward-delay – Hello Time (used if the switch operates as the root device.) spanning-tree hello-time – Maximum age to allow for STP packets before discarding spanning-tree max-age –...

  • Page 167: Configuring Mstp Operation Mode And Global Parameters

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) Configuring MSTP Operation Mode and Global Parameters Command Page spanning-tree protocol-version mstp page 5-60 spanning-tree config-name < ascii-string > page 5-60 spanning-tree config-revision < revision-number > page 5-61 spanning-tree max-hops < hop-count > page 5-61 spanning-tree force-version...

  • Page 168

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) Syntax: spanning-tree-protocol-version mstp Changes the current spanning-tree protocol on the switch to 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree. Must be followed by write mem and reboot to activate the change. After rebooting, the switch is ready to operate as an MSTP bridge.

  • Page 169

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) Syntax: spanning-tree config-revision < revision-number > This command configures the revision number you designate for the MST region in which you want the switch to reside. This setting must be the same for all switches residing in the same region.

  • Page 170

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) Syntax: spanning-tree force-version < stp-compatible | rstp-operation | mstp­ operation > Sets the spanning-tree compatibility mode. When the switch is configured with MSTP mode, this command forces the switch to emulate behavior of earlier versions of spanning tree protocol or return to MSTP behavior.

  • Page 171: Configuring Basic Port Connectivity Parameters

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) Configuring Basic Port Connectivity Parameters Command Page spanning-tree < port-list > edge-port below spanning-tree mcheck below hello-time < global | 1..10 > spanning-tree path-cost < auto | 200000000 > page 5-67 spanning-tree point-to-point-mac < force-true | force-false | auto> page 5-68 spanning-tree priority...

  • Page 172

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) [ mcheck ] Forces a port to send RSTP BPDUs for 3 seconds. This allows for another switch connected to the port and running RSTP to establish its connection quickly and for identifying switches running 802.1D STP.

  • Page 173

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) [ path-cost < auto | 1..200000000 > ] Assigns an individual port cost that the switch uses to determine which ports are forwarding ports in a given spanning tree. In the default configuration ( auto ) the switch determines a port’s path cost by the port’s type: –...

  • Page 174: Configuring Mst Instance Parameters

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) Syntax: spanning-tree < port-list > root-guard MSTP only. When a port is enabled as root-guard, it cannot be selected as the root port even if it receives superior STP BPDUs. The port is assigned an “alternate” port role and enters a blocking state if it receives superior STP BPDUs.

  • Page 175

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) Syntax: spanning-tree instance < 1..16 > priority < 0 .. 15 > This command sets the switch (bridge) priority for the desig- nated instance. This priority is compared with the priorities of other switches in the same instance to determine the root switch for the instance.

  • Page 176

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) Syntax: spanning-tree priority < 0 .. 15 > This command sets the switch (bridge) priority for the designated region in which the switch resides. The switch compares this priority with the priorities of other switches in the same region to determine the root switch for the region.

  • Page 177: Configuring Mst Instance Per-port Parameters

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) Configuring MST Instance Per-Port Parameters Command Page spanning-tree instance < 1..16 > < port-list > path-cost page < auto | 1..200000000 > 5-69 spanning-tree instance < 1..16 > < port-list > priority < priority-multiplier > page 5-70 spanning-tree <...

  • Page 178

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) Syntax: spanning-tree instance < 1..16 > [e] < port-list > priority <priority-multiplier> This command sets the priority for the specified port(s) in the specified MST instance. (For a given port, the priority setting can be different for different MST instances to which the port may belong.) The priority range for a port in a given MST instance is 0-255.

  • Page 179

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) Syntax: spanning-tree [e] < port-list > priority < priority-multiplier > This command sets the priority for the specified port(s) for the IST (that is, Instance 0) of the region in which the switch resides.

  • Page 180: Enabling Or Disabling Spanning Tree Operation, Configuration For Another

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) Enabling or Disabling Spanning Tree Operation This command enables or disables spanning tree operation for any spanning tree protocol enabled on the switch. Before using this command to enable spanning tree, ensure that the version you want to use is active on the switch. Syntax: [no] spanning-tree Enabling spanning tree with MSTP configured implements MSTP for all physical ports on the switch, according to the...

  • Page 181

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) 1. Configure the VLANs you want included in any instances in the new region. When you create the pending region, all VLANs configured on the switch will be assigned to the pending IST instance unless assigned to other, pending MST instances.

  • Page 182: Displaying Mstp Statistics And Configuration, Displaying Mstp Statistics

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) 9. To view the current pending MSTP configuration, use the show spanning- tree pending command (page page 5-80). Displaying MSTP Statistics and Configuration Command Page MSTP Statistics: show spanning-tree [< port-list >] below show spanning-tree instance <...

  • Page 183: Spanning-tree Operation

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) Switch’s Spanning Tree Configuration and Identity of VLANs Configured in the Switch for the IST Instance Identifies the overall spanning-tree root for the network. Lists the switch’s MSTP root data for connectivity with other regions and STP or RSTP devices.

  • Page 184

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) Displaying Switch Statistics for a Specific MST Instance. Syntax: show spanning-tree instance < ist | 1..16 > This command displays the MSTP statistics for either the IST instance or a numbered MST instance running on the switch. Figure 5-29.

  • Page 185: Displaying The Mstp Configuration

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) Displaying the MSTP Configuration Displaying the Global MSTP Configuration. This command displays the switch’s basic and MST region spanning-tree configuration, including basic port connectivity settings. Syntax: show spanning-tree config The upper part of this output shows the switch’s global spanning-tree configuration that applies to the MST region.

  • Page 186

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) Displaying Per-Instance MSTP Configurations. These commands dis­ plays the per-instance port configuration and current state, along with instance identifiers and regional root data. Syntax: show spanning-tree config instance < ist | 1..16 > The upper part of this output shows the instance data for the specified instance.

  • Page 187

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) Displaying the Region-Level Configuration in Brief. This command output is useful for quickly verifying the allocation of VLANs in the switch’s MSTP configuration and for viewing the configured region identifiers. Syntax: show spanning-tree mst-config This command displays the switch’s regional configuration.

  • Page 188

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) Displaying the Pending MSTP Configuration. This command displays the MSTP configuration the switch will implement if you execute the span­ ning-tree pending apply command (Refer to “Enabling an Entire MST Region at Once or Exchanging One Region Configuration for Another” on page 5-72.) Syntax: show spanning-tree pending <...

  • Page 189: Troubleshooting, Operating Notes

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) Operating Notes SNMP MIB Support for MSTP. MSTP is a superset of the STP/802.1D and RSTP/802.1w protocols and uses the MIB objects defined for these two protocols. Troubleshooting Duplicate packets on a VLAN, or packets not arriving on a LAN at all. The allocation of VLANs to MSTIs may not be identical among all switches in a region.

  • Page 190

    Spanning-Tree Operation 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) 5-82...

  • Page 191

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Contents Introduction ........... 6-3 Terminology .

  • Page 192: Table Of Contents

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Contents QoS IP Type-of-Service (ToS) Policy and Priority ....6-34 Assigning an 802.1p Priority to IPv4 Packets on the Basis of the ToS Precedence Bits .

  • Page 193

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Introduction Introduction QoS Feature Default Menu TCP/UDP Priority Disabled — page 6-21 Refer to the Online Help. IP-Device Priority Disabled — page 6-28 “ Type-of-Service IP Disabled — page 6-34 “ Precedence Mode VLAN-ID Priority Disabled —...

  • Page 194

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Introduction Quality of Service is a general term for classifying and prioritizing traffic throughout a network. That is, QoS enables you to establish an end-to-end traffic priority policy to improve control and throughput of important data. You can manage available bandwidth so that the most important traffic goes first.

  • Page 195

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Introduction QoS is implemented in the form of rules or policies that are configured on the switch. While you can use QoS to prioritize only the outbound traffic while it is moving through the switch, you derive the maximum benefit by using QoS in an 802.1Q VLAN environment (with 802.1p priority tags) or in an untagged VLAN environment (with DSCP policies) where QoS can set priorities that downstream devices can support without re-classifying the traffic.

  • Page 196

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Introduction Terminology Term Use in This Document 802.1p priority A traffic priority setting carried by a VLAN-tagged packet moving from one device to another through ports that are tagged members of the VLAN to which the packet belongs. This setting can be from 0 - 7.

  • Page 197

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Introduction Term Use in This Document outbound port For any port, a buffer that holds outbound traffic until it can leave the switch through that port. There queue are four outbound queues for each port in the switch: high, medium, normal, and low. Traffic in a port’s high priority queue leaves the switch before any traffic in the port’s medium priority queue, and so-on.

  • Page 198

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Introduction Configuring a priority for outbound packets and a service (prior­ ■ ity) policy for use by downstream devices: • DSCP Policy: This feature enables you to set a priority policy in outbound IP packets.

  • Page 199: Classifiers For Prioritizing Outbound Packets, Packet Classifiers And Evaluation Order

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Introduction But if the packet is in a VLAN-tagged environment, then the above setting is also added to the packet as an 802.1p priority for use by downstream devices and applications (shown in table 6-3). In either case, an IP packet can also carry a priority policy to downstream devices by using DSCP-marking in the ToS byte.

  • Page 200

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Introduction Table 6-4. Switch Classifier Search Order and Precedence Search Order Precedence QoS Classifier 6 (lowest) Incoming 802.1p Priority (present in tagged VLAN environments) Incoming source-port on the switch VLAN Priority IP Type of Service (ToS) field (IP packets only) Device Priority (destination or source IP address) 1 (highest) UDP/TCP Application Type (port)

  • Page 201

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Introduction Table 6-5.Precedence Criteria for QoS Classifiers Precedence Criteria Overview UDP/TCP Takes precedence based on a layer 4 UDP or TCP application, with a user-specified application port number (for example, Telnet). Default state: Disabled If a packet does not meet the criteria for UDP/TCP priority, then precedence defaults to the Device Priority classifier, below.

  • Page 202

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Introduction Precedence Criteria Overview Incoming Where a VLAN-tagged packet enters the switch through a port that is a tagged member of that 802.1p VLAN, if QoS is not configured to override the packet’s priority setting, the switch uses the Priority packet’s existing 802.1p priority (assigned by an upstream device or application) to determine which inbound and outbound port queue to use.

  • Page 203: Steps For Configuring Qos On The Switch, Preparation For Configuring Qos

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Preparation for Configuring QoS Preparation for Configuring QoS QoS operates in VLAN-tagged and VLAN-untagged environments. If your network does not use multiple VLANs, you can still implement the 802.1Q VLAN capability for packets to carry their 802.1p priority to the next downstream device.

  • Page 204

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Preparation for Configuring QoS For more on how QoS operates with the preceding traffic types, see ‘‘Precedence Criteria for QoS Classifiers’’, on page 6-11.) 2. Select the QoS option you want to use. Table 6-7 lists the traffic types (QoS classifiers) and the QoS options you can use for prioritizing or setting a policy on these traffic types: Table 6-7.

  • Page 205: Planning A Qos Configuration, Prioritizing And Monitoring Qos Configuration Options, Policy Enforcement Engine

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Preparation for Configuring QoS Planning a QoS Configuration QoS uses resources in a way that requires attention to rule usage when planning a QoS configuration. Otherwise, there is an increased possibility of oversubscribing resources, which means that at some point the switch would not support further QoS configuration.

  • Page 206: Planning And Monitoring Rule Usage, Managing Qos Resource Consumption

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Preparation for Configuring QoS QoS Classifier Rules Used ToS Diff-Services QoS Up to 64 rules per switch, depending on how the switch is configured VLAN QoS 1 rule per port membership in a QoS-specified VLAN. If a port belongs to multiple, QoS-specified VLANs, then 1 rule is used for each such VLAN membership.

  • Page 207: Troubleshooting A Shortage Of Rule Resources

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Preparation for Configuring QoS Configuring a Policy When There Are Not Enough Rules Available. Attempting to configure a QoS policy on the switch or a VLAN when there are not enough rules available results in the following: ■...

  • Page 208: Examples Of Qos Resource Usage

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Preparation for Configuring QoS 2. Use the show qos commands to identify the currently configured QoS policies. 3. Determine which of the existing policies you can remove to free up rule resources for the QoS policy you want to implement. Depending on your network topology and configuration, you can free up rule resources by moving some policies to other devices.

  • Page 209

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Preparation for Configuring QoS How the Switch Uses Resources in DSCP Configurations. In the default configuration, the DSCP map is configured with one DSCP policy (Expedited Forwarding; 101110 with a “7” priority) but, because no ToS Diff- Services options are configured, no rules are used.

  • Page 210: Using Qos Classifiers To Configure Qos For Outbound Traffic, Viewing The Qos Configuration

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Using QoS Classifiers To Configure QoS for Outbound Traffic Using QoS Classifiers To Configure QoS for Outbound Traffic QoS Feature Default Menu UDP/TCP Priority Disabled — page 6-21 Refer to Online Help. IP-Device Priority Disabled —...

  • Page 211: No Override, Qos Udp/tcp Priority

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Using QoS Classifiers To Configure QoS for Outbound Traffic vlan-priority Displays the current VLAN priority configuration. Refer to figure 6-23 on page 6-48. port-priority Displays the current source-port priority configuration. Refer to figure 6-28 on page 6-53. No Override By default, the IP ToS, VLAN-ID, and (source) port show outputs automatically list No-override for priority options that have not been configured.

  • Page 212: Assigning 802.1p Priority Based On Tcp Or Udp Port Number

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Using QoS Classifiers To Configure QoS for Outbound Traffic Options for Assigning Priority. Priority control options for TCP or UDP packets carrying a specified TCP or UDP port number include: ■ 802.1p priority DSCP policy (Assigning a new DSCP and an associated 802.1p priority;...

  • Page 213

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Using QoS Classifiers To Configure QoS for Outbound Traffic no qos < udp-port | tcp-port > < tcp-udp port number > Deletes the specified UDP or TCP port number as a QoS classifier.

  • Page 214: Assigning A Dscp Policy Based On Tcp Or Udp Port Number

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Using QoS Classifiers To Configure QoS for Outbound Traffic Assigning a DSCP Policy Based on TCP or UDP Port Number This option assigns a previously configured DSCP policy (codepoint and 802.1p priority) to (IPv4) TCP or UDP packets having the specified port number.

  • Page 215

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Using QoS Classifiers To Configure QoS for Outbound Traffic N o t e A codepoint must have an 802.1p priority assignment (0 - 7) before you can configure a policy for prioritizing packets by TCP or UDP port numbers. If a codepoint you want to use shows No-override in the Priority column of the DSCP map (show qos dscp-map), then you must assign a 0 - 7 priority before proceeding.

  • Page 216

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Using QoS Classifiers To Configure QoS for Outbound Traffic For example, suppose you wanted to assign these DSCP policies to the packets identified by the indicated UDP and TDP port applications: Port Applications DSCP Policies DSCP Priority...

  • Page 217

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Using QoS Classifiers To Configure QoS for Outbound Traffic DSCP Policies Configured in this Step Figure 6-8. Assign Priorities to the Selected DSCPs 3. Assign the DSCP policies to the selected UDP/TCP port applications and display the result.

  • Page 218: Qos Ip-device Priority

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Using QoS Classifiers To Configure QoS for Outbound Traffic QoS IP-Device Priority QoS Classifier Precedence: 2 The IP device option, which applies only to IPv4 packets, uses two rules per IP address on all ports in the switch. Where a particular device-IP address classifier has the highest precedence in the switch for traffic addressed to or from that device, then traffic received on the switch with that address is marked with the IP address classifier’s configured priority level.

  • Page 219: Assigning A Priority Based On Ip Address

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Using QoS Classifiers To Configure QoS for Outbound Traffic Assigning a Priority Based on IP Address This option assigns an 802.1p priority to all IPv4 packets having the specified IP address as either a source or destination. (If both match, the priority for the IP destination address has precedence.

  • Page 220: Assigning A Dscp Policy Based On Ip Address

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Using QoS Classifiers To Configure QoS for Outbound Traffic Figure 6-10. Example of Configuring and Listing 802.1p Priority Assignments for Packets Carrying Specific IP Addresses Assigning a DSCP Policy Based on IP Address This option assigns a previously configured DSCP policy (codepoint and 802.1p priority) to outbound IP packets having the specified IP address (either source or destination).

  • Page 221

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Using QoS Classifiers To Configure QoS for Outbound Traffic 2. Determine the DSCP policy for packets carrying the selected IP address: a. Determine the DSCP you want to assign to the selected packets. (This codepoint will be used to overwrite the DSCP carried in packets received from upstream devices.) b. Determine the 802.1p priority you want to assign to the DSCP.

  • Page 222

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Using QoS Classifiers To Configure QoS for Outbound Traffic no qos device-priority < ip-address > Deletes the specified IP address as a QoS classifier. show qos device-priority Displays a listing of all QoS Device Priority classifiers currently in the running-config file.

  • Page 223

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Using QoS Classifiers To Configure QoS for Outbound Traffic 2. Configure the priorities for the DSCPs you want to use. DSCP Policies Configured in this step. Figure 6-12. Assigning 802.1p Priorities to the Selected DSCPs 3. Assign the DSCP policies to the selected device IP addresses and display the result.

  • Page 224: Qos Ip Type-of-service (tos) Policy And Priority

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Using QoS Classifiers To Configure QoS for Outbound Traffic QoS IP Type-of-Service (ToS) Policy and Priority QoS Classifier Precedence: 3 This feature applies only to IPv4 traffic and performs either of the following: ToS IP-Precedence Mode: All IP packets generated by upstream devices ■...

  • Page 225: Of The Tos Precedence Bits

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Using QoS Classifiers To Configure QoS for Outbound Traffic Assigning an 802.1p Priority to IPv4 Packets on the Basis of the ToS Precedence Bits If a device or application upstream of the switch sets the precedence bits in the ToS byte of IPv4 packets, you can use this feature to apply that setting for prioritizing packets for outbound port queues.

  • Page 226: Of Incoming Dscp

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Using QoS Classifiers To Configure QoS for Outbound Traffic To replace this option with the ToS diff-services option, just configure diff­ services as described below, which automatically disables IP-Precedence. To disable IP-Precedence without enabling the diff-services option, use this command: ProCurve(config)# no qos type-of-service Assigning an 802.1p Priority to IPv4 Packets on the Basis...

  • Page 227

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Using QoS Classifiers To Configure QoS for Outbound Traffic Note on DSCP Use Different applications may use the same DSCP in their IP packets. Also, the same application may use multiple DSCPs if the application originates on different clients, servers, or other devices.

  • Page 228

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Using QoS Classifiers To Configure QoS for Outbound Traffic Syntax: qos type-of-service diff-services < codepoint > Causes the switch to read the < codepoint > (DSCP) of an incoming IPv4 packet and, when a match occurs, assign a corresponding 802.1p priority, as configured in the switch’s DSCP table (page 6-59).

  • Page 229

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Using QoS Classifiers To Configure QoS for Outbound Traffic Executing this command displays the current ToS configuration and shows that the selected DSCP is not currently in use. The 000110 codepoint is unused, and thus available for directly assigning an 802.1p priority without changing the packet’s...

  • Page 230: Assigning A Dscp Policy On The Basis Of The Dscp In Ipv4 Packets Received From Upstream Devices

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Using QoS Classifiers To Configure QoS for Outbound Traffic Assigning a DSCP Policy on the Basis of the DSCP in IPv4 Packets Received from Upstream Devices The preceding section describes how to forward a policy set by an edge (or upstream) switch.

  • Page 231

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Using QoS Classifiers To Configure QoS for Outbound Traffic no qos type-of-service Disables all ToS classifier operation. Current ToS DSCP policies and priorities remain in the configuration and will become available if you re-enable ToS diff-services. no qos type-of-service [diff-services <...

  • Page 232

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Using QoS Classifiers To Configure QoS for Outbound Traffic The DSCPs for this example have not yet been assigned an 802.1p priority level. Figure 6-18. Display the Current DSCP-Map Configuration Configure the policies in the DSCP table: Figure 6-19.

  • Page 233: Details Of Qos Ip Type-of-service

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Using QoS Classifiers To Configure QoS for Outbound Traffic The specified DSCP policies overwrite the original DSCPs on the selected packets, and use the 802.1p priorities previously configured in the DSCP policies in step 2. Figure 6-20.

  • Page 234

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Using QoS Classifiers To Configure QoS for Outbound Traffic b. Configure the switch to mark a specific type of inbound traffic with that DSCP (and thus create a policy for that traffic type). Configure the internal switches in your LAN to honor the policy.

  • Page 235

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Using QoS Classifiers To Configure QoS for Outbound Traffic Table 6-9. How the Switch Uses the ToS Configuration ToS Option: Outbound Port IP Precedence Differentiated Services (Value = 0 - 7) IP Packet Sent Out Depending on the value of the IP For a given packet carrying a ToS codepoint that the switch has an Untagged Port...

  • Page 236: Qos Vlan-id (vid) Priority, Assigning A Priority Based On Vlan-id

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Using QoS Classifiers To Configure QoS for Outbound Traffic QoS VLAN-ID (VID) Priority QoS Classifier Precedence: 5 The QoS VLAN-ID option supports up to 120 VLAN IDs (VIDs) as QoS classifiers, depending on rule use by other QoS options. Where a particular VLAN-ID classifier has the highest precedence in the switch for traffic in that VLAN, then traffic received in that VLAN is marked with the VID classifier’s configured priority level.

  • Page 237

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Using QoS Classifiers To Configure QoS for Outbound Traffic Syntax: vlan < vid > qos priority < 0 - 7 > Configures an 802.1p priority for outbound packets belonging to the specified VLAN. This priority determines the packet’s queue in the outbound port to which it is sent.

  • Page 238: Assigning A Dscp Policy Based On Vlan-id (vid)

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Using QoS Classifiers To Configure QoS for Outbound Traffic Figure 6-23. Configuring and Displaying QoS Priorities on VLANs If you then decided to remove VLAN_20 from QoS prioritization. In this instance, No- override indicates that VLAN 20 is not prioritized by QoS.

  • Page 239

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Using QoS Classifiers To Configure QoS for Outbound Traffic N o t e On switches covered in this guide, “mixing” ToS DSCP policies and 802.1p priorities is not recommended. Refer to the Note on page 6-10. For more on DSCP, refer to “Terminology”...

  • Page 240

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Using QoS Classifiers To Configure QoS for Outbound Traffic Syntax: vlan < vid > qos dscp < codepoint > Assigns a DSCP policy to packets carrying the specified IP address, and overwrites the DSCP in these packets with the assigned <...

  • Page 241

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Using QoS Classifiers To Configure QoS for Outbound Traffic Configure the priorities for the DSCPs you want to use. Priorities Configured in this step. Figure 6-26. Assign Priorities to the Selected DSCPs 3. Assign the DSCP policies to the selected VIDs and display the result.

  • Page 242: Qos Source-port Priority, Assigning A Priority Based On Source-port

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Using QoS Classifiers To Configure QoS for Outbound Traffic QoS Source-Port Priority QoS Classifier Precedence: 6 The QoS source-port option enables you to use a packet’s source-port on the switch as a QoS classifier. Where a particular source-port classifier has the highest precedence in the switch for traffic entering through that port, then traffic received from the port is marked with the source-port classifier’s configured priority level.

  • Page 243

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Using QoS Classifiers To Configure QoS for Outbound Traffic For example, suppose that you want to prioritize inbound traffic on the following source-ports: Source-Port Priority 1 - 3 5, 8 9 - 11 1. Execute the following commands to prioritize traffic received on the above ports.

  • Page 244: Assigning A Dscp Policy Based On The Source-port

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Using QoS Classifiers To Configure QoS for Outbound Traffic Assigning a DSCP Policy Based on the Source-Port This option assigns a previously configured DSCP policy (codepoint and 802.1p priority) to outbound IP packets (received from the specified source- ports).

  • Page 245

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Using QoS Classifiers To Configure QoS for Outbound Traffic N o t e A codepoint must have an 802.1p priority assignment (0 - 7) before you can configure that codepoint as a criteria for prioritizing packets by source-port. If a codepoint shows No-override in the Priority column of the DSCP Policy Table (show qos dscp-map), then you must assign a 0 - 7 priority before proceeding.

  • Page 246

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Using QoS Classifiers To Configure QoS for Outbound Traffic For example, suppose you wanted to assign this set of priorities: Source-Port DSCP Priority 000111 5 - 7 000101 8, 10 000010 1. Determine whether the DSCPs already have priority assignments, which could indicate use by existing applications.

  • Page 247

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Using QoS Classifiers To Configure QoS for Outbound Traffic Priorities Configured in this step. Figure 6-31. Assign Priorities to the Selected DSCPs 3. Assign the DSCP policies to the selected source-ports and display the result.

  • Page 248: Differentiated Services Codepoint (dscp) Mapping

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Using QoS Classifiers To Configure QoS for Outbound Traffic Differentiated Services Codepoint (DSCP) Mapping The DSCP Policy Table associates an 802.1p priority with a specific ToS byte codepoint in an IPv4 packet. This enables you to set a LAN policy that operates independently of 802.1Q VLAN-tagging.

  • Page 249: Default Priority Settings For Selected Codepoints

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Using QoS Classifiers To Configure QoS for Outbound Traffic Table 6-11.The Default DSCP Policy Table DSCP 802.1p Priority DSCP 802.1p Priority DSCP 802.1p Priority Policy Policy Policy 000000 No-override 010110 101011 No-override 000001 No-override 010111...

  • Page 250: Quickly Listing Non-default Codepoint Settings

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Using QoS Classifiers To Configure QoS for Outbound Traffic Quickly Listing Non-Default Codepoint Settings Table 6-11 lists the switch’s default codepoint/priority settings. If you change the priority of any codepoint setting to a non-default value and then execute write memory, the switch will list the non-default setting in the show config display.

  • Page 251: Effect Of "no-override", Note On Changing A Priority Setting, Effect Of "no-override

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Using QoS Classifiers To Configure QoS for Outbound Traffic Effect of “No-override” In the QoS Type-of-Service differentiated services mode, a No-override assignment for the codepoint of an outbound packet means that QoS is effectively disabled for such packets.

  • Page 252: Example Of Changing The Priority Setting On A Policy When One Or More Classifiers Are Currently Using The Policy

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Using QoS Classifiers To Configure QoS for Outbound Traffic Example of Changing the Priority Setting on a Policy When One or More Classifiers Are Currently Using the Policy Suppose that codepoint 000001 is in use by one or more classifiers. If you try to change its priority, you see a result similar to the following: Figure 6-34.

  • Page 253

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Using QoS Classifiers To Configure QoS for Outbound Traffic Three classifiers use the codepoint that is to be changed. Two classifiers do not use the codepoint that is to be changed. Figure 6-35. Example of a Search to Identify Classifiers Using a Codepoint You Want To Change 2. Change the classifier configurations by assigning them to a different DSCP policy, or to an 802.1p priority, or to No-override.

  • Page 254

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively Using QoS Classifiers To Configure QoS for Outbound Traffic c. Assign the port-priority classifier to the new DSCP policy. d. Assign the udp-port 1260 classifier to an 802.1p priority. 3. Reconfigure the desired priority for the 000001 codepoint. ProCurve(config)# qos dscp-map 000001 priority 4 4. You could now re-assign the classifiers to the original policy codepoint or leave them as currently configured.

  • Page 255: Ip Multicast (igmp) Interaction With Qos, Qos Messages In The Cli

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively IP Multicast (IGMP) Interaction with QoS IP Multicast (IGMP) Interaction with IGMP high-priority-forward causes the switch to service the subscribed IP multicast group traffic at high priority, even if QoS on the switch has relegated the traffic to a lower priority.

  • Page 256: Qos Operating Notes And Restrictions

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively QoS Operating Notes and Restrictions QoS Operating Notes and Restrictions Table 6-12. Details of Packet Criteria and Restrictions for QoS Support Packet Criteria or QoS Classifiers DSCP Overwrite Restriction UDP/TCP Device IP Type-of- VLAN Source Incoming...

  • Page 257

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively QoS Operating Notes and Restrictions Maximum QoS Configuration Entries: The switches covered in this ■ guide accept the maximum outbound priority and/or DSCP policy config­ uration entries of 128 rules per QoS feature. Attempting to exceed the above limits generates the following message in the CLI: Unable to add this QoS rule.

  • Page 258

    Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively QoS Operating Notes and Restrictions 6-68...

  • Page 259

    IP Routing Features Contents Overview of IP Routing ......... . 7-3 IP Interfaces .

  • Page 260: Table Of Contents

    IP Routing Features Contents Enabling IRDP Globally ........7-23 Enabling IRDP on an Individual VLAN Interface .

  • Page 261: Overview Of Ip Routing, Ip Interfaces

    IP Routing Features Overview of IP Routing Overview of IP Routing The switches covered in this guide offer IP static routing, supporting up to 16 static routes. IP static routing is configurable through the switch’s console CLI. This chapter refers the switch as a “routing switch”. When IP routing is enabled on your switch, it behaves just like any other IP router.

  • Page 262: Ip Tables And Caches, Arp Cache Table

    IP Routing Features Overview of IP Routing N o t e Your ProCurve switch supports IP addresses in classical sub-net format, which includes the IP address and the subnet mask (example: 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0), and Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR) format (example: 192.168.1.1/24). You can use either format when configuring IP address information.

  • Page 263: Ip Route Table, Ip Forwarding Cache

    IP Routing Features Overview of IP Routing IP Route Table The IP route table contains routing paths to IP destinations. N o t e The default gateway, which is configured as part of the IP address configura­ tion described in chapter 7, “IP Addressing”, is used only when routing is not enabled on the switch.

  • Page 264: Ip Global Parameters For Routing Switches

    IP Routing Features Overview of IP Routing If the cache contains an entry with the destination IP address, the device ■ uses the information in the entry to forward the packet out the ports listed in the entry. The destination IP address is the address of the packet’s final destination.

  • Page 265: Ip Interface Parameters For Routing Switches

    IP Routing Features Overview of IP Routing Parameter Description Default See page ICMP Router An IP protocol that a router can use to advertise the IP addresses of its Disabled 7-22 Discovery router interfaces to directly attached hosts. You can enable or disable Protocol (IRDP) the protocol at the Global CLI Config level.

  • Page 266: Configuring Ip Parameters For Routing Switches, Configuring Ip Addresses, Configuring Arp Parameters, How Arp Works

    IP Routing Features Configuring IP Parameters for Routing Switches Configuring IP Parameters for Routing Switches The following sections describe how to configure IP parameters. Some param­ eters can be configured globally while others can be configured on individual VLAN interfaces. Some parameters can be configured globally and overridden for individual VLAN interfaces.

  • Page 267

    IP Routing Features Configuring IP Parameters for Routing Switches table or forwarding cache. The routing switch needs to know the MAC address that corresponds with the IP address of either the packet’s locally attached destination or the next-hop router that leads to the destination. For example, to forward a packet whose destination is multiple router hops away, the routing switch must send the packet to the next-hop router toward its destination, or to a default route or default network route if the IP route...

  • Page 268: Changing The Arp Aging Period

    IP Routing Features Configuring IP Parameters for Routing Switches routers, including ProCurve routing switches, can be configured to reply to ARP requests from one network on behalf of devices on another network. See “Enabling Proxy ARP” below. N o t e If the routing switch receives an ARP request packet that it is unable to deliver to the final destination because of the ARP timeout and no ARP response is received (the routing switch knows of no route to the destination address),...

  • Page 269

    IP Routing Features Configuring IP Parameters for Routing Switches ProCurve(config)# show ip Internet (IP) Service IP Routing : Disabled Default Gateway : 15.255.120.1 Default TTL : 64 Arp Age : 1000 Domain Suffix DNS server VLAN | IP Config IP Address Subnet Mask Proxy ARP -------------------- + ---------- --------------- --------------- ---------...

  • Page 270: Enabling Proxy Arp

    IP Routing Features Configuring IP Parameters for Routing Switches You can set or display the arp-age value using the menu interface (Menu > Switch Configuration > IP Config). ProCurve 12-June-2007 14:45:31 ===========================- TELNET - MANAGER MODE ====================== Switch Configuration - Internet (IP) Service IP Routing : Disabled Default Gateway : 15.255.120.1 Default TTL...

  • Page 271: Configuring Forwarding Parameters, Enabling Forwarding Of Directed Broadcasts

    IP Routing Features Configuring IP Parameters for Routing Switches An ARP request from one subnet can reach another subnet when both subnets are on the same physical segment (Ethernet cable), since MAC-layer broad­ casts reach all the devices on the segment. Proxy ARP is disabled by default on ProCurve routing switches.

  • Page 272: Configuring Icmp, Disabling Icmp Messages

    IP Routing Features Configuring IP Parameters for Routing Switches To enable forwarding of IP directed broadcasts, enter the following CLI command: ProCurve(config)# ip directed-broadcast Syntax: [no] ip directed-broadcast ProCurve software makes the forwarding decision based on the routing switch's knowledge of the destination network prefix. Routers cannot deter­ mine that a message is unicast or directed broadcast apart from the destina­...

  • Page 273: Disabling Replies To Broadcast Ping Requests, Disabling Icmp Destination Unreachable Messages

    IP Routing Features Configuring IP Parameters for Routing Switches Disabling Replies to Broadcast Ping Requests By default, ProCurve devices are enabled to respond to broadcast ICMP echo packets, which are ping requests. You can disable response to ping requests on a global basis using the following CLI method. To disable response to broadcast ICMP echo packets (ping requests), enter the following command: ProCurve(config)# no ip icmp echo broadcast-request...

  • Page 274: Disabling Icmp Redirects, Configuring Static Ip Routes

    IP Routing Features Configuring Static IP Routes Protocol – The TCP or UDP protocol on the destination host is not ■ running. This message is different from the Port Unreachable message, which indicates that the protocol is running on the host but the requested protocol port is unavailable.

  • Page 275: Static Route Types, Static Ip Route Parameters, Static Route States Follow Vlan (interface) States

    IP Routing Features Configuring Static IP Routes Default network route – This is a specific static route that the routing ■ switch uses if other routes to the destination are not available. Refer to “Configuring the Default Route” in the chapter titled “IP Routing Features” in the Management and Configuration Guide for your switch.

  • Page 276: Configuring A Static Ip Route, Configuring The Default Route

    IP Routing Features Configuring Static IP Routes This feature allows the routing switch to adjust to changes in network topology. The routing switch does not continue trying to use routes on unavailable paths but instead uses routes only when their paths are available. Configuring a Static IP Route To configure an static IP route with a destination network of 192.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 and a next-hop router IP address of 195.1.1.1, you would...

  • Page 277: Configuring A "null" Route, Displaying Static Route Information

    IP Routing Features Configuring Static IP Routes Configuring a “Null” Route You can configure the routing switch to drop IP packets to a specific network or host address by configuring a “null” static route for the address. When the routing switch receives a packet destined for the address, the routing switch drops the packet instead of forwarding it.

  • Page 278

    IP Routing Features Configuring Static IP Routes For example, Figure 7-7 illustrates a routing topology with two possible gateways to support a static route from switch “A” to the 10.31.224.0 network in switch “C”. In this example, a static route to Switch “A”...

  • Page 279

    IP Routing Features Configuring Static IP Routes Default Loopback Network Default Loopback Interface Configured Static Route Default Null Route Destinations Directly Connected to the Switch Lists the Data for the Specified Route Figure 7-8. Examples of the Show IP Route Command 7-21...

  • Page 280: Configuring Irdp

    IP Routing Features Configuring IRDP Configuring IRDP The ICMP Router Discovery Protocol (IRDP) is used by ProCurve routing switches to advertise the IP addresses of its router interfaces to directly attached hosts. IRDP is enabled by default. You can enable the feature on a global basis or on an individual VLAN interface basis.

  • Page 281: Enabling Irdp Globally, Enabling Irdp On An Individual Vlan Interface

    IP Routing Features Configuring IRDP messages from other routers at the same time. The interval on each IRDP- enabled routing switch interface is independent of the interval on other IRDP-enabled interfaces. The default maximum message interval is 600 seconds. The default minimum message interval is 450 seconds. ■...

  • Page 282

    IP Routing Features Configuring IRDP Syntax: [no] ip irdp Enables or disables (the default) ip irdp on the specified VLAN. [broadcast | multicast] This parameter specifies the packet type the routing switch uses to send the Router Advertisement: broadcast - The routing switch sends Router Advertisements as IP broadcasts.

  • Page 283: Displaying Irdp Information

    IP Routing Features Configuring IRDP [ minadvertinterval < seconds > ] This parameter specifies the minimum amount of time the routing switch can wait between sending Router Advertisements. Default: three-fourths (0.75) the value of the maxadvertinterval parameter. If you change the maxadvertinterval parameter, the software automatically adjusts the minadvertinterval parameter to be three-fourths the new value of the maxadvertinterval parameter.

  • Page 284: Dhcp Packet Forwarding, Overview, Unicast Forwarding, Broadcast Forwarding, Configuring Dhcp Relay

    IP Routing Features Configuring DHCP Relay Configuring DHCP Relay Overview The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is used for configuring hosts with IP address and other configuration parameters without human intervention. The protocol is composed of three components: the DHCP client, the DHCP server, and the DHCP relay agent.

  • Page 285: Minimum Requirements For Dhcp Relay Operation, Enabling Dhcp Relay, Configuring A Helper Address

    IP Routing Features Configuring DHCP Relay Minimum Requirements for DHCP Relay Operation In order for the DHCP Relay agent to work, the following steps must be completed: 1. DHCP Relay is enabled on the routing switch 2. A DHCP server is servicing the routing switch 3. IP Routing is enabled on the routing switch 4. There is a route from the DHCP server to the routing switch and back 5. An IP Helper address is configured on the routing switch, set to the IP...

  • Page 286: Dhcp Option 82, Dhcp Option

    IP Routing Features Configuring DHCP Relay DHCP Option 82 DHCP operation modifies client IP address request packets to the extent needed to forward the packets to a DHCP server. Option 82 enhances this operation by enabling the routing switch to append an Option 82 field to such client requests.

  • Page 287: Option 82 Server Support, Terminology

    IP Routing Features Configuring DHCP Relay However, Option 82 relay agents should be positioned at the DHCP policy boundaries in a network to provide maximum support and security for the IP addressing policies configured in the server. Option 82 Server Support To apply DHCP Option 82, the routing switch must operate in conjunction with a server that supports Option 82.

  • Page 288: General Dhcp Option 82 Requirements And Operation

    IP Routing Features Configuring DHCP Relay DHCP Policy Boundary: For Option 82 applications, an area of a network as defined by connection to a given routing switch or subnet and/or a specific port belonging to the routing switch or subnet. DHCP relay agent: See Relay Agent.

  • Page 289

    IP Routing Features Configuring DHCP Relay routing switch access to an Option 82 DHCP server on a different ■ subnet than the clients requesting DHCP Option 82 support one IP Helper address configured on each VLAN supporting DHCP ■ clients General DHCP-Relay Operation with Option 82.

  • Page 290: Option 82 Field Content

    IP Routing Features Configuring DHCP Relay Option 82 Field Content The Remote ID and Circuit ID subfields comprise the Option 82 field a relay agent appends to client requests. A DHCP server configured to apply a different IP addressing policy to different areas of a network uses the values in these subfields to determine which DHCP policy to apply to a given client request.

  • Page 291

    IP Routing Features Configuring DHCP Relay Circuit ID: This nonconfigurable subfield identifies the port number ■ of the physical port through which the routing switch received a given DHCP client request, and is necessary to identify if you want to configure an Option 82 DHCP server to use the Circuit ID to select a DHCP policy to assign to clients connected to the port.

  • Page 292: Forwarding Policies

    IP Routing Features Configuring DHCP Relay For example, suppose you wanted port 10 on a given relay agent to support no more than five DHCP clients simultaneously, you could configure the server to allow only five IP addressing assignments at any one time for the circuit ID (port) and remote ID (MAC address) corresponding to port 10 on the selected relay agent.

  • Page 293: Multiple Option 82 Relay Agents In A Client Request Path

    IP Routing Features Configuring DHCP Relay Option 82 DHCP Client Request Packet Inbound to the Routing Switch Configuration Packet Has No Packet Includes an Option 82 Field Option 82 Field Replace Append an Replace replaces any existing Option 82 fields from downstream relay agents (and/ or the originating client) with an Option 82 field for the current relay agent..

  • Page 294: Validation Of Server Response Packets

    IP Routing Features Configuring DHCP Relay the next two relay agent hops (“B” and “C”). The server can then enforce an IP addressing policy based on the Option 82 field generated by the edge relay agent (“A”). In this example, the DHCP policy boundary is at relay agent 1. Relay Agent “A”...

  • Page 295

    IP Routing Features Configuring DHCP Relay Server response validation is an option you can specify when configuring Option 82 DHCP for append, replace, or drop operation. (Refer to “Forwarding Policies” on page 7-34.) Enabling validation on the routing switch can enhance protection against DHCP server responses that are either from untrusted sources or are carrying invalid Option 82 information.

  • Page 296: Multinetted Vlans, Configuring Option 82 Operation On The Routing Switch

    IP Routing Features Configuring DHCP Relay Multinetted VLANs On a multinetted VLAN, each interface can form an Option 82 policy boundary within that VLAN if the routing switch is configured to use IP for the remote ID suboption. That is, if the routing switch is configured with IP as the remote ID option and a DHCP client request packet is received on a multinetted VLAN, the IP address used in the Option 82 field will identify the subnet on which the packet was received instead of the primary IP address for the VLAN.

  • Page 297

    IP Routing Features Configuring DHCP Relay drop: Configures the routing switch to unconditionally drop any client DHCP packet received with existing Option 82 field(s). This means that such packets will not be forwarded. Use this option where access to the routing switch by untrusted clients is possible.

  • Page 298

    IP Routing Features Configuring DHCP Relay Operating Notes This implementation of DHCP relay with Option 82 complies with the ■ following RFCs: • RFC 2131 • RFC 3046 Moving a client to a different port allows the client to continue ■...

  • Page 299

    IP Routing Features Configuring DHCP Relay Relay agents without Option 82 can exist in the path between Option ■ 82 relay agents and an Option 82 server. The agents without Option 82 will forward client requests and server responses without any effect on Option 82 fields in the packets.

  • Page 300: Udp Broadcast Forwarding, Overview

    IP Routing Features UDP Broadcast Forwarding UDP Broadcast Forwarding Overview Some applications rely on client requests sent as limited IP broadcasts addressed to a UDP application port. If a server for the application receives such a broadcast, the server can reply to the client. Since typical router behavior, by default, does not allow broadcast forwarding, a client’s UDP broadcast requests cannot reach a target server on a different subnet unless the router is configured to forward client UDP broadcasts to that server.

  • Page 301: Subnet Masking For Udp Forwarding Addresses

    IP Routing Features UDP Broadcast Forwarding Table 7-5. Example of a UDP Packet-Forwarding Environment Interface Subnet Forwarding Notes Address Mask Address Port VLAN 1 15.75.10.1 255.255.255.0 15.75.11.43 1188 Unicast address for forwarding inbound UDP packets with UDP port 1188 to a specific device on VLAN 2. 15.75.11.255 1812 Broadcast address for forwarding inbound UDP packets with UDP port 1812 to any device in the 15.75.11.0 network.

  • Page 302: Configuring And Enabling Udp Broadcast Forwarding, Globally Enabling Udp Broadcast Forwarding

    IP Routing Features UDP Broadcast Forwarding Configuring and Enabling UDP Broadcast Forwarding To configure and enable UDP broadcast forwarding on the switch: 1. Enable routing. 2. Globally enable UDP broadcast forwarding. 3. On a per-VLAN basis, configure a forwarding address and UDP port type for each type of incoming UDP broadcast you want routed to other VLANs.

  • Page 303

    IP Routing Features UDP Broadcast Forwarding — Continued from the preceding page. — < ip-address >: This can be either of the following: • The unicast address of a destination server on another subnet. For example: 15.75.10.43. • The broadcast address of the subnet on which a destination server operates.

  • Page 304: Displaying The Current Ip Forward-protocol Configuration

    IP Routing Features UDP Broadcast Forwarding Displaying the Current IP Forward-Protocol Configuration Syntax show ip forward-protocol [ vlan < vid >] Displays the current status of UDP broadcast forwarding and lists the UDP forwarding address(es) configured on all static VLANS in the switch or on a specific VLAN. Global Display Showing UDP Broadcast Forwarding Status and Configured Forwarding...

  • Page 305: Operating Notes For Udp Broadcast Forwarding, Messages Related To Udp Broadcast Forwarding

    IP Routing Features UDP Broadcast Forwarding Operating Notes for UDP Broadcast Forwarding Maximum Number of Entries. The number of UDP broadcast entries and IP helper addresses combined can be up to 16 per VLAN, with an overall maximum of 2048 on the switch. (IP helper addresses are used with the switch’s DHCP Relay operation.

  • Page 306

    IP Routing Features UDP Broadcast Forwarding 7-48...

  • Page 307: Table Of Contents

    ProCurve Stack Management Contents Overview ............8-3 Operation .

  • Page 308

    ProCurve Stack Management Contents Using the CLI To Disable or Re-Enable Stacking ....8-46 Transmission Interval ........8-46 Stacking Operation with Multiple VLANs Configured .

  • Page 309

    ProCurve Stack Management Overview Overview This chapter describes how to use your network to stack switches without the need for any specialized cabling. For an overview of stacking features, refer to the table on page 8-4. For general information on how to use the switch’s built-in interfaces, see: ■...

  • Page 310

    ProCurve Stack Management Operation Operation Stacking Features Feature Default Menu view stack status view status of a single switch n/a page 8-27 page 8-32 page 8-46 thru page 8-29 view candidate status n/a page 8-32 view status of commander and its n/a page 8-33 stack...

  • Page 311: Which Devices Support Stacking?, Which Devices Support Stacking

    ProCurve Stack Management Operation Simplify management of small workgroups or wiring closets while ■ scaling your network to handle increased bandwidth demand. Eliminate any specialized cables for stacking connectivity and ■ remove the distance barriers that typically limit your topology options when using other stacking technologies.

  • Page 312: Components Of Procurve Stack Management, General Stacking Operation

    ProCurve Stack Management Operation Components of ProCurve Stack Management Table 8-1. Stacking Definitions Stack Consists of a Commander switch and any Member switches belonging to that Commander’s stack. Commander A switch that has been manually configured as the controlling device for a stack. When this occurs, the Commander switch’s stacking configuration appears as Candidate...

  • Page 313: Operating Rules For Stacking, General Rules

    ProCurve Stack Management Operation Use the Commander’s console or web Wiring Closet "A" browser interface to access the user Member Switch 1 Candidate Switch interface on any Member switch in IP Address: None Assigned IP Address: None Assigned the same stack. Network Manager Password: leader Manager Password: francois...

  • Page 314: Specific Rules

    ProCurve Stack Management Operation If multiple VLANs are configured, stacking uses only the primary ■ VLAN on any switch. In the factory-default configuration, the DEFAULT_VLAN is the primary VLAN. (See “Stacking Operation with Multiple VLANs Configured” on page 8-45 and “The Primary VLAN” on page 2-7.) Stacking allows intermediate devices that do not support stacking.

  • Page 315

    ProCurve Stack Management Operation IP Addressing and Number Allowed Passwords SNMP Communities Stack Name Per Stack Member IP Addr: Optional. Up to 15 Members When the switch joins the Belongs to the same SNMP Configuring an IP per stack. stack, it automatically communities as the address allows access assumes the Commander’s...

  • Page 316: Configuring Stack Management, Overview Of Configuring And Bringing Up A Stack

    ProCurve Stack Management Configuring Stack Management Configuring Stack Management Overview of Configuring and Bringing Up a Stack This process assumes that: ■ All switches you want to include in a stack are connected to the same subnet (broadcast domain). If VLANs are enabled on the switches you want to include in the stack, ■...

  • Page 317

    ProCurve Stack Management Configuring Stack Management Table 8-3. Stacking Configuration Guide Join Method Commander Candidate (IP Addressing Required) (IP Addressing Optional) Auto Grab Auto Join Passwords Automatically add Candidate to Stack (default) No (default) (Causes the first 15 eligible, discovered switches in the subnet to automatically join a stack.) Manually add Candidate to Stack...

  • Page 318: General Steps For Creating A Stack

    ProCurve Stack Management Configuring Stack Management General Steps for Creating a Stack This section describes the general stack creation process. For the detailed configuration processes, see pages 8-13 through 8-37 for the menu interface and pages 8-30 through 8-42 for the CLI. 1. Determine the naming conventions for the stack.

  • Page 319: Configure Stacking, Commander Switch, Using The Menu Interface To View Stack Status And Configure Stacking

    ProCurve Stack Management Configuring Stack Management join the stack, assign IP addresses to these devices. Otherwise, IP addressing is optional for Candidates and Members. (Note that once a Candidate becomes a member, you can access it through the Commander to assign IP addressing or make other configuration changes.) 4. Make a record of any Manager passwords assigned to the switches (intended for your stack) that are not currently members.

  • Page 320

    ProCurve Stack Management Configuring Stack Management Figure 8-5. The Default Stacking Menu to select Stack 3. Display the Stack Configuration menu by pressing Configuration. Figure 8-6. The Default Stack Configuration Screen (for Edit). Then 4. Move the cursor to the Stack State field by pressing use the Space bar to select the Commander option.

  • Page 321: Using The Menu To Manage A Candidate Switch

    ProCurve Stack Management Configuring Stack Management Figure 8-7. The Default Commander Configuration in the Stack Configuration Screen 6. Enter a unique stack name (up to 15 characters; no spaces) and press the downarrow key. 7. Ensure that the Commander has the desired Auto Grab setting, then press the downarrow key: No (the default) prevents automatic joining of Candidates that •...

  • Page 322

    ProCurve Stack Management Configuring Stack Management Convert the Candidate to a Commander ■ ■ Disable stacking on the Candidate so that it operates as a standalone switch In its default stacking configuration, a Candidate switch can either automati­ cally join a stack or be manually added (“pulled”) into a stack by a Commander, depending on the Commander’s Auto Grab setting.

  • Page 323

    ProCurve Stack Management Configuring Stack Management Figure 8-8. The Default Stack Configuration Screen (for Edit). 3. Move the cursor to the Stack State field by pressing 4. Do one of the following: • To disable stacking on the Candidate, use the Space bar to select the Disabled option, then go to step 5.

  • Page 324: Using The Commander To Manage The Stack

    ProCurve Stack Management Configuring Stack Management 5. press to return the cursor to the Actions line. [Enter] (for Save) to save your configuration changes and return to the 6. Press Stacking menu. Using the Commander To Manage The Stack The Commander normally operates as your stack manager and point of entry into other switches in the stack.

  • Page 325

    ProCurve Stack Management Configuring Stack Management For status descriptions, see the table on page 8-47. Figure 8-9. Example of the Stack Management Screen (for Add) to add a Candidate. You will then see this screen listing 2. Press the available Candidates: The Commander automatically selects an available switch number (SN).

  • Page 326

    ProCurve Stack Management Configuring Stack Management • If the desired Candidate has a Manager password, press the downarrow key to move the cursor to the Candidate Password field, then type the password. • If the desired Candidate does not have a password, go to step 6. 6. Press to return to the Actions line, then press (for Save) to...

  • Page 327

    ProCurve Stack Management Configuring Stack Management 2. To learn or verify the MAC address of the Member you want to move, display a listing of all Commanders, Members, and Candidates in the subnet by selecting: 2. Stacking Status (All) You will then see the Stacking Status (All) screen: For status descriptions, see the table on page 8-47.

  • Page 328

    ProCurve Stack Management Configuring Stack Management 7. Use the downarrow key to move the cursor to the MAC Address field, then type the MAC address of the desired Member you want to move from another stack. 8. Do one of the following: •...

  • Page 329

    ProCurve Stack Management Configuring Stack Management To remove a Member from a stack, use the Stack Management screen. 1. From the Main Menu, select: 9. Stacking... 4. Stack Management You will then see the Stack Management screen: For status descriptions, see the table on page 8-47.

  • Page 330: Using The Commander To Access Member Switches For Configuration Changes And Monitoring Traffic

    ProCurve Stack Management Configuring Stack Management 4. To continue deleting the selected Member, press the Space bar once to select Yes for the prompt, then press to complete the deletion. The [Enter] Stack Management screen updates to show the new stack Member list. Using the Commander To Access Member Switches for Configuration Changes and Monitoring Traffic After a Candidate becomes a stack Member, you can use that stack’s...

  • Page 331: Another Stack, Converting A Commander Or Member To A Member Of Another Stack

    ProCurve Stack Management Configuring Stack Management Main Menu for stack Member named “Coral Sea” (SN = 1 from figure 8-16) Figure 8-17. T he eXecute Command Displays the Console Main Menu for the Selected Stack Member 2. You can now make configuration changes and/or view status data for the selected Member in the same way that you would if you were directly connected or telnetted into the switch.

  • Page 332: Monitoring Stack Status

    ProCurve Stack Management Configuring Stack Management 4. To display Stack Configuration menu for the switch you are moving, select 3. Stack Configuration (for Edit) to select the Stack State parameter. 5. Press 6. Use the Space bar to select Member, then press [v] to move to the Com­ mander MAC Address field.

  • Page 333

    ProCurve Stack Management Configuring Stack Management Using Any Stacked Switch To View the Status for All Switches with Stacking Enabled. This procedure displays the general status of all switches in the IP subnet (broadcast domain) that have stacking enabled. 1. Go to the console Main Menu for any switch configured for stacking and select: 9.

  • Page 334

    ProCurve Stack Management Configuring Stack Management Figure 8-19. Example of the Commander’s Stacking Status Screen Viewing Member Status. This procedure displays the Member’s stacking information plus the Commander’s status, IP address, and MAC address. To display the status for a Member: 1. Go to the console Main Menu of the Commander switch and select 9.

  • Page 335

    ProCurve Stack Management Configuring Stack Management Figure 8-20. Example of a Member’s Stacking Status Screen Viewing Candidate Status. This procedure displays the Candidate’s stacking configuration. To display the status for a Candidate: 1. Use Telnet (if the Candidate has a valid IP address for your network) or a direct serial port connection to access the menu interface Main Menu for the Candidate switch and select 9.

  • Page 336: Using The Cli To View Stack Status And Configure Stacking

    ProCurve Stack Management Configuring Stack Management Using the CLI To View Stack Status and Configure Stacking The CLI enables you to do all of the stacking tasks available through the menu interface.) Table 8-6. CLI Commands for Configuring Stacking on a Switch CLI Command Operation show stack...

  • Page 337

    ProCurve Stack Management Configuring Stack Management CLI Command Operation [no] stack member Commander: Adds a Candidate to stack membership. “No” form removes a Member from stack membership. To easily determine the MAC address of a <switch-num> Candidate, use the show stack candidates command. To determine the MAC mac-address <mac-addr>...

  • Page 338: Using The Cli To View Stack Status

    ProCurve Stack Management Configuring Stack Management Using the CLI To View Stack Status You can list the stack status for an individual switch and for other switches that have been discovered in the same subnet. Syntax: show stack [candidates | view | all] Viewing the Status of an Individual Switch.

  • Page 339

    ProCurve Stack Management Configuring Stack Management Viewing the Status of all Stack-Enabled Switches Discovered in the IP Subnet. The next example lists all the stack-configured switches discovered in the IP subnet. Because the switch on which the show stack all command was executed is a candidate, it is included in the “Others”...

  • Page 340: Using The Cli To Configure A Commander Switch

    ProCurve Stack Management Configuring Stack Management Using the CLI To Configure a Commander Switch You can configure any stacking-enabled switch to be a Commander as long as the intended stack name does not already exist on the broadcast domain. (When you configure a Commander, you automatically create a corresponding stack.) Before you begin configuring stacking parameters: 1. Configure IP addressing on the switch intended for stack commander and,...

  • Page 341

    ProCurve Stack Management Configuring Stack Management The stack commander command configures the Commander and names the stack. The Commander appears in the stack as Switch Number (SN) 0. Figure 8-26. E xample of the Commander’s Show Stack Screen with Only the Commander Discovered Using a Member’s CLI to Convert the Member to the Commander of a New Stack.

  • Page 342: Adding To A Stack Or Moving Switches Between Stacks

    ProCurve Stack Management Configuring Stack Management The output from this command tells you the MAC address of the current stack Commander. Removes the Member from the “Big_Waters” stack. Converts the former Member to the Com­ mander of the new “Lakes” stack. Figure 8-27.

  • Page 343

    ProCurve Stack Management Configuring Stack Management Using the Commander’s CLI To Manually Add a Candidate to the Stack. To manually add a candidate, you will use: ■ A switch number (SN) to assign to the new member. Member SNs range from 1 to 15.

  • Page 344

    ProCurve Stack Management Configuring Stack Management For example, if the ProCurve 8000M in the above listing did not have a Manager password and you wanted to make it a stack Member with an , you would execute the following command: ProCurve(config)# stack member 2 mac-address 0060b0­...

  • Page 345

    ProCurve Stack Management Configuring Stack Management Using a Candidate CLI To Manually “Push” the Candidate Into a Stack . Use this method if any of the following apply: The Candidate’s Auto Join is set to Yes (and you do not want to enable Auto ■...

  • Page 346

    ProCurve Stack Management Configuring Stack Management Syntax: stack member < switch-number > mac-address < mac-addr > [ password < password-str >] In the destination Commander, use show stack all to find the MAC address of the Member you want to pull into the destination stack. For example, suppose you created a new Commander with a stack name of “Cold_Waters”...

  • Page 347: Using The Cli To Remove A Member From A Stack

    ProCurve Stack Management Configuring Stack Management Syntax: no stack name < stack name> stack join < mac-address > If you don’t know the MAC address of the destination Commander, you can to identify it. show stack all For example, suppose you have a switch operating as the Commander for a temporary stack named “Test”.

  • Page 348

    ProCurve Stack Management Configuring Stack Management Use show stack view to list the stack Members. For example, suppose that you wanted to use the Commander to remove the “North Sea” Member from the following stack: Remove this Member from the stack. Figure 8-34.

  • Page 349: Changes And Traffic Monitoring

    ProCurve Stack Management Configuring Stack Management You would then execute this command in the “North Sea” switch’s CLI to remove the switch from the stack: North Sea(config)# no stack join 0030c1-7fec40 Using the CLI To Access Member Switches for Configuration Changes and Traffic Monitoring After a Candidate becomes a Member, you can use the telnet command from the Commander to access the Member’s CLI or console interface for the same...

  • Page 350: Snmp Community Operation In A Stack

    ProCurve Stack Management Configuring Stack Management SNMP Community Operation in a Stack Community Membership In the default stacking configuration, when a Candidate joins a stack, it automatically becomes a Member of any SNMP community to which the Commander belongs, even though any community names configured in the Commander are not propagated to the Member’s SNMP Communities listing.

  • Page 351: Using The Cli To Disable Or Re-enable Stacking, Transmission Interval

    ProCurve Stack Management Configuring Stack Management Note that in the above example (figure 8-37) you cannot use the public community through the Commander to access any of the Member switches. For example, you can use the public community to access the MIB in switches 1 and 3 by using their unique IP addresses.

  • Page 352: Web: Viewing And Configuring Stacking

    ProCurve Stack Management Configuring Stack Management When using stacking in a multiple-VLAN environment, the following criteria applies: Stacking uses only the primary VLAN on each switch in a stack. ■ ■ The primary VLAN can be tagged or untagged as needed in the stacking path from switch to switch.

  • Page 353: Status Messages

    ProCurve Stack Management Configuring Stack Management Status Messages Stacking screens and listings display these status messages: Message Condition Action or Remedy Candidate Auto-join Indicates a switch configured with Stack State set to None required Candidate, Auto Join set to (the default), and no Manager password.

  • Page 354

    ProCurve Stack Management Configuring Stack Management 8-48...

  • Page 355

    Index Numerics 802.1p priority (QoS) caches definition … 6-6 ARP … 7-4 802.1Q VLAN standard … 5-7 IP forwarding … 7-5 802.1w as a region … 5-54 CIDR … 7-8 CLI configuring RSTP … 5-14 configuration … 5-9, 5-50, 7-19 active path …...

  • Page 356

    DHCP-Relay advertisement, responses to … 3-5 operation with Option 82 … 7-31 advertisements, generating … 3-10 directed broadcasts … 7-13 auto option … 3-9 disclaimer … 1-ii benefit … 3-3 displaying information block … 3-7 IRDP … 7-25 CLI, configuring … 3-13 domain …...

  • Page 357

    configuration … 4-11 interface parameters … 7-7 configure per VLAN … 4-5 IRDP configuration … 7-22 data-driven … 4-15 null static route … 7-19 delayed group flush … 4-17 overview … 7-3 Exclude Source … 4-13 parameter configuring … 7-8 Fast-Leave …...

  • Page 358

    multiple … 2-10 downstream device, defined … 6-6 multiple forwarding database … 2-10 DSCP policy, defined … 6-6 DSCP, defined … 6-6 inbound port, defined … 6-6 outbound port, defined … 6-6 notes on using VLANs … 2-10 upstream device, defined … 6-7 notices …...

  • Page 359

    quick start … 1-5 802.1Q standard … 5-7 802.1s See spanning tree, 802.1s. blocked link … 5-10, 5-52 reboot … 3-10 blocked port … 5-9, 5-50 redundant path … 5-9, 5-50 BPDU … 5-7 spanning tree … 5-9 broadcast storm … 5-5, 5-11 region …...

  • Page 360

    activation … 5-60 frame duplication and misordering … 5-55 active path … 5-50 general operation … 5-5, 5-46 active paths … 5-54 GVRP … 5-48, 5-55 bandwidth loss … 5-51 hello-time, CIST root, propagated … 5-54, 5-62 blocked traffic … 5-51 hello-time, override …...

  • Page 361

    rapid state transitions … 5-55, 5-57 VLAN, change instance … 5-58 redundant links … 5-51 VLAN, configuration error … 5-81 region … 5-5, 5-47, 5-48 VLAN, connectivity between regions … 5-54 region name … 5-53, 5-60 VLAN, duplicate or missing packets … 5-81 region root switch …...

  • Page 362

    configure … 7-44 primary VLAN … 2-7 global enable … 7-44 primary, CLI command … 2-22, 2-26 invalid entry … 7-43 primary, select in menu … 2-16 IP helper address, effect … 7-42 primary, web configure … 2-29 maximum entries … 7-42 primary, with DHCP …...

  • Page 364

    © Copyright 2007 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. December 2007 Manual Part Number 5991-8641...

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