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Honeywell AUTOMATIC CONTROL SI Edition Engineering Manual

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E
M
NGINEERING
ANUAL of
AUTOMATIC
CONTROL
for
C
B
OMMERCIAL
UILDINGS
SI Edition

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   Summary of Contents for Honeywell AUTOMATIC CONTROL SI Edition

  • Page 1

    NGINEERING ANUAL of AUTOMATIC CONTROL OMMERCIAL UILDINGS SI Edition...

  • Page 2

    Copyright 1989, 1995, and 1997 by Honeywell Inc. All rights reserved. This manual or portions thereof may not be reporduced in any form without permission of Honeywell Inc. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 97-77856 Home and Building Control Home and Building Control Honeywell Asia Pacific Inc.

  • Page 3

    Consideration of configuration, functionality, and integration plays a significant role in the design of building control systems. Through the years Honeywell has been dedicated to assisting consulting engineers and architects in the application of automatic controls to heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems. This manual is an outgrowth of that dedication.

  • Page 4

    ENGINEERING MANUAL OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL...

  • Page 5: Preface

    PREFACE The purpose of this manual is to provide the reader with a fundamental understanding of controls and how they are applied to the many parts of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems in commercial buildings. Many aspects of control are presented including air handling units, terminal units, chillers, boilers, building airflow, water and steam distribution systems, smoke management, and indoor air quality.

  • Page 6

    ENGINEERING MANUAL OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL...

  • Page 7: Table Of Contents

    NGINEERING ANUAL of AUTOMATIC CONTROL CONTENTS Foreward ......................Preface ......................Control System Fundamentals ..................Control Fundamentals ......................Introduction ..................Definitions .................... HVAC System Characteristics ............. Control System Characteristics ............Control System Components .............. Characteristics and Attributes of Control Methods ......Psychrometric Chart Fundamentals ......................

  • Page 8

    Electronic Control Fundamentals ......................119 Introduction ..................120 Definitions .................... 120 Typical System ..................122 Components ..................122 Electronic Controller Fundamentals ............ 129 Typical System Application ..............130 Microprocessor-Based/DDC Fundamentals ....................131 Introduction ..................133 Definitions .................... 133 Background ..................134 Advantages ..................

  • Page 9

    Control System Applications ..................199 Air Handling System Control Applications ...................... 201 Introduction ..................203 Abbreviations ..................203 Requirements for Effective Control ............204 Applications-General ................206 Valve and Damper Selection ............... 207 Symbols ....................208 Ventilation Control Processes ............. 209 Fixed Quantity of Outdoor Air Control ..........

  • Page 10

    Engineering Information ..................425 Valve Selection and Sizing ......................427 Introduction ..................428 Definitions .................... 428 Valve Selection ..................432 Valve Sizing ..................437 Damper Selection and Sizing ......................445 Introduction ..................447 Definitions .................... 447 Damper Selection ................448 Damper Sizing ..................

  • Page 11: Control System Fundamentals

    SMOKE MANAGEMENT FUNDAMENTALS CONTROL SYSTEM FUNDAMENTALS ENGINEERING MANUAL OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL...

  • Page 12: Smoke Management Fundamentals

    SMOKE MANAGEMENT FUNDAMENTALS SMOKE MANAGEMENT FUNDAMENTALS ENGINEERING MANUAL OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL...

  • Page 13: Control Fundamentals

    CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Control Fundamentals ENGINEERING MANUAL OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL CONTENTS Introduction ......................Definitions ......................HVAC System Characteristics ......................General ....................Heating ....................General ................... Heating Equipment ................. Cooling ....................General ................... Cooling Equipment ................Dehumidification .................. Humidification ..................Ventilation .................... Filtration ....................

  • Page 14

    CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Control System Components ......................Sensing Elements ................Temperature Sensing Elements ............Pressure Sensing Elements ............Moisture Sensing Elements ............Flow Sensors .................. Proof-of-Operation Sensors ............Transducers ..................Controllers ................... Actuators ..................... Auxiliary Equipment ................Characteristics and Attributes of Control Methods ................

  • Page 15: Introduction

    CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS INTRODUCTION Automatic controls can optimize HVAC system operation. This section describes heating, ventilating, and air They can adjust temperatures and pressures automatically to conditioning (HVAC) systems and discusses characteristics and reduce demand when spaces are unoccupied and regulate components of automatic control systems.

  • Page 16

    CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Deadband: A range of the controlled variable in which no Load: In a heating or cooling system, the heat transfer that the system will be called upon to provide. Also, the work corrective action is taken by the controlled system and that the system must perform.

  • Page 17

    CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Proportional-Integral (PI) control: A control algorithm that may be actuator driven, electronic, or directly activated combines the proportional (proportional response) and by the sensed medium (e.g., pressure, temperature). integral (reset response) control algorithms. Reset response tends to correct the offset resulting from Throttling range: In a proportional controller, the control point proportional control.

  • Page 18: Hvac System Characteristics

    CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS HVAC SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS GENERAL Figure 2 shows how an HVAC system may be distributed in a small commercial building. The system control panel, boilers, motors, pumps, and chillers are often located on the lower level. An HVAC system is designed according to capacity The cooling tower is typically located on the roof.

  • Page 19: Heating

    CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Table 1. Functions of Central HVAC Control Loops. Control Loop Classification Description Ventilation Basic Coordinates operation of the outdoor, return, and exhaust air dampers to maintain the proper amount of ventilation air. Low-temperature protection is often required. Better Measures and controls the volume of outdoor air to provide the proper mix of outdoor and return air under varying indoor conditions (essential in variable air volume systems).

  • Page 20: Heating Equipment

    CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Infiltration is the process by which outdoor air enters a STEAM OR HOT WATER building through walls, cracks around doors and windows, and SUPPLY open doors due to the difference between indoor and outdoor air pressures. The pressure differential is the result of temperature difference and air intake or exhaust caused by fan operation.

  • Page 21: Cooling

    CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS FINNED TUBE application, the refrigerant vaporizes at the lower end in the warm exhaust air, and the vapor rises toward the higher end in WARM AIR the cool outdoor air, where it gives up the heat of vaporization and condenses.

  • Page 22: Cooling Equipment

    CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS COOLING EQUIPMENT Compressors for chilled water systems are usually centrifugal, reciprocating, or screw type. The capacities of centrifugal and screw-type compressors can be controlled by varying the An air handling system cools by moving air across a coil volume of refrigerant or controlling the compressor speed.

  • Page 23: Humidification

    CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS HUMID VENTILATION HUMID AIR ROTATING EXHAUST GRANULAR Ventilation introduces outdoor air to replenish the oxygen supply and rid building spaces of odors and toxic gases. Ventilation can also be used to pressurize a building to reduce infiltration. While ventilation is required in nearly all buildings, HEATING COIL the design of a ventilation system must consider the cost of...

  • Page 24: Filtration

    CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS losses. The exhaust-air system may be incorporated into the air conditioning unit, or it may be a separate remote exhaust. Supply air is heated or cooled, humidified or dehumidified, and discharged into the space. DAMPER RETURN FAN EXHAUST RETURN DAMPERS FILTER...

  • Page 25: Control System Characteristics

    CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS – AIRFLOW ALTERNATE PATH PLATES – GROUNDED IONS – INTERMEDIATE PLATES WIRES CHARGED AIRFLOW AT HIGH TO HIGH POSITIVE POSITIVE – POTENTIAL POTENTIAL THEORETICAL PATHS OF – CHARGES DUST POSITIVELY CHARGED PARTICLES PARTICLES SOURCE: 1996 ASHRAE SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT HANDBOOK C2714 Fig.

  • Page 26: Control Methods

    CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Self-powered systems are a comparatively minor but still SETPOINT important type of control. These systems use the power of the measured variable to induce the necessary corrective action. FEEDBACK SECONDARY For example, temperature changes at a sensor cause pressure CONTROLLER INPUT or volume changes that are applied directly to the diaphragm...

  • Page 27: Control Modes

    CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS An example of differential gap would be in a cooling system ANALOG CONTROL SIGNAL in which the controller is set to open a cooling valve when the OPEN space temperature reaches 26 C, and to close the valve when the temperature drops to 25 C.

  • Page 28: Timed Two-position Control

    CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS BASIC TWO-POSITION CONTROL Figure 22 shows a sample control loop for basic two-position 23.5 control: a thermostat turning a furnace burner on or off in OVERSHOOT CONDITION response to space temperature. Because the thermostat cannot TEMPERATURE catch up with fluctuations in temperature, overshoot and ( C) 22.5 undershoot enable the temperature to vary, sometimes...

  • Page 29: Step Control

    CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Because the heat is supplied to the sensor only, the heat 22.5 anticipation feature lowers the control point as the heat requirement increases. The lowered control point, called “droop”, maintains a lower temperature at design conditions and is discussed more thoroughly in the following paragraphs.

  • Page 30: Floating Control

    CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS full on, the modulating stage returns to zero, and the sequence THROTTLING RANGE repeats until all stages required to meet the load condition are on. On a decrease in load, the process reverses. DIFFERENTIAL With microprocessor controls, step control is usually done with multiple, digital, on-off outputs since software allows easily adjustable on-to-off per stage and interstage differentials STAGES...

  • Page 31: Proportional Control

    CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS “CLOSE” SWITCH DIFFERENTIAL SETPOINT DEADBAND CONTROLLER “OPEN” SWITCH CONTROL POINT DIFFERENTIAL FULL LOAD LOAD NO LOAD OPEN DAMPER POSITION CLOSED C2094 TIME Fig. 30. Floating Control. In proportional control, the final control element moves to a PROPORTIONAL CONTROL position proportional to the deviation of the value of the controlled variable from the setpoint.

  • Page 32: Compensation Control

    CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS An example of offset would be the proportional control of a Where: chilled water coil used to cool a space. When the cooling load V = output signal is 50 percent, the controller is in the middle of its throttling K = proportionality constant (gain) range, the properly sized coil valve is half-open, and there is E = deviation (control point - setpoint)

  • Page 33: Proportional-integral (pi) Control

    CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS In an application requiring negative compensation, a change OUTDOOR AIR TEMPERATURE TEMPERATURE CONTROLLER in outdoor air temperature at the compensation sensor from – SENSOR 18 to 16 C resets the hot water supply temperature (primary sensor) setpoint from 94 to 38 C. Assuming a throttling range of 7 Kelvins, the required authority is calculated as follows: RETURN SENSOR...

  • Page 34

    CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS The reset action of the integral component shifts the Reset error correction time is proportional to the deviation proportional band as necessary around the setpoint as the load of the controlled variable. For example, a four-percent deviation on the system changes. The graph in Figure 36 shows the shift from the setpoint causes a continuous shift of the proportional of the proportional band of a PI controller controlling a normally band at twice the rate of shift for a two-percent deviation.

  • Page 35: Proportional-integral-derivative (pid) Control

    CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS PROPORTIONAL-INTEGRAL-DERIVATIVE (PID) The graphs in Figures 38, 39, and 40 show the effects of all three modes on the controlled variable at system start-up. With CONTROL proportional control (Fig. 38), the output is a function of the deviation of the controlled variable from the setpoint. As the Proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control adds the control point stabilizes, offset occurs.

  • Page 36: Adaptive Control

    CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Adaptive control is also used in energy management programs The start value EPID setpoint sets the output to a fixed value at startup. For a VAV air handling system supply fan, a suitable such as optimum start. The optimum start program enables an value might be twenty percent, a value high enough to get the HVAC system to start as late as possible in the morning and still fan moving to prove operation to any monitoring system and to...

  • Page 37: Lag

    CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS COLD CONTROLLER FLOW (MANIPULATED WATER VARIABLE) TEMPERATURE VALVE HEAT LOSS (CONTROLLED VARIABLE) STEAM (CONTROL AGENT) HOT WATER SUPPLY SPACE (CONTROLLED MEDIUM) LOAD HOT WATER RETURN THERMOSTAT CONVERTER CONDENSATE RETURN VALVE STEAM TRAP C2073 C2074 Fig. 42. Steam-to-Water Converter. Fig.

  • Page 38: Capacitance

    CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Figure 45 shows a high-velocity heat exchanger, which The difference between repeatability and static error is that repeatability is the ability to return to a specific condition, represents a process with a small thermal capacitance. The rate of whereas static error is a constant deviation from that condition.

  • Page 39: Resistance

    CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS In terms of heating and air conditioning, a large office area Dead Time containing desks, file cabinets, and office machinery has more capacitance than the same area without furnishings. When the Dead time, which is also called “transportation lag”, is the temperature is lowered in an office area over a weekend, the delay between two related actions in a continuous process where furniture loses heat.

  • Page 40: Control System Components

    CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Each control mode is applicable to processes having certain poor rather than good control. Conversely, using a control mode that is too basic for requirements can make adequate control combinations of the basic characteristics. The simplest mode impossible. Table 3 lists typical control applications and of control that meets application requirements is the best mode to use, both for economy and for best results.

  • Page 41

    CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS FLAPPER The temperature sensor for an electronic controller may be a SPRING length of wire or a thin metallic film (called a resistance SIGNAL PORT temperature device or RTD) or a thermistor. Both types of BRASS TUBE resistance elements change electrical resistance as temperature changes.

  • Page 42

    CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS MOISTURE SENSING ELEMENTS FLOW SENSORS Elements that sense relative humidity fall generally into two Flow sensors sense the rate of liquid and gas flow in volume classes: mechanical and electronic. Mechanical elements per unit of time. Flow is difficult to sense accurately under all expand and contract as the moisture level changes and are called conditions.

  • Page 43

    CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Applying the fluid jet principle allows the measurement of CONTROLLERS very small changes in air velocity that a differential pressure sensor cannot detect. A jet of air is emitted from a small tube Controllers receive inputs from sensors. The controller perpendicular to the flow of the air stream to be measured.

  • Page 44

    CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS ACTUATOR Electric actuators are inherently positive positioning. Some CHAMBER DIAPHRAGM pneumatic control applications require accurate positioning of the valve or damper. For pneumatic actuators, a positive positioning relay is connected to the actuator and ensures that PRESSURE the actuator position is proportional to the control signal. The positive positioning relay receives the controller output signal, reads the actuator position, and repositions the actuator according to the controller signal, regardless of external loads...

  • Page 45: Characteristics And Attributes Of Control Methods

    CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS CHARACTERISTICS AND ATTRIBUTES OF CONTROL METHODS Review the columns of Table 4 to determine the characteristics and attributes of pneumatic, electric, electronic, and microprocessor control methods. Table 4. Characteristics and Attributes of Control Methods. Pneumatic Electric Electronic Microprocessor Naturally Most common for Precise control...

  • Page 46

    CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS ENGINEERING MANUAL OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL...

  • Page 47: Psychrometric Chart Fundamentals

    PSYCHROMETRIC CHART FUNDAMENTALS Psychrometric Chart Fundamentals ENGINEERING MANUAL OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL CONTENTS Introduction ......................Definitions ......................Description of the Psychrometric Chart ....................The Abridged Psychrometric Chart ....................Examples of Air Mixing Process ......................Air Conditioning Processes ......................Heating Process .................. Cooling Process ..................

  • Page 48: Introduction

    PSYCHROMETRIC CHART FUNDAMENTALS INTRODUCTION This section provides information on use of the psychrometric changes in relation to the performance of automatic HVAC control chart as applied to air conditioning processes. The chart provides systems. The chart is also useful in troubleshooting a system. a graphic representation of the properties of moist air including wet- and dry-bulb temperature, relative humidity, dew point, For additional information about control of the basic...

  • Page 49: Description Of The Psychrometric Chart

    PSYCHROMETRIC CHART FUNDAMENTALS HANDLE WET-BULB THERMOMETER WATER-SOAKED WICK PIVOT DRY-BULB THERMOMETER RELATIVE HUMIDITY SCALE C1828 Fig. 1. Sling Psychrometer. (stocking or sock) and with an air flow of 4.57 meters Specific volume: The volume of air per unit of mass. Specific per second across the wick.

  • Page 50: The Abridged Psychrometric Chart

    PSYCHROMETRIC CHART FUNDAMENTALS THE ABRIDGED PSYCHROMETRIC CHART Figure 2 is an abridged form of Chart No. 1. Some of the The chart also contains a protractor nomograph with the scale lines have been removed to simplify illustrations of the following scales: psychrometric processes.

  • Page 51

    PSYCHROMETRIC CHART FUNDAMENTALS — Enthalpy is 56.0 kilojoules per kilogram of dry air heat) line. The protractor nomograph, in the upper left corner, (Point D) is used to establish the slope of a process line. The mechanics — Density is 1.163 kilograms per cubic meter (reciprocal of constructing this line are discussed in more detail in the of volume) STEAM JET HUMIDIFIERS section.

  • Page 52: Examples Of Air Mixing Process

    PSYCHROMETRIC CHART FUNDAMENTALS EXAMPLES OF AIR MIXING PROCESS The following examples illustrate use of the psychrometric chart In this example, a ventilating system (Fig. 7) is used to to plot values and determine conditions in a ventilating system. illustrate how to plot data on Chart No. 2 and transfer values to The examples also show how to obtain the same results by Chart No.

  • Page 53: Air Conditioning Processes

    PSYCHROMETRIC CHART FUNDAMENTALS 4. Calculate the mixed air moisture content as follows: a. For the return air, project a line from Point A hori- zontally to the moisture content scale on Figure 9. The value is 9.4 grams of moisture per kilogram of 47.5 kJ/kg dry air.

  • Page 54: Humidifying Process

    PSYCHROMETRIC CHART FUNDAMENTALS 1. Draw diagonal lines parallel to the constant enthalpy lines COOLING COIL SUPPLY FAN from Points A and B to the enthalpy scale. 32 C DB 21 C DB 50% RH 95% RH 2. Read the enthalpy on the enthalpy scale. AIRFLOW 3.

  • Page 55

    PSYCHROMETRIC CHART FUNDAMENTALS SUPPLY FAN HEATING COIL 4700 L/s -18˚C DB 21 C DB 21 C DB 75% RH 35% RH 4.5% RH 0.55 g/kg FROM CHART 2 21 C DB C4330 4.5% RH 35% RH Fig. 14. Chart No. 1. 5.5 g/kg 4.5% RH 0.55 g/kg...

  • Page 56: Steam Jet Humidifier

    PSYCHROMETRIC CHART FUNDAMENTALS The air at Points A and B has 4.0 grams of moisture per If each kilogram of dry air requires 5.3 grams of moisture, kilogram of air. While the moisture content remains the same then the following moisture must be added: after the air is heated to 24 C (Point B), the relative humidity 5.55 kg/s x 5.3 g/kg = 29.4 grams of moisture...

  • Page 57

    PSYCHROMETRIC CHART FUNDAMENTALS REFERENCE POINT SENSIBLE HEAT TOTAL HEAT ENTHALPY 50% RH HUMIDITY RATIO 2675 kJ/kg THIS LINE IS 16 g/kg PARALLEL TO THE SOLID LINE C-B ON THE PSYCH CHART 6.5 g/kg 13 C DB 33 C DB 32 C DB M15331 CONSTRUCTION LINE Fig.

  • Page 58

    PSYCHROMETRIC CHART FUNDAMENTALS Figure 18 is the same as the chart shown in Figure 17 except The remaining 0.8 kJ/kg is sensible heat. The actual moisture that it graphically displays the amount of heat added by the added per kilogram of dry air is 9.5 grams. The specific volume process.

  • Page 59: Air Washers

    PSYCHROMETRIC CHART FUNDAMENTALS Recalling that the steam added 25.5 kilojoules per kilogram of dry air, the total heat added is: 5.4 kg/s x 25.5 kJ/kg = 137.7 kilojoules per second Summarized, a steam humidifier always adds a little sensible heat to the air, and the Process Line B–C angles to the right of CONSTANT ENTHALPY the 32 C starting dry-bulb line because of the added sensible...

  • Page 60: Vaporizing Humidifier

    PSYCHROMETRIC CHART FUNDAMENTALS washer is always located on the saturation curve. Note that the dry-bulb temperature of the air is reduced as it passes through the washer. This happens because some of its heat is used to evaporate the water; however, the humidity of the air rises SATURATION CURVE considerably.

  • Page 61: Cooling And Dehumidification

    PSYCHROMETRIC CHART FUNDAMENTALS COOLING AND DEHUMIDIFICATION To remove moisture, some air must be cooled below its dew point. By determining the wet-bulb and the dry-bulb temperatures of the leaving air, the total moisture removed per BASIC PROCESS kilogram of dry air can be read on the humidity ratio scale and is determined as follows: Cooling and dehumidification can be accomplished in a single 1.

  • Page 62: Dehumidification And Reheat

    PSYCHROMETRIC CHART FUNDAMENTALS Figure 28 summarizes the process lines for applications using SUPPLY FAN washers for humidification or dehumidification. When the water recirculates, the process is adiabatic and the process line follows 14 C DB 32 C DB 85% RH 52% RH the Constant Enthalpy Line A-C.

  • Page 63: Process Summary

    PSYCHROMETRIC CHART FUNDAMENTALS HEATING COOLING SUPPLY FAN COIL COIL 32 C DB 9 C DB 15.5 C DB 21.6 C WB 8 C WB 11 C WB 40% RH 85% RH 56% RH C4337 Fig. 29. Fan System with Dehumidification and Reheat. Figure 30 illustrates cooling and dehumidification with reheat for maintaining constant relative humidity.

  • Page 64

    PSYCHROMETRIC CHART FUNDAMENTALS Fig. 33. ASHRAE Psychrometric Chart No. 1. ENGINEERING MANUAL OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL...

  • Page 65

    PSYCHROMETRIC CHART FUNDAMENTALS Fig. 34. ASHRAE Psychrometric Chart No. 2. ENGINEERING MANUAL OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL...

  • Page 66

    PSYCHROMETRIC CHART FUNDAMENTALS ENGINEERING MANUAL OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL...

  • Page 67: Pneumatic Control Fundamentals

    PNEUMATIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Pneumatic Control Fundamentals ENGINEERING MANUAL OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL CONTENTS Introduction ......................Definitions ......................Abbreviations ......................Symbols ......................Basic Pneumatic Control System ......................General ....................Air Supply and Operation ..............Restrictor ..................... Nozzle-Flapper Assembly ..............Pilot Bleed System ................Signal Amplifier ...................

  • Page 68

    PNEUMATIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Sensor-Controller Systems ......................Pneumatic Controllers ................. Proportional-Integral (PI) Controllers ..........Controller Adjustments ..............Pneumatic Sensors ................Velocity Sensor-Controller ..............Actuators and Final Control Elements ......................Actuators ..................... General ................... Spring Ranges ................Control Valves ..................Dampers ....................Relays and Switches ......................

  • Page 69: Introduction

    PNEUMATIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS INTRODUCTION This section provides basic information on pneumatic control — Many control sequences and combinations are possible systems and components commonly used to control equipment with relatively simple equipment. — Pneumatic equipment is suitable where explosion hazards in commercial heating and air conditioning applications.

  • Page 70: Abbreviations

    PNEUMATIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Main line: The air line from the air supply system to controllers Reverse acting (RA): A reverse-acting thermostat or controller and other devices. Usually plastic or copper tubing. decreases the branchline pressure on an increase in the measured variable and increases the branchline pressure Manipulated variable: Media or energy controlled to achieve on a decrease in the variable.

  • Page 71: Symbols

    PNEUMATIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS SYMBOLS MAIN AIR SUPPLY FIXED POINT RESTRICTOR FULCRUM NOZZLE PIVOT POINT C1082 BASIC PNEUMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM GENERAL In a typical control system, the final control element (a valve or a damper) is selected first because it must produce the desired control results.

  • Page 72: Restrictor

    PNEUMATIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS From the PRV, the air flows through the main line to the To create a branchline pressure, a restrictor (Fig. 3) is controller (in Figure 1, a thermostat) and to other controllers or required. The restrictor and nozzle are sized so that the nozzle relays in other parts of the system.

  • Page 73: Signal Amplifier

    PNEUMATIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS diaphragm is forced down, which opens the feed valve and SETPOINT SENSING ADJUSTMENT FORCE allows main air into the branch chamber. When the pilot pressure decreases, the pilot chamber diaphragm rises, closing the feed valve. If the pilot chamber diaphragm rises enough, it lifts the bleed valve off the feed valve disc, allowing air to escape from the branch chamber through the vent, thus decreasing the branchline pressure.

  • Page 74: Rod And Tube

    PNEUMATIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS A temperature controller consists of a bimetal element linked diaphragm chamber. The expansion causes the diaphragm pad to a flapper so that a change in temperature changes the position to push the pin toward the lever, which moves the flapper to of the flapper.

  • Page 75: Air Supply Equipment

    PNEUMATIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS construction (Fig. 10) and are used to amplify, reverse, average, The controlling pressure is connected at the pilot port (P), select, and switch controller outputs before being sent to valve and pressures to be switched are connected at the normally and damper actuators.

  • Page 76: Air Drying Techniques

    PNEUMATIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Some applications require two compressors or a dual DRY AIR REQUIREMENT compressor. In a dual compressor, two compressors operate alternately, so wear is spread over both machines, each capable The coldest ambient temperature to which tubing is exposed of supplying the average requirements of the system without is the criterion for required dryness, or dew point.

  • Page 77: Condensing Drying

    PNEUMATIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS CONDENSING DRYING The heat exchanger reduces the temperature of the compressed air passing through it. A separator/filter condenses both water The two methods of condensing drying are high-pressure and oil from the air and ejects the condensate through a drain. A drying and refrigerant drying.

  • Page 78: Pressure Reducing Valve Station

    PNEUMATIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS PRESSURE REDUCING VALVE STATION DESICCANT CHAMBERS The pressure reducing valve station is typically furnished with an air filter. The filter, high-pressure gage, high pressure relief valve, pressure reducing valve (PRV), and low-pressure gage are usually located together at one point in the system and may be mounted directly on the compressor.

  • Page 79: Thermostats

    PNEUMATIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS The oil coalescing filter continues to coalesce and drain off Two-Pressure Reducing Valve accumulated oil until solid particles plug the filter. An increase in pressure drop across the filter (to approximately 70 kPa) A two-pressure reducing valve is typically set to pass 90 or indicates that the filter element needs replacement.

  • Page 80: Controllers

    PNEUMATIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS maintains a fixed branchline pressure for each temperature and raises the flapper off the nozzle. This movement causes within the throttling range (Fig. 17). The forces within the the branchline pressure to bleed down and a heating valve to nozzle-flapper-bimetal assembly always seek a balanced open.

  • Page 81: Temperature Controllers

    PNEUMATIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Controllers may also be classified as single-pressure or two- connected to the pressure to be controlled, and the other side is pressure controllers. Single-pressure controllers use a constant connected to a reference pressure. Pressures can be measured main air pressure.

  • Page 82: Sensor-controller Systems

    PNEUMATIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS SENSOR-CONTROLLER SYSTEMS PRIMARY A sensor-controller system is made up of a pneumatic SENSOR controller, remote pneumatic sensors, and a final control MAIN AIR (125 kPa) element. The controller provides proportional or proportional- integral control of temperature, humidity, dew point, or pressure RESET SENSOR in HVAC systems.

  • Page 83: Pneumatic Sensors

    PNEUMATIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Reset authority, also called “reset ratio”, is the ratio of the The low-pressure sensor measures duct static pressure and effect of the reset sensor compared to the primary sensor. differential pressure. When the duct static pressure or the Figure 23 shows the effect of authority on a typical reset pressure differential increases, branchline pressure increases.

  • Page 84: Actuators And Final Control Elements

    PNEUMATIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Figure 25 shows a typical application of a thermostat and velocity controller on a Variable Air Volume (VAV) terminal unit with hot water reheat. The thermostat senses a change in room temperature and resets the velocity setpoint of the velocity controller.

  • Page 85: Control Valves

    PNEUMATIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Actuators designed for special applications can move The position maintained by the valve stem depends on the through the full range, open to closed or closed to open, on balance of forces acting on it: a limited change in pressure from the controller. Such —...

  • Page 86: Dampers

    PNEUMATIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Two- and three-way butterfly valves can be operated by long BRANCH LINE stroke pneumatic actuators and appropriate linkage (Fig. 31). One or two low pressure actuators powered directly by branchline pressure can operate butterfly valves up to about 300 millimeters, depending on the differential close-off rating of the valve.

  • Page 87: Relays And Switches

    PNEUMATIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Figure 33 shows normally open and normally closed paral- For a more detailed discussion of dampers, see the Damper lel-blade dampers. A normally open damper returns to the open Selection and Sizing section. position with low air pressure in the actuator diaphragm chamber.

  • Page 88: Snap Acting Relay

    PNEUMATIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS ROOM DA OUTDOOR AIR THERMOSTAT THERMOSTAT DA ROOM THERMOSTAT DA WINTER RA SUMMER RESTRICTOR SWITCHING RELAY SNAP ACTING VAV TERMINAL UNIT RELAY DAMPER ACTUATOR N.O. HEATING C2360 VALVE VALVE LIMIT CONTROLLER Fig. 36. Typical Application for Snap Acting Relay. DISCHARGE LOCKOUT RELAY COIL...

  • Page 89: High-pressure Selector Relay

    PNEUMATIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS HIGH-PRESSURE SELECTOR RELAY LOAD ANALYZER RELAY The high-pressure selector relay is a three-port relay that The load analyzer relay is a bleed-type, diaphragm-logic transmits the higher of two input signals to the output branch. pressure selector. The relay selects the highest and lowest branch The high sensitivity of the relay allows it to be used in sensor pressure from multiple inputs to operate final control elements lines with an accuracy of 1 to 1.5 degrees C.

  • Page 90: Reversing Relay

    PNEUMATIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS BLEED-TYPE damper precisely according to the branchline pressure from a THERMOSTAT thermostat or other controller, regardless of the load variations affecting the valve stem or damper shaft. The relay is typically used for large actuators for sequencing, or in applications DAMPER ACTUATOR requiring precise control.

  • Page 91: Ratio Relay

    PNEUMATIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Figure 45 shows an averaging relay in a typical application PNEUMATIC POTENTIOMETER with two thermostat signals as inputs. The average of the thermostat signals controls a valve or damper actuator. The pneumatic potentiometer is a three-port, adjustable linear restrictor used in control systems to sum two input signal values, THERMOSTAT 2 THERMOSTAT 1...

  • Page 92: Hesitation Relay

    PNEUMATIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS HESITATION RELAY ELECTRICAL INTERLOCKING RELAYS The hesitation relay is used with a pneumatic actuator in unit Electrical interlocking relays bridge electric and pneumatic ventilator applications. The output pressure goes to minimum circuits. The electric-pneumatic relay uses electric power to whenever the input pressure is below the minimum setting.

  • Page 93: Electronic-pneumatic Transducer

    PNEUMATIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS A resistance-type temperature sensor in the discharge air duct TEMPERATURE CONTROLLER is the input to the controller, which provides all of the system adjustments and logic requirements for control. The controller output of 2 to 10 volts dc is input to the electronic-pneumatic transducer, which converts the signal to a 20 to 100 kPa output P/E RELAY to position the heating valve.

  • Page 94: Pneumatic Control Combinations

    PNEUMATIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Figure 56 shows the switch functioning as a minimum positioning switch. The damper will not close beyond the THERMOSTAT minimum setting of the positioning switch. As the controller signal increases above the switch setting, the switch positions the damper according to the controller signal.

  • Page 95: Sequence Control

    PNEUMATIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS — The controller must be located where the condition it cooling valve is closed. As the temperature rises, the branchline measures is uniformly affected by changes in position of pressure increases and the heating valve starts to close. At the multiple valves.

  • Page 96: Manual Switch Control

    PNEUMATIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Low-limit control applications typically use a direct-acting MANUAL SWITCH CONTROL primary controller and a normally open control valve. The direct-acting, low-limit controller can lower the branchline Common applications for a diverting switch include on/off/ pressure regardless of the demands of the room controller, thus automatic control for a heating or a cooling valve, open/closed opening the valve to prevent the discharge air temperature from control for a damper, and changeover control for a two-pressure...

  • Page 97: Changeover Control For Two-pressure Supply System

    PNEUMATIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS CHANGEOVER CONTROL FOR TWO- according to a preset schedule. The system then provides the scheduled water temperature to the convectors, fan-coil units, PRESSURE SUPPLY SYSTEM or other heat exchangers in the system. Figure 65 shows a manual switch used for changeover from HOT WATER SUPPLY TEMPERATURE 90 to 124 kPa in the mains.

  • Page 98: Pneumatic-electric Relay Control

    PNEUMATIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS PNEUMATIC-ELECTRIC RELAY CONTROL started on low speed by Relay 1 which makes common to normally open. As a further rise in temperature increases the branchline pressure to 94 kPa, Relay 2 breaks the normally A P/E relay provides the interlock when a pneumatic closed circuit and makes the normally open circuit, removing controller actuates electric equipment.

  • Page 99: Pneumatic Centralization

    PNEUMATIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS PNEUMATIC CENTRALIZATION Building environmental systems may be pneumatically The Discharge Air Temperature Indicator is fed from the automated to any degree desired. Figure 73 provides an pneumatic discharge air temperature sensor and the Three-Way example of the front of a pneumatic automation panel. This Valve Gauge is fed from the valve control line.

  • Page 100: Pneumatic Control System Example

    PNEUMATIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS PNEUMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM EXAMPLE The following is an example of a typical air handling system Control Requirements: (Fig. 74) with a pneumatic control system. The control system — Maintain design outside air airflow during all levels of is presented in the following seven control sequences (Fig.

  • Page 101

    PNEUMATIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Any time the Supply Fan 1M runs, the Return Fan 2M runs. Interval Timer or by the Occupancy Schedule Time Clock 2TC set for 0750. Any time the Return Fan 2M runs, the Exhaust Fan 3M and the ventilation controls are energized by the After-Hours Both Clocks 1TC and 2TC are set to shut the system down at 1700.

  • Page 102: Supply Fan Control Sequence

    PNEUMATIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS SUPPLY FAN CONTROL SEQUENCE NOTE: 1. Because of varying exhaust between occupied and warm-up modes, space static pressure control of the return fan is selected. Return fan tracking from Any time the Supply Fan (Fig. 76) runs, the pressure supply fan airflow is acceptable but is complex if controller with the greatest demand, Static Pressure Controller varying exhaust is worked into the control scheme.

  • Page 103: Mixing Damper Control Sequence

    PNEUMATIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS RETURN FAN RETURN SA-1 B S M SNAP 20˚C TC-1 ACTING RELAY C-X < 21˚C C-O > 22˚C AIR DURING COLD RETURN AIR (WARM-UP) SUPPLY FAN OUTSIDE FROM TO COOLING TS-1 COOLING CONTROLS CONTROLS SR-1 20-55 kPa N.O.

  • Page 104: Discharge Air Temperature Control Sequence

    PNEUMATIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS DISCHARGE AIR TEMPERATURE OFF/FAILURE MODE CONTROL CONTROL SEQUENCE SEQUENCE Any time the AHU (Fig. 79) operates in the non-warm-up If compressed air fails, both control valves open, the outside mode, Switching Relay SR-4 operates to allow the normal air damper closes, and the return air damper opens.

  • Page 105: Electric Control Fundamentals

    ELECTRIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Electric Control Fundamentals ENGINEERING MANUAL OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL CONTENTS Introduction ......................Definitions ......................How Electric Control Circuits are Classified ....................Series 40 Control Circuits ......................100 Application ................... 100 Equipment ................... 100 Controllers ..................100 Relays ..................... 100 Actuators ..................

  • Page 106

    ELECTRIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Series 90 Control Circuits ......................107 Application ................... 107 Equipment ................... 107 Controllers ..................107 Actuators ..................107 Operation ..................... 108 General ................... 108 Bridge Circuit Theory ..............108 Basic Bridge Circuit ..............108 Bridge Circuit in Balanced Condition ........108 Bridge Circuit on Increase in Controlled Variable ....

  • Page 107: Introduction

    There are – The signals received from sensing elements can be used places where Honeywell nomenclature is used, such as R, to produce one or a combination of electro-mechanical W, B, for wiring terminals and Series 40 through 90 for outputs.

  • Page 108

    ELECTRIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS switching action dependent on the condition of the LOW-VOLTAGE CONTROL CIRCUIT controlled variable. Floating controllers (Fig. 3D) are spdt devices with a center-off position. Refer to SERIES 60 FLOATING CONTROL CIRCUITS for a discussion of floating control operation. MOTOR COILS Potentiometer controllers (Fig.

  • Page 109: How Electric Control Circuits Are Classified

    (Table 1). Series 10 and 20 are no longer used. Series 70 is controls of different series in the same control circuit. electronic control and is covered in the Electronic Control Fundamentals section. Table 1. Honeywell Electric Control Circuits. Series Controller Signal Circuit...

  • Page 110: Series 40 Control Circuits

    ELECTRIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS SERIES 40 CONTROL CIRCUITS RELAYS APPLICATION A Series 40 relay consists of a line-voltage coil which operates A Series 40 circuit is a line-voltage control circuit which is an armature to control one or more normally open or normally switched directly by the single-pole, single-throw switching action closed, or single-pole, double-throw contacts.

  • Page 111: Operation

    ELECTRIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS CONTROL COMBINATIONS CONTROLLER UNIT HEATER CONTROL LINE VOLTAGE In unit heater control (Fig. 7) it is usually necessary to keep the heater fan from running to prevent circulation of cold air when heat is not being supplied to the heater coils. DRIVE LOW-LIMIT SHAFT...

  • Page 112: Series 80 Control Circuits

    ELECTRIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS LOW-LIMIT CONTROL LOW-LIMIT CONTROLLER THERMOSTAT ACTUATOR A low-limit controller is connected in parallel with the thermostat as shown in Figure 9. The low-limit controller can complete the circuit to the valve actuator even though the thermostat has opened the circuit. The actuator remains LINE VOLTAGE HOT WATER energized when the contacts on either controller are closed.

  • Page 113: Series 60 Two-position Control Circuits

    ELECTRIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS CONTROL COMBINATIONS HIGH-LIMIT THERMOSTAT CONTROLLER ACTUATOR Series 80 control combinations are similar to those of Series 40. The following applies: 1. Series 80 circuits require an external, low-voltage transformer. TRANSFORMER HOT WATER 2. Series 80 equipment can be controlled by Series 40 or SUPPLY COIL 80 controllers.

  • Page 114: Operation

    (CLOSE) (OPEN) the CLOSE limit switch. NOTE: Most Honeywell Series 60 controllers close R to B on a fall in the controlled variable and R to W on a rise. TRANSFORMER LINE VOLTAGE C2515 Fig.

  • Page 115: Control Combinations

    ELECTRIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS CONTROL COMBINATIONS OUTDOOR CONTROLLER The following are representative Series 60 two-position control circuits. Notice that many of these functions can be done with Series 40 or 80 systems. If spring-return action is required when power fails, use Series 40 or 80. LOW-LIMIT HIGH-LIMIT CONTROLLER...

  • Page 116: Series 60 Floating Control Circuits

    ELECTRIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS SERIES 60 FLOATING CONTROL CIRCUITS ACTUATORS APPLICATION The actuators discussed in SERIES 60 TWO-POSITION A Series 60 floating control circuit is a line- or low-voltage CONTROL are also used for floating control. In addition, control circuit comprising a spdt controller with a center-off actuator assemblies are available with two, single direction (floating) position and a reversible actuator.

  • Page 117: Series 90 Control Circuits

    ELECTRIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS SERIES 90 CONTROL CIRCUITS ACTUATORS APPLICATION A Series 90 actuator (Fig. 19) consists of the following: The Series 90 low-voltage control circuit provides modulating – Reversible drive motor. or proportional control and can be applied to: – Electronic relay. –...

  • Page 118: Operation

    BRIDGE CIRCUIT ON INCREASE IN CONTROLLED VARIABLE NOTE: Most Honeywell Series 90 controllers move the po- tentiometer wiper toward B on a fall in the controlled Figure 21 illustrates the bridge circuit in an unbalanced variable and toward W on a rise.

  • Page 119: Bridge Circuit On Decrease In Controlled Variable

    ELECTRIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS CONTROLLER CONTROLLER POTENTIOMETER POTENTIOMETER SENSING SENSING ELEMENT ELEMENT ELECTRONIC ELECTRONIC RELAY RELAY DRIVE DRIVE SHAFT SHAFT CLOSE OPEN CLOSE OPEN FEEDBACK FEEDBACK POTENTIOMETER C2522 POTENTIOMETER C2523 Fig. 21. Bridge Circuit on Increase Fig. 22. Bridge Circuit on Decrease in Controlled Variable.

  • Page 120: Bridge Circuit With Low-limit Control

    ELECTRIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS BRIDGE CIRCUIT WITH LOW-LIMIT CONTROL has to go on each side of the bridge to rebalance the circuit, the feedback potentiometer moves 35 ohms to the left. The table In a heating application, a low-limit controller moves a valve then appears as follows: actuator toward open when the low-limit setting is reached.

  • Page 121: Control Combinations

    ELECTRIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS When the high-limit controller calls for less heat, the poten- DISCHARGE AIR LOW LIMIT ROOM tiometer wiper R (shown dotted) moves halfway from B to W. CONTROLLER CONTROLLER This causes an unbalance of 70 ohms (210 – 140) in the right leg of the bridge as shown in the following table: Left Leg Right Leg...

  • Page 122: Two-position Limit Control

    ELECTRIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS TWO-POSITION LIMIT CONTROL the controller and shorts R to W at the actuator. The actuator drives to the closed position. Such a hookup is often used in fan heating systems to manually close a valve or damper when Two-position limit controllers can be used in Series 90 operation is unnecessary.

  • Page 123: Transferring Controller From One Actuator To Another

    ELECTRIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS UNISON CONTROL THERMOSTAT Figure 32 illustrates a circuit for controlling up to six DPDT Series 90 actuators in unison from one Series 90 controller. SWITCH, RELAY, OR The B to W terminals of the controller are shunted with the THERMOSTAT appropriate value resistor, depending on the number of HEATING...

  • Page 124: Motor Control Circuits

    ELECTRIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS position, and then permits the step controller to recycle to the A 135-ohm manual potentiometer provides up to a 50 percent minimum-position opening, and a 270-ohm manual potentiom- position called for by the thermostat. eter provides up to a 100 percent minimum-position opening. Step controllers can also be actuated by Series 60 floating controllers.

  • Page 125: Operation

    ELECTRIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS OPERATION HAND-OFF-AUTO START-STOP CIRCUIT The starter switch in Figure 36 has three positions: HAND, Three basic types of motor control circuits are discussed in OFF, and AUTO. The HAND position energizes starter solenoid the following. This topic is only intended to illustrate general M and starts the motor.

  • Page 126: Momentary Fast-slow-off Start-stop Circuit

    ELECTRIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS MOMENTARY FAST-SLOW-OFF windings at the same time. Pressing the STOP button opens both holding circuits and stops the motor. START-STOP CIRCUIT Where a mechanical interlock does not exist between the Figure 37 illustrates a momentary, two-speed, start-stop holding circuits and push-button contacts, the fast speed start circuit with separate windings for fast and slow motor speeds.

  • Page 127: Control Combinations

    ELECTRIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS CONTROL COMBINATIONS There are many different control combinations for motor The return fan will not start until supply airflow is proven. A control circuits. Figure 38 illustrates a return fan interlocked relay can be added to interlock to the temperature control with the supply fan.

  • Page 128

    ELECTRIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS ENGINEERING MANUAL OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL...

  • Page 129: Engineering Manual Of Automatic Control

    ELECTRONIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Electronic Control Fundamentals ENGINEERING MANUAL OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL CONTENTS Introduction ......................120 Definitions ......................120 Typical System ......................122 Components ......................122 Sensors ....................122 Temperature Sensors ..............122 Resistance Temperature Devices ..........122 Solid-State Resistance Temperature Devices ......124 Thermocouples ................

  • Page 130: Introduction

    ELECTRONIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS INTRODUCTION on microprocessor-based systems. The distinction between This section provides information about electronic control electronic control systems and microprocessor-based systems systems used to control HVAC equipment. An electronic control is in the handling of the input signals. In an electronic control system comprises a sensor, controller, and final control element.

  • Page 131

    ELECTRONIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Electronic controller: A solid-state device usually consisting Proportional control (P): A control algorithm or method in of a power supply, a sensor amplification circuit, a which the final control element moves to a position process/comparing circuit, an output driver section, proportional to the deviation of the value of the and various components that sense changes in the controlled variable from the setpoint.

  • Page 132: Typical System

    ELECTRONIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS TYPICAL SYSTEM Figure 1 shows a simple electronic control system with a ELECTRONIC FINAL CONTROL CONTROLLER DEVICE INPUTS controller that regulates supply water temperature by mixing return water with water from the boiler. The main temperature MAIN SENSOR (HOT WATER SUPPLY) sensor is located in the hot water supply from the valve.

  • Page 133: Electronic Control Fundamentals

    ELECTRONIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS INDICATING ACCESSORY INTERFACING OUTPUT FINAL CONTROL INDICATING SENSORS/TRANSMITTERS CONTROLLERS DEVICES DEVICES DEVICES DEVICES ELEMENTS DEVICES DIGITAL SENSOR CONTACTOR FAN/PUMP TEMPERATURE LED PANEL SPST/SPDT CONTROLLER OR RELAY LED PANEL ANALOG TEMPERATURE SENSOR GAUGE ANALOG GAUGE POSITIVE RTD, OHMS THERMISTOR, OR DIGITAL TWO-POSITION...

  • Page 134: Solid-state Resistance Temperature Devices

    ELECTRONIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Another material used in RTD sensors is platinum. It is or small transistor) and provide quick response. As the linear in response and stable over time. In some applications temperature increases, the resistance of a thermistor decreases a short length of wire is used to provide a nominal resistance (Fig.

  • Page 135: Thermocouples

    ELECTRONIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Thermocouples Transmitters measure various conditions such as temperature, relative humidity, airflow, water flow, power consumption, air velocity, and light intensity. An example of a A thermocouple, consists of two dissimilar metals, such as transmitter would be a sensor that measures the level of carbon iron and constantan, welded together to form a two thermocouple dioxide (CO ) in the return air of an air handling unit.

  • Page 136: Temperature Compensation

    ELECTRONIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS PROTECTIVE WIRES TO CONTROLLER POLYMER OR SENSING CIRCUIT MOISTURE SENSITIVE POROUS POLYMER PLATINUM DIELECTRIC POLYMER CERAMIC GOLD FOIL OR OTHER SUBSTRATE TYPE OF ELECTRODE PLATES A. MOISTURE SENSITIVE MATERIAL BETWEEN ELECTRODE PLATES. ELECTRODE 1000 OHM FINGERS PLATINUM RTD ULTRA THIN LAYER OF M10685 CONDUCTIVE MATERIAL...

  • Page 137: Pressure Sensors

    ELECTRONIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS POLYMER COATING PRESSURE INLET (E.G., AIR, WATER) FLEXIBLE DIAPHRAGM OSCILLATING FREQUENCY CIRCUIT MEASURING TO CONTROLLER CIRCUIT FLEXIBLE PLATE QUARTZ CRYSTAL (TOP PORTION OF (ENLARGED VIEW) C3088 CAPACITOR) Fig. 13. Quartz Crystal Relative Humidity Sensor. AMPLIFIER FIXED PLATE PRESSURE SENSORS (BOTTOM PORTION OF CAPACITOR)

  • Page 138: Temperature Controllers

    ELECTRONIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS Temperature Controllers OUTPUT CONTROL Temperature controllers typically require a specific type or Electronic controllers provide outputs to a relay or actuator category of input sensors. Some have input circuits to accept for the final control element. The output is not dependent on RTD sensors such as BALCO or platinum elements, while the input types or control method.

  • Page 139: Electronic Controller Fundamentals

    ELECTRONIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS INDICATING DEVICE ELECTRONIC CONTROLLER An electronic control system can be enhanced with visual OUTPUT MODULATING displays that show system status and operation. Many electronic VALVE ACTUATOR controllers have built-in indicators that show power, input signal, POWER deviation signal, and output signal. Figure 20 shows some types CHILLED WATER SUPPLY TO COIL of visual displays.

  • Page 140: Typical System Application

    ELECTRONIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS TYPICAL SYSTEM APPLICATION Figure 22 shows a typical air handling system controlled by When the outdoor temperature is below the selected reset two electronic controllers, C1 and C2; sequencer S; changeover point set on C1, the controller is in the winter multicompensator M;...

  • Page 141: Microprocessor-based/ddc Fundamentals

    MICROPROCESSOR-BASED/DDC FUNDAMENTALS Microprocessor-Based/DDC Fundamentals ENGINEERING MANUAL OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL CONTENTS Introduction ......................133 Definitions ......................133 Background ......................134 Computer Based Control ..............134 Direct Digital Control ................134 Advantages ......................134 Lower Cost Per Function ..............134 Application Flexibility ................134 Coordinated Multifunction Capability ...........

  • Page 142

    MICROPROCESSOR-BASED/DDC FUNDAMENTALS Typical Applications ......................145 Zone-Level Controller ................145 Example 1. VAV Cooling Only ............145 Example 2. VAV Cooling with Sequenced Electric Reheat ....145 System-Level Controller ..............146 ENGINEERING MANUAL OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL...

  • Page 143: Introduction

    MICROPROCESSOR-BASED/DDC FUNDAMENTALS INTRODUCTION This section discusses the types of microprocessor-based functions. A stand-alone controller can take several forms. The controllers used in commercial buildings. These controllers simplest generally controls only one control loop while larger measure signals from sensors, perform control routines in versions can control from eight to 40 control loops.

  • Page 144: Background

    MICROPROCESSOR-BASED/DDC FUNDAMENTALS BACKGROUND A more detailed definition is provided in the ASHRAE 1995 COMPUTER BASED CONTROL HVAC Applications Handbook. “A digital controller can be either single- or multi-loop. Interface hardware allows the digital Computer based control systems have been available as an computer to process signals from various input devices, such alternative to conventional pneumatic and electronic systems as the electronic temperature, humidity, and pressure sensors...

  • Page 145: Controller Configuration

    MICROPROCESSOR-BASED/DDC FUNDAMENTALS (IAQ), and/or building management functions. Changes in PRECISE AND ACCURATE CONTROL control sequences can easily be accommodated through software whether dictated by system performance or by changes Proportional control has the inherent problem of offset. The in the owner’s use of the facility. wider the throttling range is set for control stability, the greater the offset.

  • Page 146: Types Of Controllers

    MICROPROCESSOR-BASED/DDC FUNDAMENTALS Performance and reliability of temperature control range of outputs adequately covers normal control and display applications can be enhanced by using a single 12-bit A/D ranges for most HVAC control applications. D/A converters converter for all controller multiplexed inputs, and simple generally range from 6 to 10 bits.

  • Page 147: Controller Software

    MICROPROCESSOR-BASED/DDC FUNDAMENTALS CONTROLLER SOFTWARE DIRECT DIGITAL CONTROL SOFTWARE Although microprocessor-based controller hardware governs, to some extent, how a controller is applied, software determines DDC software can be defined as a set of standard DDC the functionality. Controller software falls basically into two categories: operators and/or high-level language statements assembled to accomplish a specific control action.

  • Page 148: Energy Management Software

    MICROPROCESSOR-BASED/DDC FUNDAMENTALS The use of preprogrammed operators saves time when writing Optimum Stop control sequences and makes understanding of the control sequence the equivalent of reading a pneumatic control diagram. The optimum stop program (Fig. 6) uses stored energy to Programming schemes often allow program operators to be handle the building load to the end of the occupancy period.

  • Page 149: Night Purge

    MICROPROCESSOR-BASED/DDC FUNDAMENTALS Night Purge Load Reset The night purge program uses cool, night outdoor air to The load reset program (Fig. 9) assures that only the minimum amount of heating or cooling energy is used to satisfy load precool the building before the mechanical cooling is turned on.

  • Page 150

    MICROPROCESSOR-BASED/DDC FUNDAMENTALS Sun, weather, and occupancy (building utilization) dictate The events of the first scenario occur within seconds because load reset demands. The sun and weather effects are relatively both loops (leaving water temperature controlling the chiller slow and occur as the sun and seasons change. Occupancy load and discharge air temperature controlling chilled water changes are abrupt and occur over brief periods of time.

  • Page 151: Zero Energy Band

    MICROPROCESSOR-BASED/DDC FUNDAMENTALS CHILLED WATER TEMPERATURE SETPOINT CONTROL MANUAL SETPOINT AUTO-MANUAL SELECTOR AUTO CURRENT VALUE CHILLED WATER CURRENT LEAVING WATER TEMPERATURE VALVES CURRENT CHILLER LOAD (% AMPS) OPEN AUTOMATIC MODE SEQUENCE OF CONTROL ANYTIME ANY AHU CHW VALVE IS % OPEN, THE CHW TEMPERATURE SETPOINT WILL BE DECREMENTED DEGREES, BUT TO NO LESS THAN...

  • Page 152: Controller Programming

    MICROPROCESSOR-BASED/DDC FUNDAMENTALS Distributed Power Demand BUILDING MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE The distributed power demand program (Fig. 12) is only Microprocessor-based controllers are used extensively as applicable to microprocessor controllers with intercommuni- data gathering panels (DGP) for building management cations capability. The demand program is resident in a single systems.

  • Page 153: Programming Categories

    MICROPROCESSOR-BASED/DDC FUNDAMENTALS PROGRAMMING CATEGORIES terminals are dedicated to a control relay or specific type of actuator. The need for data files is minimized. The processor always knows what to look for as it scans those points, and it Programming of microcomputer-based controllers can be knows how to process the data.

  • Page 154: Analyze Control Application

    MICROPROCESSOR-BASED/DDC FUNDAMENTALS Partition Into Control Loops START The next step is to partition the entire process into individual control loops. The Control Fundamentals section defines a ANALYZE CONTROL control loop as a process in which a controller compares the STEP 1 APPLICATION measured value of a controlled variable to a desired value or REQUIREMENTS...

  • Page 155: Typical Applications

    MICROPROCESSOR-BASED/DDC FUNDAMENTALS Design, Write, and Compile Program other control blocks. Although this process requires little or no knowledge of programming, it does require in-depth knowledge The actual process of designing and writing the control loop of the control blocks and the specific HVAC process. programs can be a very complex or a relatively straightforward procedure, depending on the language processing software Debug, Install, Enter Data Files, and Test...

  • Page 156

    MICROPROCESSOR-BASED/DDC FUNDAMENTALS staged by a PI algorithm with software heat anticipation. See 4. Develop a detailed flowchart of the control sequence Figure 15. During reheat, the control mode changes to constant using either DDC operators or a programming logic flow volume, variable discharge temperature.

  • Page 157

    MICROPROCESSOR-BASED/DDC FUNDAMENTALS If the DDC system is provided with a BMS having a color START monitor, a graphic may be required to be displayed with live, displayable and commandable points (12 total). If a BMS is O.A. not provided, the points may be required to be displayed on a TEMP text terminal (fixed or portable) at the system level controller.

  • Page 158

    MICROPROCESSOR-BASED/DDC FUNDAMENTALS ENGINEERING MANUAL OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL...

  • Page 159: Indoor Air Quality Fundamentals

    INDOOR AIR QUALITY FUNDAMENTALS Indoor Air Quality Fundamentals ENGINEERING MANUAL OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL CONTENTS Introduction ......................151 Definitions ......................151 Abbreviations ......................153 Indoor Air Quality Concerns ......................154 Air Contaminants ................. 154 Contaminant Sources ..............154 Outdoor Contaminant Sources ........... 154 Indoor Contaminant Sources ............

  • Page 160

    INDOOR AIR QUALITY FUNDAMENTALS Indoor Air Quality Control Applications ......................164 General ....................164 Flow Tracking Control System ............. 165 Flow Tracking System with Mixing Box Static Pressure Control ..166 Rooftop Unit Control System ............... 167 Operator Interface ................167 Graphic Displays .................

  • Page 161: Introduction

    INDOOR AIR QUALITY FUNDAMENTALS INTRODUCTION Measures taken to offset increasing energy costs since the 1970s, This section provides basic information on Indoor Air Quality increasing use of synthetic materials in building construction (IAQ) and suggested control solutions. The causes and effects and maintenance, compressed construction schedules, and of several contaminants are discussed.

  • Page 162

    INDOOR AIR QUALITY FUNDAMENTALS Dose: The amount of a given agent that actually reaches the site Micro-organisms: Life forms too small to be seen with the in the body where it causes an effect. unaided eye. Electrostatic air cleaner: A device that has an electrical charge Mitigation: A procedure or strategy aimed at reducing or to trap particles traveling in the airstream.

  • Page 163: Abbreviations

    INDOOR AIR QUALITY FUNDAMENTALS Sick Building Syndrome (SBS): A term used to refer to the Threshold: The contaminant dose or exposure level below condition in which a majority of building occupants which there is no expected significant effect. experience a variety of health and/or comfort effects linked to time spent in a particular building, but where Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOCs): A measure no specific illness or causative agent can be identified.

  • Page 164: Indoor Air Quality Concerns

    INDOOR AIR QUALITY FUNDAMENTALS INDOOR AIR QUALITY CONCERNS bacteria. Gaseous contaminants such as methane are produced AIR CONTAMINANTS both naturally, by animals and decay, and by man made activity such as landfills. Location near a fossil fuel power plant, refinery, Air contaminants are categorized by location and type.

  • Page 165: Indoor Contaminant Sources

    INDOOR AIR QUALITY FUNDAMENTALS Table 1. Annual Median Concentrations for TSP, NO 2 , O 3 , & CO—1979. a (continued) Concentration mg/m (1 hr average) CO (1 hr average) Location TSP (annual average) (1 hr average) Pittsburgh 88-162 — St.

  • Page 166: Occupancy And Process Related Contaminant Sources

    INDOOR AIR QUALITY FUNDAMENTALS Table 3. Sources, Possible Concentrations, and Indoor to Outdoor Concentration Ratios of some Indoor Pollutants. Indoor/Outdoor Sources of Possible Indoor Concentration Pollutant Indoor Pollution Concentrations Ratio Location Asbestos Fireproofing <10 fiber/ m Homes, schools, offices Carbon Combustion, humans, pets 3000 ppm >>1...

  • Page 167: Health Care Occupancy

    Microscope common and dangerous materials and requires that materials Size in Microns .001 safety data sheets be completed on each of these substances. HONEYWELL EAC EFFECTIVE RANGE DUST/LINT FILTER The National Institute of Occupational Safety & Health EFFECTIVE RANGE* (NIOSH) also publishes a list which includes additional...

  • Page 168: Gas And Vapor Contaminants

    INDOOR AIR QUALITY FUNDAMENTALS Gas And Vapor Contaminants BUILDING RESPONSES TO CONTAMINANTS The terms gas and vapor are often used to describe a common Building responses to indoor air contamination include visual state of a substance. Gas normally describes any mixture, except signs of fungus, mold, mildew, dirt buildup, corrosion, and atmospheric air, that exists in the gaseous state at normal discoloration The growth of fungus, mold, and mildew is found...

  • Page 169: Remediating Contaminant Levels

    INDOOR AIR QUALITY FUNDAMENTALS Active pathways for air contamination include HVAC According to the EPA one half the population of the systems, cooling towers designed into the building, and local United States lives in areas that do not meet the National spot humidifiers, dehumidifiers, fans and heaters added by the Ambient Air Quality Standards with ozone being the most occupants after occupancy.

  • Page 170: Effects Of Humidity

    INDOOR AIR QUALITY FUNDAMENTALS OPTIMUM RELATIVE HUMIDITY RANGES FOR HEALTH DECREASE IN BAR WIDTH INDICATES DECREASE OPTIMUM ZONE IN EFFECT BACTERIA VIRUSES FUNGI MITES RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS # ALLERGIC RHINITIS AND ASTHMA CHEMICAL REACTIONS OZONE PRODUCTION # INSUFFICIENT DATA M10481 RELATIVE HUMIDITY, PERCENT ABOVE 50% RH Fig.

  • Page 171: Ventilation Rate Design Procedure

    INDOOR AIR QUALITY FUNDAMENTALS VENTILATION RATE DESIGN PROCEDURE outdoor air and that the Indoor Air Quality Procedure must be used. The air cleaning equipment must be designed to reduce particulates and where necessary and feasible, gaseous The Ventilation Rate Procedure is deemed to provide acceptable contaminants.

  • Page 172: Recirculation Requirements

    INDOOR AIR QUALITY FUNDAMENTALS Recirculation Requirements ventilation fraction, and resets the outdoor airflow to the minimum outdoor air that will satisfy the critical space or spaces. See the latest version of ASHRAE Standard 62 for Recirculation of air in HVAC systems is regulated by additional information on critical zone reset application.

  • Page 173: Acceptance Testing

    INDOOR AIR QUALITY FUNDAMENTALS Table 5. Air Quality Regulatory Agencies. Agency Federal State Advisory Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Department of Natural Resources (DNR) Occupational Safety & Health Agency (OSHA) Center for Disease Control (CDC) Public Health Department (PHD) American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) American National Standards Institute (ANSI) National Institute of Occupational Safety &...

  • Page 174: Indoor Air Quality Control Applications

    INDOOR AIR QUALITY FUNDAMENTALS ASHRAE GUIDELINE 1-1989 deliver the design. The acceptance phase of the process demonstrates that the systems work as designed. Documentation requirements of the process ensure that the building operators ASHRAE Guideline 1-1989 for commissioning HVAC know the design intent of the systems and how they are to be systems defines commissioning as “documenting and operated.

  • Page 175: Flow Tracking Control System

    INDOOR AIR QUALITY FUNDAMENTALS FLOW TRACKING CONTROL SYSTEM terminal box requirements that the fan supplies. Typically there are 30 to 70 VAV terminal units per fan system. The sample VAV terminal unit shown is a fan powered unit but the units Figure 4 provides a simplified hardware schematic of a could be non-fan powered.

  • Page 176: Flow Tracking System With Mixing Box Static Pressure Control

    INDOOR AIR QUALITY FUNDAMENTALS FLOW TRACKING SYSTEM WITH MIXING additional outdoor air. During non-economizer periods the EA/ RA dampers modulate to maintain static pressure constant at BOX STATIC PRESSURE CONTROL the filter inlet. This is accomplished by separating the control of the outdoor air damper from the control of the return and Figure 5 is the same as the Flow Tracking System except for relief dampers.

  • Page 177: Rooftop Unit Control System

    INDOOR AIR QUALITY FUNDAMENTALS ROOFTOP UNIT CONTROL SYSTEM OPERATOR INTERFACE Figure 6 shows a typical packaged rooftop VAV system Modern Building Management Systems (BMS) utilizing similar to the pervious system but with humidification and distributed direct digital controllers and personnel computer based without a return fan.

  • Page 178: Graphic Displays

    INDOOR AIR QUALITY FUNDAMENTALS Operator graphic displays with meaningful real-time dynamic For additional information on system configuration, network data displays can enable building operators to understand how communications, and specifying graphics, refer to the Building the building is operating. CO , VOC, airflow, DP, SP, filter, and Management System Fundamentals section.

  • Page 179

    INDOOR AIR QUALITY FUNDAMENTALS Figure 8 shows how dynamic data can assist an operator. This and allows the operator to adjust setpoints and review results in display provides the operator/engineer with the actual operating real time. This is one of many operator displays that can be values, at that instant, embedded in the sequence of operations designed to facilitate operator understanding and control of IAQ.

  • Page 180: Bibliography

    INDOOR AIR QUALITY FUNDAMENTALS A graphic such as Figure 9 can be automatically displayed as responsibilities. The acknowledgment of the alarm provides the an alarm on a quarterly calendar basis to remind the building necessary closure of the loop from the designer to the user. Alarm operators and owners that the maintenance of IAQ is one of their acknowledgment can be logged by the owner to verify compliance.

  • Page 181: Smoke Management Fundamentals

    SMOKE MANAGEMENT FUNDAMENTALS Smoke Management Fundamentals ENGINEERING MANUAL OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL CONTENTS Introduction ......................172 Definitions ......................172 Objectives ......................173 Design Considerations ......................173 General ....................173 Layout of System ................. 174 Codes and Standards ................174 Design Priniples ......................175 Causes of Smoke Movement ..............

  • Page 182: Introduction

    SMOKE MANAGEMENT FUNDAMENTALS INTRODUCTION This section describes objectives, design considerations, building fires is carbon monoxide. Other toxic agents include design principles, control applications, and acceptance testing hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen chloride, sulphur dioxide, acrolein, aldehydes, carbon dioxide, and a variety of airborne particulates for smoke management systems.

  • Page 183: Objectives

    SMOKE MANAGEMENT FUNDAMENTALS Smoke Management System, Active: A system that uses fans Stack Effect: A movement of air or other gas in a vertical to produce airflows and pressure differences across enclosure induced by a difference in density between smoke barriers to limit and direct smoke movement. the air or other gas in the enclosure and the ambient atmosphere.

  • Page 184: Layout Of System

    SMOKE MANAGEMENT FUNDAMENTALS Smoke management typically includes control of fires by According to NFPA 92A, control sequences should allow automatic sprinklers. Designing smoke management systems smoke control modes to have the highest priority; however, for sprinklered buildings is quite practical. However, designing some control functions should not be overridden.

  • Page 185: Design Priniples

    SMOKE MANAGEMENT FUNDAMENTALS DESIGN PRINCIPLES plane, approximately midheight, and exits above the neutral CAUSES OF SMOKE MOVEMENT plane. See Figure 2. Air neither enters nor exits at the neutral plane, a level where the pressures are equal inside and outside The movement or flow of smoke in a building is caused by a the building.

  • Page 186: Expansion

    SMOKE MANAGEMENT FUNDAMENTALS The buoyancy effect can cause smoke movement through The relationship between volumetric airflow (smoke) and barriers above the fire and through leakage paths in walls. pressure through small openings, such as cracks, is as: However, as smoke moves away from the fire, its temperature is lowered due to heat transfer and dilution;...

  • Page 187: Hvac

    SMOKE MANAGEMENT FUNDAMENTALS HVAC pressure differences while the building is under typical conditions of stack effect and wind. This table is for gas temperatures of 927 C adjacent to the barrier. To calculate HVAC systems can provide a means for smoke transport pressure differences for gas temperatures other than 927 C, refer even when the system is shut down (e.g., a bypass damper to data in NFPA 92A.

  • Page 188: Control Applications

    SMOKE MANAGEMENT FUNDAMENTALS The door widths in Table 2 apply only for doors that are SMOKE hinged at one side. For other arrangements, door sizes, or for hardware other than knobs (e.g., panic hardware), refer to SMOKE calculation procedures furnished in Design of Smoke Control RELATIVELY BACKFLOW LOW AIR...

  • Page 189: Zone Pressurization Control

    SMOKE MANAGEMENT FUNDAMENTALS INITIATING ALARM PANEL PROCESSOR OPERATOR’S ALARM CONSOLE DETECTORS TO ADDITIONAL REMOTE CONTROL PANELS REMOTE CONTROL REMOTE FLOW PANEL 1 CONTROL SWITCH PANEL 2 COMMUNICTIONS DAMPER SWITCH FIREFIGHTERS’ SMOKE DETECTOR SMOKE CONTROL (NFPA SYMBOL) STATION (FSCS) M13026 Fig. 6. Typical Smoke Control System Meeting the Requirements of UL Standard 864 and NFPA 92A. The following discussions cover smoke control applications than one floor.

  • Page 190: Stairwell Pressurization Control

    SMOKE MANAGEMENT FUNDAMENTALS Another consideration in zone pressurization is that bringing complex system to modulate dampers or fans at multiple in outdoor air at low temperatures can cause serious freeze injection points (Fig. 9) in response to differential pressure damage. Provision should be made to prevent damage when measurements at these points.

  • Page 191: Acceptance Testing

    SMOKE MANAGEMENT FUNDAMENTALS 4. System enables damper operation as appropriate for EXHAUST DAMPER smoke control mode. 5. Operator verifies operation as appropriate (e.g., action SPRINKLER of differential pressure switch). 6. Operator cancels smoke control mode as long as initiating panel is not in alarm and FSCS is not in manual override. CONTROL OF MALLS, ATRIA, SMOKE PLUME...

  • Page 192: Bibliography

    SMOKE MANAGEMENT FUNDAMENTALS BIBLIOGRAPHY REFERENCED PUBLICATIONS 6. Smoke Control in Fire Safety Design, A. G. Butcher and A. C. Parnell, E. & F. N. Spon Ltd, 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE, 1979. 1. Toxicity Effects Resulting from Fires in Buildings, State- of-the Art Report, May 16, 1983, National Institute of 7.

  • Page 193: Building Management System Fundamentals

    BUILDING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FUNDAMENTALS Building Management System Fundamentals ENGINEERING MANUAL OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL CONTENTS Introduction ......................184 Definitions ......................184 Background ......................185 Energy Management ................185 Facilities Management Systems ............185 System Configurations ......................186 Hardware Configuration ..............186 Zone-Level Controllers ..............

  • Page 194: Introduction

    BUILDING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FUNDAMENTALS INTRODUCTION — Improved operating-cost record keeping for allocating This section provides information on the fundamentals of Building Management Systems (BMS). The objective of a BMS to cost centers and/or charging individual occupants is to centralize and simplify the monitoring, operation, and —...

  • Page 195: Background

    BUILDING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FUNDAMENTALS Operations-level processor: A PC or other device used Zone-level controller: A microprocessor-based controller that primarily by building operation personnel for everyday controls distributed or unitary HVAC equipment such building operations. This processor can access points as VAV terminal units, fan coil units, and heat pumps. or data in all the lower level controllers.

  • Page 196: System Configurations

    BUILDING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FUNDAMENTALS Facilities management system configuration must deal with The development of two-wire transmission systems, PCs for two levels of operation: day-to-day operations and long-range centralized functions, and distributed processors including management and planning. Day-to-day operations require a DDC led to a need to define system configurations.

  • Page 197: System-level Controllers

    BUILDING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FUNDAMENTALS SYSTEM-LEVEL CONTROLLERS — Standard reports: Provides automatic, scheduled, and by- request reports of alarm and operator activity. Also Microprocessor-based system-level controllers have greater provides a broad range of system and category (points- capacity than zone-level controllers in terms of number of in-alarm, disabled points, etc.) summary reports.

  • Page 198: Peer Communications Protocol

    BUILDING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FUNDAMENTALS PEER COMMUNICATIONS PROTOCOL CENTRAL Peer communications protocol has the following advantages COMMUNICATIONS over poll/response communications protocol: SYSTEM/ZONE SYSTEM/ZONE — Communication not dependent on a single device as LEVEL LEVEL CONTROLLER the master. CONTROLLER — Direct communication between bus-connected devices without going through the BMS central processor.

  • Page 199: System Functions

    BUILDING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FUNDAMENTALS SYSTEM FUNCTIONS to interfacing with operating personnel rather that with GENERAL mechanical systems, as the controllers do in the lower tiers of the BMCS configuration. Each BMCS level provides some degree of stand-alone capability and collects and preprocesses data for other HARDWARE processing levels.

  • Page 200: Server

    BUILDING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FUNDAMENTALS — Transmitting requests for display data. • (Option) Automation Graphic Display. — Transmitting requests for report data. • Present button for operator graphic display request. — Uploading and downloading of controller software. — Present alarm status on graphics (point red if in alarm, —...

  • Page 201: Controller Support

    BUILDING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FUNDAMENTALS Off”. Strong color conventions unclutter graphics by needing Controller Support less explanatory text, for example; a yellow filter may be clean, a red filter dirty, and a red and blinking filter dirty and A major portion of the BMS Software is the definition and unacknowledged.

  • Page 202

    BUILDING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FUNDAMENTALS Operator selection of the “CHILLER A1 CHILLER A2” SYMBOL LEGEND: icon displays the graphic shown in Figure 7 which has 42 DYNAMIC VALUE data points and three icons for subsequent penetration, TEMPERATURE summarized as follows: HUMIDITY Cooling tower isolation valve position indicators.

  • Page 203: Specifying Graphics (i/o Summaries)

    BUILDING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FUNDAMENTALS DUAL CHILLER PLANT CONTROL GRAPHIC DISPLAY LEAD CHILLER PRESSURE BYPASS SELECTOR & CHOKE VALVE COOLING CONTROL TOWER CONTROL 1 = CHILLER 1 LEADS DUAL CHILLER 2 = CHILLER 2 LEADS SETPOINT REDUCTION 72.4 CHILLED WATER SETPOINT PRESSURE BYPASS VALVE...

  • Page 204

    BUILDING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FUNDAMENTALS CONNECTED POINTS INPUTS APPLICATION SOFTWARE ENERGY MANAGEMENT OUTPUTS SOFTWARE ANALOG ANALOG DIGITAL DIGITAL SYSTEM DESCRIPTION CHILLER PLANT COOLING TOWER ISOLATION VALVES LEAVING WATER LEAVING WATER COMMON CHILLER LEAVING COND. WATER CONDENSER PUMP CHILLER CONTROL COMMAND STATUS STATUS % MAX.

  • Page 205: Control Graphics

    BUILDING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FUNDAMENTALS CONTROL GRAPHICS each specific operator type. For example, a security guard is required to monitor certain critical alarm points after hours, design special graphics of only those points, with simplified Many digital control strategies require fine tuning to assure explanations, and specific operator response messages.

  • Page 206: Integration Of Other Systems

    BUILDING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FUNDAMENTALS INTEGRATION OF OTHER SYSTEMS The advantage of surface integration is that limited GENERAL subsystem information is made available to the BMS. This type of integration is generally used to tie in existing systems to Information from other subsystems, such as fire alarm, eliminate the need to replace functioning equipment.

  • Page 207

    BUILDING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FUNDAMENTALS ETHERNET LAN LEGEND PC - OPERATIONS/MANAGEMENT WORK STATION S - SYSTEM LEVEL CONTROLLER ZONE CONTROLLER ZI - ZONE CONTROL INTERFACE T - INTELLIGENT TEMPERATURE SENSOR A - INTELLIGENT ACTUATOR BI - BACNET INTERFACE BC - BACNET CONTROLLER LI - LONMARK INTERFACE 3I - THIRD PARTY (SUCH AS SWITCH GEAR) INTERFACE...

  • Page 208

    BUILDING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FUNDAMENTALS ENGINEERING MANUAL OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL...

  • Page 209: Control System Applications

    SMOKE MANAGEMENT FUNDAMENTALS CONTROL SYSTEM APPLICATIONS ENGINEERING MANUAL OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL...

  • Page 210

    SMOKE MANAGEMENT FUNDAMENTALS SMOKE MANAGEMENT FUNDAMENTALS ENGINEERING MANUAL OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL...

  • Page 211: Air Handling System Control Applications

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Air Handling System Control Applications ENGINEERING MANUAL OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL CONTENTS Introduction ......................203 Abbreviations ......................203 Requirements for Effective Control ......................204 Applications-General ......................206 Valve and Damper Selection ......................207 Symbols ......................208 Ventilation Control Processes ......................

  • Page 212

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Cooling Control Processes ......................236 Control of Modulating Chilled Water Coil Three-Way Valve ....236 Two-Position Control of Direct Expansion Coil System ....... 238 Two-Position Control of Direct Expansion Coil System— Modulating Face and Bypass Damper ..........239 Cold Deck System with Zone Damper Control ........

  • Page 213: Introduction

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS INTRODUCTION Also throughout the section, dashed lines indicate interlocked This section describes control applications for air handling links and solid lines functional relationships between control items. systems commonly found in commercial buildings. The basic processes such as heating, cooling, humidification, dehumidification, and ventilation are presented individually then Psychrometric aspects are included for most applications.

  • Page 214: Requirements For Effective Control

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR EFFECTIVE CONTROL Effective control system performance requires careful design 3) Sizing the refrigeration equipment accurately. of the mechanical system and selection of components. 4) Providing minimum on and off time delays. Consideration needs to be given to the following by the 5) Providing a hot gas bypass.

  • Page 215

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS 9. CONSIDER THE PHYSICAL ARRANGEMENT OF 2) Providing failure alarms for pump, coils, and HUMIDITY SYSTEM COMPONENTS. other heating systems components. a. Locate humidifiers downstream from a source of heat. 12. ALLOW AIR HANDLING AND CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN TO PROVIDE ENERGY CONSERVATION.

  • Page 216: Applications-general

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS 17. PLACE CONTROL VALVES ON THE LEAVING SIDE 18. CONSIDER THE ABILITY OF THE HVAC SYSTEM OF WATER COILS. OPERATOR TO UNDERSTAND THE SYSTEM WHEN DESIGNING GRAPHICS FOR THE Control valves on the leaving side of water coils OPERATOR INTERFACE.

  • Page 217: Valve And Damper Selection

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS VALVE AND DAMPER SELECTION Pneumatic valve and damper actuators are shown in these actuator selection. The table indicates actuator positioning desired examples. If actuators are electric, certain ones need not be spring on system shutdown and loss of motive force. return unless a specific reason exists.

  • Page 218: Symbols

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS SYMBOLS The following symbols are used in the system schematics following. These symbols denote the nature of the device, such as a thermometer for temperature sensing. CONTROLLER, TEMPERATURE SENSOR, TEMPERATURE LOW LIMIT PRESSURE CONTROLLER, HIGH LIMIT CUT-OUT, MANUAL RESET HIGH LIMIT MANUAL RESET NOTATION...

  • Page 219: Ventilation Control Processes

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS VENTILATION CONTROL PROCESSES The following applications show various ways of controlling ventilation in an air conditioning system. FAN SYSTEM START-STOP CONTROL FUNCTION AL DESCRIPTION SPACE PROPELLER TEMPERATURE EXHAUST 23.5 SETPOINT STATUS UNOCCUPIED LOW LIMIT FAN SYSTEM PERCENT SCHEDULE AND LOAD...

  • Page 220

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS FEATURES LIMITATIONS 1. Smoke, low temperature, and high static pressure safety 1. Heating and cooling equipment must be available to shutdown (hardwired). operate. 2. Optimized start-stop control of supply, return, and 2. On large 100% OA systems and systems where OA and exhaust fans.

  • Page 221: Fixed Quantity Of Outdoor Air Control

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS FIXED QUANTITY OF OUTDOOR AIR CONTROL Functional Description Example, calculate the mixed air temperature of a 4.720 m fan with 25% OA at –15 C. RA is 24 C. 1.180 MAT = 24 + [(-15) - 24] = 14.25 C 4.720 MAT = (24 x 0.75) + (-15x 0.25) = 14.25 C SPECIFICATIONS...

  • Page 222: Outdoor Air Fan Control For Multiple Ahu's

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS OUTDOOR AIR FAN CONTROL FOR MULTIPLE AHU’S The OA fan loading shall be under EPID (see Control Fundamentals section) control with a start value of 25% and a Functional Description ramp duration of 250 seconds. NOTE: EPID was selected (and designed specifically) for this type of application because of the start-up nature of VAV fans.

  • Page 223: Mixed Air Control

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS MIXED AIR CONTROL Functional Description NORMAL CONTROL PROGRAM OA MINIMUM SETPOINT M15153 Item FEATURES Function 1. The proper proportions of OA and RA, above minimum OA setting, are admitted to prevent the MA temperature Control system energizes when fan is turned from dropping below the desired MA temperature.

  • Page 224

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS SPECIFICATIONS See FAN SYSTEM START-STOP CONTROL. 17.5 C DB MA Anytime the supply fan runs, the OA, EA, and RA dampers CONTROLLER SETPOINT shall be modulated by an MA PID control loop to satisfy the MA RA 24 C DB, 15 C WB temperature setpoint down to a minimum ventilation position.

  • Page 225: Economizer Cycle Decision

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS ECONOMIZER CYCLE DECISION open. At economizer changeover, the OA (containing less heat than Where 100% outdoor air economizer cycles are included with air the RA) is intended to reduce the load on the cooling coil until no handling systems, the decision of when to switch to the economizer chilled water is required.

  • Page 226: Economizer Cycle Decision-outdoor Air Enthalpy Control

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS FEATURES the OA is between approximately 16 C and 25.5 C, and during the occupancy period. 1. Outdoor air is used for cooling (or to supplement the chilled NOTE: The dry bulb economizer decision is best on small water system) anytime the OA temperature is below the systems (where the cost of a good humidity sensor cannot economizer setpoint.

  • Page 227

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Item SPECIFICATIONS Function A global economizer program function shall be provided to switch all AHUs from OA cooling to minimum OA based upon Sensor senses OA temperature. an OA enthalpy calculation setpoint, except the system shall be Sensor senses OA humidity.

  • Page 228: Economizer Cycle Decision-outdoor Air/return Air Enthalpy Comparison

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS 6. Line 3 represents the dry bulb value, to the right of which ENTHALPY the cooling coil could not handle the sensible load, no CONTROL SELECTS RA matter how dry the air is. This is the high temperature economizer cutout line used with the enthalpy and OA/ 24 C DB, 54% RH RA enthalpy comparison economizer decision.

  • Page 229: Economizer Cycle Decision-outdoor Air/return Air Dry Bulb Temperature Comparison

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Item CONDITIONS FOR SUCCESSFUL OPERATION Function 1. High quality RH sensors with at least 3% accuracy and long term stability should be selected. Sensor senses OA temperature. 2. Periodic maintenance of the humidity sensors is provided. Sensor senses OA humidity.

  • Page 230: Mixed Air Control With Economizer Cycle (ventilation System Only)

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS MIXED AIR CONTROL WITH ECONOMIZER CYCLE (VENTILATION SYSTEM ONLY) Functional Description NORMAL PERCENT OPEN CONTROL PROGRAM ECONOMIZER DECISION. REFER TO PREVIOUS ECONOMIZER OPTIONS OA MINIMUM SETPOINT (NOTE: THE TEST AND BALANCE INITIAL VALUE FOR PROPER VENTILATION IS 22) M15157 Item CONDITIONS FOR SUCCESSFUL OPERATION...

  • Page 231: Economizer Cycle Control Of Space Temperature With Supply Air Temperature Setpoint Reset

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS PSYCHROMETRIC ASPECTS 7. The desired MA temperature can be maintained during economizer periods until the OA temperature falls below the temperature at which only minimum OA is admitted In the following chart it is assumed that: if the OA is less than 13 C.

  • Page 232

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Item CONDITIONS FOR SUCCESSFUL OPERATION Function 1. Adequate mixing of OA and RA. Mixing may be obtained using a special mixing chamber. The temperature sensor Control system energizes when fan is turned should be in the fan discharge when possible. The fan in on (See FAN SYSTEM START-STOP a blow-through system usually provides adequate mixing.

  • Page 233: Heating Control Processes

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS HEATING CONTROL PROCESSES The following applications show various ways to control CONDITIONS FOR SUCCESSFUL OPERATION heating in an air conditioning system. 1. A multiple inline coil arrangement should be used if a high temperature rise is required. CONTROL FROM SUPPLY AIR 2.

  • Page 234: Control From Space With Supply Temperature Reset

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS CONTROL FROM SPACE WITH SUPPLY TEMPERATURE RESET Functional Description SPACE NORMAL TEMPERATURE SUPPLY AIR TEMPERATURE RESET SCHEDULE SUPPLY AIR SPACE TEMPERATURE HEATING SETPOINT DEMAND N.O. CONTROL PROGRAM CURRENT SUPPLY AIR TEMPERATURE SETPOINT M15160 shall be reset from no lower than 13 C to no greater than Item 38 C as the space temperature PID demand for heating Function...

  • Page 235: Outdoor Air Temperature Reset Of Supply Air Temperature

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS OUTDOOR AIR TEMPERATURE RESET OF SUPPLY AIR TEMPERATURE Functional Description NORMAL CONTROL PROGRAM RESET SCHEDULE OUTDOOR SUPPLY AIR SETPOINT SETPOINT M15161 Item PSYCHROMETRIC ASPECTS Function The SA condition depends on the entering air condition and the temperature rise needed to satisfy the space heating Control system energizes when fan is turned on requirements.

  • Page 236: Space Temperature Control Of Zone Mixing Dampers And Reset Of Hot Deck Temperature

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS SPACE TEMPERATURE CONTROL OF ZONE MIXING DAMPERS AND RESET OF HOT DECK TEMPERATURE Functional Description SPACE SETPOINT OPEN TEMP. HALL LOBBY EAST CONTROL OFFICE PROGRAM WEST OFFICE SETPOINT NORMAL PERCENT OPEN TO HOT DECK ZONE DECK MIXING DAMPERS...

  • Page 237

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS FEATURES SPECIFICATIONS 1. A motorized zone mixing damper and space temperature See FAN SYSTEM START-STOP CONTROL. PID control loop for each zone provides zone control. 2. A single coil or group of coils in the hot deck furnishes Anytime the supply fan runs, heating control shall be enabled.

  • Page 238: Preheat Control Processes

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS PREHEAT CONTROL PROCESSES The preheat process heats the air in preparation for subsequent 2. Accurate sizing of preheat coils is important. They should conditioning. Preheat is sometimes necessary when high be sized so it is possible to allow OA for cooling yet not percentages of low temperature OA must be handled by the overheat the space.

  • Page 239

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS FEATURES The heating coil valve shall position from 0 to 100% open as the OA temperature varies from 10 C to 1.5 C. The face-and- bypass dampers shall modulate to maintain an average face- 1. Preheat coil conditions large quantities of low temperature and-bypass leaving air temperature of 10 C.

  • Page 240: Control From Preheat Leaving Air

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS CONTROL FROM PREHEAT LEAVING AIR Functional Description CONTROL PROGRAM OPEN N.O. N.C. NORMAL M15165 LIMITATIONS Item Function If too high a temperature rise is used, the valve may short cycle or slow down the water in the coil and allow the coil to freeze. Control system energizes when fan is turned on (See FAN SYSTEM START-STOP CONTROL).

  • Page 241: Multiple Coil Control From Outdoor And Supply Air

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS The following results are obtained: Item Explanation RA 24 C DB, 17 C WB Heating of OA occurs along a line of constant moisture content from 1.5 C to 21 CF. This condition represents the mixing of PREHEAT AIR preheated air and RA supplied to the system.

  • Page 242

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Coils 1 and 2 could be added to detect the loss of heating. OPTIONAL: Anytime the Coil 1 valve is full open and the If a Building Management System is included, the Coil 1 air differential temperature is less than a monitor could be two-stage to send an alarm warning Value V1, an alarm message shall be issued.

  • Page 243: Year-round Heat Recovery Preheat System Control

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS YEAR-ROUND HEAT RECOVERY PREHEAT SYSTEM CONTROL Functional Description OPEN PUMP START SETPOINTS: EXHAUST N.C. COIL COOLING SETPOINT = ANYTIME OA TEMPERATURE IS DEGREES ABOVE RA TEMPERATURE. PUMP PERCENT OPEN TO SUPPLY COIL HEATING SETPOINT = ANYTIME OA SETPOINT TEMPERATURE IS DEGREES...

  • Page 244

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS FEATURES In the heating season, the recirculating pump shall run anytime the OA temperature is less than three degrees below the supply fan SA temperature setpoint. 1. Use of the heat recovery system makes it energy efficient to use 100 percent OA by transferring heat from RA to A pump inlet mixing valve shall be modulated during heating supply air during heating operation and transferring...

  • Page 245: Humidification Control Process

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS HUMIDIFICATION CONTROL PROCESS Humidification is a process of adding moisture to air. The most Although steam jet humidifiers are depicted, other modulating commonly used humidifier type is the steam jet. Humidifier types control similarly. On-off humidifiers require a differential requirements vary;...

  • Page 246: Cooling Control Processes

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS STEAM HUMIDIFICATION PROCESS SPECIFICATIONS DETERMINES SLOPE OF THIS LINE 1. The humidifier shall be modulated by a space humidity PI control loop to maintain the humidity setpoint. 2. A humidifier leaving air humidity high limit control loop shall disable the humidifier if the humidity rises above ENTHALPY HUMIDITY RATIO...

  • Page 247

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS 2. Design OA temperature is 35 C DB and 24 C WB. FEATURES 3. Air entering the system is from the ECONOMIZER CYCLE DECISION application. This system operates 1. Chilled water is supplied to the coil at a constant on 35 percent OA during the cooling cycle.

  • Page 248: Two-position Control Of Direct Expansion Coil System

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS TWO-POSITION CONTROL OF DIRECT EXPANSION COIL SYSTEM Functional Description COMPRESSOR START CIRCUIT RELAY TEMPERATURE CONTROL 24.5 COMPRESSOR DIFFERENTIAL VOLTAGE MONITOR (KELVINS) 24.5 CONTROL PROGRAM COMPRESSOR (MINUTES) RELAY MINIMUM MINIMUM ON TIME OFF TIME OPEN SUPPLY M15170 LIMITATIONS Item...

  • Page 249: Two-position Control Of Direct Expansion Coil System-modulating Face And Bypass Damper

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS The following results are obtained: PSYCHROMETRIC ASPECTS Item With on-off control, either cooled air or mixed air is supplied Explanation into the space. In the following chart it is assumed that: Mixed air temperature at cooling design condition.

  • Page 250

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Item Anytime the face damper modulates up to 80% open, the refrigerant valve shall open and a relay shall enable the Function compressor to start under compressor controls. When the compressor system is commanded on, it shall remain on at least Control system energizes when fan is turned eight minutes and when it is commanded off (or drops off during on (See FAN SYSTEM START-STOP...

  • Page 251: Cold Deck System With Zone Damper Control

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS COLD DECK SYSTEM WITH ZONE DAMPER CONTROL Functional Description AS THE DEMAND FOR COOLING FROM THE ZONE VARIES BETWEEN ZERO AND %, ITS COLD DECK DAMPERS MODULATE BETWEEN CLOSED AND OPEN. AS THE DEMAND FOR COOLING FROM THE ZONE WITH THE GREATEST DEMAND FOR COOLING VARIES BETWEEN AND 100%, THE COLD DECK TEMPERATURE SETPOINT VARIES BETWEEN THE MIXED AIR...

  • Page 252

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS CONDITIONS FOR SUCCESSFUL OPERATION 1. All zones are connected to load analyzer program to satisfy total load requirements. In larger systems only selected diverse zone loads are connected. Zones that may 35 C DB, 24 C WB be allowed to go out of control (storage rooms, etc.) should not be connected to the load analyzer program.

  • Page 253: Direct Expansion Or Water Coil System Control

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS DEHUMIDIFICATION CONTROL PROCESSES CONDITIONS FOR SUCCESSFUL OPERATION The following applications show various methods of controlling dehumidification in air conditioning systems. 1. If a chilled water coil is used, the water supply is cold DIRECT EXPANSION OR WATER COIL enough to produce the lowest required dew point.

  • Page 254: Water Coil Face And Bypass System Control

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS In the following chart it is assumed that: The following results are obtained: 1. Desired space condition is 24 C DB and a maximum of 50% RH. Item 2. OA condition is 27 C DB and 26 C WB. Explanation 3.

  • Page 255

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS FEATURES PSYCHROMETRIC ASPECTS 1. Better dehumidification by having the chilled water flow The space relative humidity is maintained at or below a sequence slightly ahead of the face damper opening to desired value depending on the moisture content of the air keep a low dew point temperature.

  • Page 256: Space Control Of Heating, Economizer (free Cooling), And Humidification

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS HEATING SYSTEM CONTROL PROCESS SPACE CONTROL OF HEATING, ECONOMIZER (FREE COOLING), AND HUMIDIFICATION Functional Description SPACE COOL CONTROL PROGRAM 23.5 HEAT N.O. N.C. SUPPLY AIR SPACE TEMPERATURE HEATING SETPOINT DEMAND NORMAL CONTROL PROGRAM SUPPLY AIR SPACE ECONOMIZER DECISION.

  • Page 257

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS FEATURES 2. SA condition at design load is 32 C DB and 7.0 grams of moisture per kilogram of dry air. 3. Light load outdoor air condition is 13 C DB and 11.5 C 1. The outdoor air quantity is modulated from a minimum to take advantage of free cooling based on space 4.

  • Page 258: Year-round System Control Processes

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS YEAR-ROUND SYSTEM CONTROL PROCESSES HEATING, COOLING, AND ECONOMIZER Functional Description 24.5 SPACE TEMPERATURE CHILLED WATER COOLING SETPOINT SETPOINT = FREE COOLING SETPOINT PLUS 24.5 (0.8 MINIMUM) FREE COOLING 23.5 SETPOINT HEATING SETPOINT = FREE SETPOINT COOLING SETPOINT MINUS (0.8 MINIMUM) SUPPLY AIR...

  • Page 259

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS 15,16 Hot water valve modulates to maintain SA The space temperature shall have a free cooling PI loop setpoint selected to provide optimum occupant comfort temperature. The temperature setpoint. space temperature shall have a chilled water cooling PI loop Free cooling demand varies SA temperature setpoint adjustable to no lower than 0.8 kelvins (minimum) above setpoint.

  • Page 260: Multizone Unit

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS MULTIZONE UNIT Functional Description 23.5 23.5 THE ZONE WITH THE GREATEST HEATING DEMAND HALL LOBBY RESETS THE HOT DECK TEMPERATURE FROM DEGREES AS REQUIRED TO 23.5 23.5 EAST OFFICE MAINTAIN ITS SPACE TEMPERATURE DEGREES BELOW SETPOINT. WEST 23.5 24.5...

  • Page 261

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS FEATURES In the winter, zone space temperature is maintained by mixing air from the cold deck with hot deck air (the temperature of which is dictated by the zone with the greatest demand for 1. This application uses zone control of heating and cooling. heating).

  • Page 262: Heating, Cooling, Humidification, And Dehumidification Control Without Dead-bands

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS HEATING, COOLING, HUMIDIFICATION, AND DEHUMIDIFICATION CONTROL WITHOUT DEAD-BANDS Functional Description SPACE N.C. 23.5 23.5 13.5 SUPPLY AIR NORMAL TEMPERATURE COOLING SETPOINT DEMAND N.O. REHEAT N.C. SUPPLY PERCENT OPEN COOL COIL LEAVING AIR HUMIDI- CONTROL TEMPERATURE FICATION SETPOINT DEMAND...

  • Page 263

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS FEATURES PSYCHROMETRIC ASPECTS 1. The system admits outdoor air for cooling based upon For cooling conditions it is assumed that: the economizer decision. 2. Space relative humidity is maintained by controlling both 1. Design outdoor air condition is 35 C DB and 26 C WB. humidification and dehumidification.

  • Page 264

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS For heating conditions it is assumed that: The following results are obtained: 1. Design outdoor air condition is –18 C DB and 30 percent Item relative humidity. Explanation 2. RA condition is 24.5 C DB and 13.5 C WB. 3.

  • Page 265: Vav Ahu, Water-side Economizer, Oa Airflow Control

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS VAV AHU, WATER-SIDE ECONOMIZER, OA AIRFLOW CONTROL Functional Description WARM-UP MODE INVOLVED AT OPTIMUM START TIME IF PERIMETER SPACE TEMPERATURE IS LESS THAN WARM-UP ENDS WHEN RETURN 23.5 AIR REACHES PROPELLER PERIMETER EXHAUST ZONE WARM-UP 23.5 MODE SPACE...

  • Page 266

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Control program optimizes duct pressure CONDITIONS FOR SUCCESSFUL OPERATION setpoint. 1. Airflow element and transducer must be kept clean and OA shaft static pressure point shared from OA calibrated. fan control system for this graphic (not a 2.

  • Page 267

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS During unoccupied periods, anytime the top floor west zone operating point. At this point the AHU fan would draw a small perimeter space temperature is greater than 25 C and the OA portion of its full-load amperage, good dehumidification would temperature is less than 22 C and the OA dew point is less than occur, and pumping energy may be reduced.

  • Page 268: Vav Ahu With Return Fan And Flow Tracking Control

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS VAV AHU WITH RETURN FAN AND FLOW TRACKING CONTROL Functional Description ZERO CALIBRATION EXHAUST 24.5 EXHAUST FAN "ON" DIFFERENTIAL SPACE PRESSURIZATION 1.274 DIFFERENTIAL 0.613 4.530 CONTROL PERCENT PROGRAM LOAD 14.5 6.423 NORMAL NORMAL PERCENT LOAD 0.45 0.060 0.45...

  • Page 269

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS SA temperature setpoint is reset based upon SPECIFICATIONS OA temperature. See FAN SYSTEM START-STOP CONTROL. 20-22 Mixing dampers modulate for free cooling. 23,24 Mixing box static pressure maintained constant Anytime the supply fan runs, the return fan shall start and during noneconomizer mode by modulation of the control system shall be enabled.

  • Page 270

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS The following results are obtained: PSYCHROMETRIC ASPECTS Item In the following chart it is assumed that: Explanation 1. Outdoor air condition is 35 C DB and 26 C WB. 2. RA condition is 24 C DB and 14.5 C WB. RA mixes with 20 percent (minimum position) 3.

  • Page 271: Ashrae Psychrometric Charts

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS ASHRAE PSYCHROMETRIC CHARTS ENGINEERING MANUAL OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL...

  • Page 272

    AIR HANDLING SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS ENGINEERING MANUAL OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL...

  • Page 273: Building Airflow System Control Applications

    BUILDING AIRFLOW SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Building Airflow System Control Applications ENGINEERING MANUAL OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL CONTENTS Introduction ......................265 Definitions ......................265 Airflow Control Fundamentals ......................266 Need for Airflow Control ..............266 What is Airflow Control ................ 266 Types of Airflow Systems ..............267 Variable Air Volume .................

  • Page 274

    BUILDING AIRFLOW SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Airflow Control Applications ......................280 Central Fan System Control ..............280 Supply Fan Control for VAV Systems ..........280 General ..................280 Duct Static High-Limit Control ............. 281 Return Fan Control for VAV Systems ..........281 Open Loop Control ..............

  • Page 275: Introduction

    BUILDING AIRFLOW SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS INTRODUCTION This section explains the need for airflow control in a central contaminated air does not migrate to unwanted areas. Basic air handling system, describes the various means of airflow types of space pressure control are static pressure, airflow tracking, and constant airflow.

  • Page 276: Airflow Control Fundamentals

    BUILDING AIRFLOW SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Static pressure sensor or tube: A sensing device with several • Peak Velocity—The greatest air velocity occurring in an holes perpendicular to an airstream for measuring increment of a duct cross-section. Peak velocity is static pressure. denoted V Total pressure: The algebraic sum of Velocity Pressure (VP) plus •...

  • Page 277: Types Of Airflow Systems

    BUILDING AIRFLOW SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS TYPES OF AIRFLOW SYSTEMS To ensure that all air terminal units have sufficient pressure to operate, a supply airflow control system is required. To monitor duct static, static pressure sensors are installed near the end of the An air handling system can provide heating, cooling, supply duct.

  • Page 278: Variable Versus Constant Air Volume

    BUILDING AIRFLOW SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS OUTDOOR FLOW MEASURING STATION RETURN RELIEF (OR) AIR FAN 12.0 m MAXIMUM REMOTE EXHAUST FAN INLET VANE SUPPLY DAMPERS AIR FAN 0.7 m 14.0 m MAXIMUM FILTER FLOW 75% DIVERSITY, MEASURING COOLING AIR TERMINAL UNIT STATION COIL TOTAL19.0 m...

  • Page 279

    BUILDING AIRFLOW SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS If this is done on a VAV system at design load, as the VAV Another positive method is to provide a small OA injection boxes require less cooling and less airflow, the supply fan fan set to inject the required OA into the AHU mixing box capacity reduces, and the inlet pressure to the supply fan during occupied periods (the OA damper remains closed).

  • Page 280: Pressurization

    BUILDING AIRFLOW SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Theoretically, the mixing dampers may be modulated to Where: maintain a constant OA volume during occupied periods using F = Total door opening force applied at the knob an OA duct airflow measuring station. Since, in these examples, in newtons (N) the OA duct is sized for 100 percent OA, the minimum is usually = Force to overcome the door closer, applied...

  • Page 281: Wind Pressure Effects

    BUILDING AIRFLOW SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Where: WIND PRESSURE EFFECTS DP = Pressure difference in pascals (Pa) Wind effects generate surface pressures which can change = Outdoor absolute temperature in degrees supply and exhaust fan capacities, infiltration and exfiltration of kelvin(˚F) (273 + ˚K) air, and interior building pressure.

  • Page 282: Fan Types

    BUILDING AIRFLOW SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS FAN TYPES Two main types of fans are used in airflow systems centrifugal and axial: Centrifugal Fans: A centrifugal fan (Fig. 4) has airflow within the wheel that is substantially radial to the shaft (or PROPELLER FAN VANEAXIAL FAN TUBEAXIAL FAN...

  • Page 283: Fan Laws

    BUILDING AIRFLOW SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS FAN LAWS Fan power is the actual fan power required to drive the fan. Po = Theoretical Po Fan efficiency Fan laws (Table 1) are simple and useful when dealing with changing conditions. Three important laws deal with speed = (m /s x FTP) Fan efficiency...

  • Page 284: Characteristics Of Airflow In Ducts

    BUILDING AIRFLOW SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS The quantity of air flowing in a duct can be variable or constant, depending on the type of system. See TYPES OF AIRFLOW SYSTEMS. PRESSURE CHANGES WITHIN A DUCT For air to flow within a duct, a pressure difference must exist. The fan must overcome friction losses and dynamic (turbulent) losses to create the necessary pressure difference.

  • Page 285

    BUILDING AIRFLOW SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS TOTAL PRESSURE VELOCITY PRESSURE STATIC PRESSURE AIRFLOW A. PRESSURE IN THIS DUCT ABOVE ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE STATIC PRESSURE TOTAL PRESSURE VELOCITY PRESSURE AIRFLOW C2643 B. PRESSURE IN THIS DUCT BELOW ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE Fig. 8. Relationships of Total, Static, and Velocity Pressures for Positive and Negative Duct Static Pressures. FRICTION LOSS TOTAL PRESSURE TOTAL PRESSURE...

  • Page 286: Effects Of Fittings

    BUILDING AIRFLOW SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS In transitions to and from equipment an attempt is made to spread the air evenly across the face of the equipment. If the FRICTION LOSS diverging section into the equipment has too great an angle, TOTAL PRESSURE STATIC splitters are often used.

  • Page 287: Measurement Of Airflow In Ducts

    BUILDING AIRFLOW SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS MEASUREMENT OF AIRFLOW IN DUCTS To obtain accurate velocity pressure readings, the pitot tube tip must point directly into the air stream. Figure 16 shows the error in static and total pressure readings when the pitot tube GENERAL does not point directly into the air stream.

  • Page 288: Total And Static Pressure Sensors

    BUILDING AIRFLOW SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS leveled 10:1 inclined manometer calibrated against a hook areas are taken. Readings are taken along at least two diameters gauge can read to approximately 1.25 Pa. A standard pitot perpendicular to each other. In rectangular ducts, readings at the tube with an inclined manometer can be used with the following centers of equal rectangular areas are taken.

  • Page 289: Airflow Measuring Devices

    BUILDING AIRFLOW SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Electronic flow stations use the tube type construction with AIRFLOW MEASURING DEVICES thermal velocity sensors instead of static and total pressure sensors. Other flow sensing arrangements use holes in round Various devices for measuring airflow are available. Figure 19 tubing (Fig.

  • Page 290: Airflow Control Applications

    BUILDING AIRFLOW SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS AIRFLOW CONTROL APPLICATIONS CENTRAL FAN SYSTEM CONTROL branch (Fig. 24C). Each sensed point should have its own setpoint in the control loop. This avoids the assumption that branches and multisensor locations have identical Figure 23 shows the net airflow balance for a building space requirements.

  • Page 291: Duct Static High-limit Control

    BUILDING AIRFLOW SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS A controlling high-limit application is used when the fan A wide proportional band setting (10 times the maximum duct static pressure at the fan discharge) on the fan control is a system must continue to run if duct blockage occurs, but its good starting point and ensures stable fan operation.

  • Page 292: Direct Building Static Control

    BUILDING AIRFLOW SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Since building static is controlled directly, the pressure remains constant even when exhaust fan airflow changes. Minimum outdoor airflow varies with changes in exhaust fan airflow and RETURN AIR TERMINAL DUCT STATIC building infiltration/exfiltration. In a control sequence where the UNITS PRESSURE SENSOR outdoor air damper is closed, the building static must be reset to...

  • Page 293: Duct Static Control

    BUILDING AIRFLOW SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Duct Static Control RELIEF Duct static control is similar to supply fan duct static high- limit control, except return duct static pressure is negative. If individual space returns are damper controlled, return fan BUILDING SPACE control must use this technique (Fig.

  • Page 294: Building Airflow System Control Applications

    BUILDING AIRFLOW SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS In systems not having a return air fan, the return damper RELIEF controls minimum outdoor airflow or building pressurization. FLOW Airflow tracking or direct building static pressure control can MEASURING be used to control the return damper, depending on which STATION parameter is most important.

  • Page 295: Sequencing Fan Control

    BUILDING AIRFLOW SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS SEQUENCING FAN CONTROL Vaneaxial fan sequencing is also decided by total supply flow, but the operating fan(s) is modulated to minimum output when the next fan is turned on. This sequence is used to avoid a stall VAV systems with multiple fans can use fan sequencing.

  • Page 296

    BUILDING AIRFLOW SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS OUTDOOR SUPPLY RETURN RETURN INDOOR STATIC STATIC PRESSURE PRESSURE SENSOR SENSORS CONTROLLER CONTROLLERS DUCT STATIC REFERENCE AIRFLOW STATIC SENSOR (2) C2664 C2665 Fig. 40. Control of Return Dampers in Fig. 41. Control of Return Fan in Zone Airflow Control. Zone Airflow Control.

  • Page 297: Multiple Fan Systems

    BUILDING AIRFLOW SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Essentially, the increase of outdoor air above that required to FUME HOODS maintain building pressurization is done the same way as mixed air control except outdoor air is controlled by flow rather than Fume hoods are the primary containment devices in most mixed air temperature (Fig.

  • Page 298: Laboratory Pressurization

    BUILDING AIRFLOW SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS The standard hood can be controlled either by adding a The subject of the “correct” face velocity is still debated. face velocity sensor at the sash opening or by installing However, most research now indicates that 0.4 to 0.5 meters per devices to measure the sash opening to calculate face second (m/s) at the sash opening provides a zone of maximum velocity.

  • Page 299

    BUILDING AIRFLOW SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS 0.7 m CRACK AREA = 0.05 m LAB AIRFLOW AIRFLOW DAMPER ACTUATOR SENSOR CONTROLLER PANEL OR AIR VALVE DAMPER EXHAUST ACTUATOR 0.5 m OR AIR SUPPLY VALVE E X H 0.4 m A U S A I R AIRFLOW SENSOR...

  • Page 300: References

    BUILDING AIRFLOW SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS CRACK AREA = 0.05 m 2 The significant issues are 1) how fast can the room pressurization system respond to upset (a door opening or several hoods being closed at once) and 2) what is the impact EXHAUST on adjacent areas and the rest of the building.

  • Page 301: Chiller, Boiler, And Distribution System Control Applications

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Chiller, Boiler, and Distribution System Control Applications ENGINEERING MANUAL OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL CONTENTS Introduction ......................295 Abbreviations ......................295 Definitions ......................295 Symbols ......................296 Chiller System Control ......................297 Introduction ..................297 Vapor-Compression Refrigeration ............

  • Page 302

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Boiler System Control ......................327 Introduction ..................327 Boiler Types ..................327 Cast Iron and Steel Boilers ............. 327 Modular Boilers ................327 Electric Boilers ................328 Boiler Ratings and Efficiency ............... 328 Combustion in Boilers .................

  • Page 303

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Variable Speed Pump Control ............353 Decoupled Variable Speed Pump Control, Direct Return ... 353 Pump Speed Valve Position Load Reset ........355 Balancing Valve Considerations ..........357 Balancing Valve Effects ............357 Balancing Valve Elimination............

  • Page 304

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS High Temperature Water Heating System Control ................... 374 Introduction ..................374 High Temperature Water (HTW) Heating ........374 High Temperature Water Safety ............375 HTW Control Selection ................ 375 HTW Valve Selection ................375 Valve Style ..................

  • Page 305: Introduction

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS INTRODUCTION This section provides descriptions of and control information digital controllers or by all digital controller programmers. Many about water chillers, cooling towers, hot water boilers, steam solutions are portrayed as they may be specified to be displayed boilers, and water, steam, and district heating distribution systems.

  • Page 306: Symbols

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Primary Thermal Units: Thermal production water elements such Superheat: The additional heat contained in a vapor at a as chillers and boilers. Thermal production air elements temperature higher than the saturation (boiling) such as air handlers. temperature corresponding to the pressure of the vapor.

  • Page 307: Chiller System Control

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS CHILLER SYSTEM CONTROL INTRODUCTION Chiller types are classified by type of refrigeration cycle: vapor- compression or absorption. In addition, those using the vapor- compression cycle are referred to by the type of compressor: A chilled water system consists of a refrigeration system (water centrifugal or positive displacement.

  • Page 308: Centrifugal Compressor

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS EXPANSION VALVE CHILLED WATER HOT GAS LINE HEAD (HIGHSIDE) CONDENSER PRESSURE WATER CHILLED WATER EVAPORATOR (HEAT EXCHANGER) CONDENSER COMPRESSOR WATER SUCTION (LOWSIDE) SUCTION LINE SENSING PRESSURE CONDENSER BULB (HEAT EXCHANGER) LIQUID LINE C2685 RECIEVER Fig.

  • Page 309: Reciprocating Compressor

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS IMPELLER Reciprocating chiller capacity is controlled in stages (steps). VOLUTE PREROTATION VANES Methods of capacity control include the following: INLET – Unloading cylinders – On-off cycling of multiple compressors – Hot-gas bypass – Hot-gas through evaporator Cylinder unloading or multiple compressor on-off cycling is sequenced by automatic controls.

  • Page 310: Absorption Chiller

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS CONDENSER generator. In the generator the weak absorbent is heated to drive WATER IN (evaporate) the refrigerant out of the absorbent and restore the CONDENSER CONDENSER strong absorbent. The strong absorbent then passes through the WATER OUT heat exchanger, where it gives up some heat to the weak absorbent, and then returns to the spray heads in the absorber...

  • Page 311: Chiller Control Requirements

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS internal control that transfers liquid from refrigerant circuit to Proportional-integral (PI) control improves the accuracy of absorbent circuit, transfers liquid from absorbent circuit to control. When integral control is used, provisions to prevent refrigerant circuit, limits heat input, or a combination.

  • Page 312: Chilled Water Systems

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS It is desirable for the BMCS to have access to the chiller- 3. Using rejected heat when a heating load exists at the same controller database, but due to the cost and complexity of a custom time as a cooling load.

  • Page 313: Single Centrifugal Chiller Control Application

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS SINGLE CENTRIFUGAL CHILLER CONTROL APPLICATION FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION CHILLED WATER SETPOINT TOWER CONTROL CHILLER SYSTEM CONTROL MINIMUM CURRENT MAXIMUM AUTO CHILLER 1 AUTO NORMAL ENABLED 10.5 BY REMOTE OPERATING STATUS PERCENT LOAD ALARM CONTROLS MODE STATUS CURRENT...

  • Page 314

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS CHILLED WATER SYSTEM CHILLED WATER SETPOINT MINIMUM CURRENT MAXIMUM ANYTIME ANY AHU VALVE IS OPEN GREATER THAN % FOR MORE THAN MINUTES AND THE TIME IS BEFORE 1545 THE CHILLED WATER PUMP STARTS AND ENABLES THE CHILLER SYSTEM CONTROLS.

  • Page 315: Multiple Chiller System Control Applications

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Anytime chilled water flow is proven via a chilled water pump The temperature sensor in the common chilled water supply current sensing relay, the chiller controls shall be enabled to is the primary capacity control. The temperature low limit operate under factory controls, subject to a chiller software ON- control prevents the outlet temperature of each chiller from OFF-AUTO function (chilled water flow must still be proven...

  • Page 316

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS When two chillers of equal size and similar characteristics are Curves A and B in Figure 13 illustrate that for the chillers used, the point at which the second chiller is activated is usually operating at design condition with a 24 kelvins temperature when the first chiller reaches 100 percent load.

  • Page 317: Dual Centrifugal Chillers Control Application

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS DUAL CENTRIFUGAL CHILLERS CONTROL APPLICATION FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION CHILLED WATER SETPOINT MORNING LEAD CHILLER SELECTOR FLOW & MAXIMUM MINIMUM CURRENT PRESSURE 1 = CHILLER 1 LEADS CONTROL 2 = CHILLER 2 LEADS 3 = ALTERNATES CHILLER CONTROL CONTROL...

  • Page 318

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS CHILLED WATER SYSTEM CHILLED WATER SETPOINT MINIMUM CURRENT MAXIMUM ANYTIME ANY AHU VALVE IS OPEN GREATER THAN % FOR MORE THAN MINUTES AND THE TIME IS BEFORE , THE LEAD CHILLED WATER PUMP STARTS. 1545 ANYTIME THE LEAD CHILLER HAS RUN LONGER THAN MINUTES, THE CHILLED...

  • Page 319: Similar Multiple Centrifugal Chillers Control Applications

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS NOTE: When using two-way AHU valves with this Anytime chilled water flow is proven via a chilled water pump current sensing relay, the respective chiller controls shall be coupled chiller configuration, exercise care in enabled to operate under factory controls, subject to a chiller optimizing the chilled water temperature.

  • Page 320

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS SYSTEM DESCRIPTION SOFTWARE PARTITIONING Figure 16 shows a typical “decoupled” multiple chiller From an operational and control perspective, the physical system. Each chiller has a (primary) dedicated constant speed configuration of chiller plant digital controllers is usually pump selected to produce the chiller design flow through the transparent.

  • Page 321: Multiple Centrifugal Chiller Sequencing

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS COMMUNICATION WITH CONDENSER PUMP/ CHILLER FAN AND TOWER ISOLATION CONTROLLERS VALVE CONTROL (TYPICAL) COOLING TOWER STAGING & LOADING CONTROLLER 29.5 M15259 Fig. 18. Digital control of Sequenced Cooling Towers. Multiple Centrifugal Chiller Sequencing FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION % SPEED SECONDARY...

  • Page 322

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS CHILLER SEQUENCING CHILLED WATER PUMP OFF LONGEST IS STARTED UPON SECONDARY SYSTEM DEMAND FOR CHILLED WATER. CHILLED WATER PUMPS ARE SEQUENTIALLY STAGED ON ANYTIME THE DECOUPLER TEMPERATURE EXCEEDS THE PRIMARY SUPPLY WATER TEMPERATURE GREATER THAN KELVINS FOR GREATER THAN MINUTES, BUT WITH NO LESS THAN MINUTES BETWEEN STARTS.

  • Page 323: Dissimilar Multiple Centrifugal Chillers Control

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS DISSIMILAR MULTIPLE CENTRIFUGAL temperature and the entering condenser water temperature are frequently optimized and chiller capacity varies with changes CHILLERS CONTROL in either temperature, the per-chiller expected should be dynamically modified based upon manufacturers data regarding When a multiple chiller system consists of chillers that are these variations.

  • Page 324: Chiller Pump Optimization

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS 2.375 HIGH PRESSURE 2.250 STEAM SUPPLY PRV SET APPROX. 2.125 TO INLET VANE 69 kPa ACTUATOR SENSOR IN 2.000 TURBINE-DRIVEN CHILLED CENTRIFUGAL WATER BACK CHILLER 1.875 SUPPLY COMPRESSOR PRESSURE ABSORPTION TURBINE CHILLER RELAY 1.750 CENTRIFUGAL CHILLER...

  • Page 325: Thermal Storage Control

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS THERMAL STORAGE CONTROL – Charging Cycle: Valves V and V are closed and V controlled by T to maintain the flow rate at F . Pump is off. T controls chiller capacity to maintain 4.5 C GENERAL CHWS temperature.

  • Page 326: Cooling Tower And Condenser Water Control

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS TEMPERATURE RANGE (KELVINS) COOLING TOWER AND CONDENSER WATER CONTROL COOLING TOWER PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS SUMMER DESIGN CONDITIONS: ENTERING WATER, 32.5˚C The cooling tower dissipates the heat collected from the LEAVING WATER, 27.5˚C OA WET BULB, 24˚C building by the chiller and chilled water system by cooling the condenser water.

  • Page 327: On-off Cooling Tower Fan Control

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS On-Off Cooling Tower Fan Control FANS ON IN SEQUENCE ON TEMPERATURE RISE On-off fan control is satisfactory where the load is always high and where several towers are banked together for multistage control. COOLING TOWER On-off cooling tower control with a single setpoint for a PI...

  • Page 328: Variable Speed Cooling Tower Fan Control

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Specification: If required, use a valve control method similar to the one Condenser water temperature setpoint shall be equal to the used for single speed fan control. OA WB plus 3.5 kelvins, or the minimum temperature acceptable to the chiller, whichever is higher.

  • Page 329

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS LOW LOAD CONDENSER WATER TEMPERATURE CONTROL: TOWER FAN STOPS, VARIABLE SPEED CONTROL IS DISABLED, AND ON-OFF FAN CONTROL IS ENABLED IF LOAD DROPS AFTER FAN DROPS TO SPEED. ON-OFF CONTROL: FAN RESTARTS IF TEMPERATURE RISES TO SETPOINT PLUS DEGREES.

  • Page 330: Dual Cooling Tower Variable Speed Fan Control

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS DUAL COOLING TOWER VARIABLE SPEED FAN CONTROL Functional Description TOWER ISOLATION SELECTOR COOLING COOLING 0 = NO TOWERS ISOLATED TOWER 1 TOWER 2 1 = TOWER 1 ISOLATED 2 = TOWER 2 ISOLATED 25.5 25.5 SETPOINTS/...

  • Page 331

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS setpoint shall be determined by the tower free cooling control Features module. The OA WB shall be calculated from OA RH (the RH 1. Precise PI condenser water control above minimum load. sensor shall be of no less than 2% accuracy) and OA DB. The 2.

  • Page 332

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS than 7 minutes. The operating tower valves shall modulate to If both fans are off and the water temperature drops to the valve maintain the above noted valve control setpoint at anytime control setpoint plus 0.5 kelvins, the valves of Tower 1 shall regardless of fan operation.

  • Page 333: Chiller Heat Recovery System

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS If chilled water reset is used, stop the reset action when the CHILLER HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEM cooling tower is off. This provides recovery system heat to a lower outdoor temperature before it is necessary to use fuel for heating. A chiller heat recovery system uses heat rejected from a chiller to satisfy a simultaneous heating load.

  • Page 334

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS In Figure 34, condenser and chilled water flows are diverted from the chiller to a heat exchanger. COOLING TOWER TOWER HEATER COOLING (OPTIONAL) TOWER NOTE: CONDENSER INDICATES NO FLOW WATER PUMP TOWER HEATER (OPTIONAL) CONDENSER CONDENSER...

  • Page 335: Tower Free Cooling, Dual Chillers

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS TOWER FREE COOLING, DUAL CHILLERS FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION FREE COOLING OA WB SETPOINT = CHILLED WATER TEMPERATURE SETPOINT MINUS DEGREES OUTSIDE CHILLER/ FREE COOLING SETPOINT DRY BULB CHILLER/ FREE CHILLER/ FREE COOLING COOLING CURRENT MODE CURRENT MODE COOLING COOLING...

  • Page 336

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Features Condenser water: During the condenser water temperature pull-down period, 1. Production of chilled water via condenser water and a the condenser entering water temperature shall be prevented HX in lieu of chiller operation. from dropping below the minimum acceptable value by 2.

  • Page 337: Boiler System Control

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS BOILER SYSTEM CONTROL INTRODUCTION Steel boilers come in a large variety of configurations. They are factory assembled and welded and shipped as a unit. Figure 38 illustrates a firetube boiler. The fire and flue gases A boiler is a closed vessel intended to heat water and produce are substantially surrounded by water.

  • Page 338: Electric Boilers

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Some modular boilers have very small storage capacity and Electric elements and electrodes are grouped to provide four very rapid heat transfer so water flow must be proven before or more stages of heating. A step controller responding to steam the burner is started.

  • Page 339: Combustion In Boilers

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS – Steam or air atomizing burners use high pressure air or COMBUSTION IN BOILERS 270 kPa steam to break up the oil into fine droplets. PRINCIPLES OF COMBUSTION For modulating or high/low flame control applications the rotary or steam/air atomizing burners are most common.

  • Page 340: Boiler Controls

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS BOILER CONTROLS PILOT STEAM PILOT VALVE PRESSURE PRESSURE MANUAL REGULATOR SENSOR VALVE BOILER OUTPUT CONTROL SUPPLY TO FLAME There are three ways to control the output of a commercial MODULATING SAFEGUARD VALVE SYSTEM boiler: CONTROL LINKAGE...

  • Page 341: Flame Safeguard Instrumentation

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS OPERATING HI LIMIT CONTROLLER POWER FLOW SHUTOFF PRESSURE MAIN BURNER VALVE REGULATOR VALVE PILOTSTAT THERMO- AUTOMATIC COUPLE VALVE PILOT PILOT M15050 BURNER GAS LINE Fig. 45. Simple Flame Safeguard for a Gas Furnace. Figure 46 shows how flame safeguard controls are integrated APPLICATION OF BOILER CONTROLS with combustion controls on a small oil fired steam boiler.

  • Page 342: Multiple Boiler Systems

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS MULTIPLE BOILER SYSTEMS EXPANSION TANK MAKE-UP GENERAL WATER ZONE MANUAL AIR VENT Basic boiler connections for a three-zone hot water system ZONE are shown in Figure 47. In this system, two boilers are connected in parallel.

  • Page 343: Dual Boiler Plant Control

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS DUAL BOILER PLANT CONTROL FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION- HEATING SYSTEM ON-OFF-AUTO SELECTOR LOW LIMIT SET POINT BOILER LEAD SELECTOR 29.5 AUTO BOILER BOILER BOILER SYSTEM SYSTEM PUMP P1 BOILER -1 ON-OFF-AUTO OFF-AUTO SELECTOR SELECTOR AUTO AUTO OUTSIDE AIR TEMPERATURE...

  • Page 344

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Features Specification 1. Full flow through operating boilers. The heating plant shall operate under automatic control 2. Minimum temperature limit on boiler entering water. anytime the secondary pump ON-OFF-AUTO function is not 3. Variable flow secondary system with full boiler flow. “OFF”, subject to a heating system ON-OFF-AUTO software 4.

  • Page 345: Modular Boilers

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Boilers that are off have no flow and are allowed to cool. During boiler operation, a three way blending valve shall position to place the boiler flow in a recirculating mode until Each boiler that is on operates at or near full capacity. Avoiding the water entering the boiler exceeds a low limit value of 63 C, intermittent operation prevents losses up the stack or to the at which time the blending valve shall modulate to maintain...

  • Page 346: Control Requirements For Water Distribution Systems

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS EXPANSION TANK PUMP MAKE-UP SUPPLY WATER PRESSURE REGULATING VALVE HEAT/ HEAT/ HEAT/ SEPARATION COOL COOL COOL COIL COIL COIL HEAT/ COOL SOURCE RETURN M15053 Fig. 51. Typical Water Distribution System. The expansion tank is charged with compressed air to place CONTROL REQUIREMENTS FOR WATER the system under the minimum pressure required at the inlet to DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS...

  • Page 347: Pump Performance

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Table 2. Characteristics of Centrifugal Pump Types. Motor Impeller No. of Motor Mounting Type Type Impellers Casing Connection Position Circulator Single Volute Flexible- Horizontal suction coupled Close-coupled, Single One or two Volute Close- Horizontal end suction suction...

  • Page 348: Pump Power Requirements

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Pump Power Requirements Pump Performance Curves The pump curve in Figure 53 is part of a family of curves for a Commercial pumps have performance curves showing the pump. Each curve of the family represents a different size impeller following data for a given pump speed: used with the pump at a specified rpm.

  • Page 349: Pump Affinity Laws

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Figure 55 illustrates a pump fitted with a 165 mm impeller, Table 3. Pump Affinity Laws. operating at 130 kPa, and delivering 4.2 L/s of water. Specific Impeller Gravity Correct Multiply Water power = 4.2 L/s x 130 kPa Diameter Speed (SG)

  • Page 350: Matching Pumps To Water Distribution Systems

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS MATCHING PUMPS TO WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS System Curves FLOW AT FULL LOAD The pump curves and affinity laws are used to select a pump or pumps for a particular application. The first step is to establish a system pressure curve.

  • Page 351

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS 240mm BALANCED OPERATING POINT WITH 240mm IMPELLER DESIGN OPERATING POINT 220mm OPERATION WITH 220mm IMPELLER 200mm 185mm 11000W 9000W 7500W SYSTEM CURVE 5500W 4000W 6.25 12.5 18.75 31.25 37.5 43.75 56.25 C4093 CAPACITY IN (L/s) Fig.

  • Page 352: Variable Speed Pumps

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS TYPICAL RANGE OF PERFORMANCE VARIABLE SPEED PUMPS FOR VARIABLE SPEED PUMP From the pump affinity laws (Table 3), pump power decreases by the cube of the decreased speed, and flow decreases linearly with speed; so at 80 percent flow, the power (kW) is down to nearly 50 percent (80 percent cubed).

  • Page 353: Pumps Applied To Open Systems

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Table 4. Variable Speed Pump relationships Load (percent) Condition Flow (L/s) 31.5 0.80 x 31.5 = 25.2 0.60 x 31.5 = 18.9 0.40 x 31.5 = 12.6 Speed (rpm) 1750 0.80 x 1750 = 1400 0.60 x 1750 = 1050 0.40 x 1750 = 700 Total Pressure (kPa)

  • Page 354: Operation

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS the lag pump stop setpoint should have a significant margin of CONTROL VALVE(S) safety incorporated. The lag pump start setpoint should be PIPING controlled by a differential pressure controller and have the software requirement that one control valve be full open for LOAD HEAT four minutes before starting.

  • Page 355: Dual Pump Curves

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS SUPPLY PIPING CONTROL VALVE(S) PUMP SERIES CONTROL PUMPS VALVES HEATING/ HEATING LOAD COOLING HEAT SOURCE COOLING EXCHANGER COILS BALANCING VALVES RETURN PIPING 2 PUMPS DESIGN PRESSURE DROP IN kPa FLOW CONTROL BALANCING ITEM COIL &...

  • Page 356: Direct Vs Reverse Return Piping Systems

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS As flow through the system is reduced, a new system curve COIL, is established. See the 0.375 L/s curve in Figure 69. When the PUMP 1750 RPM SUPPLY/ CURVE RETURN flow is reduced, the new pressure loss in source and supply and SYSTEM CURVE PIPING 2.2 kPa return piping can be calculated using the formula:...

  • Page 357: Coupled Vs Decoupled Piping Systems

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS The Figure 70 supply piping runs out to the coils decreasing in Supply piping is the same for a reverse return system (Fig. 71) size between AHU 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. The return lines between as for the direct return system (Fig.

  • Page 358: Methods Of Controlling Distribution Systems

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS METHODS OF CONTROLLING — Piping Cost. Costs are higher for three-way valves than two-way valves, especially where limited space is DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS available for piping (such as in room air conditioning units and unit ventilators). In addition, balancing cocks There are several methods for controlling pressure and flow in must be installed and adjusted in the bypass line.

  • Page 359: Single Pump, Pressure Bypass, Direct Return

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS The examples in this section on Flow And Pressure Control piping drops are 81 percent of design (90 percent squared). Solutions use a distribution system that has six equal loads The pump curve (not shown) indicates a pump pressure of (coils) as shown in Figure 73.

  • Page 360

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS TOP NUMBERS = FULL FLOW NUMBERS IN CIRCLES = GAUGE PRESSURES (kPa) BOTTOM NUMBERS = HALF FLOW, EACH COIL (PUMP INLET = ZERO kPa FOR SIMPLICITY) PD = PRESSURE DROP IN kPa 18 kPa DROP TOTAL 145.5 CHILLER HEAT/...

  • Page 361: Single Pump, Pressure Bypass, Reverse Return

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS The greatest change at the sensor provides the most tolerant Single Pump, Pressure Bypass, Reverse Return and robust control. For this reason the sensor is located, not across the chiller with a setpoint of 27.9 kPa, but across Coil 1 A reverse return system analysis equivalent to the direct return where the greatest differential pressure change exists (84 kPa analysis of Figure 74 would show that at half flow and no...

  • Page 362: Dual Pumps, Dual Chillers, Pressure Bypass

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Dual Pumps, Dual Chillers, Pressure Bypass, With digital controls, the differential pressure setpoint offset adjustment when only one chiller/pump is operating is handled 90 percent Chiller Flow, Direct Return by a software routine (dual chiller/pump setpoint plus 14.4 kPa) invoked anytime only one pump and one chiller are operating.

  • Page 363: Variable Speed Pump Control

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS SUPPLY HEAT/ HEAT/ HEAT/ HEAT/ HEAT/ HEAT/ COOL COOL COOL COOL COOL COOL COIL COIL COIL COIL COIL COIL RETURN M15065 Fig. 78. High AHU Valve Differential Pressure Control In these examples, the design differential pressure across operation.

  • Page 364

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS VARIABLE SPEED DRIVE HEAT/ HEAT/ HEAT/ HEAT/ HEAT/ HEAT/ COOL COOL COOL COOL COOL COOL COIL COIL COIL COIL COIL COIL M15066 Fig. 79. Variable Speed Pump Control OPERATING POINT @ FULL LOAD AHU 1 requires a 84 kPa differential pressure (24 kPa for 25 L/s &...

  • Page 365: Pump Speed Valve Position Load Reset

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS No pump pressure control example, so far, takes advantage FULL LOAD of both the variable speed pump and a digital control system. OPERATING POINT The digital control system VSD control algorithm adjusts the PUMP CURVE @ 1750 RPM differential pressure setpoint based on the demands of all the...

  • Page 366

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS MULTI-BUILDING VARIABLE FLOW CONTROL CONCEPTS INSET (ONE PER BUILDING) MANUAL AHU CONTROL PERCENT VALVES V2 OPEN VALUE (TYPICAL) MANUAL AUTO SELECTOR AUTO VALVE V-1 CURRENT PERCENT SETPOINT OPEN BLDG. A CONTROL RETURN RETURN VALVE VI BLDG.

  • Page 367: Balancing Valve Considerations

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Each building is provided with a “choke” valve (V-1), and a 2. Cool-down periods for other than AHUs 1 and 2 will be load reset loop to maintain water pressure within the building, extended.

  • Page 368: Decoupled Variable Speed Pump Control, Reverse Return

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS The control objectives for a hot water distribution system Minimum flow (L/s) = providing space heating are: 4.2 x T Where: 1. Provide adequate hot water flow to all heating units. T = Low flow water temperature rise across the 2.

  • Page 369: Hot Water Piping Arrangements

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS LOAD LOAD SINGLE INPUT CONTROL HOT WATER STEAM SENSOR LOAD SUPPLY LOAD FLOW DIVERTING FITTINGS STEAM TO SUPPLY HOT WATER CONDENSATE CONVERTER RETURN RETURN LOAD LOAD C2831 PUMP Fig. 83. Constant Temperature Hot Water Converter Control.

  • Page 370: Primary-secondary Pumping

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS A converter (heat exchanger) shown in Figure 89 can be used EXPANSION TANK in large or high rise buildings to reduce the zone temperature/ pressure requirements from those of the mains. LOAD LOAD LOAD LOAD LOAD...

  • Page 371: Supply Hot Water Temperature Control

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Supply Hot Water Temperature Control RATED OUTPUT 75% FLOW REDUCTION With Flow Control Combining flow control with supply water temperature reset from outdoor air temperature or any other measurement of load results in effective control. Figure 93 shows output of a typical air heating coil with flow and supply water temperature control.

  • Page 372

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Another digital control function is steam valve demand FROM ADDITIONAL limiting. Water systems are usually balanced such that if all PANELS water valves are full open, design flow is delivered to all load coils (unless diversity is used).

  • Page 373

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Dual Valve Converter, Demand Limiting, Setpoint Shift Functional Description H.W. SETPOINT SEQUENCE OUTSIDE WARM-UP OCCUPIED OPERATION PERIODS PERIODS OUTSIDE AIR TEMPERATURE SETPOINT 90.5 RESET SCHEDULE PERCENT OPEN 1/3 CAPACITY PERCENT OPEN PUMP 2/3 CAPACITY START POINT AUTO CONVERTOR C-1...

  • Page 374: Three-way Valve

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS With both valves operating, as the total demand drops below Hot Water Control Method Selection the capacity of the large valve for five minutes, the small valve shall close. With the large valve operating, as the demand drops Supply water temperature control is suitable for controlling the below the capacity of the small valve for five minutes, the large heat delivery from a heat exchanger or a secondary water pump.

  • Page 375: System Objectives

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS System Objectives The chilled water control and distribution system should: TERMINAL 1. Provide the minimum flow of chilled water through the UNITS chiller as specified by the manufacturer. 2-POSITION 2. Provide a stable pressure difference across supply and 3-WAY VALVE return mains.

  • Page 376: Steam Distribution Systems And Control

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS 1. Steam mains must provide adequate capacity so steam PUMP velocity is between 40 and 60 meters per second. PUMP PUMP PUMP 2. Water must not be allowed to accumulate in the mains. Provisions must be made for the use of traps or superheated steam to reduce or eliminate water in mains.

  • Page 377: Steam System Heat Characteristics

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS STEAM SYSTEM HEAT CHARACTERISTICS EXAMPLE: The heat in 50m of steam: Figure 101 shows the characteristics of one kilogram of steam at 150 kPa is 43 kg x 2693 kJ/kg = 115 799 kJ as it travels through a steam heating system.

  • Page 378: Steam Distribution Systems

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS STEAM DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS The float and thermostatic trap (Fig. 104) can handle large amounts of air and condensate and is commonly used on steam coils in air handling systems. In this trap, the thermostatic STEAM PIPING MAINS element passes air until it senses steam at which time it closes the valve.

  • Page 379: Pressure Reducing Valve Station

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS The disc trap (Fig. 106) is a device with only one moving part. As steam in the chamber above the disc cools and condenses, the disc snaps open releasing condensate. These traps cycle CONTROL CHAMBER independent of condensate load.

  • Page 380: Types Of Low Pressure Steam Distribution Systems

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS TYPES OF LOW PRESSURE STEAM TYPES OF CONDENSATE RETURN SYSTEMS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS In addition to gravity return used for small systems, either open or vacuum return systems can be used. One-Pipe Steam Systems In open return systems (Fig.

  • Page 381: Variable Vacuum Return Systems

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Low pressure steam systems operate on pressures ranging from Table 7. Heat Output versus Steam Pressure for Coils. 100 kPa to 200 kPa. The steam main pressures are usually under Saturated Typical Steam 170 kPa and the returns are vented to the atmosphere.

  • Page 382: Oversized Valve

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Figure 114C shows the quarter-open valve position. Half of Oversized Valve the coil surface is starved of steam, the heat output is reduced to about half of the original value and the trap is full open. All In Figure 114A a large valve is used to ensure 128 kPa in the of the steam has been condensed in the coil before reaching the coil.

  • Page 383: Supply And Return Main Pressures

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Figure 115B shows the valve in the half-open position. The 2. Returns at atmospheric pressure, unless lifts (condensate output of the coil is cut approximately in half (16 kW). This is pumps) are required in the returns. in contrast to the oversized valve application (Fig.

  • Page 384: High Temperature Water Heating System Control

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS HIGH TEMPERATURE WATER HEATING SYSTEM CONTROL — Feedwater requirements are minimal, eliminating INTRODUCTION treatment costs and introduction of air which is a source of corrosion. HTW systems tend to remain clean. HIGH TEMPERATURE WATER (HTW) HEATING —...

  • Page 385: High Temperature Water Safety

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS HIGH TEMPERATURE WATER SAFETY HTW VALVE SELECTION A well designed HTW system with proper installation of Valves for HTW must be selected to ensure suitability for piping to prevent undue stress rarely fails. high temperature and pressure conditions.

  • Page 386: Valve Trim

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS VALVE TRIM VALVE LOCATION Use stainless steel valve stems and trim. Standard trim for Always locate a HTW valve on the return side of the industrial valves is usually 316 stainless steel. Composition discs converter, coil, steam generator, or other equipment because it leak and corrode at the seat and disc and are not used.

  • Page 387: Htw Coils

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS LOW TEMP CONTROLLER A constant temperature hot water supply is used where a PREHEAT OR TO SHUT DOWN FAN TEMPERING minimum temperature is required for all or part of the converter COIL load. Normally a converter for space heating does not require fast response as the load changes only as fast as occupancy and outdoor air conditions change.

  • Page 388: Htw Space Heating Units

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS RELAY CLOSES FACE TEMPERATURE CONTROL DAMPER AND VALVE OPTIONAL RESET WHEN FAN STOPS RELIEF VALVE LINE FROM OUTDOOR CONTROLLER DAMPER BUILDING DAMPER ACTUATOR ACTUATOR 50 C FROM N.O. DISCHARGE BUILDING AIR TEMP CONTROLLER N.O.

  • Page 389: Htw Steam Generators

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS HTW STEAM GENERATORS Flash converters convert HTW to steam by reducing the pressure. They are not satisfactory steam generators because water is carried with the steam and control is less stable. Using the central HTW boilers for steam production is not recommended.

  • Page 390: District Heating Applications

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS DISTRICT HEATING APPLICATIONS INTRODUCTION HEAT SOURCES Sources of heat to supply the network include waste District Heating (DH), refers to a method of supplying heat incineration plants, boiler houses, heat pumps, and waste heat to buildings, factories, and other facilities from a central source.

  • Page 391: The Substation

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS The transfer medium is generally hot water at temperatures up — Heat Exchanger Substation. to 200 C and pressures up to 20 bars (2000 kPa). The optimum — Heat Exchanger. operating conditions, temperature and pressure, depend on the —...

  • Page 392: Symbols

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS SYMBOLS Since District Heating is more common in Europe, District Heating is based on information supplied by personnel in Europe. The symbols used in Figures 126 through 143 are those commonly used in Europe and are supplied here for convenience. HEAT EXCHANGER TEMPERATURE SENSORS ROOM...

  • Page 393: Steam System Vs Hot Water System

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS The optimal temperature/pressure ratio depends on the length PRESSURE and structure of the network, actual load, outdoor air MAXIMUM temperature, and pipe insulation. Because of the many SAFETY variables, a combination of both Outdoor Air Temperature LIMIT SUPPLY Control and Variable Flow Control or Variable Temperature...

  • Page 394: Key Points

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS KEY POINTS Functional principles: The primary side consists of the supply and return lines, plus Key points are locations where pipelines branch off (Fig. 129). necessary pressure reducing, regulating, and safety equipment. They consist of valves for supply and return flow which can separate the branch line from the main line.

  • Page 395: Indirect Heat Transfer Substations

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS SUBSTATION CONSUMER Indirect Heat Transfer Substations DISTRIBUTION Indirect substations use heat exchangers and physically decoupled or independent heating circuits. Applications range from small substations for a one family house to large substations for industrial types of networks. Three applications for heat transfer substations with different heat exchanger configurations, primary flow and/or the differential pressure is ROOM...

  • Page 396: Hybrid Heat Transfer Substations

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS SECONDARY In general three different configurations are used: SUPPLY – Open systems using water column static pressure and expansion tanks. HEAT PRIMARY EXCHANGER – Closed systems (Fig. 134) using pressurized air and SUPPLY SECONDARY expansion tanks (static pressure holding system).

  • Page 397: Control Applications

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS The primary side includes shut off valves, differential circuit and transfers the heat to the consumer directly. The pressure, and flow control equipment provide safety functions supply flow temperature is controlled by one three-way valve, and a required differential pressure or flow.

  • Page 398

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS SUBSTATION SUPPLIER CONSUMER CENTRAL SYSTEM TZA+ PZA– PZA+ OUTSIDE AIR PZA– TZA+ PZA– TZA+ PZA+ TSA+ PZA+ TSA+ PDIC HEX1 HEX12 PDIC TSA+ TSA+ PSA+ COLD WATER EXPANSION TANK WATER SUPPLY TANK PSA+ M11429 Fig.

  • Page 399: Ddc Control Of A Small House Substation

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Control Strategies PRF water through Valve Y 51 provides make-up water, in cases of a high quantity water loss, Pump Y 64 pumps make- 1. Primary Flow Loop Differential Pressure Control: up water from the water supply tank. The WLC protects Provides a constant value pressure drop across the heat the circulating pumps against running without water.

  • Page 400: Control Of Apartment Building Substations With Domestic Hot Water

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Table 11. Description of Figure 138 Reference Points. Reference Description Reference Description Controller TIC 24 SRF temperature TI 01 Outdoor air temperature TZA+ 21 Safety temperature limit (SSF) TI 31 Room temperature sensor & Y 11 Control valve PRF setpoint setting...

  • Page 401

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS SUBSTATION DISTRIBUTION CONSUMER CENTRAL SYSTEM ELEC. POWER OUTSIDE AIR RECIRCULATED HEX1 HEX3 HEX2 COLD WATER M11431 Fig. 140. DDC Control of Two-Stage Heat Exchanger for Domestic Hot Water and Heating. ENGINEERING MANUAL OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL...

  • Page 402

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Control Strategies 6. DHW Circulating Pumps Control: Circulating Pumps Y 25, Y26, and Y27 circulate DHW through the pipes to 1. Secondary Supply Flow Temperature Control: The SSF maintain hot water temperature at the end of the DHW temperature is reset from outdoor air temperature.

  • Page 403: Hybrid Building Substation

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Table 13. Description of Figure 142 Controls. erature schedule. If the SSF temperature exceeds the high limit setpoint of hard wired thermostat (TZA+ 21), power Reference Description to valve Y 12 is shut off closing the valve. Controller 2.

  • Page 404

    CHILLER, BOILER, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL APPLICATIONS SUBSTATION DISTRIBUTION CONSUMER CENTRAL SYSTEM OUTSIDE AIR COLD WATER PUMP HEX1 M11430 Fig. 144. Control of Heat Exchanger for DHW and Jet Pump for SSF. Control Strategies 2. Heat exchanger HEX 1 Transfers heat to the isolated domestic hot water system (DHW).

  • Page 405: Individual Room Control Applications

    INDIVIDUAL ROOM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Individual Room Control Applications ENGINEERING MANUAL OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL CONTENTS Introduction ......................397 Graphic Symbols ................. 398 Abbreviations ..................399 Air Terminal Unit Control ..............399 Variable Air Volume ATU ..............399 Pressure-Dependent and Pressure-Independent ATU ....399 Single-Duct VAV ATU ..............

  • Page 406

    INDIVIDUAL ROOM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Fan Coil Units ..................418 General ................... 418 Two-Pipe Heating/Cooling ............... 419 Two-Pipe Heating/Cooling, Single Coil ..........419 Four-Pipe Heating/Cooling, Split Coil ..........420 Four-Pipe Heating/Cooling, Single Coil ........... 420 Heat Pumps ..................421 General ................... 421 Operation ..................

  • Page 407: Introduction

    INDIVIDUAL ROOM CONTROL APPLICATIONS INTRODUCTION This section describes applications for air terminal units and Lar ge air handling units and c hiller plants typicall y use unitar y equipment used in indi vidual r oom contr ol. The air general purpose digital controllers, while rooms typically use ter minal units co vered include var iable- and constant-v olume contr oller s designed f or r oom contr ol.

  • Page 408: Graphic Symbols

    INDIVIDUAL ROOM CONTROL APPLICATIONS GRAPHIC SYMBOLS The following symbols ar e used in g raphic displa ys in this section. These symbols denote the na tur e of the de vice, such as a thermometer for temperature sensing. CONTROLLER, TEMPERATURE SENSOR, TEMPERATURE LOW LIMIT PRESSURE CONTROLLER,...

  • Page 409: Abbreviations

    INDIVIDUAL ROOM CONTROL APPLICATIONS ABBREVIATIONS VARIABLE AIR VOLUME ATU The following abbr eviations ar e used: A var iable air v olume (VAV) ATU contr ols the cooling of a space b y var ying the amount of conditioned air supplied r ather —...

  • Page 410: Single-duct Vav Atu

    INDIVIDUAL ROOM CONTROL APPLICATIONS SINGLE-DUCT VAV ATU Throttling VAV ATU The throttling VAV ATU (Fig. 3) is the simplest and least System Configuration expensive ATU. A room controller controls the operation of the damper actuator using PI control. The throttling VAV ATU Figur e 2 is a schema tic of the equipment sho wn in the contr ol usually has software minimum and/or maximum damper dia gram Thr ottling VAV ATU in F igur e 3.

  • Page 411: Variable Air Volume Atu

    INDIVIDUAL ROOM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Figur e 4 shows a r eheat coil ad ded to a thr ottling VAV ATU. An economical alter na tive to r ehea ting air tha t has been In this application, the temperature controller sequences the cooled or reducing the reheat requirement is to reset the setpoint oper ation of the damper actua tor and the contr ol valve or r eheat of pr imar y air in the centr al fan system conditioning section.

  • Page 412: Variable Air Volume Atu With Electric Reheat

    INDIVIDUAL ROOM CONTROL APPLICATIONS PRIMARY 0.35 PERCENT OPEN 0.165 1.445 0.543 CURRENT CURRENT SPACE MINIMUM MAXIMUM CURRENT SPACE AIRFLOW TEMPERATURE AIRFLOW AIRFLOW TEMPERATURE SETPOINT SETPOINT SETPOINT ADJUSTABLE MAXIMUM AIRFLOW ADJUSTABLE AIRFLOW MINIMUM AIRFLOW ZERO HIGH M15306 SPACE COOLING LOAD Fig. 5. Variable Air Volume Single-Duct Air Terminal Unit. Figure 5 displays the primary supply air temperature and static bypass push-b utton o verride time in min utes, smoke pur ge mode pr essur e.

  • Page 413

    INDIVIDUAL ROOM CONTROL APPLICATIONS PRIMARY 0.35 WALL MODULE TEMPERATURE COOLING SETPOINT LOBBY 0.071 -1.5 0.543 0.465 -1.5 0.165 0.543 ROOM 102 0.049 0.543 24.5 ROOM 103 0.260 24.5 -2.0 0.236 0.543 0.165 -1.75 ROOM 104 0.198 DAMPER HEATER CURRENT SPACE MINIMUM MAXIMUM HEATING...

  • Page 414: Parallel Fan Atu

    INDIVIDUAL ROOM CONTROL APPLICATIONS PLENUM AIR PRIMARY 0.35 VAV BOX WALL MODULE TEMPERATURE COOLING SETPOINT 0.165 0.575 0.465 -1.5 CURRENT MINIMUM MAXIMUM PERCENT OPEN HEATING AIRFLOW DEADBAND AIRFLOW SETPOINTS (m OPEN PRIMARY AIRFLOW POSITION INDUCTION DAMPER ZERO CLOSED FULL FULL COOLING HEATING DEADBAND...

  • Page 415

    INDIVIDUAL ROOM CONTROL APPLICATIONS PRIMARY 0.35 WALL MODULE TEMPERATURE PLENUM COOLING SETPOINT 0.249 0.165 0.543 -1.75 DAMPER VALVE CURRENT MINIMUM MAXIMUM HEATING PERCENT STATUS PERCENT AIRFLOW DEADBAND OPEN OPEN AIRFLOW SETPOINTS (m OPEN REHEAT PRIMARY PRIMARY REHEAT VALVE AIRFLOW AIRFLOW VALVE CLOSED ZERO...

  • Page 416: Dual-duct Atu

    INDIVIDUAL ROOM CONTROL APPLICATIONS DUAL-DUCT ATU Dual Duct Pr essur e Inde pendent VAV ATU In a dual-duct air handling system, suppl y air is di vided a t Figure 10 shows a dual-duct pressure independent ATU. The the centr al fan and hot air and cold air f low thr ough separ ate airflow sensor in the outlet of the ATU controls the cold duct ducts thr oughout the b uilding .

  • Page 417: Dual Duct Pressure Independent Constant Volume Atu

    INDIVIDUAL ROOM CONTROL APPLICATIONS The dotted line of F igure 10 shows a modification of this str ategy Dual Duct Pressure Independent wher ein the constant v olume r equir ement is r elaxed a little to Constant Volume ATU pr ovide some VAV cooling contr ol pr ior to g oing into the hea ting/ mixing por tion of contr ol.

  • Page 418: Unitary Equipment Control

    INDIVIDUAL ROOM CONTROL APPLICATIONS UNITARY EQUIPMENT CONTROL GENERAL THERMOSTAT Unitar y equipment inc ludes na tur al convection units, radiant panels, unit hea ter s, unit v entila tor s, fan coil units, and hea t pumps. Unitar y equipment does not r equir e a centr al fan. Depending on design, unitary equipment may perform one or all of the functions HOT WATER of HVAC–ventila tion, filtr ation, heating, cooling, humidif ication,...

  • Page 419: Radiant Panels

    INDIVIDUAL ROOM CONTROL APPLICATIONS RADIANT PANELS When a radiant panel is used for cooling, the temperature of the w ater cir cula ting thr ough the panel m ust be a t least 0.5 kelvins a bove the de w point temper atur e of the space to A radiant panel is a surf ace tha t tr ansfers 50 per cent or mor e pr event condensa tion on the panel.

  • Page 420: Control

    INDIVIDUAL ROOM CONTROL APPLICATIONS CONTROL Modula ting Contr ol Contr ol of unit hea ter s may be modula ting b ut is usuall y two Modulating control (Fig. 17) throttles the heating medium in position. Lo w-limit contr ol (sensing the w ater or condensa te pr opor tion to c hang es in space temper atur e.

  • Page 421: Gas- Or Oil-fired Unit Heater

    INDIVIDUAL ROOM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Some lar ger industr ial gas-fired unit hea ter s have two stages: CEILING two-position (lo w fire) and modula ting (to high f ire). These THERMOSTAT units are controlled by room thermostats designed to sequence the tw o-position and modula ting sta ges on a decr ease in space temperature.

  • Page 422: Control

    INDIVIDUAL ROOM CONTROL APPLICATIONS In the “dr aw-thr ough” unit v entila tor (F ig. 21) the fan dr aws Face and b ypass damper s ar e frequentl y found on unit filter ed outdoor and r etur n air acr oss the coil and b lows the ventila tor s wher ein the r oom contr oller modula tes the damper s, conditioned air into the space.

  • Page 423: Cycle I-fixed Maximum Percentage Of Outdoor Air

    INDIVIDUAL ROOM CONTROL APPLICATIONS CONVECTION DISCHARGE HEATING LOW-LIMIT COIL TEMPERATURE CONTROLLER HEATING VALVE THERMOSTAT COIL THERMOSTAT VALVE INTERLOCK INTERLOCK FILTER FILTER DAMPER DAMPER ACTUATOR ACTUATOR OA, RA OA, RA DAMPERS DAMPERS OUTDOOR OUTDOOR CLOSED OPEN RETURN RETURN C3040 Fig. 23. Unit Ventilator in Standby/Warmup Stage. OPERATION CYCLE OPEN FINAL...

  • Page 424: Cycle Iii-variable Outdoor Air

    INDIVIDUAL ROOM CONTROL APPLICATIONS DISCHARGE DISCHARGE UNIT VENTILATOR HEATING COIL VALVE THERMOSTAT THERMOSTAT LOW-LIMIT TEMPERATURE INTERLOCK CONTROLLER MIXED AIR TEMPERATURE CONTROLLER HEATING COIL INTERLOCK VALVE FACE AND BYPASS DAMPER DRAIN FILTER DAMPER ACTUATOR OA, RA FILTER DAMPERS DAMPER OUTDOOR RETURN ACTUATOR OUTDOOR MIXING...

  • Page 425: Unit Ventilator Digital Control

    INDIVIDUAL ROOM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Zone day/night control requires one zone night thermostat for tw o or mor e unit v entila tor s tha t mak e up a z one. Dur ing PERCENT OPEN night oper ation, the coil v alve opens, the outdoor air damper WALL MODULE closes, and the night ther mosta t cycles the fans to maintain the TEMPERATURE...

  • Page 426

    INDIVIDUAL ROOM CONTROL APPLICATIONS WALL MODULE TEMPERATURE HEATING 22.5 SETPOINT PERCENT COOLING 22.5 OPEN SETPOINT CONTROL PROGRAM PERCENT OPEN TO BYPASS MINIMUM VENTILATION DAMPER SETPOINT PERCENT OPEN TO OUTSIDE AIR DISCHARGE HEATING DISCHARGE COOLING TEMPERATURE LOAD TEMPERATURE LOAD SETPOINT PERCENT SETPOINT PERCENT HOT WATER VALVE...

  • Page 427

    INDIVIDUAL ROOM CONTROL APPLICATIONS WALL MODULE TEMPERATURE HEATING -1.0 DEADBAND FREE COOLING SETPOINT PERCENT OPEN COOLING DEADBAND PERCENT OPEN CONTROL ECONOMIZER CYCLE STATUS PROGRAM MINIMUM VENTILATION DAMPER SETPOINT PERCENT OPEN TO OUTSIDE AIR DISCHARGE HEATING DISCHARGE COOLING TEMPERATURE LOAD TEMPERATURE LOAD SETPOINT PERCENT...

  • Page 428: Precautions And Conditions For Successful Operation

    INDIVIDUAL ROOM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Thr ee room temper atur e setpoints ar e shown, free cooling, a Low temper atur e switches to stop the f an and c lose the O A heating deadband , and a mec hanical cooling deadband . The fr ee damper should be pr ovided wher e freezing OA conditions ar e cooling setpoint ma y be man ual on the w all module , or softw ar e likely.

  • Page 429: Two-pipe Heating/cooling

    INDIVIDUAL ROOM CONTROL APPLICATIONS TWO-PIPE HEATING/COOLING DISCHARGE The flow of medium thr ough a f an coil unit can be contr olled 3-WAY in tw o ways. One method uses a tw o-way valve to contr ol the MIXING flow of steam or hot or c hilled water. The second method , shown VALVE THERMOSTAT in F igur e 31, uses a thr ee-way valve to contr ol hot or c hilled...

  • Page 430: Four-pipe Heating/cooling, Split Coil

    INDIVIDUAL ROOM CONTROL APPLICATIONS Digital Contr ol of the tw o pipe hea ting/cooling f an coil unit When space temper atur e is below the ther mosta t setpoint, should a bove could be as F igur e 33. The fans could be ba tch the hot w ater suppl y valve modula tes open and hot w ater f lows scheduled via one or mor e optim um star t pr ogr ams.

  • Page 431: Heat Pumps

    INDIVIDUAL ROOM CONTROL APPLICATIONS HEAT PUMPS Heat pumps ar e typicall y classified by the hea t sour ce at the “outdoor” coil. The common air -to-air hea t pump uses outdoor air as its hea t sour ce dur ing the hea ting c ycle. A water -to-air GENERAL hea t pump uses w ater as the hea t sour ce dur ing the hea ting cycle.

  • Page 432: Control Loops

    INDIVIDUAL ROOM CONTROL APPLICATIONS In some hea t pumps, a minim um of f timer pr events a CONTROL LOOPS compr essor r estar t for thr ee to five minutes. After shutdo wn, heat pump operation must not resume until pressures equalize Heat pumps can use a v ar iety of methods to c hang e between between the suction and disc har ge sides of the compr essor.

  • Page 433: Individual Room Control Automation

    INDIVIDUAL ROOM CONTROL APPLICATIONS The Figur e 39 example sho ws a graphic of the souther n half INDIVIDUAL ROOM CONTROL AUTOMATION of a floor with 30 VAV boxes and their associa ted space temper atur es. Selecting an y VAV box would pr oduce a g raphic On automa ted jobs with a g raphic BMS , ATUs ar e usuall y of tha t box, similar to those pr eviously shown in this section, shown on a f loor plan similar to F igur e 39.

  • Page 434: Hot Water Plant Considerations

    INDIVIDUAL ROOM CONTROL APPLICATIONS HOT WATER PLANT CONSIDERATIONS per iods to aid in the con vection and w ar m-up ef forts. A tr iple See Chiller , Boiler, and Distr ibution System Contr ol water temper atur e schedule ma y be consider ed wher e the Applica tions section f or ad ditional inf orma tion on hot w ater convection mode has a higher w ater temper atur e than w ar m- system control.

  • Page 435

    SMOKE MANAGEMENT FUNDAMENTALS ENGINEERING INFORMATION ENGINEERING MANUAL OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL...

  • Page 436

    SMOKE MANAGEMENT FUNDAMENTALS SMOKE MANAGEMENT FUNDAMENTALS ENGINEERING MANUAL OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL...

  • Page 437: Valve Selection And Sizing

    VALVE SELECTION AND SIZING Valve Selection and Sizing ENGINEERING MANUAL OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL CONTENTS Intr oduction ......................428 Definitions ......................428 Valve Components ................428 Valve Flow Characteristics ..............428 Valve Flow Terms ................429 Valve Ratings ..................429 Valve Types ..................430 Valve Material and Media ..............

  • Page 438: Introduction

    VALVE SELECTION AND SIZING INTRODUCTION This section provides information on valve selection and ensure support for heating and cooling loads with adequate sizing. Valves must be selected for ability to meet temperature, valve capacity, yet able to control system flow to provide stable building conditions efficiently.

  • Page 439: Valve Flow Terms

    VALVE SELECTION AND SIZING Quick-opening: A valve which provides maximum possible flow Where: as soon as the stem lifts the disc from the valve seat. Q = volumetric flow in cubic meters per second. Valve flow characteristic: The relationship between the stem fluid density in kilograms per cubic meter.

  • Page 440: Valve Types

    VALVE SELECTION AND SIZING The valve close-off rating is independent of the actual EXAMPLE: valve body rating. See definition of BODY RATING The body of a valve, exclusive of packing, (ACTUAL) in this section. disc, etc., has a pressure and temperature rating of 850 kPa at 180 C.

  • Page 441: Valve Material And Media

    VALVE SELECTION AND SIZING Ball valves provide tight shut-off, while full port Globe valve: A valve which controls flow by moving a circular models have low flow resistance, and reduced port disk against or away from a seat. When used in models can be selected for modulating applications.

  • Page 442: Valve Selection

    VALVE SELECTION AND SIZING Table 1. Corrosive Elements in Hydronic Systems. Glycol solutions may be used to prevent hydronic systems freezing. Glycol solutions should be formulated for HVAC Brass or Bronze Component systems. Some available glycol solutions formulated for other Corrosive Substance Corrosion Color uses contain additives that are injurious to some system seals.

  • Page 443: Globe Valve

    VALVE SELECTION AND SIZING GLOBE VALVE BUTTERFLY VALVE Globe valves are popular for HVAC applications. They are Butterfly valves (Fig. 6) control the flow of hot, chilled, or available in pipe sizes from 12 mm to 300 mm and in a large condenser water in two-position or proportional applications.

  • Page 444: Two-way Valve

    VALVE SELECTION AND SIZING TWO-WAY VALVE QUICK-OPENING VALVE A quick-opening two-way valve includes only a disc guide Two-way valves are available as globe, ball, or butterfly valves. and a flat or quick-opening plug. This type of valve is used for The combination of valve body and actuator (called valve two-position control of steam.

  • Page 445: Equal Percentage Valve

    VALVE SELECTION AND SIZING — Graph A shows the linear relationship between heat output Table 2. Stem Position Vs Flow for and flow for the steam heat exchanger. Changes in heat Equal Percentage Valve. output vary directly with changes in the fluid flow. Stem Flow —...

  • Page 446: Three-way Valves

    VALVE SELECTION AND SIZING THREE-WAY VALVES MIXING VALVE A mixing valve provides two inlet ports and one common Three-way valves (Fig. 12) control the flow of liquids in outlet port. The valve receives liquids to be mixed from the mixing or diverting valve applications (Fig. 13). The internal inlet ports and discharges the liquid through the outlet port design of a three-way globe valve enables it to seat against the (Fig.

  • Page 447: Valve Sizing

    VALVE SELECTION AND SIZING The close-off pressure in a diverting valve equals the EXAMPLE: maximum value of the inlet pressure minus the minimum value A diverting valve application has 140 kPa maximum on of the downstream pressure. the inlet port, one outlet port discharging to the atmosphere, and the other outlet port connecting to a tank Globe diverting valves must not be used for mixing service.

  • Page 448: Quantity Of Water

    VALVE SELECTION AND SIZING REPRINTED BY PERMISSION FROM ASHRAE HANDBOOK— 2. For hot water coil valves: 1996 HVAC SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 1202.4 • • 50% BY MASS PROPYLENE GLYCOL SOLUTION Where: /s = Airflow through the coil. 1202.4 = A scaling constant. Ta = Temperature difference of air entering and leaving the coil.

  • Page 449: Water Valve Sizing Examples

    VALVE SELECTION AND SIZING b. The pressure drop across an open valve should be WATER VALVE SIZING EXAMPLES about half of the pressure difference between EXAMPLE 1: system supply and return, enough so that the A two-way linear valve is needed to control flow of 7 C valve, not the friction through the coil or radiator, chilled water to a cooling coil.

  • Page 450

    VALVE SELECTION AND SIZING 111.6 SUPPLY 40.4 CHILLER 28.8 HEAT/ 11.4 L/S HEAT/ HEAT/ HEAT/ COOL COOL COOL COOL COIL AHU COIL COIL COIL COIL DP SETPOINT = 102 kPa PUMP RETURN ZERO REFERENCE SYSTEM STRAINER NUMBERS IN CIRCLES = GAGE PRESSURES PUMP INLET = ZERO FOR SIMPLICITY TOP NUMBERS...

  • Page 451: Steam Valves

    VALVE SELECTION AND SIZING CASE A: 345 kPa VALVE VI HEATING Since the valve pressure drop ( P) should be equal to or COIL CASE B: 425 kPa 275 kPa 80 C LOCAL greater than the drop through the heat exchanger and HOT WATER HOT WATER PIPING...

  • Page 452: Quantity Of Steam

    VALVE SELECTION AND SIZING QUANTITY OF STEAM Simplifying: W 1 – W 2 kg moisture To find the quantity of steam (Q) in kilograms per hour use Q = 4.3362 one of the following formulas: 1. When heat output is known: STEAM VALVE PRESSURE DROP Heat Output Proportional Applications...

  • Page 453: Steam Valve Sizing Examples

    VALVE SELECTION AND SIZING STEAM VALVE SIZING EXAMPLES The critical pressure drop is found using the following formula: EXAMPLE 1: = 50% x kPa A two-way linear valve (V1) is needed to control high- critical pressure steam flow to a steam-to-water heat = 0.50 x 650 kPa exchanger.

  • Page 454

    VALVE SELECTION AND SIZING 90 kPa VALVE VI STEAM Substituting the quantity of steam and pressure drop in the 150 kPa COIL (VACUUM) K v formula shows that Valve V1 should have a K v of 22.3 or the next higher available value. SUPPLY RETURN 30% PRESSURE DROP, Kv = 34...

  • Page 455

    DAMPER SELECTION AND SIZING Damper Selection and Sizing ENGINEERING MANUAL OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL CONTENTS Introduction ......................447 Definitions ......................447 Damper Selection ......................448 Damper Types ..................448 Parallel and Opposed Blade Dampers ..........448 Round Dampers ................448 Low Leakage Dampers ..............448 Smoke Dampers ................

  • Page 456

    DAMPER SELECTION AND SIZING Damper Sizing ......................457 System Characteristics ................ 457 Damper Characteristics ............... 458 Inherent Characteristic ..............458 Installed Characteristic ..............458 Determining Damper Size ..............459 Other Damper Sizing Considerations ..........461 Two-Position Control ............... 461 Modulating Control ................461 Oversized Damper Characteristics ............

  • Page 457: Introduction

    DAMPER SELECTION AND SIZING INTRODUCTION This section familiarizes the reader with dampers, including The information provided is general for all dampers. Selection types, construction, performance, environment capability, and sizing of specific dampers can only be accomplished through actuators, and linkages, and describes criteria used for proper the use of specific manufacturer’s documentation.

  • Page 458: Damper Selection

    DAMPER SELECTION AND SIZING DAMPER SELECTION ROUND DAMPERS Round dampers (Fig. 3) are typically used to control flow in DAMPER TYPES ducts that usually have high static pressure and high velocity characteristics. Round dampers can be installed in air handling PARALLEL AND OPPOSED BLADE DAMPERS systems with spiral-wound ducts in sizes similar to rectangular ducts.

  • Page 459

    DAMPER SELECTION AND SIZING THRUST BLADE WASHER EDGE BLADE AXLE SNAP-ON SEAL WORKS WITH COMPRESSION AND/OR AIR PRESSURE C2387 Fig. 5. Snap-On Blade Edge Seal. BEARING SIDE DAMPER SEAL FRAME C2389 Fig. 8. Continuous Spring, Stainless Steel Blade Side Seals. In addition, damper blades can include a reinforcing element to limit blade torsion or twist (Fig.

  • Page 460: Smoke Dampers

    DAMPER SELECTION AND SIZING In a low leakage damper, materials for the seals are selected Generally, Classes I, II, III, and IV are considered appropriate based on the temperature of the air being controlled. Standard for smoke control. The class specified should be based on the seals can be upgraded to withstand higher temperatures by using application requirements.

  • Page 461: Multiple Section Dampers

    DAMPER SELECTION AND SIZING DRIVE MULTIPLE SECTION DAMPERS BLADE Typically, single rectangular dampers are manufactured in incremental sizes, up to maximum horizontal and vertical limits. If system requirements dictate damper sizes larger than the maximum available, single dampers can be arranged in multiple section assemblies (Fig.

  • Page 462: Typical Damper Construction

    DAMPER SELECTION AND SIZING For typical dampers, leakage increases more significantly with the number of blades than with the length of the blades. The data shown applies to a combination of damper heights and widths. For example, a damper 1.22m high x 0.305m wide is the area equivalent of a damper 0.305m.

  • Page 463: Damper Selection And Sizing

    DAMPER SELECTION AND SIZING TRUNION BEARING LINKAGE HORIZONTAL FRAME MEMBER DAMPER BLADE SIDE LINKAGE SEAL BLADE AXLE DUAL LINKAGE ARM DRIVE AXLE LINKAGE ARM THRUST AXLE SCREWS WASHER AXLE BEARING VERTICAL M10436 FRAME MEMBER Fig. 17. Typical (Opposed Blade) Damper Construction. TORQUE APPLIED TO DAMPER = 6 Nm/m OF DAMPER AREA LEAKAGE VS DAMPER SIZE...

  • Page 464: Torque Requirements

    DAMPER SELECTION AND SIZING TORQUE REQUIREMENTS Table 2. Maximum Static Pressure Differential Pressure Operating and close-off torque requirements of dampers and Differential their actuator sizing guidelines are typically shown in manufacturer Damper Type (kPa) specifications. Occasionally a brief explanation of the theory or Standard Damper 0.75 basis for the actuator torque ratings accompanies this data.

  • Page 465: Static Pressure

    DAMPER SELECTION AND SIZING twist on the blades. Because the blade profile of conventional All aluminum or all stainless steel construction is preferred sheet metal dampers is not streamlined, the stresses imposed in many cases. Optionally, protective finishes are available. The on the damper blades due to air movement are dynamic in nature requirement for corrosion resistant dampers usually necessitates rather than static.

  • Page 466: Actuator Mounting Alternatives

    DAMPER SELECTION AND SIZING when either no control signal is applied or power to the actuator POSITIVE POSITIONERS is lost. The damper blades will open in a normally open application. Selection is based on the desired damper position Some actuators are equipped with position-sensing feedback when power or air is removed from the actuator.

  • Page 467: Jackshafts

    DAMPER SELECTION AND SIZING JACKSHAFTS ACTUATOR SELECTION A jackshaft allows a single actuator to drive adjacent vertical One method of selecting actuators for damper applications sections of a multiple section damper assembly with evenly is based on the number of square meters of damper to be distributed force (Fig.

  • Page 468: Damper Characteristics

    DAMPER SELECTION AND SIZING Stability of space temperature is important in providing a SERIES RESISTANCE comfortable, energy-efficient environment. The most significant ELEMENTS DAMPER factor in achieving stability of a control loop is the gain of the system elements. The gain of a damper system is the ratio of the change in airflow to the change in signal to the actuator.

  • Page 469: Determining Damper Size

    DAMPER SELECTION AND SIZING total resistance – damper resistance SERIES RESISTANCE CHARACTERISTIC RATIOS = Characteristic ratio = DAMPER RESISTANCE damper resistance total resistance – 1 damper resistance 20 10 5 3 For parallel blade dampers: INHERENT CHARACTERISTIC 2.5 = – 1 damper resistance Damper resistance = 29% of total resistance C1498...

  • Page 470

    DAMPER SELECTION AND SIZING Table 4. Damper Sizing Procedure. Step Procedure Calculate the approach velocity: 1 m 3 Airflow (L/s) Approach velocity (m/s) = Duct Area (m 2 ) 1000L Using the approach velocity from Step 1, calculate a correction factor: 25.8 Correction factor = [Approach velocity (m/s)] 2...

  • Page 471: Other Damper Sizing Considerations

    DAMPER SELECTION AND SIZING A damper size of 915 mm by 1475 mm (1.350 m ) would be OVERSIZED PARALLEL BALDE DAMPER CURVE selected for this application since, 915 mm is the largest damper dimension which will fit in the 915 mm width of the duct. OVERSIZED OPPOSED BLADE LINER...

  • Page 472: Damper Pressure Drop

    DAMPER SELECTION AND SIZING DAMPER PRESSURE DROP For example, for a 1.50 m parallel blade damper in a 1.69 m If the duct size, damper size, and the airflow are known, use duct with an airflow of 9.45 m /s, determine the pressure drop the method in Table 6 to determine the actual pressure drop across the damper as shown in Table 7.

  • Page 473: Mixed Air Control

    DAMPER SELECTION AND SIZING Table 7. Pressure Drop Calculation Example. Step Example Not applicable 1.50 m 2 ) 0.1007 x Free area ratio (parallel blades) = (0.0798 x 1.50 m 1.69 m 2 0.8075 x 0.8876 = 0.717 –4.274 Pressure drop at 15.08 m/s = –3.114 x (1 –...

  • Page 474: Face And Bypass Control

    DAMPER SELECTION AND SIZING LOUVERS FACE AND BYPASS CONTROL OPPOSED BLADE DAMPER Figure 37 shows a face and bypass damper application. The system pressure drop is relatively constant across the bypass damper so a parallel blade damper is used for minimum pressure drop at full flow.

  • Page 475

    GENERAL ENGINEERING DATA General Engineering Data ENGINEERING MANUAL OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL CONTENTS Introduction ......................466 Conversion Formulas and Tables ......................466 General ....................466 Metric Prefixes ..................466 Pressure ....................466 Weight/Mass ..................467 Length ....................467 Area ..................... 467 Volume ....................

  • Page 476: Introduction

    GENERAL ENGINEERING DATA INTRODUCTION This section provides engineering data of a general nature. It is reference information applicable to any or all other sections of the Engineering Manual of Automatic Control. CONVERSION FORMULAS AND TABLES GENERAL PRESSURE The conversion multiplier tables in this section provide Table 2 lists converted values for psi to kPa using the 6.8948 conversion factors.

  • Page 477: Weight/mass

    GENERAL ENGINEERING DATA WEIGHT/MASS Table 4. Weight/Mass Conversion Multipliers. Desired Unit Existing Unit Grains (gr) Grams (g) Kilograms (kg) Ounces (oz) Pounds (lb) Grains (gr) — 0.0648 0.000065 0.00229 0.000143 Grams (g) 15.432 — 1 000 0.0353 0.00221 Kilograms (kg) 15 432 0.001 —...

  • Page 478: Volume

    GENERAL ENGINEERING DATA VOLUME Table 7. Volume Conversion Multipliers. Desired Unit Cubic Cubic Gallons, Gallons, Ounces, Quarts, Cubic inches Cubic feet centimeters Liters fluid liquid meters (in. 3 ) (ft 3 ) (cm 3 ) (m 3 ) Existing Unit (US gal) (Imp gal) (oz fluid)

  • Page 479: General Engineering Data

    GENERAL ENGINEERING DATA Table 8. Celsius/Fahrenheit Conversion Tables. CELSIUS (CENTIGRADE) TO FAHRENHEIT CONVERSION For Temperatures Below 0C Temp ˚C –50 –58.0 59.8 61.6 63.4 65.2 67.0 68.8 70.6 72.4 74.2 –40 –40.0 41.8 43.6 45.4 47.2 49.0 50.8 52.6 54.4 56.2 –30 –22.0...

  • Page 480: Heat Transfer

    GENERAL ENGINEERING DATA HEAT TRANSFER VELOCITY Table 9. Coefficient of Heat Transfer Table 10. Velocity Conversion Multipliers. Conversion Multipliers. Desired Unit Desired Unit Feet Meters Meters Kcal Feet per minute second minute second hr•sq ft•˚F hr•sq m•˚C Existing Unit Existing Unit (ft/min) (ft/s) (m/min)

  • Page 481: Power

    GENERAL ENGINEERING DATA POWER Table 13. Power Conversion Multipliers. Desired Unit British British Foot Foot Boiler Thermal Thermal Unit/ Pounds/ Pounds/ Horse- Horse- Tons of Unit/Hour Minute Minute Second power power Refrig - Kilo-watts Existing Unit (Btuh) (Btu/min) (ft-lb/min) (ft-lb/s) (hp) (hp boiler) eration...

  • Page 482: Enthalpy

    GENERAL ENGINEERING DATA ENTHALPY Btu per lb of dry air x 2.3258 = kJ per kg of dry air kJ per kg of dry air x 0.42996 = Btu per lb of dry air FORCE Table 15. Force Conversion Multipliers. Desired Unit Existing Unit Pound force (lbf)

  • Page 483: Electrical Data

    GENERAL ENGINEERING DATA ELECTRICAL DATA ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS PHASE 1 PHASE 2 PHASE 3 GENERAL Power distribution systems use alternating current (ac) where the current and voltage reverse each cycle. Voltage and current follow a sine wave curve (Fig. 1) and go through zero twice each cycle.

  • Page 484: Three-phase Three-wire Wye System

    GENERAL ENGINEERING DATA THREE-PHASE THREE-WIRE WYE SYSTEM The total power is the sum of the power in the three coils. The line voltage of a three-phase three-wire wye connected system (Fig. 4) is equal to 3 times the voltage across the 120V secondary coils of the transformer.

  • Page 485: Electric Motors

    GENERAL ENGINEERING DATA ELECTRIC MOTORS Motors have two current ratings locked rotor (LRA) and full Single-phase electric motors are classified by the method used load (FLA). Locked rotor current is drawn at the instant power to start the motor. Table 18 describes the characteristics and is applied and before the motor starts rotating.

  • Page 486: Properties Of Saturated Steam Data

    GENERAL ENGINEERING DATA PROPERTIES OF SATURATED STEAM DATA Table 20. Properties of Saturated Steam. Maximum Boiling Point Allowable Pressure in or Steam Specific Pressure Drop, Latent Heat Total Heat Temperature Volume (V), (For valve kPa. (For valve Heat of the of Evap., of Steam, (absolute)

  • Page 487: Airflow Data

    GENERAL ENGINEERING DATA AIRFLOW DATA FAN RATINGS Fans are rated at standard conditions of air: 1.2041 kg/m and 20 C at sea level. Therefore, pressures corrected to standard conditions must be used when selecting fans from fan rating tables or curves. Table 21 gives correction factors. Pressure at operating conditions x factor = pressure at standard conditions.

  • Page 488: Velocity Pressure

    GENERAL ENGINEERING DATA VELOCITY PRESSURE Velocity pressure is total pressure minus static pressure. See Building Airflow System Control Applications section. Table 22. Velocities for Different Velocity Pressures at Standard Air Conditions (20 C, 101.325 kPa). 2.50 2.038 127.50 14.555 252.50 20.483 377.50 25.044...

  • Page 489: Moisture Content Of Air Data

    GENERAL ENGINEERING DATA MOISTURE CONTENT OF AIR DATA See Psychrometric Chart Fundamentals section for use of actuators or filters or restrictions in controllers. Figure 7 is used the psychrometric chart. to determine the maximum water vapor content of compressed air at various temperatures and pressures. MOISTURE IN COMPRESSED AIR EXAMPLE: Assume ambient conditions are 25 C and 80 percent rh.

  • Page 490

    GENERAL ENGINEERING DATA Use a psychrometric chart to determine that the ambient air As the compressed air temperature is reduced further as it at 25 C and 80 percent rh contains 16 grams of moisture per passes through air at a lower ambient temperature, additional kilogram of dry air.

  • Page 491: Relative Humidity

    GENERAL ENGINEERING DATA RELATIVE HUMIDITY KELVINS TEMP – (TEMP DIFFERENCE TEMPERATURE ENGINEERING MANUAL OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL...

  • Page 492

    GENERAL ENGINEERING DATA KELVINS TEMP – (TEMP DIFFERENCE TEMPERATURE ENGINEERING MANUAL OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL...

  • Page 493

    INDEX INDEX ENGINEERING MANUAL OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL...

  • Page 494

    INDEX Air Terminal Unit Constant Air Volume 402 Abbreviations Control 399 Chiller, Boiler, and Distribution System Control 295 Dual Duct Absorption Chiller 300 Pressure Independent 406, 407 Absorption Chiller Control Dual-Duct 406 With Centrifugal Chiller 313 Induction VAV 402 Absorption Cycle 299 Parallel Fan 404 Absorption Refrigeration 299 Pressure Independent...

  • Page 495

    INDEX ASHRAE Psychrometric Charts 53, 261 Authority 59 Capacity index 429 Electronic 120 Capacity Relay 79 Automatic control system 5, 16 Celsius/Fahrenheit Conversion Tables 469 Auxiliary equipment 34 Central Cooling Plants 302 Averaging Element 64 Central plant 295 Averaging Relay 80 Centrifugal Chiller Control Application 303, 307...

  • Page 496

    INDEX Compressor 295 Electric Centrifugal 298 Classification 99 Reciprocating 299 High-Limit 101, 103, 111 Screw 299 Low-Limit 102, 103, 111 Computer Based Control 134 Series 40 100 Condensate Return Systems 370 Series 60 Floating 106 Condenser Series 60, Two-Position 103 Double bundle 295 Series 80 102 Condenser Water Control 316...

  • Page 497

    INDEX Fan Control Damper Control 105 On-Off 317 Damper Selection and Sizing 445 Two-Speed 317 Dampers 76 Variable Speed 318 Data File Programming 143 Free Cooling 323 Data Penetration 195 Dual Chillers 325 DDC 6 Performance Characteristics 316 Deadband 6, 295 Corrective action 5 Definitions Critical pressure drop 430...

  • Page 498

    INDEX District Heating 380 Electronic Booster Pump Station 383 Indicating Devices 129 Definitions 381 Output Control 128 Distribution Network 380 Output Devices 128 Heat Distribution Network 382 Power Supply 129 Heat generation 382 System Application 130 Heat Sources 380 Transducer 129 Hot Water Pipeline 383 Electronic Control 6, 120 Hot Water System Control 382...

  • Page 499

    INDEX Flame Safeguard Heat Recovery System 323 Control 330 Heat Surface Factor 381 Instrumentation 331 Heat Transfer Station 381 Floating Control 20 Heating 9 Electric 107 Heating Anticipation 102 Flow Heating coil 10 (Gas/Air) Conversion Multipliers 470 Heating control processes 223 (Liquid) Conversion Multipliers 470 Heating Process 43 Sensing element 32...

  • Page 500

    INDEX Manual Switch Control 86 Materials safety data sheets 152 I/O Summary 193 Measured variable 6 In-Depth Integration 196 Metric Prefixes 466 Indicating Device Microprocessor-based control 6 Electronic 129 Microprocessor-Based Controller 133, 135 Indirect Heat Transfer Substations 385 Microprocessor-Based/DDC Fundamentals 131 Individual Room Control Applications 395 Microprocessor-Based Systems 120 Individual Room Control Automation 423...

  • Page 501

    INDEX Operator interface 167 Pressure Reducing Stations Optimum Start 138 District Heating 383 Optimum Stop 138 Pressure Reducing Valve Station 68, 369 Output Control 128 Pressure Reducing Valves 69 Output Devices 128 Pressure Sensor Electronic 127 Pressure sensors 277 Pressure-Dependent ATU 399 Parallel Fan ATU 404 Pressure-Independent ATU 399 Peer Communications Protocol 188...

  • Page 502

    INDEX Pumping Reset Constant speed 295 from Outdoor air temperature 225 Primary-Secondary 360 Hot deck temperature 226 Variable speed 296 Hot Water 361 Pumps Negative 121 Applied to Open Systems 343 Positive 121 Centrifugal Supply Air Temperature 221, 224, 225 Hot and Chilled Water Systems 336 Reset Authority 23, 120 Matching to Water Distribution Systems 340...

  • Page 503

    INDEX Series 60 Specific Volume 39 Actuators 103, 106 Spring Range 74 Controller 103 Stack effect 271 Floating Control Circuits 106 Starters 114 Floating Operation 106 Steam Two-Position Control Circuits 103 Heating Devices 371 Two-Position Operation 104 Pressure, Temperature, and Density 367 Series 80 Properties 366 Control Circuits 102...

  • Page 504

    INDEX Temperature Unbalanced loading 295 Unit Heater 10, 409 Dew-Point 38 Dry-Bulb 38 Control 101, 410 Wet-Bulb 39 Modulating 410 Two-Position 410 Temperature Controller 71 Temperature Controllers Down-Blow 410 Gas Fired 411 Electronic 128 Temperature Sensor Oil Fired 411 Electronic 122 Unit Ventilator 10, 411 Terminal Units ASHRAE Control Cycles 412...

  • Page 505

    INDEX Valve Flow Characteristics 376, 428 Warmup control 285 Terms 429 Water Valves Valve Selection and Sizing 427 Sizing 437 Vapor-Compression Weight/Mass Conversion Multipliers 467 Cycle 297 Wet-Bulb Temperature 39 Refrigeration 297 Wind pressure effect 271 Vaporizing Humidifier 50 Work/Energy Conversion Multipliers 471 Variable Air Volume 267, 280 Relief fan control 283 Return air damper control 283...

  • Page 506

    INDEX NOTES ENGINEERING MANUAL OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL...

  • Page 507

    INDEX NOTES ENGINEERING MANUAL OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL...

  • Page 508

    INDEX NOTES ENGINEERING MANUAL OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL...

  • Page 509

    INDEX NOTES ENGINEERING MANUAL OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL...

  • Page 510

    INDEX NOTES ENGINEERING MANUAL OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL...

  • Page 511

    INDEX NOTES ENGINEERING MANUAL OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL...

  • Page 512

    INDEX NOTES ENGINEERING MANUAL OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL...

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