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Honeywell AUTOMATIC CONTROL SI Edition Engineering Manual

Honeywell AUTOMATIC CONTROL SI Edition Engineering Manual (512 pages)

For COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS  
Brand: Honeywell | Category: Control Systems | Size: 4.38 MB
Table of contents
Preface5................................................................................................................................................................
Table Of Contents7................................................................................................................................................................
Control System Fundamentals11................................................................................................................................................................
Smoke Management Fundamentals12................................................................................................................................................................
Control Fundamentals13................................................................................................................................................................
Introduction15................................................................................................................................................................
Definitions15................................................................................................................................................................
Hvac System Characteristics18................................................................................................................................................................
General18................................................................................................................................................................
Heating19................................................................................................................................................................
Heating Equipment20................................................................................................................................................................
Cooling21................................................................................................................................................................
Cooling Equipment22................................................................................................................................................................
Dehumidification22................................................................................................................................................................
Humidification23................................................................................................................................................................
Ventilation23................................................................................................................................................................
Filtration24................................................................................................................................................................
Control System Characteristics25................................................................................................................................................................
Controlled Variables25................................................................................................................................................................
Control Loop25................................................................................................................................................................
Control Methods26................................................................................................................................................................
Analog And Digital Control26................................................................................................................................................................
Control Modes27................................................................................................................................................................
Two-position Control27................................................................................................................................................................
Basic Two-position Control27................................................................................................................................................................
Timed Two-position Control28................................................................................................................................................................
Step Control29................................................................................................................................................................
Floating Control30................................................................................................................................................................
Proportional Control31................................................................................................................................................................
Compensation Control32................................................................................................................................................................
Proportional-integral (pi) Control33................................................................................................................................................................
Proportional-integral-derivative (pid) Control35................................................................................................................................................................
Enhanced Proportional-integral-derivative (epid) Control35................................................................................................................................................................
Adaptive Control36................................................................................................................................................................
Process Characteristics36................................................................................................................................................................
Load36................................................................................................................................................................
Lag37................................................................................................................................................................
Measurement Lag37................................................................................................................................................................
Capacitance38................................................................................................................................................................
Resistance39................................................................................................................................................................
Dead Time39................................................................................................................................................................
Control Application Guidelines39................................................................................................................................................................
Control System Components40................................................................................................................................................................
Characteristics And Attributes Of Control Methods45................................................................................................................................................................
Psychrometric Chart Fundamentals47................................................................................................................................................................
Description Of The Psychrometric Chart49................................................................................................................................................................
The Abridged Psychrometric Chart50................................................................................................................................................................
Examples Of Air Mixing Process52................................................................................................................................................................
Air Conditioning Processes53................................................................................................................................................................
Heating Process53................................................................................................................................................................
Humidifying Process54................................................................................................................................................................
Cooling Process54................................................................................................................................................................
Basic Process54................................................................................................................................................................
Steam Jet Humidifier56................................................................................................................................................................
Air Washers59................................................................................................................................................................
Vaporizing Humidifier60................................................................................................................................................................
Cooling And Dehumidification61................................................................................................................................................................
Dehumidification And Reheat62................................................................................................................................................................
Process Summary63................................................................................................................................................................
Ashrae Psychrometric Charts63................................................................................................................................................................
Pneumatic Control Fundamentals67................................................................................................................................................................
Abbreviations70................................................................................................................................................................
Symbols71................................................................................................................................................................
Basic Pneumatic Control System71................................................................................................................................................................
Air Supply And Operation71................................................................................................................................................................
Restrictor72................................................................................................................................................................
Nozzle-flapper Assembly72................................................................................................................................................................
Pilot Bleed System72................................................................................................................................................................
Signal Amplifier73................................................................................................................................................................
Feed And Bleed System73................................................................................................................................................................
Sensing Elements73................................................................................................................................................................
Bimetal73................................................................................................................................................................
Rod And Tube74................................................................................................................................................................
Remote Bulb74................................................................................................................................................................
Averaging Element74................................................................................................................................................................
Throttling Range Adjustment74................................................................................................................................................................
Relays And Switches74................................................................................................................................................................
Air Supply Equipment75................................................................................................................................................................
Air Compressor75................................................................................................................................................................
Air Drying Techniques76................................................................................................................................................................
Dry Air Requirement76................................................................................................................................................................
Condensing Drying77................................................................................................................................................................
High-pressure Drying77................................................................................................................................................................
Refrigerant Drying77................................................................................................................................................................
Desiccant Drying77................................................................................................................................................................
Pressure Reducing Valve Station78................................................................................................................................................................
Air Filter78................................................................................................................................................................
Thermostats79................................................................................................................................................................
Pressure Reducing Valves79................................................................................................................................................................
Single-pressure Reducing Valve79................................................................................................................................................................
Two-pressure Reducing Valve79................................................................................................................................................................
Controllers80................................................................................................................................................................
Temperature Controllers81................................................................................................................................................................
Humidity Controllers81................................................................................................................................................................
Pressure Controllers81................................................................................................................................................................
Sensor-controller Systems82................................................................................................................................................................
Pneumatic Controllers82................................................................................................................................................................
Proportional-integral (pi) Controllers82................................................................................................................................................................
Controller Adjustments82................................................................................................................................................................
Pneumatic Sensors83................................................................................................................................................................
Velocity Sensor-controller83................................................................................................................................................................
Actuators And Final Control Elements84................................................................................................................................................................
Actuators84................................................................................................................................................................
Spring Ranges84................................................................................................................................................................
Control Valves85................................................................................................................................................................
Dampers86................................................................................................................................................................
Switching Relay87................................................................................................................................................................
Snap Acting Relay88................................................................................................................................................................
Lockout Relay88................................................................................................................................................................
High-pressure Selector Relay89................................................................................................................................................................
Low-pressure Selector Relay89................................................................................................................................................................
Load Analyzer Relay89................................................................................................................................................................
Capacity Relay89................................................................................................................................................................
Reversing Relay90................................................................................................................................................................
Positive-positioning Relay90................................................................................................................................................................
Averaging Relay90................................................................................................................................................................
Ratio Relay91................................................................................................................................................................
Pneumatic Potentiometer91................................................................................................................................................................
Hesitation Relay92................................................................................................................................................................
Electrical Interlocking Relays92................................................................................................................................................................
Electric-pneumatic Relay92................................................................................................................................................................
Pneumatic-electric Relay92................................................................................................................................................................
Electronic-pneumatic Transducer93................................................................................................................................................................
Pneumatic Switch93................................................................................................................................................................
Pneumatic Control Combinations94................................................................................................................................................................
Manual Positioning Switch94................................................................................................................................................................
Sequence Control95................................................................................................................................................................
Limit Control95................................................................................................................................................................
Manual Switch Control96................................................................................................................................................................
Changeover Control For Two-pressure Supply System97................................................................................................................................................................
Compensated Control System97................................................................................................................................................................
Electric-pneumatic Relay Control97................................................................................................................................................................
Pneumatic-electric Relay Control98................................................................................................................................................................
Pneumatic Recycling Control98................................................................................................................................................................
Pneumatic Centralization99................................................................................................................................................................
Pneumatic Control System Example100................................................................................................................................................................
Start-stop Control Sequence100................................................................................................................................................................
Supply Fan Control Sequence102................................................................................................................................................................
Return Fan Control Sequence102................................................................................................................................................................
Warm-up/heating Coil Control Sequence102................................................................................................................................................................
Mixing Damper Control Sequence103................................................................................................................................................................
Discharge Air Temperature Control Sequence104................................................................................................................................................................
Off/failure Mode Control Sequence104................................................................................................................................................................
Electric Control Fundamentals105................................................................................................................................................................
How Electric Control Circuits Are Classified109................................................................................................................................................................
Series 40 Control Circuits110................................................................................................................................................................
Application110................................................................................................................................................................
Equipment110................................................................................................................................................................
Relays110................................................................................................................................................................
Operation111................................................................................................................................................................
Control Combinations111................................................................................................................................................................
Unit Heater Control111................................................................................................................................................................
High-limit Control111................................................................................................................................................................
Series 80 Control Circuits112................................................................................................................................................................
Low-limit Control112................................................................................................................................................................
Relays And Actuators112................................................................................................................................................................
Series 60 Two-position Control Circuits113................................................................................................................................................................
Two-position Control Of Steam Valve115................................................................................................................................................................
Summer/winter Changeover Control Of A115................................................................................................................................................................
Three-way Diverting Valve115................................................................................................................................................................
Open-closed Control Of Damper115................................................................................................................................................................
Series 60 Floating Control Circuits116................................................................................................................................................................
Series 90 Control Circuits117................................................................................................................................................................
Bridge Circuit Theory118................................................................................................................................................................
Basic Bridge Circuit118................................................................................................................................................................
Bridge Circuit In Balanced Condition118................................................................................................................................................................
Bridge Circuit On Increase In Controlled Variable118................................................................................................................................................................
Bridge Circuit On Decrease In Controlled Variable119................................................................................................................................................................
Bridge Circuit With Limit Controls119................................................................................................................................................................
Bridge Circuit With Low-limit Control120................................................................................................................................................................
Bridge Circuit With High-limit Control120................................................................................................................................................................
Two-position Limit Control122................................................................................................................................................................
Manual And Automatic Switching122................................................................................................................................................................
Closing The Actuator With A Manual Switch122................................................................................................................................................................
Transferring Actuator Control From One Thermostat To Another122................................................................................................................................................................
Reversing For Heating And Cooling Control122................................................................................................................................................................
Transferring Controller From One Actuator To Another123................................................................................................................................................................
Unison Control123................................................................................................................................................................
Manual Minimum Positioning Of Outdoor Air Damper123................................................................................................................................................................
Motor Control Circuits124................................................................................................................................................................
Step Controllers124................................................................................................................................................................
Starters124................................................................................................................................................................
Contactors And Relays124................................................................................................................................................................
Momentary Start-stop Circuit125................................................................................................................................................................
Hand-off-auto Start-stop Circuit125................................................................................................................................................................
Momentary Fast-slow-off Start-stop Circuit126................................................................................................................................................................
Engineering Manual Of Automatic Control129................................................................................................................................................................
Electronic Control Fundamentals129................................................................................................................................................................
Typical System132................................................................................................................................................................
Components132................................................................................................................................................................
Sensors132................................................................................................................................................................
Temperature Sensors132................................................................................................................................................................
Resistance Temperature Devices132................................................................................................................................................................
Solid-state Resistance Temperature Devices134................................................................................................................................................................
Thermocouples135................................................................................................................................................................
Transmitter/transducer135................................................................................................................................................................
Relative Humidity Sensor135................................................................................................................................................................
Resistance Relative Humidity Sensor135................................................................................................................................................................
Capacitance Relative Humidity Sensor135................................................................................................................................................................
Temperature Compensation136................................................................................................................................................................
Condensation And Wetting136................................................................................................................................................................
Quartz Crystal Relative Humidity Sensor136................................................................................................................................................................
Pressure Sensors137................................................................................................................................................................
Controller137................................................................................................................................................................
Input Types137................................................................................................................................................................
Relative Humidity Controllers138................................................................................................................................................................
Enthalpy Controllers138................................................................................................................................................................
Universal Controllers138................................................................................................................................................................
Output Control138................................................................................................................................................................
Output Devices138................................................................................................................................................................
Two-position138................................................................................................................................................................
Modulating138................................................................................................................................................................
Electronic Controller Fundamentals139................................................................................................................................................................
Transducer139................................................................................................................................................................
Indicating Device139................................................................................................................................................................
Interface With Other Systems139................................................................................................................................................................
Power Supply Circuit139................................................................................................................................................................
Typical System Application140................................................................................................................................................................
Microprocessor-based/ddc Fundamentals141................................................................................................................................................................
Background144................................................................................................................................................................
Advantages144................................................................................................................................................................
Computer Based Control144................................................................................................................................................................
Direct Digital Control144................................................................................................................................................................
Lower Cost Per Function144................................................................................................................................................................
Application Flexibility144................................................................................................................................................................
Controller Configuration145................................................................................................................................................................
Coordinated Multifunction Capability145................................................................................................................................................................
Precise And Accurate Control145................................................................................................................................................................
Reliability145................................................................................................................................................................
Types Of Controllers146................................................................................................................................................................
Zone-level Controllers146................................................................................................................................................................
System-level Controller146................................................................................................................................................................
Controller Software147................................................................................................................................................................
Operating Software147................................................................................................................................................................
Application Software147................................................................................................................................................................
Direct Digital Control Software147................................................................................................................................................................
Energy Management Software148................................................................................................................................................................
Optimum Start148................................................................................................................................................................
Optimum Stop148................................................................................................................................................................
Night Cycle148................................................................................................................................................................
Night Purge149................................................................................................................................................................
Enthalpy149................................................................................................................................................................
Load Reset149................................................................................................................................................................
Zero Energy Band151................................................................................................................................................................
Controller Programming152................................................................................................................................................................
Distributed Power Demand152................................................................................................................................................................
Building Management Software152................................................................................................................................................................
Programming Categories153................................................................................................................................................................
Configuration Programming153................................................................................................................................................................
System Initialization Programming153................................................................................................................................................................
Data File Programming153................................................................................................................................................................
Custom Control Programming153................................................................................................................................................................
Analyze Control Application154................................................................................................................................................................
Partition Into Control Loops154................................................................................................................................................................
Determine Inputs And Outputs154................................................................................................................................................................
Typical Applications155................................................................................................................................................................
Design, Write, And Compile Program155................................................................................................................................................................
Debug, Install, Enter Data Files, And Test155................................................................................................................................................................
Indoor Air Quality Fundamentals159................................................................................................................................................................
Indoor Air Quality Concerns164................................................................................................................................................................
Air Contaminants164................................................................................................................................................................
Contaminant Sources164................................................................................................................................................................
Outdoor Contaminant Sources164................................................................................................................................................................
Indoor Contaminant Sources165................................................................................................................................................................
Building Materials And Furnishings165................................................................................................................................................................
Occupancy And Process Related Contaminant Sources166................................................................................................................................................................
Residential Occupancy166................................................................................................................................................................
Office Building Occupancy166................................................................................................................................................................
Health Care Occupancy167................................................................................................................................................................
Industrial Occupancy167................................................................................................................................................................
Occupant Related Contaminant Sources167................................................................................................................................................................
Contaminant Types167................................................................................................................................................................
Particulate Contaminants167................................................................................................................................................................
Gas And Vapor Contaminants168................................................................................................................................................................
Radionuclide Contaminants168................................................................................................................................................................
Indoor Air Contaminant Indicators168................................................................................................................................................................
Human Responses To Contaminants168................................................................................................................................................................
Building Responses To Contaminants168................................................................................................................................................................
Design Considerations168................................................................................................................................................................
Eliminating Contaminant Sources168................................................................................................................................................................
Eliminating Contaminant Paths168................................................................................................................................................................
Remediating Contaminant Levels169................................................................................................................................................................
Particulate Contaminant Remediation169................................................................................................................................................................
Gas Contaminant Remediation169................................................................................................................................................................
Effects Of Temperature169................................................................................................................................................................
Effects Of Humidity170................................................................................................................................................................
Design Procedures170................................................................................................................................................................
Ventilation Rate Design Procedure171................................................................................................................................................................
Indoor Air Quality Design Procedure171................................................................................................................................................................
Recirculation Requirements172................................................................................................................................................................
Ventilation Optimization172................................................................................................................................................................
Codes And Standards172................................................................................................................................................................
Acceptance Testing173................................................................................................................................................................
Indoor Air Quality Control Applications174................................................................................................................................................................
Ashrae Guideline 1-1989174................................................................................................................................................................
Flow Tracking Control System175................................................................................................................................................................
Flow Tracking System With Mixing Box Static Pressure Control176................................................................................................................................................................
Rooftop Unit Control System177................................................................................................................................................................
Operator Interface177................................................................................................................................................................
Graphic Displays178................................................................................................................................................................
Bibliography180................................................................................................................................................................
Referenced Publications180................................................................................................................................................................
Related Publications180................................................................................................................................................................
Objectives183................................................................................................................................................................
Layout Of System184................................................................................................................................................................
Design Priniples185................................................................................................................................................................
Design Principles185................................................................................................................................................................
Causes Of Smoke Movement185................................................................................................................................................................
Stack Effect185................................................................................................................................................................
Buoyancy185................................................................................................................................................................
Expansion186................................................................................................................................................................
Wind Velocity186................................................................................................................................................................
Hvac187................................................................................................................................................................
Control Of Smoke187................................................................................................................................................................
Pressurization187................................................................................................................................................................
Control Applications188................................................................................................................................................................
Contr O L Applica Tions188................................................................................................................................................................
Airflow188................................................................................................................................................................
Purging188................................................................................................................................................................
Zone Pressurization Control189................................................................................................................................................................
Stairwell Pressurization Control190................................................................................................................................................................
Acce Ptance Testing191................................................................................................................................................................
Leakage Rated Dampers191................................................................................................................................................................
Leaka Ge Ra Ted Damper S191................................................................................................................................................................
Control Of Malls, Atria, And Large Areas191................................................................................................................................................................
Additional Related Publications192................................................................................................................................................................
Building Management System Fundamentals193................................................................................................................................................................
Energy Management195................................................................................................................................................................
Facilities Management Systems195................................................................................................................................................................
System Configurations196................................................................................................................................................................
Hardware Configuration196................................................................................................................................................................
System-level Controllers197................................................................................................................................................................
Operating-level Processors197................................................................................................................................................................
Management-level Processors197................................................................................................................................................................
Communications Protocol197................................................................................................................................................................
Peer Communications Protocol198................................................................................................................................................................
Communications Media198................................................................................................................................................................
Twisted Copper Pair198................................................................................................................................................................
Fiber Optic198................................................................................................................................................................
Phone Lines198................................................................................................................................................................
System Functions199................................................................................................................................................................
Zone-level Controller Functions199................................................................................................................................................................
System-level Controller Functions199................................................................................................................................................................
Operations-level Functions199................................................................................................................................................................
Hardware199................................................................................................................................................................
Software199................................................................................................................................................................
Standard Software199................................................................................................................................................................
Communications Software199................................................................................................................................................................
Server200................................................................................................................................................................
Security200................................................................................................................................................................
Alarm Processing200................................................................................................................................................................
Reports200................................................................................................................................................................
System Text200................................................................................................................................................................
System Graphics200................................................................................................................................................................
Controller Support201................................................................................................................................................................
Specifying Graphics (i/o Summaries)203................................................................................................................................................................
Control Graphics205................................................................................................................................................................
Data Penetration205................................................................................................................................................................
Integration Of Other Systems206................................................................................................................................................................
Surface Integration206................................................................................................................................................................
In-depth Integration206................................................................................................................................................................
Control System Applications209................................................................................................................................................................
Air Handling System Control Applications211................................................................................................................................................................
Requirements For Effective Control214................................................................................................................................................................
Applications-general216................................................................................................................................................................
Valve And Damper Selection217................................................................................................................................................................
Ventilation Control Processes219................................................................................................................................................................
Fan System Start-stop Control219................................................................................................................................................................
Fixed Quantity Of Outdoor Air Control221................................................................................................................................................................
Outdoor Air Fan Control For Multiple Ahu's222................................................................................................................................................................
Mixed Air Control223................................................................................................................................................................
Economizer Cycle Decision225................................................................................................................................................................
Economizer Cycle Decision-outdoor Air Dry Bulb Control225................................................................................................................................................................
Economizer Cycle Decision-outdoor Air Enthalpy Control226................................................................................................................................................................
Economizer Cycle Decision-outdoor Air/return Air Enthalpy Comparison228................................................................................................................................................................
Economizer Cycle Decision-outdoor Air/return Air Dry Bulb Temperature Comparison229................................................................................................................................................................
Mixed Air Control With Economizer Cycle (ventilation System Only)230................................................................................................................................................................
Economizer Cycle Control Of Space Temperature With Supply Air Temperature Setpoint Reset231................................................................................................................................................................
Heating Control Processes233................................................................................................................................................................
Control From Supply Air233................................................................................................................................................................
Control From Space With Supply Temperature Reset234................................................................................................................................................................
Outdoor Air Temperature Reset Of Supply Air Temperature235................................................................................................................................................................
Space Temperature Control Of Zone Mixing Dampers And Reset Of Hot Deck Temperature236................................................................................................................................................................
Preheat Control Processes238................................................................................................................................................................
Preheat Control With Face And Bypass Dampers238................................................................................................................................................................
Control From Preheat Leaving Air240................................................................................................................................................................
Multiple Coil Control From Outdoor And Supply Air241................................................................................................................................................................
Year-round Heat Recovery Preheat System Control243................................................................................................................................................................
Humidification Control Process245................................................................................................................................................................
Control Of Modulating Humidifier245................................................................................................................................................................
Cooling Control Processes246................................................................................................................................................................
Control Of Modulating Chilled Water Coil Three-way Valve246................................................................................................................................................................
Two-position Control Of Direct Expansion Coil System248................................................................................................................................................................
Two-position Control Of Direct Expansion Coil System-modulating Face And Bypass Damper249................................................................................................................................................................
Cold Deck System With Zone Damper Control251................................................................................................................................................................
Direct Expansion Or Water Coil System Control253................................................................................................................................................................
Dehumidification Control Processes253................................................................................................................................................................
Water Coil Face And Bypass System Control254................................................................................................................................................................
Space Control Of Heating, Economizer (free Cooling), And Humidification256................................................................................................................................................................
Heating System Control Process256................................................................................................................................................................
Year-round System Control Processes258................................................................................................................................................................
Heating, Cooling, And Economizer258................................................................................................................................................................
Multizone Unit260................................................................................................................................................................
Heating, Cooling, Humidification, And Dehumidification Control Without Dead-bands262................................................................................................................................................................
Vav Ahu, Water-side Economizer, Oa Airflow Control265................................................................................................................................................................
Vav Ahu With Return Fan And Flow Tracking Control268................................................................................................................................................................
Building Airflow System Control Applications273................................................................................................................................................................
Airflow Control Fundamentals276................................................................................................................................................................
Need For Airflow Control276................................................................................................................................................................
What Is Airflow Control276................................................................................................................................................................
Types Of Airflow Systems277................................................................................................................................................................
Variable Air Volume277................................................................................................................................................................
Constant Air Volume277................................................................................................................................................................
Variable Versus Constant Air Volume278................................................................................................................................................................
Building Pressure Balance280................................................................................................................................................................
Containment Pressurization280................................................................................................................................................................
Wind Pressure Effects281................................................................................................................................................................
Characteristics Of Fans And Fan Laws281................................................................................................................................................................
Fan Types282................................................................................................................................................................
Fan Performance Terms282................................................................................................................................................................
Fan Laws283................................................................................................................................................................
Fan Power283................................................................................................................................................................
Duct System Curves283................................................................................................................................................................
Fan Curve And System Curve Comparison283................................................................................................................................................................
Characteristics Of Airflow In Ducts284................................................................................................................................................................
Pressure Changes Within A Duct284................................................................................................................................................................
Effects Of Fittings286................................................................................................................................................................
Effects Of Dampers286................................................................................................................................................................
Effects Of Air Terminal Units286................................................................................................................................................................
Measurement Of Airflow In Ducts287................................................................................................................................................................
Pitot Tube Sensors287................................................................................................................................................................
Total And Static Pressure Sensors288................................................................................................................................................................
Airflow Measuring Devices289................................................................................................................................................................
Airflow Control Applications290................................................................................................................................................................
Central Fan System Control290................................................................................................................................................................
Supply Fan Control For Vav Systems290................................................................................................................................................................
Duct Static High-limit Control291................................................................................................................................................................
Return Fan Control For Vav Systems291................................................................................................................................................................
Open Loop Control291................................................................................................................................................................
Direct Building Static Control292................................................................................................................................................................
Airflow Tracking Control292................................................................................................................................................................
Duct Static Control293................................................................................................................................................................
Relief Fan Control For Vav Systems293................................................................................................................................................................
Return Damper Control For Vav Systems293................................................................................................................................................................
Sequencing Fan Control295................................................................................................................................................................
Other Control Modes295................................................................................................................................................................
Warm-up Control295................................................................................................................................................................
Smoke Control295................................................................................................................................................................
Night Purge Control295................................................................................................................................................................
Zone Airflow Control295................................................................................................................................................................
Airflow Tracking/space Static Pressure295................................................................................................................................................................
Multiple Fan Systems297................................................................................................................................................................
Exhaust System Control297................................................................................................................................................................
Types297................................................................................................................................................................
Fume Hoods297................................................................................................................................................................
Laboratory Pressurization298................................................................................................................................................................
References300................................................................................................................................................................
Chiller, Boiler, And Distribution System Control Applications301................................................................................................................................................................
Chiller System Control307................................................................................................................................................................
Vapor-compression Refrigeration307................................................................................................................................................................
Vapor-compression Cycle307................................................................................................................................................................
Centrifugal Compressor308................................................................................................................................................................
Reciprocating Compressor309................................................................................................................................................................
Screw Compressor309................................................................................................................................................................
Absorption Refrigeration309................................................................................................................................................................
Absorption Cycle309................................................................................................................................................................
Absorption Chiller310................................................................................................................................................................
Chiller Control Requirements311................................................................................................................................................................
Basic Chiller Control311................................................................................................................................................................
System Controls Which Influence The Chiller311................................................................................................................................................................
Safety Controls311................................................................................................................................................................
Chiller/bmcs Interface311................................................................................................................................................................
Chilled Water Systems312................................................................................................................................................................
Central Cooling Plants312................................................................................................................................................................
Single Centrifugal Chiller Control312................................................................................................................................................................
Single Centrifugal Chiller Control Application313................................................................................................................................................................
Multiple Chiller System Control Applications315................................................................................................................................................................
Dual Centrifugal Chillers Control Application317................................................................................................................................................................
Similar Multiple Centrifugal Chillers Control Applications319................................................................................................................................................................
Equal Sized Centrifugal Chillers Control319................................................................................................................................................................
Multiple Centrifugal Chiller Sequencing321................................................................................................................................................................
Dissimilar Multiple Centrifugal Chillers Control323................................................................................................................................................................
Alternative Multiple Decoupled Chiller Control323................................................................................................................................................................
Combination Absorption And Centrifugal Chiller System Control323................................................................................................................................................................
Chiller Pump Optimization324................................................................................................................................................................
Thermal Storage Control325................................................................................................................................................................
Cooling Tower And Condenser Water Control326................................................................................................................................................................
Cooling Tower Performance Characteristics326................................................................................................................................................................
Cooling Tower Capacity Control326................................................................................................................................................................
On-off Cooling Tower Fan Control327................................................................................................................................................................
Two-speed Cooling Tower Fan Control327................................................................................................................................................................
Variable Speed Cooling Tower Fan Control328................................................................................................................................................................
Single Cooling Tower Variable Speed Fan Control328................................................................................................................................................................
Dual Cooling Tower Variable Speed Fan Control330................................................................................................................................................................
Chiller Heat Recovery System333................................................................................................................................................................
Free Cooling-tower Cooling333................................................................................................................................................................
Tower Free Cooling, Dual Chillers335................................................................................................................................................................
Boiler System Control337................................................................................................................................................................
Boiler Types337................................................................................................................................................................
Cast Iron And Steel Boilers337................................................................................................................................................................
Modular Boilers337................................................................................................................................................................
Electric Boilers338................................................................................................................................................................
Boiler Ratings And Efficiency338................................................................................................................................................................
Combustion In Boilers339................................................................................................................................................................
Principles Of Combustion339................................................................................................................................................................
Flue Gas Analysis339................................................................................................................................................................
Oil Burners339................................................................................................................................................................
Gas Burners339................................................................................................................................................................
Boiler Controls340................................................................................................................................................................
Boiler Output Control340................................................................................................................................................................
Combustion Control340................................................................................................................................................................
Flame Safeguard Control340................................................................................................................................................................
Flame Safeguard Instrumentation341................................................................................................................................................................
Application Of Boiler Controls341................................................................................................................................................................
Multiple Boiler Systems342................................................................................................................................................................
Dual Boiler Plant Control343................................................................................................................................................................
Hot And Chilled Water Distribution Systems Control345................................................................................................................................................................
Classification Of Water Distribution Systems345................................................................................................................................................................
Typical Water Distribution System345................................................................................................................................................................
Control Requirements For Water Distribution Systems346................................................................................................................................................................
Centrifugal Pumps Used In Hot And Chilled Water Systems346................................................................................................................................................................
Pump Performance347................................................................................................................................................................
Pump Power Requirements348................................................................................................................................................................
Pump Performance Curves348................................................................................................................................................................
Pump Efficiency348................................................................................................................................................................
Pump Affinity Laws349................................................................................................................................................................
Matching Pumps To Water Distribution Systems350................................................................................................................................................................
System Curves350................................................................................................................................................................
Plotting A System Curve350................................................................................................................................................................
Combining System And Pump Curves350................................................................................................................................................................
Variable Speed Pumps352................................................................................................................................................................
Pumps Applied To Open Systems353................................................................................................................................................................
Multiple Pumps353................................................................................................................................................................
Dual Pump Curves355................................................................................................................................................................
Distribution System Fundamentals355................................................................................................................................................................
Direct Vs Reverse Return Piping Systems356................................................................................................................................................................
Coupled Vs Decoupled Piping Systems357................................................................................................................................................................
Methods Of Controlling Distribution Systems358................................................................................................................................................................
Three-way Coil Bypass And Two-way Valve Control358................................................................................................................................................................
Valve Selection Factors358................................................................................................................................................................
Flow And Pressure Control Solutions358................................................................................................................................................................
Single Pump, Pressure Bypass, Direct Return359................................................................................................................................................................
Valve Location And Sizing359................................................................................................................................................................
Differential Pressure Sensor Location359................................................................................................................................................................
Single Pump, Pressure Bypass, Reverse Return361................................................................................................................................................................
Dual Pumps, Dual Chillers, Pressure Bypass362................................................................................................................................................................
90 Percent Chiller Flow, Direct Return362................................................................................................................................................................
Ahu Valve High Differential Pressure Control362................................................................................................................................................................
Variable Speed Pump Control363................................................................................................................................................................
Decoupled Variable Speed Pump Control, Direct Return363................................................................................................................................................................
Pump Speed Valve Position Load Reset365................................................................................................................................................................
Balancing Valve Considerations367................................................................................................................................................................
Balancing Valve Effects367................................................................................................................................................................
Balancing Valve Elimination367................................................................................................................................................................
Differential Pressure Sensor Location Summary367................................................................................................................................................................
Pump Minimum Flow Control367................................................................................................................................................................
Decoupled Variable Speed Pump Control, Reverse Return368................................................................................................................................................................
Hot Water Distribution Systems368................................................................................................................................................................
Hot Water Converters368................................................................................................................................................................
Hot Water Piping Arrangements369................................................................................................................................................................
Primary-secondary Pumping370................................................................................................................................................................
Control Of Hot Water Systems370................................................................................................................................................................
Modulating Flow Control370................................................................................................................................................................
Supply Hot Water Temperature Control371................................................................................................................................................................
Supply Hot Water Temperature Control With Flow Control371................................................................................................................................................................
Hot Water Reset371................................................................................................................................................................
Hot Water Converter371................................................................................................................................................................
Three-way Valve374................................................................................................................................................................
Coordinating Valve Selection And System Design374................................................................................................................................................................
Hot Water Control Method Selection374................................................................................................................................................................
Chilled Water Distribution Systems374................................................................................................................................................................
System Objectives375................................................................................................................................................................
Control Of Terminal Units375................................................................................................................................................................
Dual Temperature Systems375................................................................................................................................................................
Changeover Precautions375................................................................................................................................................................
Multiple-zone Dual-temperature Systems375................................................................................................................................................................
Steam Distribution Systems And Control376................................................................................................................................................................
Advantages Of Steam Systems Vs Hot Water Systems376................................................................................................................................................................
Steam System Objectives376................................................................................................................................................................
Properties Of Steam376................................................................................................................................................................
Steam System Heat Characteristics377................................................................................................................................................................
Steam Pressure, Temperature, And Density377................................................................................................................................................................
Steam Quality377................................................................................................................................................................
Steam Distribution Systems378................................................................................................................................................................
Steam Piping Mains378................................................................................................................................................................
Steam Traps378................................................................................................................................................................
Types Of Low Pressure Steam Distribution Systems380................................................................................................................................................................
One-pipe Steam Systems380................................................................................................................................................................
Two-pipe Steam Systems380................................................................................................................................................................
Types Of Condensate Return Systems380................................................................................................................................................................
Variable Vacuum Return Systems381................................................................................................................................................................
Control Principles For Steam Heating Devices381................................................................................................................................................................
Modulating Steam Coil Performance381................................................................................................................................................................
Oversized Valve382................................................................................................................................................................
Correctly Sized Valve382................................................................................................................................................................
Supply And Return Main Pressures383................................................................................................................................................................
System Design Considerations For Steam Coils383................................................................................................................................................................
Low Temperature Protection For Steam Coils383................................................................................................................................................................
High Temperature Water Heating System Control384................................................................................................................................................................
High Temperature Water (htw) Heating384................................................................................................................................................................
High Temperature Water Safety385................................................................................................................................................................
Htw Control Selection385................................................................................................................................................................
Htw Valve Selection385................................................................................................................................................................
Valve Style385................................................................................................................................................................
Valve Body Materials385................................................................................................................................................................
Valve Trim386................................................................................................................................................................
Valve Packing386................................................................................................................................................................
Valve Flow Characteristics386................................................................................................................................................................
Valve Size386................................................................................................................................................................
Valve Location386................................................................................................................................................................
Instantaneous Converter Control386................................................................................................................................................................
Htw Coils387................................................................................................................................................................
Htw Space Heating Units388................................................................................................................................................................
Storage Converters388................................................................................................................................................................
Multizone Space-heating Htw Water Converters388................................................................................................................................................................
Htw Steam Generators389................................................................................................................................................................
District Heating Applications390................................................................................................................................................................
Heat Sources390................................................................................................................................................................
The Distribution Network390................................................................................................................................................................
The Substation391................................................................................................................................................................
System Configuration392................................................................................................................................................................
Heat Generation392................................................................................................................................................................
Heat Distribution Network392................................................................................................................................................................
Hot Water System Control392................................................................................................................................................................
Steam System Vs Hot Water System393................................................................................................................................................................
Hot Water Pipeline System393................................................................................................................................................................
Booster Pump Station393................................................................................................................................................................
Pressure Reducing Stations393................................................................................................................................................................
Mixing Station393................................................................................................................................................................
Key Points394................................................................................................................................................................
Heat Transfer Substations394................................................................................................................................................................
Direct Heat Transfer Substations394................................................................................................................................................................
Indirect Heat Transfer Substations395................................................................................................................................................................
Hybrid Heat Transfer Substations396................................................................................................................................................................
Ddc Control Of High Performance Substation397................................................................................................................................................................
Ddc Control Of A Small House Substation399................................................................................................................................................................
Control Of Apartment Building Substations With Domestic Hot Water400................................................................................................................................................................
Hybrid Building Substation403................................................................................................................................................................
Individual Room Control Applications405................................................................................................................................................................
Graphic Symbols408................................................................................................................................................................
Air Terminal Unit Control409................................................................................................................................................................
Variable Air Volume Atu409................................................................................................................................................................
Pressure-dependent And Pressure-independent Atu409................................................................................................................................................................
Single-duct Vav Atu410................................................................................................................................................................
Throttling Vav Atu410................................................................................................................................................................
Variable Air Volume Atu With Electric Reheat412................................................................................................................................................................
Constant Air Volume Atus412................................................................................................................................................................
Induction Vav Atu412................................................................................................................................................................
Parallel Fan Atu414................................................................................................................................................................
Series Fan Atu414................................................................................................................................................................
Dual-duct Atu416................................................................................................................................................................
Dual Duct Pressure Independent Vav Atu416................................................................................................................................................................
Dual Duct Pressure Independent Constant Volume Atu417................................................................................................................................................................
Unitary Equipment Control418................................................................................................................................................................
Natural Convection Units418................................................................................................................................................................
Radiant Panels419................................................................................................................................................................
Unit Heaters419................................................................................................................................................................
Control420................................................................................................................................................................
Modulating Control420................................................................................................................................................................
Down-blow Unit Heater420................................................................................................................................................................
Gas- Or Oil-fired Unit Heater421................................................................................................................................................................
Unit Ventilators421................................................................................................................................................................
Ashrae Control Cycles422................................................................................................................................................................
Standby/warmup Stage422................................................................................................................................................................
Cycle I-fixed Maximum Percentage Of Outdoor Air423................................................................................................................................................................
Cycle Ii-fixed Minimum Percentage Of Outdoor Air423................................................................................................................................................................
Cycle Iii-variable Outdoor Air424................................................................................................................................................................
Day/night Setback Control424................................................................................................................................................................
Unit Ventilator Digital Control425................................................................................................................................................................
Precautions And Conditions For Successful Operation428................................................................................................................................................................
Blocked Airflow428................................................................................................................................................................
Power Failure428................................................................................................................................................................
Coil Freeze-up428................................................................................................................................................................
Fan Coil Units428................................................................................................................................................................
Two-pipe Heating/cooling429................................................................................................................................................................
Two-pipe Heating/cooling, Single Coil429................................................................................................................................................................
Four-pipe Heating/cooling, Split Coil430................................................................................................................................................................
Four-pipe Heating/cooling, Single Coil430................................................................................................................................................................
Heat Pumps431................................................................................................................................................................
Control Loops432................................................................................................................................................................
Individual Room Control Automation433................................................................................................................................................................
Hot Water Plant Considerations434................................................................................................................................................................
Valve Selection And Sizing437................................................................................................................................................................
Valve Components438................................................................................................................................................................
Valve Flow Terms439................................................................................................................................................................
Valve Ratings439................................................................................................................................................................
Valve Types440................................................................................................................................................................
Valve Material And Media441................................................................................................................................................................
Valve Selection442................................................................................................................................................................
Globe Valve443................................................................................................................................................................
Ball Valve443................................................................................................................................................................
Butterfly Valve443................................................................................................................................................................
Two-way Valve444................................................................................................................................................................
Quick-opening Valve444................................................................................................................................................................
Linear Valve444................................................................................................................................................................
Equal Percentage Valve445................................................................................................................................................................
Three-way Valves446................................................................................................................................................................
Mixing Valve446................................................................................................................................................................
Diverting Valve446................................................................................................................................................................
Valve Sizing447................................................................................................................................................................
Water Valves447................................................................................................................................................................
Quantity Of Water448................................................................................................................................................................
Water Valve Pressure Drop448................................................................................................................................................................
Water Valve Sizing Examples449................................................................................................................................................................
Steam Valves451................................................................................................................................................................
Quantity Of Steam452................................................................................................................................................................
Steam Valve Pressure Drop452................................................................................................................................................................
Proportional Applications452................................................................................................................................................................
Two-position Applications452................................................................................................................................................................
Steam Valve Sizing Examples453................................................................................................................................................................
Damper Selection458................................................................................................................................................................
Damper Types458................................................................................................................................................................
Parallel And Opposed Blade Dampers458................................................................................................................................................................
Round Dampers458................................................................................................................................................................
Low Leakage Dampers458................................................................................................................................................................
Smoke Dampers460................................................................................................................................................................
Fire Dampers460................................................................................................................................................................
Multiple Section Dampers461................................................................................................................................................................
Baffles461................................................................................................................................................................
Typical Damper Construction462................................................................................................................................................................
Performance Data462................................................................................................................................................................
Leakage Ratings462................................................................................................................................................................
Damper Selection And Sizing463................................................................................................................................................................
Torque Requirements464................................................................................................................................................................
Velocity Ratings464................................................................................................................................................................
Temperature Ratings464................................................................................................................................................................
Pressure Ratings464................................................................................................................................................................
Ul Classification (fire/smoke)464................................................................................................................................................................
Application Environment464................................................................................................................................................................
Velocity464................................................................................................................................................................
Static Pressure465................................................................................................................................................................
Temperature465................................................................................................................................................................
Corrosion465................................................................................................................................................................
Turbulence465................................................................................................................................................................
Nuclear/seismic Applications465................................................................................................................................................................
Actuators And Linkages465................................................................................................................................................................
Normally Open/normally Closed465................................................................................................................................................................
Actuator Mounting Alternatives466................................................................................................................................................................
Positive Positioners466................................................................................................................................................................
Multiple Actuators466................................................................................................................................................................
Jackshafts467................................................................................................................................................................
Actuator Selection467................................................................................................................................................................
System Characteristics467................................................................................................................................................................
Damper Sizing467................................................................................................................................................................
Damper Characteristics468................................................................................................................................................................
Inherent Characteristic468................................................................................................................................................................
Installed Characteristic468................................................................................................................................................................
Determining Damper Size469................................................................................................................................................................
Other Damper Sizing Considerations471................................................................................................................................................................
Oversized Damper Characteristics471................................................................................................................................................................
Damper Performance471................................................................................................................................................................
Control System Sensitivity471................................................................................................................................................................
Damper Pressure Drop472................................................................................................................................................................
Damper Applications473................................................................................................................................................................
Face And Bypass Control474................................................................................................................................................................
Throttling Control474................................................................................................................................................................
Conversion Formulas And Tables476................................................................................................................................................................
Metric Prefixes476................................................................................................................................................................
Pressure476................................................................................................................................................................
Weight/mass477................................................................................................................................................................
Length477................................................................................................................................................................
Area477................................................................................................................................................................
Volume478................................................................................................................................................................
Mass Per Unit Volume Of Water478................................................................................................................................................................
Specific Heat478................................................................................................................................................................
General Engineering Data479................................................................................................................................................................
Heat Transfer480................................................................................................................................................................
Flow480................................................................................................................................................................
Power481................................................................................................................................................................
Work/energy481................................................................................................................................................................
Force482................................................................................................................................................................
Torque482................................................................................................................................................................
Density482................................................................................................................................................................
Electrical Data483................................................................................................................................................................
Electrical Distribution Systems483................................................................................................................................................................
Single-phase System483................................................................................................................................................................
Three-phase Three-wire Wye System484................................................................................................................................................................
Three-phase Four-wire Wye System484................................................................................................................................................................
Three-phase Delta System484................................................................................................................................................................
Electric Motors485................................................................................................................................................................
Voltage Conversion485................................................................................................................................................................
Properties Of Saturated Steam Data486................................................................................................................................................................
Airflow Data487................................................................................................................................................................
Fan Ratings487................................................................................................................................................................
Velocity Pressure488................................................................................................................................................................
Moisture Content Of Air Data489................................................................................................................................................................
Moisture In Compressed Air489................................................................................................................................................................
Relative Humidity491................................................................................................................................................................

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