An emulator duplicates the functions of one system with a different
system, so that the second system behaves like the first system.
Emulation focuses on exact reproduction of external behavior, which is
in contrast to simulation, which concerns an abstract model of the
system being simulated, often considering its internal state.
Ethernet is a frame-based computer networking technology for local
area networks (LANs). It defines wiring and signaling for the physical
layer, and frame formats and protocols for the media access control
(MAC)/data link layer of the OSI model. Ethernet is mostly standardized
as IEEE 802.3. It has become the most widespread LAN technology in
use during the 1990s to the present.
A suite of protocols developed by Apple Computer for computer
networking. It was included in the original Macintosh (1984) and is now
deprecated by Apple in favor of TCP/IP networking.
Foreign Device Interface (FDI) is a card installed inside the machine to
allow a third party device such as a coin operated device or a card
reader. Those devices allow the pay-for-print service on your machine.
A File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a commonly used protocol for
exchanging files over any network that supports the TCP/IP protocol
(such as the Internet or an intranet).
The part of a laser printer that melts the toner onto the print media. It
consists of a hot roller and a back-up roller. After toner is transferred
onto the paper, the fuser unit applies heat and pressure to ensure that
the toner stays on the paper permanently, which is why paper is warm
when it comes out of a laser printer.
A connection between computer networks, or between a computer
network and a telephone line. It is very popular, as it is a computer or a
network that allows access to another computer or network.
A shades of gray that represent light and dark portions of an image
when color images are converted to grayscale; colors are represented
by various shades of gray.
An image type that simulates grayscale by varying the number of dots.
Highly colored areas consist of a large number of dots, while lighter
areas consist of a smaller number of dots.
Hard Disk Drive (HDD), commonly referred to as a hard drive or hard
disk, is a non-volatile storage device which stores digitally-encoded data
on rapidly rotating platters with magnetic surfaces.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is an
international non-profit, professional organization for the advancement
of technology related to electricity.
The 1284 parallel port standard was developed by the Institute of
Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). The term "1284-B" refers to
a specific connector type on the end of the parallel cable that attaches to
the peripheral (for example, a printer).
42 | Glossary
A private network that uses Internet Protocols, network connectivity, and
possibly the public telecommunication system to securely share part of
an organization's information or operations with its employees.
Sometimes the term refers only to the most visible service, the internal
An Internet Protocol (IP) address is a unique number that devices use in
order to identify and communicate with each other on a network utilizing
the Internet Protocol standard.
The Images Per Minute (IPM) is a way of measuring the speed of a
printer. An IPM rate indicates the number of single-sided sheets a printer
can complete within one minute.
The Internet Printing Protocol (IPP) defines a standard protocol for
printing as well as managing print jobs, media size, resolution, and so
forth. IPP can be used locally or over the Internet to hundreds of
printers, and also supports access control, authentication, and
encryption, making it a much more capable and secure printing solution
than older ones.
IPX/SPX stands for Internet Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet
Exchange. It is a networking protocol used by the Novell NetWare
operating systems. IPX and SPX both provide connection services
similar to TCP/IP, with the IPX protocol having similarities to IP, and
SPX having similarities to TCP. IPX/SPX was primarily designed for
local area networks (LANs), and is a very efficient protocol for this
purpose (typically its performance exceeds that of TCP/IP on a LAN).
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an
international standard-setting body composed of representatives from
national standards bodies. It produces world-wide industrial and
The International Telecommunication Union is an international
organization established to standardize and regulate international radio
and telecommunications. Its main tasks include standardization,
allocation of the radio spectrum, and organizing interconnection
arrangements between different countries to allow international phone
calls. A -T out of ITU-T indicates telecommunication.
ITU-T No. 1 chart
Standardized test chart published by ITU-T for document facsimile
Joint Bi-level Image Experts Group (JBIG) is an image compression
standard with no loss of accuracy or quality, which was designed for
compression of binary images, particularly for faxes, but can also be
used on other images.
Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) is a most commonly used
standard method of lossy compression for photographic images. It is the
format used for storing and transmitting photographs on the World Wide
The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is a networking
protocol for querying and modifying directory services running over TCP/