Motorola M68HC08 Reference Manual

Sensorless bldc motor control using the mc68hc908mr32.
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Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Sensorless BLDC
Motor Control
Using the
MC68HC908MR32
Designer Reference
Manual
M68HC08
Microcontrollers
DRM028/D
Rev. 0, 03/2003
MOTOROLA.COM/SEMICONDUCTORS
For More Information On This Product,
Go to: www.freescale.com

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   Summary of Contents for Motorola M68HC08

  • Page 1

    Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. Sensorless BLDC Motor Control Using the MC68HC908MR32 Designer Reference Manual M68HC08 Microcontrollers DRM028/D Rev. 0, 03/2003 MOTOROLA.COM/SEMICONDUCTORS For More Information On This Product, Go to: www.freescale.com...

  • Page 2

    Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. For More Information On This Product, Go to: www.freescale.com...

  • Page 3

    Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. Sensorless BLDC Motor Control Using the MC68HC908MR32 Designer Reference Manual — Rev 0 by: Libor Prokop Motorola Czech System Laboratories Roznov pod Radhostem, Czech Republic DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, Go to: www.freescale.com...

  • Page 4

    World Wide Web will be the most current. Your printed copy may be an earlier revision. To verify you have the latest information available, refer to: http://www.motorola.com/semiconductors The following revision history table summarizes changes contained in this document. For your convenience, the page number designators have been linked to the appropriate location.

  • Page 5: Table Of Contents

    Appendix B. Glossary......163 DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, Go to: www.freescale.com...

  • Page 6

    Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. List of Sections Designer Reference Manual DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, Go to: www.freescale.com...

  • Page 7: Table Of Contents

    Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. Designer Reference Manual — Sensorless BLDC Motor Control DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, Section 1. Introduction Contents ......... .13 Application Functionality .

  • Page 8: Table Of Contents

    Tuning for Customer Motor......126 Appendix A. References Appendix B. Glossary Go to: www.freescale.com DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 9

    3-19 Back-EMF at Start Up....... . 48 3-20 Calculation of the Commutation Times During the Starting DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, Title System Concept .

  • Page 10

    Follow-up for Software Customizing to Customer Motor ..128 Follow-up for Advanced Software Customizing ... 129 Follow-up for Software Customizing Trouble Shouting..129 Go to: www.freescale.com DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 11

    Designer Reference Manual — Sensorless BLDC Motor Control Table DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, Title Software Specifications ......18 High Voltage Hardware Set Specifications .

  • Page 12

    Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. List of Tables Designer Reference Manual DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, Go to: www.freescale.com...

  • Page 13: Section 1. Introduction, Application Functionality, Benefits Of The Solution

    This Reference Design describes the design of a low-cost sensorless 3-phase brushless dc (BLDC) motor control with back-EMF (electromotive force) zero-crossing sensing. It is based on Motorola’s MC68HC908MR32 microcontroller which is dedicated for motor control applications. The system is designed as a motor drive system for medium power three phase BLDC motors and is targeted for applications in automotive, industrial and appliance fields (e.g.

  • Page 14

    Save cost of the position sensors & wiring Can be used where there is impossibility or expansive to make additional connections between position sensors and the control unit Low cost system (medium demand for control MCU power) Introduction Go to: www.freescale.com DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 15: Section 2. System Description, System Concept

    IGBTs (or MOSFETs) are switched and simplifies the electric circuit. DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, Section 2. System Description System Concept ........15 System Specification .

  • Page 16: System Description

    System Description Go to: www.freescale.com Three-Phase Inverter 3-ph BLDC Motor 3 phase BLDC Power Stage Command Digital Outputs Generator with Dead Time Commutation Control Duty Cycle Speed PI Regulator Current PI Regulator (for Alignment) HC08MR32 DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 17: System Specification

    The concept of the application is that of a speed-closed loop drive using back-EMF zero crossing technique for position detection. It serves as an example of a sensorless BLDC motor control system using Motorola’s MC68HC908MR32 MCU. It also illustrates the usage of dedicated motor control on-chip peripherals.

  • Page 18

    PC master software (remote) interface (via RS232 using PC computer) 4 MHz (with default software setting) 8 MHz (with default software setting) Motor Period 333 s (with default software setting and COEF_HLFCMT = 0.450) Master Software System Description Go to: www.freescale.com DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 19

    2.3.2.1 High-Voltage Hardware Set Specification This hardware set is dedicated for medium power (phase current < 2.93 A) and main voltage. The specifications for a high-voltage hardware DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, Table 2-1. Software Specifications Motor 520 s (with default software setting and COEF_HLFCMT = 0.450)

  • Page 20

    3*220 V 0.55 A SG40N 3-Phase BLDC Motor 3 x 27 V 2.6 A 1500 rpm < 2500 rpm (determined by motor used) 380 V Required Over-current, over-voltage, and Protection: under-voltage fault protection Type: Varying DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 21

    12 V, but can be simply configured to a 42 V supply (described in documentation for the ECLOVACBLDC board). The supplied motor is targeted for 12 V. DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, Table Input voltage:...

  • Page 22

    150 W power: 3*6.5 V 17 A SG40N 3-Phase BLDC Motor 3 x 27 V 2.6 A 1500 rpm < 2500 rpm 12 Vdc 15.8 V Over-current, over-voltage, and Protection: under-voltage fault protection Type: Varying DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 23: Section 3. Bldc Motor Control, Brushless Dc Motor Control Theory

    Figure ripples. DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, Section 3. BLDC Motor Control Brushless DC Motor Control Theory.....23 Used Control Technique .

  • Page 24

    210° 30° 90° 150° 210° Figure 3-2. 3-Phase Voltage System BLDC Motor Control Go to: www.freescale.com STATOR STATOR WINDING (IN SLOTS) SHAFT ROTOR AIR GAP PERMANENT MAGNETS electrical ELECTRICAL 270° 330° 270° 330° angle ANGLE DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 25

    During speed reversal, the amplitude changes its sign and the phase sequence changes. DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, shows a number of waveforms: Magnetic flux linkage...

  • Page 26

    ACTING POWER SWITCH IN THE POWER STAGE A–B B–C C–A BLDC Motor Control Go to: www.freescale.com Psi_A Psi_B Psi_C Ui_A Ui_B Ui_C Speed reversal SPEED REVERSAL “Natural” commutation point “NATURAL” COMMUTATION POINT Ui_AB Ui_BC Ui_CA DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 27

    In order to explain and simulate the idea of back-EMF sensing techniques a simplified mathematical model based on the basic circuit topology has been created. See DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, Figure 3-5). The power stage is usually 3-4).

  • Page 28

    For More Information On This Product, Figure 3-5. Power Stage — Motor Topology ). Six semiconductor switches (S BLDC Motor Control Go to: www.freescale.com backEMF b backEMF c backEMF a ), controlled A/B/C t/b Figure 3-2) to DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 29

    C is free, having no current. So the phase C can be used to sense the back-EMF voltage. This is described by the following conditions: The branch voltage u DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, with a 120° displacement. 3-1.). -- - u -- - u –...

  • Page 30

    3-7.). In other words, the back-EMF voltage can be BLDC Motor Control Go to: www.freescale.com is as follows: – --- - (EQ 3-4.) – --- - (EQ 3-5.) – --- - (EQ 3-6.) demonstrates the possibility (EQ 3-7.) A B C , DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 31

    Figure 3-7 highlight the effect of the difference in the mutual inductances. This difference is not constant. DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, Figure 3-6. Phase Voltage Waveform (EQ 3-4.) shows the real measured “branch” voltage. The red curves BLDC Motor Control Go to: www.freescale.com...

  • Page 32

    Simple additional filtering helps to reduce ripples further. Designer Reference Manual For More Information On This Product, Figure 3-7. Mutual Inductance Effect Figure shows the disturbed “branch” voltage. The superimposed BLDC Motor Control Go to: www.freescale.com 3-8. Channel 1 in DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 33

    The effect of the mutual capacitance can be studied using the model shown in DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, Figure 3-8. Detail of Mutual Inductance Effect Figure 3-9.

  • Page 34

    Go to: www.freescale.com 3-8.): (EQ 3-8.) -- - u – -- - u -- - u – (EQ 3-9.) –   i ∫ -- - ---------------------- (EQ 3-10.)   Figure 3-10 Figure 3-11. DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA VC Cap...

  • Page 35

    After the unbalance was removed the “branch” voltage is clean, without any spikes. DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, Figure 3-10. Distributed Back-EMF by Unbalanced Capacity Coupling Figure 3-11 shows the disturbed “branch”...

  • Page 36

    An example of the possible implementation of the back-EMF sensing circuit is shown in Designer Reference Manual For More Information On This Product, Figure 3-11. Balanced Capacity Coupling Figure 3-12. BLDC Motor Control Go to: www.freescale.com DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 37

    This zero crossing detection signal is transferred to the timer input pin. The comparator control and zero crossing signals plus the voltage waveforms are shown in DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, 560k 560k 560k...

  • Page 38: Used Control Technique

    Reference Level Commutation Signal Zero Crossing Signal Figure 3-13. The Zero Crossing Detection Alignment Starting (Back-EMF Acquisition) Running shows the transitions between the states. First the rotor is BLDC Motor Control Go to: www.freescale.com 90° DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 39

    This state is necessary in order to create a high start-up torque. When the preset time-out expires then this state is finished. DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, START MOTOR ALIGNMENT...

  • Page 40

    Designer Reference Manual For More Information On This Product, Figure 3-15. Figure 3-15. Alignment The back-EMF zero crossing is successfully captured The new commutation time is calculated The commutation is performed BLDC Motor Control Go to: www.freescale.com DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 41

    The flowchart explaining the principle of BLDC commutation control with back-EMF zero crossing sensing is shown in DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, BLDC motor commutation service Back-EMF zero crossing moment capture service Calculation of commutation time...

  • Page 42

    Go to: www.freescale.com CORRECTIVE CALCULATION 1. BEMF ZERO CROSSING MISSED CORRECTIVE CALCULATION 2 CORRECTED SETTING OF COMMUTATION TIME SERVICE OF RECEIVED BEMF ZERO CROSSING: CORRECTED SETTING OF COMMUTATION TIME HAS COMMUTATION TIME EXPIRED? Figure 3-17. DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 43

    (T2[n]) during the Running state: • • Per_ZCros[n] = T_ZCros[n] - T_ZCros[n-1] = T_ZCros[n] - T_ZCros0 Per_ZCrosFlt[n] = (1/2*Per_ZCros[n]+1/2*Per_ZCros0) HlfCmt[n] = 1/2*Per_ZCrosFlt[n]- Advance_angle = DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, T_Cmt[n] T2[n-1] T2[n] 2*Per_ZCrosFlt[n-1] Per_ZCros[n]...

  • Page 44

    If back-EMF zero crossing is missed then Corrective Calculation 2. is made: The best commutation was get with Advance_angle: 60Deg*1/8 = 7.5Deg which means Coef_HlfCmt = 0.375 at Running state! Where: commutation period) BLDC Motor Control Go to: www.freescale.com DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 45

    The commutation time is defined by the start commutation period (Per_CmtStart). This allows starting the motor such that minimal speed (defined by state when back-EMF can be sensed) and is achieved DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, 90 ±30 . BLDC Motor Control Go to: www.freescale.com...

  • Page 46

    Designer Reference Manual For More Information On This Product, Exact commutation time can be calculated Commutation process is adjusted Control flow continues to the Running state BLDC Motor Control Go to: www.freescale.com DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 47

    COMMUTATION PHASE CURRENT ZERO CROSSING PHASE WINDING EDGE INDICATOR Figure 3-18. Vectors of Magnetic Fields DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, MOTOR IS STARTING ROTOR MAGNETIC BLDC Motor Control Go to: www.freescale.com BLDC Motor Control...

  • Page 48

    The PHASE C PHASE B THIRD FOURTH STARTING (BACK-EMF ACQUISITION) Figure 3-19. Back-EMF at Start Up illustrates the sequence of the commutations during the BLDC Motor Control Go to: www.freescale.com PHASE A RUNNING DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 49

    Running — Commutation Time computation coefficients are different: coefficient Coef_HlfCmt = 0.125 with advanced angle Advance_angle: 60Deg*3/8 = 22.5Deg DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, T_Cmt T2[2] T2[n] 2*Per_ZCrosFlt[n-1] COMMUTATION IS PRESET...

  • Page 50: Application Control

    PC. Designer Reference Manual For More Information On This Product, Setting. The actual speed is calculated from Control. Manual mode PC master software mode BLDC Motor Control Go to: www.freescale.com Internet Explorer DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 51

    SCI communication protocol with a default of 9.6 Kbaud, is used for communication as described in User’s Manual for PC Master Software, Motorola 2000, found on the World Wide Web at: http://e-www.motorola.com PC master software controls and senses the status of the application with: •...

  • Page 52

    Motor control variable Motor status variable Failure variable Speed input variable used for required speed calculation Speed range maximum Maximal speed limit Minimal speed limit Commutations per motor revolution dc-bus current Current range maximum [A*10^-2] DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 53

    } Motor_Ctrl_Def; /* PC master software Motor Control Flags Definition */ typedef union struct DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, unsigned int HV : 1; /* BIT0 High Voltage board Flag */ unsigned int LV : 1;...

  • Page 54

    /* BIT1 Over-Heating */ /* BIT2 Over-Voltage */ /* BIT5 RESERVED */ /* BIT4 RESERVED */ /* BIT6 RESERVED */ /* BIT6 pcb Identification /* BIT7 error Commutation */ variable. When the application will exit the fault state. DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 55

    The variable Curr_Range_Max_cA determines scaling of the current variables. So, the actual dc-bus current is: dc-bus current [A] = Curr / 256*Curr_Range_Max_cA / 100 DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, Speed_Max_RPM-Speed_Min_RPM) + Speed_Min_RPM variables. These are chosen...

  • Page 56

    Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. BLDC Motor Control Designer Reference Manual DRM028 — Rev 0 BLDC Motor Control MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, Go to: www.freescale.com...

  • Page 57: Section 4. Hardware Design, System Configuration And Documentation

    • For High-Voltage Hardware Set cofiguration: DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, Section 4. Hardware Design System Configuration and Documentation ....57 All HW Sets Components .

  • Page 58

    4-1, Figure 4-2 Figure 4-3 4.3 All HW Sets Components, Components, 4.5 Low-Voltage Evaluation Motor 4.6 Low-Voltage Hardware Set will describe the individual boards. Hardware Design Go to: www.freescale.com show the configuration with 4.4 High-Voltage DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 59

    Figure 4-1. High-Voltage Hardware System Configuration All the system parts are supplied and documented according to the following references: • • DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, 4-1. +12VDC 40w flat ribbon cable JP1.1 JP1.2...

  • Page 60

    The User’s Manual incorporates the schematic of the board, description of individual function blocks and a bill of materials. An individual board can be ordered from Motorola as a standard product. Designer Reference Manual For More Information On This Product, –...

  • Page 61

    The system configuration for a low-voltage evaluation motor hardware set is shown in 12VDC All the system parts are supplied and documented according to the following references: • • DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, Figure 4-2. Evaluation Motor Board Motor ECMTREVAL IB23810 Figure 4-2.

  • Page 62

    The User’s Manual incorporates the schematic of the board, description of individual function blocks and a bill of materials. An individual board can be ordered from Motorola as a standard product. 4.2.3 Low-Voltage Hardware Set Configuration The system configuration for low-voltage hardware set is shown in...

  • Page 63

    – Described in: Manual supplied with kit U1 — Controller Board for MC68HC908MR32: – Supplied as: ECCTR908MR32 – Described in: MC68HC908MR32 Control Board — User’s Manual (Motorola document order number MEMCMR32CBUM/D References 3 U2 — 3-Phase AC/BLDC Low Voltage Power Stage –...

  • Page 64: All Hw Sets Components

    Motorola as a standard product. 4.3 All HW Sets Components 4.3.1 MC68HC908MR32 Control Board Motorola’s embedded motion control series MR32 motor control board is designed to provide control signals for 3-phase ac induction, 3-phase brushless dc (BLDC), and 3-phase switched reluctance (SR) motors. In...

  • Page 65

    TERMINAL dc POWER 12 Vdc 4.3.1.1 Electrical Characteristics of the MC68HC908MR32 Control Board The electrical characteristics in DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, shows a block diagram of the board’s circuitry. FORWARD/REVERSE OPTOISOLATED SWITCH RS-232 I/F...

  • Page 66: High-voltage Hardware Set Components

    4.4 High-Voltage Hardware Set Components 4.4.1 3-Phase AC/BLDC High Voltage Power Stage Motorola’s embedded motion control series high-voltage (HV) ac power stage is a 180-watt (one-fourth horsepower), 3-phase power stage that will operate off of dc input voltages from 140 to 230 volts and ac line voltages from 100 to 240 volts.

  • Page 67

    BOARD 4.4.1.1 Electrical Characteristics of the 3-Phase AC/BLDC High Voltage Power Stage The electrical characteristics in a 160-Vdc power supply voltage. DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, High-Voltage Hardware Set Components SWITCH MODE POWER SUPPLY...

  • Page 68: Hardware Design

    (15 sec pk) Total power dissipation 4.4.2 Optoisolation Board Motorola’s embedded motion control series optoisolation board links signals from a controller to a high-voltage power stage. The board isolates the controller, and peripherals that may be attached to the controller, from dangerous voltages that are present on the power stage.

  • Page 69

    1. Power supply powers optoisolation board only. 2. Current consumption of optoisolation board plus DSP EMV board (powered from this power supply) 3. Maximum current handled by dc/dc converters DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, Table 4-3 —...

  • Page 70: Low-voltage Evaluation Motor Hardware Set Components

    4.5 Low-Voltage Evaluation Motor Hardware Set Components 4.5.1 EVM Motor Board Motorola’s embedded motion control series EVM motor board is a 12-volt, 4-amp, surface-mount power stage that is shipped with an MCG IB23810-H1 brushless dc motor. In combination with one of the...

  • Page 71

    Other detailed motor characteristics are in apply to operation at 25 C. Terminal Voltage Speed @ V Torque Constant DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, Low-Voltage Evaluation Motor Hardware Set Components Table 4-4 Characteristic Symbol...

  • Page 72: Low-voltage Hardware Set Components

    30 amps of rms motor current from a dc bus that can deliver peak currents up to 46 amps. In combination with one of Motorola’s embedded motion control series control boards, it provides a software development platform that allows algorithms to be written and tested, without the need to design and build a power stage.

  • Page 73

    CONTROL BOARD 4.6.1.1 Electrical Characteristics of the 3-Ph BLDC Low Voltage Power Stage The electrical characteristics in a 12-Vdc supply voltage. DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, Low-Voltage Hardware Set Components Figure 4-5 BIAS POWER...

  • Page 74

    Symbol Sense BK(Pk) diss Hardware Design Go to: www.freescale.com Units — — — — — — — — — mV/A — — mV/V — — — — — — — — — — Table DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA 2-4,...

  • Page 75: Section 5. Software Design, Data Flow

    Figure DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, Section 5. Software Design Introduction ........75 Data Flow .

  • Page 76

    Required current during alignment state Curr_Range_Max_cA) Current PI regulator parameters <-VOLT_RANGE_MAX; dc-bus voltage VOLT_RANGE_MAX) Back-EMF zero crossing expecting edge Preset value of back-EMF zero crossing phase multiplexer Software Design Go to: www.freescale.com Table 5-1. Description DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 77

    5.3.3 Start/Stop Switch Reading and Start/Stop Decision The process reads the start stop switch and provides start condition and clear failure decisions, as explained in DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, : 1; unsigned int Off_F : 1;...

  • Page 78

    5.5.5 Back-EMF Acquisition State. 5-2. The processes are described in the following subsections. Back-EMF zero crossing sampling in synchronization with PWM, Software Design Go to: www.freescale.com Switch_Start Running START/STOP SWITCH Stop_F PROCESS CONTROL Fault State, and DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 79

    Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. • • Further explanation is provided in DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, Evaluates the zero crossing Records its time in T_ZCros Data Flow Software Design Go to: www.freescale.com Software Design Data Flow Figure 5-6.

  • Page 80

    CORRECTIVE CALCULATION 2 OF COMMUTATION PARAMETERS (ACCELERATION) FOK_F COMMUTATION HAS BEEN PERFORMED — FLAG PC_F PROCESS PRESET COMMUTATION AND ZERO CROSSING V_MUX V_TASC2 PROCESS SET COMMUTATION AND ZERO CROSSING SELECTION PC_F BACK-EMF ZERO CROSSING MULTIPLEXER DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 81

    The actual motor speed is calculated from zero crossing period: Actual motor speed = 256*Per_Speed_MAX_Range/Per_ZCrosFlt_T2 DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, 3.3.1.5 Starting — Commutation Time 3.3.1.3 Running — Commutation Time 5-3.

  • Page 82

    Designer Reference Manual For More Information On This Product, Implementation Notes Calculation. 5.5 State Figure 3.2.4.2 Indirect Back EMF Sensing Software Design Go to: www.freescale.com — 5.6.3 Diagram). The dc-bus 3-2. The required BLDC DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 83: Main Software Flowchart

    PWM generator. This way the current measurement is executed at the defined moment of the PWM signal. DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, Circuit.The zero crossing selection is Figure...

  • Page 84

    – PWM INITIALIZATION – TIMER 1 CURRENT SENSING TO PWM SYNCHRONIZATION – ADC MEASUREMENT INITIALIZATION MAIN S/W LOOP: – SEE FIGURE 5-5 Figure 5-4. Main Software Flowchart 3.3.1 Sensorless Commutation Software Design Go to: www.freescale.com Control. DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 85

    Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. preset calculations are prepared in the StrtCmtPreset() function, and commutation time set calculations are provided by the StrtCmtSet() function. DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, Software Design Go to: www.freescale.com Software Design...

  • Page 86

    – SET TIMER PERIOD FOR SPEED REGULATOR (VIRTUAL TIMER3) – MOTOR COMMUTATION CONTROL LOOP – MOTOR SPEED CONTROL LOOP – IF STOP OR FAULT CONDITION: STOP MOTOR EXIT RUNNING STATE Software Design Go to: www.freescale.com DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 87

    Interrupt Timer 2 sets commutation actions. If commutation is enabled (CmtE_F flag is set), the following actions are done: • • DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, PWM commutation step Synchronization of timer 1, for current measurement with PWM Software Design Go to: www.freescale.com...

  • Page 88

    T_ZCros. This interrupt is provided by PWMMC_Int() function in code_isr.c. Designer Reference Manual For More Information On This Product, Phase commutated flag PC_F is set Actual time (from timer counter register) = commutation time is recorded in T_Cmt. Software Design Go to: www.freescale.com DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 89

    The motor control application can be in one of the eight states shown in Figure following the figure. DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, V_TASC = fal. edge 5-7. Each of these states is described in the subsections Software Design Go to: www.freescale.com...

  • Page 90

    PWM DISABLED CLEAR FAILURE (START SWITCH SET OFF OR PCMode AND CLEAR FAIL) OVER CURRENT IRRECOVERABLE COMMUTATION ERROR OVER VOLTAGE STOP STATE PWM DISABLED DONE Software Design Go to: www.freescale.com (FAILURE = 0) FAULT STATE DISABLED DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 91

    5.5.3 Stand-By State diagram for this software is shown in DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, MCU ports are configured for the application Some application (system) variables are initialized MCU clock PLL is locked...

  • Page 92

    StartCtrl = 1. If start condition valid then Strt_F is set, Stop_F is cleared, and the next state entered. Designer Reference Manual For More Information On This Product, Software Design Go to: www.freescale.com DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 93

    This prevents the measurement being disturbed by the power turn ON. Where that dc-bus voltage is not within the limits, the control flow enters into the fault state. DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, ENTER CURRENT MEASUREMENT...

  • Page 94

    CURRENT MEASUREMENT CURRENT MEASUREMENT IS DONE (CMD_F = 1) DONE Figure 5-9. Align State Software Design Go to: www.freescale.com Figure 5-9. CURRENT MEASUREMENT IS DONE CURRENT CONTROLLER OVER-CURRENT DETECTION (CMD_F = 0) IRRECOVERABLE OVER-CURRENT FAULT STATE DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 95

    This value has been defined by the current controller during the Aalign state. The calculation of the commutation time is explained in Starting — Commutation Time DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, Calculation. Figure 5-10 Calculation.

  • Page 96

    Designer Reference Manual For More Information On This Product, Calculation. Scheduler Over-Current Software Design Go to: www.freescale.com 3.3.1.5 Detection, the dc-bus Fault DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 97

    COMMUTATION ISR PHASE HAS BEEN COMMUTATED (PC_F=1) Figure 5-10. Back-EMF Acquisition DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, PWM DUTY CYCLE IS LEFT AT VALIE FOUND BY THE CURRENT CONTROLLER DURING THE ALIGN STATE DONE CURRENT MEASUREMENT...

  • Page 98

    Current Measurement Interrupt Service Routine Designer Reference Manual For More Information On This Product, Processes Commutation and Zero Crossing Preset and on the received feedback 3.3.1 Sensorless Commutation Calculation). Software Design Go to: www.freescale.com Control, (see 3.3.1.5 Starting DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 99

    Measurements Handler Explained in Service of Commutation Explained in Service of Received Back-EMF Zero Crossing DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, Figure 5-11 shows the state transitions. 5.5.5 Back-EMF Acquisition 5.5.5 Back-EMF Acquisition Software Design Go to: www.freescale.com...

  • Page 100

    For More Information On This Product, 5.5.5 Back-EMF Acquisition 3.3.1.3 Running — Commutation Time 5.5.5 Back-EMF Acquisition 5.5.5 Back-EMF Acquisition 5.5.5 Back-EMF Acquisition 5.5.5 Back-EMF Acquisition Software Design Go to: www.freescale.com State. The difference is Calculation) State. State. State. State. DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 101

    (ICR_F = 1) IRRECOVERABLE COMMUTATION ERROR TIMER2 (TIM A CH3) INTERRUPT COMMUTATION PHASE HAS BEEN COMMUTATED (PC_F = 1) DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, ENTER EXIT MOTOR STOP IS REQUIRED (STOP_F = 1) (T3_F = 1)

  • Page 102

    MOTOR STOP IS REQUIRED (STOP_F = 1) MOTOR IS STOPPED PWM IS OFF CURRENT MEASUREMENT EXIT Figure 5-12. STOP State Software Design Go to: www.freescale.com TIMER1 (TIM A CH1) INTERRUPT CURRENT MEASUREMENT IS DONE (CMD_F=1) DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 103: Implementation Notes

    OR RESET 5.6 Implementation Notes 5.6.1 Software Files The software files and structure are described in section Application HC08 Software DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, 5-13. ENTER MOTOR IS STOPPED PWM IS OFF DONE...

  • Page 104

    PVALxH registers are set to 1. This is due to the signature bit functionality as described in 68HC908MR32, 68HC9908MR16 Advance Information (Motorola document order number MC68HC908MR32/D) .This commutation preset is provided by the function Commut (). In Commut(), the function field Set_PWM(P_Step_Cmt] () calls one of Shft_PWM0..5() functions...

  • Page 105

    PVAL1H, PVAL1L through PVAL6H, PVAL6L are loaded with PWM_Val calculated from OutReg_U8: PWM_Val = PWM_Val_Max*OutReg_U8/256 This calculation is provided with macro umul_16x8_macro. DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, Software Design Go to: www.freescale.com Software Design...

  • Page 106

    The timer A channel 3 (timer 2) interrupt is called whenever TACH3H = TACNTH and TACH3L = TACNTL. So, the registers TACH3H and TACH3L are loaded with the T2 variable value. Software Design Go to: www.freescale.com DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 107

    Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. • • DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, The value T2 (e.g., T2 = T_Cmt + Per_HlfCmt) is calculated using a 16-bit addition with no saturation. So, the time duration up to...

  • Page 108

    Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. Software Design Designer Reference Manual DRM028 — Rev 0 Software Design MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, Go to: www.freescale.com...

  • Page 109: Section 6. User Guide, Application Suitability Guide

    DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, Application Suitability Guide ......109 Warning .

  • Page 110

    60 10 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - min. commutation period [us]*COMMUT_REV COMMUT_REV ------ - Table 2-1. So for example, the 4 pole (3-phase) Application Hardware and Software User Guide Go to: www.freescale.com (EQ 6-1.) (EQ 6-2.) Configuration, the DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 111

    However noticeable this effect, it does not degrade the back-EMF zero crossing detection, because it is cancelled at the zero crossing point. Additional simple filtering helps to reduce ripples further. DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, 3.2.4.4 Effect of Mutual Phase Inductance.

  • Page 112

    Wearing safety glasses, avoiding ties and jewelry, using shields, and operation by personnel trained in high-voltage lab techniques are also advisable. Power transistors, the PFC coil, and the motor can reach temperatures hot enough to cause burns. User Guide Go to: www.freescale.com DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 113: Application Hardware And Software Configuration

    All the system parts are described in They can be ordered as a standard products. For the the supply and in detail document references see DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, Application Hardware and Software Configuration High-Voltage Hardware Set Configuration...

  • Page 114: User Guide

    Configuration. Figure 6-2. User Guide Go to: www.freescale.com PC Computer RS232 - PC Master 40w flat ribbon cable Controller Board HC908MR32 ECCTR908MR32 EVM1 KITMMDS08MR32 PC Computer RS232 - emulator Section 4. Hardware Design. 4.2.1 High-Voltage DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 115

    Low-Voltage Evaluation Motor Hardware Set 6.4.1.3 Low-Voltage Hardware Set Configuration The system configuration for low-voltage hardware set is shown in Figure DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, Application Hardware and Software Configuration Evaluation Motor Board...

  • Page 116

    Figure 6-3. Low-Voltage Hardware System Configuration Configuration. Figure 6-4. User Guide Go to: www.freescale.com PC Computer RS232 - PC Master 40w flat ribbon cable Controller Board HC908MR32 ECCTR908MR32 EVM1 KITMMDS08MR32 ECMTRLOVBLDC PC Computer RS232 - emulator Section 4. Hardware 4.2.3 DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 117

    6.4.2 Software Setup In order to run the sensorless BLDC application the following software is needed: • • DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, Application Hardware and Software Configuration START/STOP switch indication LEDs to power stage board Figure 6-4.

  • Page 118

    Table 6-1. Required Software Configuration for Dedicated Hardware Platform Hardware Dedicated Platform Customizing File const_cust_hv.h User Guide Go to: www.freescale.com Application HC08 Software Required Software Configuration #include const_cust_hv.h into code.fun.c (done with default software setting) DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA Files.

  • Page 119

    • • • • • • • • • DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, Application Hardware and Software Configuration Table 6-1. Required Software Configuration for Dedicated Hardware Platform Hardware Dedicated Platform Customizing File const_cust_evmm.

  • Page 120

    ...\bldc_zerocros08MR32\sources\code_asm.asm, program assembler functions ...\bldc_zerocros08MR32\sources\code_asm.h, program assembler functions header ...\bldc_zerocros08MR32\prms\default.prm, linker command file ...\bldc_zerocros08MR32\pc_master\BLDC.pmp, PC master software project file ...\bldc_zerocros08MR32\pc_master\source, directory with PC master software control page files User Guide Go to: www.freescale.com DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 121

    Run/Start command. For more help with these commands, refer to the CodeWarrior tutorial documentation located in the CodeWarrior installation directory. DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, Application Hardware and Software Configuration Figure 6-5. This will build and link the Figure 6-5.

  • Page 122

    The software must be built (see Build) to generate by linker the bldc_zerocros08mr32_MMDS.sx file (last update) This S-record file can be used for programming of MC68HC908MR32 MCU devices. An external programmer (e.g., Motorola M68HC08 serial programmer) must be used to program the device! The programmed MCU, with MC68HC908MR32 daughter board module, can then be plugged into the controller board (ECCTRMR32) instead of the emulator cable.

  • Page 123

    After you start the PC master software, press “control page” to make the control window visible! Control Window. DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, Application Hardware and Software Configuration When motor spinning is enabled and starts spinning (alignment or starting/back-EMF acquisition state), only the yellow LED lights.

  • Page 124

    Figure 6-6. PC Master Software Control Window The following control actions are supported: • Designer Reference Manual For More Information On This Product, Setting PC master software/manual control mode (PC Master Mode Radio button) User Guide Go to: www.freescale.com DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 125

    It is strongly recommended that you inspect the entire application to locate the source of fault before starting it again. DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, Application Hardware and Software Configuration Start the motor (Start Motor button)

  • Page 126: Tuning For Customer Motor

    – 6.5.5 Software Customizing to Motor — Commutation and Start-up Control Setting – 6.5.6 Software Customizing to Motor — Speed Control Setting. User Guide Go to: www.freescale.com 6.2 Application must be made according to Stage. DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 127

    (see Figure 6-9.) as described in the section application suitability. DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, 6.5.7 PWM Frequency and Current Sampling Period 6.2.4 Motor Suitability. Then, again check the User Guide Go to: www.freescale.com...

  • Page 128

    Speed Control Settings User Guide Go to: www.freescale.com Modified H/W INCLUDE APPROPRIATE: — CONST_CUST_X.H — INTO CODE_FUN.C FILE — SET DUTY_PWM_MAX — SET VOLT_HW_MAX — SET VOLT_MAX_FAULT_V — SET CURR_HW_MAX_A — SET CURR_HW_MIN_A — SET CURR_MAX_FAULT_A DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 129

    The remote application control uses the same control page as described PC Master Software (Remote) Operating tuning file incorporates subprojects for a dedicated system variables DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, PWM Frequency and Current Sampling Period Setting — SET PWM FREQUENCY SET_PER_PWM —...

  • Page 130

    Start the PC master software parameters tuning application: Designer Reference Manual For More Information On This Product, click here for Start click here for Speed Parameters Tuning Parameters Tuning modify variables here User Guide Go to: www.freescale.com DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 131

    The variables can be modified according to their defined limits. Figure 6-11. PC Master Software Parameters Tuning Control Window DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, Figure 6-10). Then you can press “control page” to make the Figure 6-11).

  • Page 132

    Most of the software parameter settings are provided in one of these files: const_cust_hv.h, const_cust_evmm.h or const_cust_lv.h. The required steps are marked: Designer Reference Manual For More Information On This Product, Current/voltage parameters Dynamic parameters User Guide Go to: www.freescale.com DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 133

    Let’s follow the next sections, or the labels in the source code to customize the software. DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, Label for changes which must be set (changed) when adapting software for a motor Label for changes which must be set (changed) when adapting software for a motor —...

  • Page 134

    6.5.3.2 Maximal PWM Duty Cycle Maximal PWM duty cycle [-]: Designer Reference Manual For More Information On This Product, Software Setup) one of the following files is Hardware. User Guide Go to: www.freescale.com Table 6-1) must be DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 135

    Voltage Limits Setting 6.5.3.4 Current Setting Hardware Customizing Maximal measurable current determined by hardware current sensing [A]: Range: <0,infinity) DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, /* MUST_IF_HW_CHANGE_1: */ #define DUTY_PWM_MAX 0.96 /* MUST_IF_HW_CHANGE_2: */ define VOLT_HW_MAX 407.0...

  • Page 136

    #define VOLT_HW_MAX 55.0 or application requirements, but VOLT_MAX_FAULT_V > 42V #define VOLT_MAX_FAULT_V 63.0 unchanged #define CURR_HW_MAX_A 2.93 #define CURR_HW_MIN_A (-2.93) according to motor or application requirements: #define CURR_MAX_FAULT_A 45.0 User Guide Go to: www.freescale.com Maximal DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 137

    MUST_IF_HW_CHANGE_3. It should be changed when there are problems with over-voltage. Minimal limit of dc-bus voltage [V]: Range: <0,VOLT_RANGE_MAX> DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, Software Customizing to Motor — Voltage and Settings. /* CAN_CHANGE_1: */ #define VOLT_MAX_FAULT_V 380.0...

  • Page 138

    /* CAN_CHANGE_10: */ #define VOLT_120_THRESHOLD_V 150 /* CAN_CHANGE_4: */ #define OFFSET_MAX_CURR_V (1.65+0.225) OFFSET_MAX_CURR_V = Default h/w offset + minimal allowed offset error /* CAN_CHANGE_3: */ #define CURR_MAX_FAULT_A 1.5 User Guide Go to: www.freescale.com (EQ 6-3.) DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 139

    It might also be necessary to set the current PI regulator constants: Range: <0,8> Range: <0,255> where the current regulator proportional gain is: KP = CUR_PIREG_P_GAIN*2 DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, /* CAN_CHANGE_5: */ #define I_CNTR_OVC 0x04 /* MUST_CHANGE_1_EXPER: */ #define CURR_ALIGN_A 0.55...

  • Page 140

    Evaluation Board) Parameters Tuning with PC Master Software Project order to be able to modify the current regulator User Guide Go to: www.freescale.com (EQ 6-5.) PWM Frequency and Current Execution, Build, Execute Software File) in DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 141

    Figure 6-12. PC Master Software Current Parameters Tuning Window 8. Increase, step by step, the proportional gain DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, on the Current Parameters Tuning\New Scope, or measure the powered motor coil current on real oscilloscope...

  • Page 142

    Current Parameters Tuning\New Scope, or measure the powered motor coil current on real oscilloscope Application Control PC Master Software (Remote) Operating Mode) User Guide Go to: www.freescale.com Execution, Build) Execute from Software File) in DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 143

    CAN_CHANGE_nn, CAN_CHANGE_EXPER_nn in file const_cust_x.h NOTE: Thanks to the Motorola patented start-up technique, the start parameters setting is quite simple and reliable. However, in order to reliably start the motor, the commutation control constants must be properly set.

  • Page 144

    ZC-Cmt angle = 15° for COEF_HLFCMT = 0.25 ZC-Cmt angle = 22.5° for COEF_HLFCMT = 0.375 ZC-Cmt angle = 30° for COEF_HLFCMT = 0.5 User Guide Go to: www.freescale.com 3.3 Used Control Technique. (EQ 6-6.) DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 145

    PER_CMT_START_US period must be changed for any motor accommodation. It can be set experimentally. If the motor displays errors during Starting (Back-EMF Acquisition) state, beginning DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, Advance_angle 30 Deg ZC-Cmt angle Advance_angle –...

  • Page 146

    #define PER_CMT_MAX_US 65536.0 /* CAN_CHANGE_7_EXPER: */ #define START_INCR_OOUTREG 20.0 User Guide Go to: www.freescale.com Table 6-2 shows typical setting First-to-Seco Second-to-Thi Commutation Commutation Step Period Step Period 8 ms 8–16 ms 2 ms 2–4 ms DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 147

    5. Set #define START_INCR_OOUTREG 20.0 in const_cust_x.h 6. In order to disable speed regulator, temporarily change the 7. #define SPEED_PIREG_P_GAIN 0 /* 64 */ DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, /* CAN_CHANGE_8_EXPER: */ #define I_CNTR_FOK 0x03 (Alignment Current and Current Regulator Setting)6.5.4.3...

  • Page 148

    Start Parameters Tuning\New Scope, or measure the phase a, b, and c voltages on a real oscilloscope User Guide Go to: www.freescale.com Execution, Build, and Software File) in DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 149

    13. Set PC master software control mode (see 14. Start motor (see 15. If the software signalizes errors (usually commutation error), clear 16. Repeat step DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, click here to display control page click here to display...

  • Page 150

    PER_CMT_START_US, START_INCR_OOUTREG, evaluated with PC master software. parameters to: #define SPEED_PIREG_I_GAIN 0 Software Execution /* MUST_CHANGE_9: */ #define COMMUT_REV 18.0 User Guide Go to: www.freescale.com and Build) DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 151

    Minimal speed of the drive [rpm]: Range: <0,SPEED_RANGE_MAX_RPM> DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, 6*motor poles COMMUT_REV - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - /* MUST_CHANGE_10: */ #define SPEED_RANGE_MAX_RPM 3000.0...

  • Page 152

    #define DUTY_PWM_MIN 0.250 /* MUST_CHANGE_13_EXPER: */ #define SPEED_PIREG_P_GAINSCALELEFT 0 /* MUST_CHANGE_14_EXPER: */ #define SPEED_PIREG_P_GAIN SPEED_PIREG_P_GAINSCALELEFT SPEED_PIREG_P_GAIN*2 /* MUST_CHANGE_15_EXPER: */ #define SPEED_PIREG_I_GAINSCALERIGHT 0 /* MUST_CHANGE_16_EXPER: */ #define SPEED_PIREG_I_GAIN User Guide Go to: www.freescale.com (EQ 6-11.) (EQ 6-12.) DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 153

    1. Ensure that the start-up and commutation parameters were set 2. Set const_cust_x.h: 3. Ensure that COMMUT_REV, SPEED_RANGE_MAX_RPM, 4. Set SPEED_MIN_RPM as required (should be DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, where the current regulator integral gain is: – SPEED_PIREG_I_GAINSCALERIGHT...

  • Page 154

    Parameters Tuning with PC Master Software Project order to be able to modify the current regulator Parameters Tuning\New Scope, or measure the phase voltage period on real oscilloscope User Guide Go to: www.freescale.com Execution, Build, and Software File) in DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 155

    19. If the displayed real speed is not able to go down to the desired 20. Then, you can tune dynamic characteristics of speed regulators 21. Start motor (see DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, Application Control PC Master Software (Remote)

  • Page 156

    For More Information On This Product, as in steps until regulation is improved the final variable values evaluated with PC master software Software Execution /* CAN_CHANGE_FPWM_1: */ #define SET_PER_PWM User Guide Go to: www.freescale.com and Build) Setting. 32.0 DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 157

    2. Motors with externally low electrical constant If the motor electrical constant is lower than default current sampling period of 128 s, the current regulator may not work properly. DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, PWMfrequency ------------------------------------------------ - 2SET_PER_PWM Table 6-3.

  • Page 158

    PWM period*SET_PER_CS /* CAN_CHANGE_PERCURSAMP_n: */ #define PER_PWM_CS_US < PER_PWM_CS_US Tuning for Customer Motor Application Suitability User Guide Go to: www.freescale.com (EQ 6-16.) PERIOD_PWM_US < --------------------------------------------------- - (EQ 6-17.) are done, the software Guide, since the DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 159

    Some important recommendations can also be found under the Caution and Note labels in this designer reference manual. DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, User Guide Go to: www.freescale.com...

  • Page 160

    Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. User Guide Designer Reference Manual DRM028 — Rev 0 User Guide MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, Go to: www.freescale.com...

  • Page 161: Appendix A. References

    6. Motorola Embedded Motion Control Evaluation Motor Board 7. Motorola Embedded Motion Control 3-Phase BLDC Low-Voltage 8. User’s Manual for PC Master Software, Motorola 2000, found on 9. 68HC908MR32, 68HC908MR16 Advance Information (document 10. Low Cost High Efficiency Sensorless Drive for Brushless DC DRM028 —...

  • Page 162

    Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. References Designer Reference Manual For More Information On This Product, Motor using MC68HC(7)05MC4 (document order number AN1627), Motorola References Go to: www.freescale.com DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA...

  • Page 163: Appendix B. Glossary

    Duty cycle is usually represented by a percentage. ECLOVACBLDC — 3-ph AC/BLDC Low Voltage Power Stage ECMTRLOVBLDC — 3-ph BLDC Low Voltage Motor-Brake SM40N + SG40N DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, Appendix B. Glossary Glossary Go to: www.freescale.com...

  • Page 164

    1 — A voltage level approximately equal to the input power voltage logic 0 — A voltage level approximately equal to the ground voltage M68HC8 — A Motorola family of 8-bit MCUs. MC — Motor Control MCU — Microcontroller Unit. A complete computer system, including a CPU, memory, a clock oscillator, and input/output (I/O) on a single integrated circuit.

  • Page 165

    SPI — See "serial peripheral interface module (SPI)." SR — switched reluctance motor. timer — A module used to relate events in a system to a point in time. DRM028 — Rev 0 MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, Glossary Go to: www.freescale.com...

  • Page 166: Motorola For More Information On This Product

    Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. Glossary Designer Reference Manual DRM028 — Rev 0 Glossary MOTOROLA For More Information On This Product, Go to: www.freescale.com...

  • Page 167

    Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. For More Information On This Product, Go to: www.freescale.com...

  • Page 168

    All operating parameters, including “Typicals” must be validated for each customer application by customer’s technical experts. Motorola does not convey any license under its patent rights nor the rights of others. Motorola products are not designed, intended, or authorized for use as...

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