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Tamping; Volume; Extraction Rate; The Golden Crema - KitchenAid Artisan 5KES100 User Instructions

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Tamping compresses the coffee into a level disc that provides
uniform resistance to the high-pressure brew water. Properly
leveled and tamped coffee will produce an even extraction of
coffee compounds – and great espresso. Coffee that is tamped
too softly will be deformed by the brew water, resulting in
uneven extraction, a fast brewing time, and mediocre espresso.
Coffee tamped too firmly will slow the brewing time, making
for a bitter, overextracted beverage.
Proper Tamping Technique
1. The tamper handle should be grasped like a doorknob, with
the base of the handle firmly against the palm. When
tamping, try to keep the tamper, wrist, and elbow in a
straight line.
2. With the bottom of the filter holder resting on a solid
surface, gently press the tamper into the coffee with the
goal of creating a level surface. Remove the tamper from the
filter basket with a slight twisting motion – this will help
prevent the tamper from pulling up chunks of coffee.
3. After removing the tamper, some grinds may stick to the side
of the filter basket. Tap the filter holder gently on the table to
jostle the grinds onto the tamped coffee disc. Do not tap too
hard, or the tamped coffee will dislodge or fracture.
4. Apply a second, finishing tamp (also called a
polishing tamp).
Press straight down on the coffee with about 15 kilograms
of pressure, then relax the force slightly (to about 9
kilograms) and polish the coffee by turning the tamper
completely around twice.
5. Inspect your tamp. The coffee disc should be smooth and
level with no gaps between the side of the filter basket and
the coffee.
Espresso Brewing technique
Measuring Tamping Pressure
9 kilograms, 15 kilograms – how do you know how much
tamping force you are actually using? Do what the baristas do:
use a bathroom scale! Place a scale on a table or countertop,
and tamp your coffee on top of it. Pretty soon, you will
develop a feel for how much 9 or 15 kilograms of force is.


The brew group and boilers are heated. The fresh coffee has
been ground, dosed into the filter holder, expertly leveled, and
precisely tamped. Now comes the moment of truth: brewing!
For the best espresso, never extract more than one cup (30
ml) using the small filter basket or two cups (60 ml) using the
large one. Brewing more will overextract the coffee and result in
thin, bitter espresso.
As it pours, perfect espresso is a deep reddish brown with a
thick texture like honey running off a spoon. It often forms
what are called mouse-tails, or thin syrupy streams. As
increasingly bitter and acidic compounds are extracted, the
espresso pour will begin to lighten; in some cases, the pour will
become almost white. Expert baristas will watch the pour
carefully and quickly stop brewing if it starts to lighten.
Espresso Ristretto is espresso brewed with less than normal
volume. Prepare the espresso machine to brew two cups, but
stop brewing when only 45 ml have been extracted. What
you've done is restrict the pour to include only the most
flavorful and least bitter coffee oils and essences.

Extraction rate

Decades of experience have shown that the best espresso –
whether a single or a double cup – takes about 20–25 seconds
to brew.
If your espresso is brewing much faster or slower than 20–25
seconds, and your tamping technique is good, adjust the grind!
Grind finer for a slower extraction rate, and coarser for a faster
one. Keep the dose and tamp the same.
Coffee is sensitive to the ambient humidity and will absorb
moisture readily. This will affect the extraction rate. In a humid
environment, the extraction rate will slow down; in dry
conditions, the extraction rate will speed up. You may find
yourself adjusting the grind according to the season – or the
day's weather.
Some grinders do not allow the fine adjustments necessary
to correct the extraction rate. The best solution is to invest in
the KitchenAid™ Artisan™ Burr Grinder. If this isn't possible,
experiment with the tamping pressure. Tamp with less force for
a faster pour, and more force for a slower one.

the Golden crema

A mark of fine espresso is crema, the dense golden foam of
emulsified coffee oils that captures the essence of coffee flavor.
Good crema should be thick and cling to the side of the cup
when it's tilted; the best crema should be able to support a
sprinkling of sugar for nearly 30 seconds.


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