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If the interference stops, it is caused by either the peripheral device or its I/O cable. These devices usually require shielded I/O cables. For Epson peripheral devices, you can obtain the proper shielded cable from dealer.
As a supplement to MS-DOS, Epson has included several time- saving utilities that make MS-DOS easier to use: HELP, MENU, and XTREE? The HELP program lets you display information on the screen about any MS-DOS command.
Computer. For example, you can add an internal modem card to provide data communications. If you use software that executes lengthy mathematical calculations, you may want to install an 80287 math coprocessor to speed up processing. How to Use This Manual This manual explains how to set up and care for your computer.
If you cannot obtain the necessary part or parts, call your Epson Customer Care Center for assistance. Please have the computer’s serial number ready when you call.
You’ll find warranty and registration cards with the computer. Fill out the registration card and mail it to Epson. With this card on file, Epson can send you update information. You also should retain the computer’s receipt from the place of purchase.
Removing the Diskette Drive Protector Card A protective piece of cardboard occupies the slot of the diskette drive in your computer. This card is inserted at the factory to protect the read/write heads in the drive. Be sure to remove the card from the diskette drive before you turn on the computer.
Choosing a Location Before you set up your computer, it is important to choose the right location. Select a spot that provides the following: A large, sturdy desk or table that can easily support the weight of your system, including all of its components. Make sure the surface is hard and flat.
Cl No electromagnetic interference. Locate your system away from any electrical device, such as a telephone, that generates an electromagnetic field. Connecting a Monitor Your computer comes with an MGA (multi-graphics adapter) card installed. This card controls the monitor and provides the connection needed to attach the monitor to the computer.
Connect the monitor cable to the video card connector on the back of the computer, as shown below. If the plug has retaining screws, tighten them securely. If necessary, plug the monitor’s power cord into the monitor’s power inlet. (The power cord on Apex monitors is already attached.) Plug the other end of the monitor’s power cord into an electrical outlet.
Note Many color monitors display in only one color (such as green or amber), but are not monochrome monitors. If your monitor is not specifically a monochrome monitor, you should set the color/mono switch to color. Check the documentation that came with your monitor to verify the type of monitor.
Using the Parallel Interface The parallel interface on your computer is Centronics compatible and uses a 25-pin connector. To connect a parallel printer to your computer, you need an IBM-compatible printer cable. If you are not sure which one you need, or whether you have the right one, check with the store where you purchased the printer.
Connect the other end of the cable to the printer, as shown below. If the printer has retaining clips on each side of the printer port, squeeze the clips together to secure the cable. Plug the printer’s power cord into an electrical outlet. Using the Serial Interface If you have a serial printer, modem, mouse, or any other peripheral with a serial interface, you can connect it to the...
To connect a serial device, follow the same steps outlined above for a parallel device, but connect the cable to the serial port, shown below. Setting up the serial port for a printer If you are using a serial printer but your software does not support a serial printer, you must do two things before you can print: Set up the data transmission parameters for the serial port...
Connecting the Power Cord Follow these steps to connect the power cord: Insert the power cord into the AC inlet on the computer’s back panel, as shown below. To avoid an electric shock, be sure to plug the cord into the computer before plugging it into the wall socket.
Connecting the Keyboard Follow these steps to connect the keyboard: Facing the front of the computer, open the cover on the lower left comer. Push the top of the cover inward and then release it. Plug the keyboard cable into the socket, as shown in the following illustration.
Push the cable into the notch at the left side of the computer, as shown below, so the cable leads away to the left side of the computer. 4. Close the keyboard cable cover, Setting Up Your System 1-13...
Adjusting the Keyboard Angle You can change the angle of the keyboard by adjusting the legs on the bottom. Turn the keyboard over and lift each leg upward until it locks into place, as shown below. You can lock the legs into a low or high position, or leave them flat. Setting the Front Monitor Switch Set the monitor switch on the front panel of the computer to match the type of monitor you are using.
Move the switch to the right to select color and to the left to select monochrome. If you have an EGA or VGA monitor, set the switch to color. Turning On the Computer Before you turn on your computer, read the following safety rules to avoid accidentally damaging the computer or injuring yourself: Never turn the computer on with a protector card in the...
If there is a hardware problem you cannot solve after reading the appropriate section in Chapter 6, contact your Epson Customer Care Center. Always turn off the power, disconnect all cables, and wait five seconds before you remove the computer’s cover.
After the self test is complete, you see a message on the screen similar to this: RAM Testing . . . 256KB The computer continually updates this display as it tests its memory. This test takes about 15 seconds to complete. You may see a message like this: System Options not set 1 6 2 -...
The Command Prompt After the computer has loaded MS-DOS from the hard disk, you see the MS-DOS command prompt on the screen: C : \ > The command prompt tells you that your computer is ready to receive instructions. It also identifies the current operating drive: A or C, for example.
Note If you do not have any 360KB diskettes, you can use unformatted 1.2MB, high-density diskettes. When copying from 360KB diskettes, the DISKCOPY program fomats the 1.2MB high-density diskettes for 360KB. Follow these steps: The C : \> prompt should be on the screen. If not, type C : and press Enter.
When the diskette is in all the way, turn the latch down (clockwise) to lock the diskette in place. Press any key. The DISKCOPY program copies the contents of the Startup diskette to the computer’s memory, and then you see the following: Insert TARGET diskette in drive A: Press any key when ready .
After you have copied the four diskettes, be sure to label them carefully so you know which one is which. Write on the labels before you attach them to the diskettes in order to prevent damaging the diskettes. Store the originals in a safe place and use the copies as they are needed.
Chapter 2 Running the Setup Program The first time you use your computer after setting it up, you need to run the Setup program on the Reference diskette. The Setup program lets you update the following for your computer: The amount of memory installed The type of video display adapter installed The math coprocessor status The number and type of disk drives (“mass storage”)
3. Type and press SET UP main Setup menu with these options: Exit Memory Display Coprocessor Mass storage Real-timeclock You use to move the cursor block (the highlighted bar) through the options on this menu. Once you highlight the option you want, press If you do not want to make any changes, or when you have finished making changes, select the “Leaving the Setup Program”...
Follow the instructions below to verify or change the values for the Setup options. Changing the Amount of Memory Your computer has two types of memory: main memory and extended memory. The main memory in your computer is set at 640KB, which is the maximum value and is recommended for most applications.
To change the Main memory setting press value changes to 256KB. Press 512KB. If you press 640KB. To change the Expansion memory setting, highlight the Expansion memory in 64KB increments by using the + and -keys. For example, to increase the expansion memory from 0KB to 256KB, press + four times.
To change the display type, follow these steps: 1. Highlight Display appears to show the current setting. If you have an 80-column, color monitor installed, you see: Color/graph. ** SAVE SETTINGS ** To change the monitor type, press appears, listing the various options: * Special options * Color/graph.
If you have any other combination of monitor and video card, consult the documentation supplied with your video card. Highlight the appropriate option and press 4. Highlight to save the setting. Enter Adding an 80287 Coprocessor Use the Coprocessor numeric coprocessor to your system. If you later remove the coprocessor, use this option to delete it from the list of equipment that the computer maintains;...
Changing the Disk Drive Settings Use the Mass storage install an additional diskette drive or hard disk drive, or if you remove an existing drive. Follow these steps: Highlight Mass storage menu like this: Drive A: Drive B: Drive C: Drive D: ** SAVE SETTINGS ** 2.
Use this same procedure if you need to change the setting for a second hard disk drive installed in your computer (drive D). When all the disk drive settings are correct, highlight ** SAVE SETTINGS Setting the Real-time Clock The real-time clock in your computer keeps track of the time and date at all times-even when the computer Use the Real-time clock...
3. Using a 24-hour time period, enter the time in the exact format shown in the box. Use two digits for each part (you can omit the seconds, if desired); the Setup program automatically inserts the colons (:). For example, to change the time to 1:30 p.m., you would type the following: 1 3 3 0 If you enter an invalid time-for example, a number...
The time and date are set automatically as soon as you press after typing the time and date; you do not need to save Enter these settings. Therefore, if you change either setting in the Setup program and then exit the program without saving your changes, the new time or date still takes effect.
If you did not make any changes or you want to cancel the changes you made, highlight and press The command prompt appears on the screen. Enter. (If you turned on or reset the computer with the Reference diskette in the drive, the Operation menu appears on the screen.
Chapter 3 Using Your Computer This chapter covers the following basic procedures for using your computer: Changing the operating speed Using special keys on the keyboard Stopping a command or program Resetting and turning off the computer Using disks and disk drives. Changing the Operating Speed Your computer can operate at two speeds: 8 MHz or 12 MHz.
WARNING You can change the speed while the computer is on, but do not change it while you are running a program. Complete your current operation, exit the program to the MS-DOS command prompt, and then change the speed. Special Keys on the Apex Keyboard Certain keys on your keyboard serve special functions when your computer is running application programs.
Purpose Works with other keys to enter alternate character codes or functions. Backspace Moves the cursor back one space, deleting the character to the left of the cursor. Ends a line of keyboard input or executes a Enter command (may be called the Return key in some application program manuals).
Num Lock, toggles; press the key once to turn on a function and again to turn it off. When the function is enabled, the corresponding light on the top right comer of the keyboard is on. When the function is disabled, the light is off. Stopping a Command or Program You may sometimes need to stop a command or program while it is running.
Resetting the Computer Occasionally, you may want to stop what the computer is doing entirely and reload MS-DOS. This is called resetting the computer. You may need to do this if an error occurs and the computer does not respond to anything you type on the keyboard.
Turning Off the Computer Before turning off your computer, be sure to save your data and exit the program you are using. Then remove any diskettes from the diskette drive. Turn off the computer first and then turn off the monitor and any peripherals. Using Disks and Disk Drives The disk drives in your computer allow you to store data on disk and retrieve it when you want it.
Unlike a diskette, a hard disk is rigid and fixed in place. It is sealed in a protective case to keep it free from dust and dirt. A hard disk stores data the same way that a diskette does, but it works faster and has a much larger storage capacity.
Your computer uses the read/write heads in a disk drive to store and retrieve data on a disk. There is one head above the diskette and one below, so the drive can write to both sides of the diskette. To write to a disk, the computer spins it in the drive to a position where one of the read/write heads can access the diskette through the read/write slot.
720KB drive-With this drive, use 3½-inch, double-sided, double-density, 135 TPI, 720KB diskettes. These diskettes contain 80 tracks per side, 9 sectors per track, and hold up to 720KB of information-approximately 300 pages of text. 1.44MB drive-With this drive, use 3½-inch, double- sided, high-density, 135 TPI, 1.44MB diskettes.
WARNING If you write to a 360KB (or 160KB, 180KB, or 320KB) diskette while it is in a 1.2MB drive, you may not be able to read it or write it in a 360KB drive later. 3½-inch drive/diskette compatibility Diskette types it can read from and write to Drive type 720KB 720KB...
Never wipe, brush, or try to clean diskettes in any way. Keep diskettes in a moderate environment. They work best at normal room temperature and in normal humidity. Do not leave your diskettes sitting in the sun, or in extreme cold or heat.
Follow these additional precautions to protect your hard disk drive and its data: Never turn off the computer when the hard disk drive light is on. This light indicates that the computer is copying data to or from the hard disk. If you interrupt this process, you can lose data.
Slide the diskette into the slot until it is in all the way. Then turn the drive latch down to lock it in a vertical position. This keeps the diskette in place and enables the read/write heads in the diskette drive to access the diskette, If a diskette is in the drive but the latch is up (horizontal) and you enter a command for that drive, the computer cannot tell there is a diskette in the drive and displays an error message...
To remove a 3½-inch diskette, press the release it. When the edge pops out of the drive, pull out the diskette and store it properly. WARNING Never remove a diskette or turn off the computer while the drive indicator light is on. You could lose data. Also, be sure to remove all diskettes before you turn off the computer.
Note Some program diskettes, such as your MS-DOS diskettes, have no notch so they are permanently write-protected. This protects them from being accidentally erased or altered. On a 3½-inch diskette, the write-protect device is a small switch on the lower-right comer on the back, shown below. To write-protect a 3½-inch diskette, slide the switch toward the edge of the diskette until it clicks into position, exposing a hole in the corner.
Chapter 1 describes how to use DISKCOPY to copy your MS-DOS and Reference diskettes. To make backups of other diskettes, use the DISKCOPY command or the MENU program. See Chapter 4 for more instructions on using DISKCOPY and MENU. It is best to put most of the programs and data files you use regularly on the hard disk.
Note If you only have one diskette drive and no hard disk, you need to use that drive to load the operating system as well as the application programs you are using. First load the operating system; this copies it into the computer’s memory (RAM) so you do not need to leave the diskette in the drive.
Epson also includes the XTREE utility with MS-DOS. XTREE provides simple menus that allow you to move, create, delete, and rename files and directories. These capabilities are especially useful on the hard disk drive. See Chapter 4 for an introduction to XTREE or see your MS-DOS Reference Manual for complete instructions.
To secure the read/write heads for moving, run the HDSIT program. Follow these steps to run HDSIT: Exit any program you are using so the MS-DOS command prompt is on the screen, Insert the Reference diskette in drive A. Type the following and press A:HDSIT You see a message on the screen that tells you the disk drive’s read/write heads will remain locked until you reset the...
This chapter covers the following topics: Starting and exiting MS-DOS Using drive designators Types of MS-DOS commands Entering an MS-DOS command Creating and managing files Using directories Formatting diskettes Backing up data Using special Epson utilities Using an AUTOEXEC.BAT file. Using MS-DOS With Your Computer...
Starting and Exiting MS-DOS Before you can run an MS-DOS application program, MS-DOS must be running in memory. When you turn on your computer, it loads MS-DOS from the hard disk automatically. The screen then displays the MS-DOS command prompt, loaded and identifies the current drive.
Next the screen displays the time prompt, like this: Current time is Enter new time: You may enter the correct time in the format shown (such : 30 : 00), or you may accept the time shown by pressing Enter. MS-DOS command prompt: A>...
The Default Drive At any given time, MS-DOS considers one disk drive to be the default drive. The default drive is the one on which MS-DOS executes your next command, unless you tell it to do otherwise. For example, if the default drive is C, and you issue the DIR (directory) command, MS-DOS lists the files stored on drive C.
Specifying the Drive Designator If you want to access a program or file on another drive without first changing the default drive, type the drive designator along with the filename. For example, if you are logged onto drive A and want to use a file named PROGRAM on drive C, you would type the following and then press C:PROGRAM MS-DOS loads and executes the file named PROGRAM from...
For example, if you have two diskette drives, and are logged onto drive A, you could format a diskette in drive B with the command: FORMAT B: In this case, MS-DOS looks on drive A, the default drive, for the file named FORMAT.COM. If the diskette in that drive contains the file FORMAT.COM (as does the Startup diskette), MS-DOS finds it there.
FORMAT is the command name to execute the file FORMAT.COM. The A: is a parameter that tells the command what to format-in this case, the diskette in drive A. The space between FORMAT and A: is the delimiter that lets MS-DOS distinguish the command name (FORMAT) from the parameter (A:).
If you press Enter screen displays an error message. Usually, the command prompt reappears so you can try again. Type the correct command and press Enter. Creating and Managing Files All your data and programs are stored in files on disk. A data file contains information, such as words, numbers, or pictures.
The extension is optional and can be up to three characters long. You can use the extension to further identify a file or to describe what type of file it is, such as a text file or program file. When you use an extension, separate it from the filename with a period.
You can use the COPY command to copy files in several ways: You can copy individual files from one disk to another You can copy a group of files at once using wildcard characters You can copy one or more files and give them new names You can combine or merge files into one file.
Now you have two files on the default drive that have the same contents but different names. In this example, you can omit the drive designators because the original file and the copy are both on the default drive. Using wildcards An easy way to copy a group of files is by using wildcard characters in the filenames.
Remember these rules when copying files: You must tell MS-DOS where to find the original file and where to store the copy; that is, you need to specify the drive (and directory, if necessary) for both. You cannot create a new file with the same name and in the same directory as an existing file.
You can shorten the RENAME command to REN. To change the name of a file from HAMMERS to WRENCHES, therefore, you can type the following and press REN HAMMERS WRENCHES You can use wildcards to rename groups of files. For example, to change just the extensions of all files on drive A with the extension .NEW to .OLD, type the following and press REN A:*.NEW *.OLD...
You can use wildcards to delete groups of files. For example, to delete all files on the diskette in drive A (in the current directory), type the following and press DEL A:*.* Because deleting all files is a serious procedure, MS-DOS prompts you to confirm the command when you use the * .
Type the name of the device, such as PRN, and press MS-DOS prints the file on your printer. Enter. See your MS-DOS Reference Manual for more information on the PRINT command. Using Directories You can create many files on a diskette, and a hard disk can store thousands of files.
As the number of files in your WORDPROC and SPDSHEET directories grows, you can create additional directories subordinate to those two-like this, for example: Root directory WORDPROC BUSINESS PERSONAL This structure would let you segregate your business word processing files from your personal word processing files and your sales spreadsheets from spreadsheet files used for financial projections.
The following sections discuss the basics of creating and using directories. Note The XTREE utility provides a simple your directories. See the description of XTREE later in this chapter. The Default Directory MS-DOS always recognizes one directory as the default or current directory, just as it always recognizes one drive as the default drive.
To change from PERSONAL back to WORDPROC, you can use the special symbol . . (two periods). The . . symbol always designates the parent directory. In other words, you can type: CD . . Using Pathnames A pathname tells MS-DOS h ow to find its way to the directory you want to access.
Thus, if the default directory were WORDPROC (in the above example), the pathname . . \DOS would tell MS-DOS to move up one level from WORDPROC (in this case to the root directory) and then find a subdirectory called DOS. You can use either relative or absolute pathnames at any time, as long as you give MS-DOS enough information to find the directory or file at the end of the pathname.
Note that if you change from one drive to another and then try to access a file on the previous drive, MS-DOS remembers which was the default directory when you were last logged onto that drive. For example, suppose the last time you were logged onto drive C, the default directory was the root directory.
Note MS-DOS provides several commands that pathnames easier: APPEND lets you set a search path for data files and executable files so MS-DOS knows where to find them even if you don’t specify the drive and directory. PATH lets you specify a search path for commands and program files so you don’t have to type a full pathname every time you want to run an application program or an MS-DOS command.
Listing the Contents of a Directory You can use the DIR command to list all the files in a particular directory. For example, to list the files in the current directory, type the following and press MS-DOS lists the names of the files in the current directory on the current drive, in a format like the following example: Directory LETTER.713...
Another way to view a long directory listing is to use the /W switch: DIR /W This displays the directory listing in a wide format, as follows: Directory 5 File(s) 16013560 bytes free As you can see, this type of listing does not show the size of the file or the time and date it was last modified.
The screen displays a report for every directory on the drive, for example: Path: C:\LEDGER Sub-directories:RECEIV If you would also like to see a list of all the files in the directories, add the TREE /F The screen displays the directory information shown above plus the names of all files in each subdirectory, for example: Path: C:LEDGER\SALES Sub-directories:None...
Note Besides the method described below, you can also format diskettes using the Epson MENU utility. This program is easy to use because it lets you select options from a menu. For more information, see the section on MENU later in this chapter or see your MS-DOS Reference Manual.
The following procedure assumes your computer has a hard disk. If it does not, see “Formatting Diskettes With One Diskette Drive (No Hard Disk)” below. type necessary, When you see the press Enter: FORMAT A: You see this prompt: Insert new diskette for drive A: and strike ENTER when ready the diskette you want to format in drive A and press Insert...
Formatting Diskettes With One Diskette Drive (No Hard Disk) If your computer has only one diskette drive and no hard disk, follow this procedure to format a diskette: Insert the working copy of your MS-DOS Startup diskette in drive A. When you see the Enter: FORMAT A:...
Backing Up Data It’s very important to keep backup diskettes containing copies of the files you create. You can copy data and program files several ways: You can use the COPY or XCOPY command to copy individual files or groups of files. You can use the DISKCOPY command to make an exact duplicate of a diskette.
If the diskette you are copying to has not been formatted, DISKCOPY formats it automatically before copying the data. The following procedure for copying diskettes assumes that you have a hard disk. If you do not, see “Using DISKCOPY with one drive only”...
If you are copying a 1.2MB diskette, MS-DOS asks you to insert the source and target diskettes again. Follow the prompts on the screen. When the copy is complete, you see this message: Copy another diskette (Y/N)? Press Y and to return to the MS-DOS command prompt.
Insert the blank diskette (the target) into the drive. Press any key. If the new diskette is not formatted, DISKCOPY formats it and then copies the contents of memory to the diskette. When the copy is complete, you see this message: Copy another diskette (Y/N)? Press Y and to return to the MS-DOS command prompt.
Remove the original diskette from drive A and insert the blank diskette (the target) in the drive. Press any key. If the new diskette is not formatted, DISKCOPY formats it and then copies the contents of memory to the diskette. When the copy is complete, you see this message: Copy another diskette (Y/N)? Press Y and...
1.2MB diskettes to back up a full 40MB hard disk. See your MS-DOS Reference Manual for complete instructions on using BACKUP. Using HELP The Epson HELP program provides online information about MS-DOS commands and programs. You can use HELP in either of two ways: You can type...
To bypass the HELP menu and get information about one command, follow these steps: At the command prompt, type name of the MS-DOS command you want information about, and press Enter. information for the COPY command, type the following and press Enter: HELP COPY If there is more than one page of information about the...
Using MENU Your computer comes with a program provided by Epson called MENU. With this program you can display a menu of commands and select the one you need. MENU is easy to use because it lets you execute MS-DOS commands without having to remember the exact syntax for each command.
For step-by-step instructions on using each MENU option, see your MS-DOS Reference Manual. Using the XTREE Utility Epson has included the XTREE program with MS-DOS to make it easier for you to manage files and run other MS-DOS programs. XTREE is especially useful for managing the data on a hard disk, where you may have hundreds of files.
Make new directories, rename directories, delete empty directories, and change from one directory to another Display data in both ASCII and hexadecimal format Execute programs without leaving the XTREE program Display how much space is available on your disks. Running XTREE To run XTREE, log onto drive C.
This menu provides the following information: Shows the pathname for the current Path: directory. A single backslash identifies the root directory. The directory structure illustrated under the backslash reflects the organization of the directories on the disk. In this case, the DOS directory is the only subdirectory.
Use the cursor keys to move the highlighted bar. To select a file or directory, use the arrow keys to highlight the name of the file or directory. Press from the directory (top) window to the file (bottom) window. Press to expand the file window, and then press it again Enter to return to the directory window.
Cautions With a utility as powerful and as fast as XTREE, you must always be aware of the danger of accidentally erasing important files. Follow these guidelines to protect your files: You can cancel commands, even commands in progress, by pressing F3.
Here are some tasks you can perform using an AUTOEXEC.BAT file: Modify the PATH command to include the directories containing other software programs you commonly use. This reduces the number of times you need to change directories or specify pathnames. Add the appropriate command to start your most commonly used application program (such as a word processor or spreadsheet program) so that it loads...
The first line changes the MS-DOS command prompt so that it displays your current directory. The second line tells MS-DOS to look for programs or batch files in the DOS directory. This way you can run programs in that directory without having to specify pathnames in the commands.
If you need to change anything in the AUTOEXEC.BAT file later, you can use the same procedure to modify the commands. See your MS-DOS Reference Manual for instructions. Using HDCACHE for the Hard Disk You can use the MS-DOS program HDCACHE to enhance the performance of your hard disk.
In addition, one slot is always occupied by the video card that operates your monitor. Option cards are made by Epson as well as other vendors. In addition, multifunction boards allow you to add more than one feature per slot.
If the monitor is on top of the computer, disconnect it and move it to one side. Disconnect the keyboard and any peripherals and set them out of the way too. Turn the computer around so that the back panel faces you. As shown below, the top cover is secured by five screws on the back panel and four screws on the side panels (two on each side).
You can separate the sides of the cover from the bottom ledge of the computer by pulling them outward slightly, as shown below. When the back edge of the cover is a few inches away from the back panel, you can lift the cover off, Set the cover aside carefully.
Inserting the Option Card Most option cards can be placed into any of the option slots. Some cards, however, must be installed in a specific slot. Check the option card manual to see if your option card must go in a specific slot.
You can place some 8-bit cards in a 16-bit slot. But if an 8-bit card has an additional skirt along the bottom (which looks like an extra long connector), it must go into an 8-bit slot. If you are installing a video card, be sure to install it in slot 5. Slot 6 contains the parallel and serial interface and the floppy disk controller.
Note Pay specific attention to warnings in your option card instructions. Some devices have delicate CMOS chips that you should not touch. When you handle the card, be careful not to touch any of the contacts on the circuit board, especially the gold connector pins.
The jumpers on these cards are preset at the factory in default positions. Do not change any of them unless you are sure the option card you are installing requires different settings. If you have any questions, ask your Epson Customer Care Center service representative. Installing Option Cards...
The procedure for changing a jumper setting is given first, then the jumper functions and locations for each card are described separately. All the instructions assume you have already removed the cover from the computer. Changing a Jumper Setting A jumper setting is determined by the jumper’s position: either between pin A and the middle pin (position A) or between pin B and the middle pin (position B).
The table below shows the functions for the jumpers on the memory card. Memory card jumper settings Jumper number Function 640KB * 512KB (disable upper 128KB) 256KB (disable upper 384KB) Select EPROM size 27128* Select EPROM size 27256 Default setting To access the memory card jumpers, you need to remove the card from the computer first: Remove the retaining screw from the bracket on the...
(1, 2, 3, or 4) required by the 16-bit optional devices. Selectable wait states are available only when your computer is running at 12 MHz. Please consult your Epson Customer Care Center for assistance.
Since it is easy to damage a math coprocessor, you should have your Epson Customer Care Center install it for you. In addition to checking the jumper settings, you also need to run the Setup program to change the settings in the CMOS RAM, and y ou may want to test the coprocessor with the System Diagnostics program.
When you finish changing the jumpers, carefully replace the memory card in its slot and secure it with the retaining screw. Multi-function Card Jumpers The jumpers on the multi-function card control the parallel port address and the serial port address. You normally address the parallel and serial ports in the computer as the primary ports (LPT1 and COM1).
Multi-function card jumper settings for Function Jumper number Enable built-in port as primary * Enable built-in port as secondary Enable compatibility with IBM monochrome display/printer adapter Disable built-in port * Default Setting The table below shows the jumpers on the multi-function card that control the serial port.
To access the multi-function card jumpers, you need to remove the card from the computer: Unplug the disk drive cable from the card as shown below. Pull it straight up and out, then lay it to one side. Remove the retaining screw from the multi-function card at the back panel of the computer, as shown below.
Remove the card from the slot (pull it straight up) and set it on a soft surface with the components facing up. The location of the jumpers is shown below. Change them as needed and then reverse the three steps above to reinstall Removing an Option Card If you need to remove an option card, simply reverse the steps you followed to install it.
Replacing the Cover With the option card properly installed or removed, the last step is to replace the cover of the computer: Facing the front of the computer, position the cover on the computer as shown below.
Pull the sides of the cover outward slightly and lower the cover over the computer. Guide the curved edge on the bottom of the cover along the bottom of the computer. Slide the cover straight back until the front panel is flush with the diskette drive.
Post-installation Setup After you install or remove an option card, you may need to run the Setup program to update the configuration information. For example, if you add a second diskette drive, you need to tell the computer that it has the additional drive. See Chapter 2 of this guide for information on the Setup program.
If you still have a problem after trying the recommended solution, consult your Epson Customer Care Center. (For the location of the center nearest you, call the Epson Consumer Information Center number: 1-800-922-8911.) When you contact your Epson Customer Care Center, be ready...
If the electrical outlet is working and all the connections are secure but your computer still won’t start, call your Epson Customer Care Center. Note If the computer starts but you can’t see anything on the monitor, check the section below on Monitor Problems.
If your computer still does not respond, you can reset it. Follow the instructions in Chapter 3 for resetting your computer. If resetting the computer does not solve the problem, turn it off, wait at least five seconds, and turn the computer on again.
Monitor Problems If you are having difficulty with your monitor, check the following: If there is no display on the screen, check that the monitor’s power switch is on and that the power light on the monitor is lit. If the power switch is on but you still do not see anything on the screen, check the monitor’s brightness and contrast controls.
Check, both of which are described in Appendix C of this manual. If the diagnostics program indicates an error, contact the place where you bought the monitor. If you are using an Apex monitor, call your Epson Customer Care Center for assistance. Diskette Problems...
If the problem persists in the new diskette drive, make sure the diskette is the correct type for your drive. See Chapter 3 for more information on appropriate diskette types and storage capacities. If your diskette is the right type for your drive, check whether the diskette is write-protected.
If you are not able to copy all the files from the defective diskette, copy as many as you can and then use the MS-DOS program RECOVER. This program recovers all the data that it can read on the diskette. It is specifically designed to work on disks or diskettes that may be defective.
If you are still having problems with your diskette drive, try running the Floppy Disk Drives and Controller Check described in Appendix C of this manual. If the diagnostics program indicates an error, consult your Epson Customer Care Center. switch in the command like this:...
If the drive is making loud noises, or not functioning at all, do not attempt any further examination of it. Instead, contact your nearest Epson Customer Care Center. If this is the first time you have used the computer after...
Hard Disk Drive and Controller diagnostics check, as described in Appendix C of this manual. If the diagnostics program indicates an error, contact your Epson Customer Care Center. Never open the sealed unit that encloses the hard disk.
If you have been using your hard disk for a long time and begin to see numerous read/write errors, you may need to reformat the hard disk. If you decide to do this, follow these steps: Back up all the data on the disk using the BACKUP command (described in the MS-DOS manual).
Some programs work at only one operating speed. Your computer can run at either 8 MHz or 12 MHz. Check your software manual to see if your application program must run at the slower speed and change the CPU operating speed if necessary.
Check the printer manual for the printer’s correct DIP switch or control panel settings. These settings help a printer communicate properly with the computer. If your printer is properly set up but is still not functioning, test it from the MS-DOS level. When the MS-DOS command prompt (such as screen, press screen on your printer.
Did you run the Setup program to reconfigure your computer? You must run Setup to update the computer’s internal settings if you changed: The amount of memory installed The type of video display adapter installed The presence of a math coprocessor The number or type of disk drives installed.
Appendix A Specifications CPU and Memory 16-bit CPU Main memory Math coprocessor Controllers Diskette Hard disk 80286 microprocessor; 8 or 12 MHz clockrate, switch-selectable Real address (8086-compatible) and protected virtual address (multi-tasking) modes 24-bit address and 16-bit data bus 640KB RAM on memory card; expandable to 15.5MB maximum with expansion cards 32KB, expandable to 64KB, selectable...
Interfaces Serial Printer Option slots Speaker Clock/calendar Power Supply Mass Storage Standard RS-232C, programmable, asynchronous, DB-9P male connector Standard 8-bit parallel, DB-25S female connector Six IBM PC/AT-compatible input/output expansion slots (three 8-bit and three 16-bit): one 8-bit slot occupied by parallel/serial interface and diskette controller card;...
Environmental Requirements Temperature Humidity Physical Characteristics (CPU only) Width Depth Height Weight Power Requirements Video and Display Options Standard Operating range: 41° to 95°F (5° to 35°C) Storage range: -4° to 140°F (-20° to 60°C) Operating range: 20% to 80%, non-condensing Storage range: 10% to 90%, non-condensing...
Check with the store where you purchased your Apex computer for the following options: Monitors ActionPrinters ™ T-1000 Supports Epson- and IBM PC-compatible monochrome monitor: 80-character x 25- line display, 9 x 14 character block; Hercules monochrome text/graphics, ® 720 x 348...
Computer accessories Parallel Port Pin Assignments Pin no. Signal name -STROBE DATA 0 DATA 1 DATA 2 DATA 3 DATA 4 DATA 5 DATA 6 DATA 7 -ACK BUSY SLCT -AUTO FD -ERROR -INIT -SELECTIN 18-25 I = Input O = Output Intelligent serial interface board (8148) Intelligent IEEE-488 interface board (8165)
Serial Port Pin Assignments Pin no. Signal name O = output I = Input Keyboard Connector Pin Assignments Signal name Pin no. KBD CLK KBD DATA - K B D R E S E T O I = Input O = output Description Direction Data carrier detect...
Parallel Port Loop-back Connector Pin Assignments Output signal name Strobe Data bit 0 Auto feed Init. printer Select input Serial Port Loop-back Connector Pin Assignments Output signal name Transmit data Data terminal ready Request to send Pin no. Pin no. Input signal name —...
Appendix B Power-On Diagnostics The built-in memory (ROM) of your computer contains a series of diagnostics programs, which your computer runs automatically every time you turn on the power. These programs check internal devices such as ROM, RAM, the timer, the keyboard controller, and the diskette drive. When you turn on the power, the computer performs the tests described in this appendix.
If the computer finds a fault in the main board, it stops and displays an error message such as this: 10n-System board error where n is a number from 1 to 8 that represents the specific LSI circuit causing the error. Give this error number and message to your Customer Care Center.
RAM Check The computer now begins to check the RAM installed on the main system board and any option cards. During the check, you see this message: nnn KB OK where nnn indicates the amount of memory in which no malfunction is found.
Display Card Check The computer checks the color or monochrome display card that is installed in the system. An error number and message appear if any faults are found in the display adapter card. Number 401 represents an error in the monochrome display card, and 501 represents an error in the color display card.
Hard Disk Controller and Hard Disk Check The computer next checks the hard disk controller and drive unit. If a malfunction is found in the hard disk controller card, you see this error number and message: 1782-Disk controller failure If an error is found in the hard disk drive unit, the screen displays one of these error messages: 178n-Disk n error 179n-Disk n error...
The table at the end of this appendix lists the error messages you may see during testing. If these instructions tell you to contact your Epson Customer Care Center, call 1-800-922-8911 for the location of the nearest Customer Care Center.
To start the system diagnostics program, follow these steps: 1. Insert the Reference diskette in drive A. 2. Turn on or reset the computer. The OPERATION MENU appears. 3. Press 4 reset System diagnostics and then press Enter. When you start the system diagnostics, the computer checks the following: The positions of the internal jumpers Any peripheral devices that are connected to the system.
Once you confirm the DEVICE LIST, you can test only those items. If you decide later that you need to add a device, you must return to the OPERATION MENU and re-select System diagnostics. Modifying the DEVICE LIST If an installed device is missing from the DEVICE LIST, it is important that you add it to the list and test it carefully.
Type the number of the item you wish to add and press Enter. That item then disappears from the Additional DEVICE LIST on the screen. You can add as many devices as necessary. When you finish adding devices, press 0 followed by Enter to return to the Modify DEVICE LIST menu.
Selecting a Test From the DEVICE LIST, select the device you wish to test. Type the number of the device; then press test begins, you are asked how many times to perform the test. You see this menu: Number of times to test device 1 - Run test one time 2 - Run test multiple times 0 - Exit...
Resuming From an Error If an error occurs during a test, the test stops at that point, and an error code and error message appear. If you want to record the problem, you can print out the message on your printer. You see this prompt: Do you want a printout of the error message(s)
The remainder of this appendix describes the tests you on the system’s internal devices and on the optional devices installed on your computer. The program displays the title of each check on the screen. Note For a complete list of the error codes and messages these tests may display, see the table at the end of this chapter.
Memory Check Use this option to check the computer’s built-in memory. The program checks only the amount of memory that you have indicated as present in the Setup program. For this check, the program writes specific data into memory and then reads it back. The data is written and read in blocks of 64KB.
KEYBOARD SELECT MENU - US ASCII 2 - United Kingdom 3 - French 4 - German 5 - Italian 6 - Spanish 0 - Exit Enter selection number: Type the number of your keyboard layout, then press You can exit the keyboard test by pressing 0 and After you select a keyboard layout, the program displays the layout on the screen.
If all the keys function, but the characters displayed do not match the keys, press Y and then Enter. Then re-select the keyboard test from the DEVICE LIST, and check that you selected the correct keyboard layout. You can find diagrams of all the international keyboard layouts in the MS-DOS Reference Manual.
If an error occurs during any of these tests, record the error code and message, or print them out. Then contact your Customer Care Center. When you finish running the monochrome adapter check, press 0 and Enter Monochrome Adapter Check To check the monochrome adapter, press The computer checks the video RAM (display memory) on the display adapter by writing certain data to memory, then reading...
Character Set Check To check your character characters that are included in the internal character generator are displayed. Check the characters displayed on your screen against this illustration: After checking the characters, respond to the prompt: Is the display correct (Y/N)? If the characters displayed match the illustration, press Y and If they do not match the illustration, press Enter.
You can use this display to adjust the size of the display on the screen. The vertical and horizontal adjustments are located on your monitor. Sync Check This test is provided for service purposes only. If you accidentally select this option, press any key to end the test. Run All Above Checks To run all the tests on the menu in sequence, press 6 and When you choose this option, all checks for the...
Attribute Check To check the display attributes of the color graphics adapter card, press 2 and examples of all the possible display attributes and colors. Check the information displayed on your screen, and respond to the prompt: Is the display correct (Y/N)? Press Y and then not correct, adjust the controls on your display monitor.
After checking the characters, respond to the prompt: Is the display correct If the characters displayed match the illustration, press Y and then If they do not match, press Enter. the error message. 40-column Character Set Check To check your 40-column character set, press 4 and then The character fonts that are included in the internal Enter.
320x200 Graphics Mode Check To check your 320x200 graphics mode, press 5 and then The screen displays three colored squares-light green, brown, and red-against a cyan background. These four colors are Color Set 0. If they are correct, press Y and then The same pattern is displayed again;...
If the patterns on your screen are clear and distinct, press Y and then Enter. If any pattern is not displayed clearly, check the adjustment of your monitor and make sure it is connected properly. If a problem still exists, press message.
If all eight pages are correct, press Y and filled with an incorrect number, press N and the error message. Light Pen Check To check the function of a light pen connected to a color graphics adapter card, press 8 and then that a light pen connected to the color graphics adapter is performing accurately.
Color Video Check Option 9, Color video check, displays 16 different screens, each a different color, and a message indicating the color. The screens show the following colors in the order specified below: 1 - Black 2 - Blue - Green 4 - Cyan 5 - Red 6 - Magenta...
Floppy Disk Drives and Controller Check Use this option to test the performance of the diskette drives installed in your computer. This test includes several checks that allow you to identify particular problems related to your diskette drives. Before running these tests, format a diskette to use for the tests that write data on the disk in the drive.
Press and then If any errors occur, record the error code and message and contact your Epson Customer Care Center. Sequential Seek Check This test checks the ability of the read/write heads to locate any part of the diskette. This action by a read/write head is called a seek.
Write, Read Check This test checks the ability of the selected disk drive to read and write data from a diskette. The test writes to and reads from each cylinder on the diskette, starting at the center. Note This test destroys all data on the diskette in the selected drive.
The computer spins the diskette for a few seconds and then displays a message like this: The disk rotation, speed is now The diskette continues to spin and the message listing the rotation speed is updated every few seconds. To stop the test, press any key;...
Re-insert the diskette and secure the lock. If no errors occur, the menu reappears. An error occurs if the drive is malfunctioning, or if you do not remove or replace the diskette within a certain time. Run All Above Checks To run all the tests on the menu in sequence, press 6 and then When you choose this option, all checks for the diskette Enter.
To perform the test, you must insert a special loop-back connector into the parallel port so that the computer can check the individual pins of the port. Contact your Customer Care Center if you need a loop-back connector (or see Appendix A for signal/pin assignments to make your own loop- back connector).
Serial Port (RS-232C) Check Use this option to test the functions of the primary serial communications (RS-232C) port. To perform the test, you must insert a special loop-back connector into the RS-232C port so that the computer can check the individual pins of the port.
The final test is an echo back check during which the port sends data to itself at 9600 baud, using various data formats. At the start of the test, you see these messages: RS232C echo back check - with various data formats Current data format: Current test data is 00...
The bit-image data is sent to the printer using a command (ESC K) compatible with Epson and IBM printers. If this pattern is printed correctly, you can use the MS-DOS GRAPHICS program to print out copies of graphics screens.
Hard Disk Drives and Controller Check Use this option to test the performance of the hard disk drive installed in your computer. If any errors occur, have the drive checked and serviced by your Customer Care Center. When you select option 17 from the DEVICE LIST, you see this menu: HARD DISK DRIVE(S) AND CONTROLLER CHECK MENU 1 - Seek check...
Select option 1 from the menu to start thistest. The program displays the number of each cylinder it finds, counting down from 614 (for a 20MB hard disk) to 0. The seek is performed by the read/write heads simultaneously, so you see the cylinder numbers only once.
2. Re-format the disk using option 2, Format hard disk, on the OPERATION MENU. See Appendix D for instructions. Prepare the hard disk for use with FDISK and SELECT. See Appendix E for instructions. Head Select Check This test checks whether each head of the hard disk can be selected correctly.
Read, Verify Check This test reads and verifies data from all tracks of the disk, checking each cylinder and using both heads. Select option 4 from the menu to start this test. The program displays the number of each cylinder it finds. For example, with a 20MB hard disk, the first message you see is: Current cylinder is The cylinder number counts down to 0.
The first prompt you see is: The data on the highest physical cylinder may be destroyed by this check. Enter Y to start this check. Enter N to return to the menu. Press Y and then Error Codes and Messages This table lists all the error codes and messages that may appear during diagnostics checks.
Error code Message Keyboard 8042 ERROR KEYBOARD ERROR KEYBOARD IS NON-STANDARD OR DEFECTIVE KEYBOARD LOCKING ERROR Monochrome display adapter and CRT V-RAM ERROR VIDEO SIGNAL ERROR ATTRIBUTE ERROR CHARACTER SET ERROR Color graphics adapter and CRT V-RAM ERROR ATTRIBUTE ERROR CHARACTER SET ERROR 40-COLUMN CHARACTER SET ERROR COLOR GRAPHICS ERROR...
Error code Message Parallel port ERROR PIN p Serial port (RS-232C) control signal ALWAYS LOW 1101 1101 control signal ALWAYS HIGH 1102 TIMEOUT ERROR 1103 VERIFY ERROR Alternate serial port control signal ALWAYS LOW 1201 1201 control signal ALWAYS HIGH 1202 TIMEOUT ERROR 1203...
Physically formatting the hard disk erases any data it contains. If you have any data on the disk or you are unsure if formatting is necessary, contact your Epson Customer Care Center first. Someone there can advise you on the best procedure to follow.
new disk or reformatting a used disk, after physically formatting it, you need to run FDISK and SELECT to prepare the hard disk for use. Follow the instructions in Appendix E. Formatting and Checking Options To perform a physical format or to determine if a hard disk needs to be physically reformatted, follow these steps: 1.
Destructive surface analysis tests a formatted hard disk for bad tracks and updates the bad track table. Because this option writes and reads data on the disk, it destroys all data on any track that produces an error. You cannot run the Destructive surface analysis on a disk that has never been formatted.
Formatting a New Disk Many hard disk drives are supplied with a list of bad tracks but without the bad tracks flagged on the disk. Other hard disks are supplied with the bad tracks already flagged. If you are formatting a new hard disk that may not have been formatted, follow these steps: 1.
Note If you have more than one hard disk drive, you see this prompt: Enter drive Press Conditional Format (Normal) Use this option to format the hard disk. All flagged tracks are marked so that they are never used. To start the Conditional format, press program starts to scan the disk to find all tracks flagged as bad, starting from the innermost cylinder of the disk.
The program then displays a warning about the consequences of proceeding with formatting: WARNING! ALL DATA WILL BE DESTROYED IN ALL PARTITIONS OF HARD DISK, NOT JUST IN MS-DOS PARTITION! Do you want to start formatting (Y/N)? If there are no tracks with other errors, and you are absolutely sure that you want to format the hard disk, press Y and The program then asks you once more if you want to continue.
Flagged tracks are identified by xxxx and yy. At this point, press to return to the HARD DISK FORMAT MENU. Enter If there are any tracks with other errors, scanning stops and you see this message: Scanning cancelled. Warning: This drive has an unflagged error(s), or is unformatted.
If you are formatting a disk that has never been formatted, check the list of bad tracks that came with the disk. This list identifies each defect by the head and cylinder number, which are required for the Unconditional format. To start the Unconditional format routine, press 2 and then You are first given the option to change the interleave Enter.
Some of the messages change if the table is full or empty. However, the way that you add a bad track or make a correction is the same. To add a bad track, follow these steps: Press You see this prompt: Enter cylinder number (1 - xxxx): 2.
Destructive Surface Analysis Use this option to accurately locate any bad tracks on a hard disk, and to flag any bad tracks that are not flagged. WARNING If any errors occur during this check, all data on the track that produces the error is destroyed. For this reason, if you think that an unflagged bad track is causing trouble, first run option 4, Non-destructive surface analysis, to check the disk surface.
If the program finds one bad track that is not flagged, the summary would show one track with a write, read error. The report is then followed by a table like this: Cylinder Head Confirm to register the tracks in the Write, Read Error Track Table as bad tracks.
When the analysis is complete, the program displays a summary of the status of the disk. This summary lists the following: Flagged bad tracks Tracks with read, verify errors Good tracks. If no errors occur, you see this message: No read, verify error was detected. If errors are found, the program displays a table of the tracks that gave errors, similar to the one displayed by the destructive analysis.
This type of formatting is usually done by the manufacturer and you should not need to do this yourself. If you are using an Epson drive, it has already been formatted. However, you may need to perform a low-level (also called physical) format if one of the following is true: The hard disk is new and has never been formatted.
See Appendix D for instructions on performing a low-level format. If you need to format the disk, be sure to do it before completing the steps in this appendix. WARNING The procedures described in this appendix destroy any data on the hard disk. If your disk contains data, use the BACKUP command to copy all the data before completing the steps described here.
The instructions in this appendix describe how to: Create a primary partition of 20MB if you have the Apex 200\20, or a primary partition of 32MB if you have the Apex 200\40. Create an extended partition on the Apex 200\40 of 8MB. If you prefer to create a primary and extended partition of different sizes, see the instructions for FDISK in your MS-DOS Reference Manual.
7. Press Y to use the maximum size for MS-DOS and press The screen displays the following message and Enter. prompt: System will now restart Insert DOS diskette in drive A: Press any key when ready ... 8. Press any key to restart the system (the Startup diskette is already in drive A).
Press 2 to select the Create Extended DOS partition option and press The screen displays the following prompt: Enter. Total disk space is 1021 cylinders. Maximum space available for partition is 252 cylinders. Enter partition size ...  Press to accept the partition size. The screen displays Enter the following message: Extended Partition Created...
Press any key to restart the system (the MS-DOS Startup diskette is already in drive A). Your computer reloads MS-DOS, displaying the preliminary copyright information and the date prompt. Press twice to accept the date and time shown. Enter The system now recognizes the MS-DOS partition as drive C and the extended partition as drive D.
Note 001 and US are the country respectively, for the United States. If you want to substitute codes for a different country, see your MS-DOS Reference Manual. The screen displays SELECT is used to install DOS the first time. SELECT erases everything on the specified target and then installs DOS.
The screen first displays disk space information and then displays the following message: Reading source file(s)... SELECT copies the rest of the files from the Startup diskette to the hard disk. When all the files are copied, the prompt reappears. The partition on the hard disk is A>...
Press Y and Enter partition. The screen continuously displays the changing head and cylinder numbers. When the procedure is complete, you see the following message: Format Complete Volume Label (11 characters, ENTER for none) It is a good idea to enter a name (volume label) for drive D, to protect it from being accidentally reformatted later.
3. At the A> prompt, type the following and press COPY *.* C:\DOS MS-DOS copies all the files from the diskette to the \DOS subdirectory on the hard disk. The file names appear on the screen as they are copied. 4.
Note The AUTOEXEC.BAT file is optional, and you can either not create one at all or create one that is different. For a description of AUTOEXEC.BAT, see Chapter 4; or see your MS-DOS manual for more detailed information. Follow these steps: Type : and press Type the following and press...
Appendix F Types of Hard Disk Drives This appendix lists the numbers you need to identify a hard disk drive. Refer to this table and the documentation supplied with your hard disk to find the correct number for the type of drive you are installing.
Glossary Absolute pathname A pathname that begins with the backslash character. An absolute pathname tells MS-DOS how to find its way to a given directory, starting at the root directory. See also Relative pathname. Application program A software program designed to perform a specific task, such as a word processing or spreadsheet program.
Batch file A type of file that lets you execute a series of MS-DOS commands by typing one command. Batch files are text files with the filename extension.BAT. In a batch file, each command is entered on a separate line. When you type the filename, all the commands in that file are executed sequentially.
CMOS Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor. A method of making low power silicon chips. Command An instruction you enter (usually on a keyboard) to direct your computer to perform a specific function. Command prompt The symbol or message that tells you MS-DOS is loaded and ready to receive instructions.
Current directory The directory you are logged onto and working in. Also known as the default directory. Cursor The highlighted marker that shows your position on the screen. Cylinders See Tracks. Data Information such as text or graphics stored or processed by a computer.
Default drive The disk drive from which MS-DOS executes your next command, unless you tell it to do otherwise (by including a drive designator with the command). Also known as the current drive. Delimiter A character or space used to separate different parts of an MS-DOS command.
Disk drive The physical device that allows the computer to read from and write to a disk. A diskette drive has a disk slot into which you insert a diskette. A hard disk is sealed inside a protective unit. Diskette A flat piece of flexible plastic coated with magnetic material and used to store data permanently.
Executable file A file containing program instructions, as opposed to data created with an application program. An executable file has the extension.BAT, .COM, or .EXE. Execution speed The speed at which the central processing unit can execute commands. Also called operating speed. The Apex can run at 8 MHz or 12 MHz.
Filename A name of up to eight characters that MS-DOS uses to identify a file. Floppy disk See Diskette. Format To prepare a new disk (or an old one you want to reuse) so that it can store information. Formatting divides a disk into tracks and sectors and creates addressable locations on it.
Input/output (I/O) port See Port. Interface A physical or software connection used to transmit data between equipment or programs. Internal command An MS-DOS command that is stored in the command processor of the operating system; it is not a separate program file.
Main memory The amount of memory in the computer up to 1MB that is available to MS-DOS and application programs. Also called base memory. Math coprocessor An optional device that enables the computer to process certain mathematical calculations faster. Megabyte (MB) A unit used to measure storage space in a computer’s memory or on a disk.
Monitor The piece of hardware that contains the screen and displays information. Monochrome monitor A monitor that displays in only one color, such as green or amber, as opposed to a color monitor which can display in several colors. Mouse A hand-held pointing device with one or more buttons.
Parallel The type of interface that transmits data in groups of bits. See Interface and SeriaI. Parameter A qualifier added to a command that tells the computer what particular conditions to look for. Parent directory The directory immediately above a given directory in the directory tree.
Power-on diagnostics The system tests the computer runs to check its internal circuitry and configuration each time you turn it on. Primary partition The MS-DOS partition from which the operating system starts. Program A disk file that contains coded instructions and tells a computer what to do and how to do it.
Relative pathname A pathname that does not begin with the backslash character. A relative pathname tells MS-DOS how to find its way to a given directory, starting at the current default directory. See also Absolute pathname. Reset To reload a computer’s operating system so you can retry a task or begin using a different operating system.
Serial The type of interface that transmits data one bit at a time. See Interface and Parallel. Software The programs that enable your computer to perform the tasks and functions you indicate. Source diskette The diskette that you are reading or copying data from during a copy or backup operation.
Target diskette The diskette to which you are copying data during a copy or backup operation. Tracks Addressable, concentric circles on a disk, resembling the grooves on a record, which help to divide the disk into separate accessible areas. There are 40 tracks on each side of a double-sided 360KB diskette and 80 tracks on each side of a double-sided 1.2MB diskette.
Write-protect To protect the data on a diskette from being changed by placing a write-protect tab over the notch on the side of a 5 ¼-inch diskette or by setting the write-protect switch on a 3 ½-inch diskette. When a diskette is write-protected, you cannot erase, change, or record over its contents.
Index Absolute pathname, 4-19-20 Alternate serial port check, C-28 APPEND, 4-22 Application program, starting, 4-3 AUTOEXEC.BAT, 4-41-44, E-10-11 Back panel monitor switch, 1-5-7 Backing up, 4-29-34 with BACKUP, 4-33-34 with DISKCOPY, 4-29-33 BACKUP, 4-33-34 Batch files, 4-10 AUTOEXEC.BAT, 4-41-44, E-10-11 Booting MS-DOS, 1-17, 4-2—3 Break signal, 3-4 CGA card, see Video cards...
Drives, see Diskette drives see Hard disks EGA card, see Video cards Enhanced graphics adapter, see Video cards Environmental requirements, A-4 Epson Consumer Information number, Intro-3 ERASE, 4.15 Error codes and messages, C-34-36 ESC, 4-8 Extended partition, E-4-6 External command, 4-5...
Formatting, diskettes, 4-26-28 extended partition, E-4-6 logical, D-1 physical, D-1—12 primary partition, E-3-4 Front panel monitor switch, 1-14-15 Hard disks, backing up, 3-18 caring for, 3-12 controller and drive check, c-30-34 installing, 2-7-8 locking the heads, 3-18-19 logically formatting, D-1 moving, 3-18-19 partitioning, E-2-3 physically formatting, D-1—12...