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Epson 20 User Manual

Epson equity 386/20 - user manual
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E Q U I T Y ™ 3 8 6 / 2 0
User's Guide


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Summary of Contents for Epson 20

  • Page 1 ® EPSON E Q U I T Y ™ 3 8 6 / 2 0 User’s Guide Y18499100101...
  • Page 2: Copyright Notice

    Epson America, Inc. No patent liability is assumed with respect to the use of information contained herein. While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this publication, Epson America assumes no responsibility for errors or omissions.
  • Page 3: Fcc Compliance Statement

    If the interference stops, it is caused by either the peripheral device or its I/O cable. These devices usually require shielded I/O cables. For Epson peripheral devices, you can obtain the proper shielded cable from your dealer. For non-Epson peripheral devices contact the manufacturer or dealer for assistance.
  • Page 5: Table Of Contents

    Contents Introduction ........How to Use This Manual ......Where to Get Help .
  • Page 6 Formatting the Primary Partition ..... 3-9 Copying the Remaining Files to the Hard Disk ..3-11 Formatting the Extended Partition .
  • Page 7 Using the BACKUP Command ....5-23 Using the Epson HELP Program ..... 5-23 Using the Epson MENU Program .
  • Page 8 Appendixes Troubleshooting ..............Error Messages The Computer Won’t Start .
  • Page 9 Floppy Disk Drives and Controller Check ... . . C-19 Sequential Seek Check ......C-20 Random Seek Check .
  • Page 10 Hard Disk Drive Types ......Specifications ........CPU and Memory .
  • Page 11: Introduction

    Introduction The Epson® Equity™ 386/20 is a versatile, high-performance personal computer. Its 80386 microprocessor and 20 MHz operation speed make this a fast machine, and you can easily upgrade it by adding memory and installing options. The Equity 386 is available in these configurations: A single diskette drive system with one 1.2MB (megabyte)
  • Page 12: How To Use This Manual

    MS-DOS and MS OS/2 on your Equity 386; this way, you can select which operating system to load each time you turn on the computer. Ask your Epson dealer for more information. (In particular, be sure to check the amount of RAM required to run MS OS/2.) How to Use This Manual This manual explains how to set up and care for your Equity 386.
  • Page 13 Chapter 1 provides simple step-by-step instructions for setting up your computer. On the inside back cover are illustrations identifying the different parts of the Equity 386; you may want to refer to this while you are setting up your system. Chapter 2 describes how to run the Setup program to define your computer’s configuration.
  • Page 14: Where To Get Help

    Epson is confident that this policy will provide you with the assistance you need. If you need to find an Epson dealer or service center in your area, please call our Customer Information number at 1-800-922-8911.
  • Page 15: Setting Up Your System

    Chapter 1 SETTING UP YOUR SYSTEM Setting up your Epson Equity 386 personal computer is easy. Just follow the 10 steps in this chapter, which describe how to set up your computer, start MS-DOS, and make copies of your system diskettes.
  • Page 16: Removing The Diskette Drive Protector Card

    You’ll also find a registration card with the computer. Fill this card out now and mail it to Epson. With your registration card on file, Epson can send you update information. Be sure to keep your packing materials. They provide the best protection for your computer if you need to transport it later.
  • Page 17: Choosing A Location

    (If you have a second diskette drive, be sure to remove the card from that drive too.) Save the protector card and reinsert it whenever you move the computer. If you don’t plan to use your computer for a week or more, reinsert the card to help prevent dust from entering the disk drive.
  • Page 18: Connecting A Monitor

    Moderate environmental conditions. Protect your computer from extremes in temperature, humidity, dust, and smoke. Avoid direct sunlight or any other source of heat. High humidity also hinders operation, so select a cool, dry area. Appropriate power sources. To prevent static charges, connect all your equipment to 3-prong, 120-volt grounded outlets.
  • Page 19 Monitor/video card compatibility Video card Monitor Monochrome, graphics, Monochrome or enhanced graphics Graphics, color graphics, Color or or enhanced graphics or enhanced color VGA monochrome Video graphics array Place your monitor on top of or near the computer. It is easiest connect the monitor cable if the backs of the monitor and the computer are facing you.
  • Page 20: Connecting A Printer

    The Equity 386 has a parallel interface and a serial interface. You can easily connect a printer or other device that has either type of interface-just follow the instructions below. Epson, of course, offers a full range of printers; check with your dealer for more information.
  • Page 21: Using The Parallel Interface

    To connect a printer to the computer, you need an IBM-compatible printer cable. If you are not sure which one you need, check with your Epson dealer. Once you have the correct printer cable, follow these steps to connect your printer to the parallel interface on the computer: Place the printer next to your computer.
  • Page 22: Using The Serial Interface

    Connect the other end of the cable to the printer as shown below. To secure the cable, squeeze the clips at each side of the printer port and push them into place. Plug the printer’s power cord into an electrical outlet. Using the Serial Interface If you have a printer, modem, mouse, or any other peripheral with a serial interface, you can connect it to the serial (RS-232C) port on the...
  • Page 23: Connecting The Power Cord

    The Equity 386 uses a DB-9P male connector, so be sure you have a compatible cable (or an adapting cable that converts the 9-pin output to the standard 25-pin output). To connect a serial device, follow the same steps as above for connecting a parallel device. You need to ensure that the serial port is set up so it functions properly.
  • Page 24: Connecting The Keyboard

    Connecting the Keyboard Follow these steps to connect the keyboard: Turn the computer around so you are facing the front. 2. Pull open the cover on the lower left corner of the computer’s front panel. You need to push down slightly on the tab as you open the cover.
  • Page 25 Push the cable into the notch at the left side of the computer, as shown below, so the cable leads away to the side of the computer. Close the keyboard cable cover. You can change the angle of the keyboard by adjusting the legs on the bottom.
  • Page 26: Setting The Monitor Type

    If there is a hardware problem you cannot solve after reading the section in Appendix A on troubleshooting, check with your Epson dealer. Always turn off the power, disconnect the computer’s power cord, and wait five seconds before you remove the computer’s cover.
  • Page 27 Never turn off or reset your computer while a disk drive light is on. This can destroy data stored on disk or make a whole disk unusable. Always wait at least five seconds after you switch off the power before you switch it on again. Turning the power off and on rapidly can damage the computer’s circuitry.
  • Page 28: Loading Ms-Dos

    (For more instructions on inserting, removing, and caring for diskettes, see Chapter 4.) You can turn on your computer with or without the MS-DOS Startup diskette in the drive. With the Startup diskette in the top drive (A) as it is now, the computer loads MS-DOS from that drive.
  • Page 29: Copying System Diskettes

    This means the operating system is ready for you to enter a command. The command prompt identifies the current operating drive: A, B, or C, for example. Usually, drive A is the top diskette drive; B is the second diskette drive, C is the first hard disk drive, and D is used for a second hard disk drive.
  • Page 30 Type the following and press DISKCOPY A: A: You see these messages: Insert SOURCE diskette in drive A: Press any key when ready . . . Drive A (the top drive) already contains a diskette you want to copy (the source diskette), so just press any key. The DISKCOPY program copies the contents of the Operating 1 diskette to the computer’s memory, and then you see the following: Insert TARGET diskette in drive A:...
  • Page 31: Running The Setup Program

    Chapter 2 Running the Setup Program The first time you use your Equity 386 after setting it up, you need to run the Setup program on the Reference diskette to define the computer’s configuration. This is a simple procedure you must do at least once.
  • Page 32: Starting The Setup Program

    Starting the Setup Program Follow these steps to start the Setup program: Insert the working copy of your Reference diskette into the diskette drive. Press the RESET (See Chapter 4 for more information about resetting the computer.) After the computer performs its self test, it loads the setup and diagnostics programs automatically from the diskette and displays this menu: OPERATIONMENU...
  • Page 33: Setting The Amount Of Memory

    Press 1 and then Enter displays the main Setup menu: E x i t Memory D i s p l a y Auto speed Shadow RAM Coprocessor Mass storage Real-time clock Use 4 and t to move the cursor block through the options on this menu.
  • Page 34 Follow these steps to set the amount of memory: Press 1 to highlight the smaller box appears beneath the main Setup menu: If the displayed settings are correct, press t to return to the main menu. change the Main memory setting press changes to 256 KB.
  • Page 35: Setting The Display Type

    Setting the Display Type Follow the steps below to set the type of display adapter you are using with your Equity 386. Note that with this option you are selecting the type of display adapter (the video card) you are using-not the type of monitor, which may be called something different.
  • Page 36: Setting The Auto Speed Function

    Highlight **SAVE SETTINGS ** and press Setting the Auto Speed Function The Equity 386 can operate at 20 MHz or 8 MHz and you can select either speed using the switch on the front panel of the computer. (See “Selecting Execution Speed” in Chapter 4.) You’ll probably use the faster speed for almost all your operations.
  • Page 37 If you are using a copy-protected program that can run only on a diskette or that requires a key disk, try to start the program at 20 MHz. If this works, you do not need to enable the Auto speed function. If you can’t load the program at 20 MHz, enable Auto speed.
  • Page 38: Setting The Shadow Ram Function

    Setting the Shadow RAM Function A computer can access RAM (random access memory) faster than ROM (read only memory). The Equity 386 provides a shadow RAM feature that enables it to copy data from ROM areas in the computer to the RAM area so it can perform certain operations faster. If you enable the shadow RAM function through the Setup program, the Equity 386 automatically copies the data stored in ROM to RAM whenever you turn on or reset the computer.
  • Page 39: Setting The Coprocessor Function

    Now, whenever you turn on or reset your computer, it automatically copies the system ROM BIOS and video ROM to RAM. If you later want to disable either shadow RAM function, follow the same procedure; when you select the option and press changes back to enabled Setting the Coprocessor Function...
  • Page 40 If the settings displayed match the configuration of disk drives in your computer, press t to return to the main menu. If one of the settings is incorrect, change it as described in the following steps. To change the value for one of the diskette drives-drive example-highlight Drive B appears:...
  • Page 41: Setting The Real-Time Clock

    Setting the Real-time Clock The real-time clock in your computer keeps track of the time and date at all times-even when the computer is turned off. Use the Real-time clock option to set the time and date for your computer the first time you run the Setup program.
  • Page 42 If you enter an invalid time-for example, a number greater than 23 for the hours or greater than 59 for the minutes or seconds- the computer beeps and ignores your entry. Try again. When the time is correct, press To set the date, highlight Date and press box: Enter the date in the exact format shown in the box, using two digits for the month and day and four digits for the year;...
  • Page 43: Leaving The Setup Menu

    Leaving the Setup Menu When you finish setting the options in the Setup menu, highlight the and press Exit option Memory size Display type Coprocessor Mass storage There is a second screen of information you need to check. To display that screen, press PgDn.
  • Page 44 Check each list to see if all the information is correct. If any setting is incorrect, highlight Change settings Setup menu appears and you can change the setting. If you did not make any changes or you want to cancel the changes you made, highlight Exit without saving and press Operation menu appears on the screen.
  • Page 45: Preparing A Hard Disk For Use

    Chapter 3 Preparing a Hard Disk for Use If your Equity 386 has a hard disk, follow the instructions in this chapter to prepare the hard disk before using it for the first time. This chapter describes how to do the following: Use the FDISK command to create a primary partition and an extended partition on the hard disk, and then designate the extended partition as one or more logical drives...
  • Page 46: Checking The Hard Disk

    Checking the Hard Disk Your Epson dealer may have already partitioned your hard disk and formatted it so it automatically loads MS-DOS when you turn it on. If this is the case, you do not need to run FDISK or SELECT...
  • Page 47 If MS-DOS does not start, you need to check whether the disk has been partitioned. To do this, place the MS-DOS Startup diskette in drive A and hold down the Ctrl key and press to start MS-DOS. Press twice to accept the date and time prompts. Then Enter type FDISK and press Display Partition Information option.
  • Page 48: Partitioning The Hard Disk

    Partitioning the Hard Disk Partitioning is necessary because, while your hard disk can store either 40MB or 90MB of data (depending on which Equity 386 model you purchased), MS-DOS cannot manage more than 32MB at a time. The partitioning process divides the single or more logical drives.
  • Page 49: Creating The Primary Partition

    Creating the Primary Partition Follow the steps below to create a primary partition on your hard disk: Insert the working copy of the MS-DOS Startup diskette in drive A. Turn on the computer (if it is not on already). At the prompt, type FDISK and press A>...
  • Page 50: Creating The Extended Partition On A 40Mb Disk

    Creating the Extended Partition on a 40MB Disk If you have a 40MB hard disk, follow these steps to create an 8MB extended partition and designate it as drive D. (See the instructions below if you have a 90MB hard disk.) Insert the working copy of the MS-DOS Startup diskette in drive A (if it is not there already).
  • Page 51: Creating The Extended Partition On A 90Mb Disk

    Press E twice. The screen displays the following message and prompts: System will now restart Insert DOS diskette in drive A: Press any key when ready . . . Press any key to restart the system (the MS-DOS Startup diskette is already in drive A).
  • Page 52 Press to accept the partition size. The screen displays the Enter following message: Extended DOS partition created and shows you information about the partitions you have created. Press to return to the FDISK Options menu. EDISK automatically displays the Create Logical DOS Drive(s) option and a message similar to this: No logical drives defined Total partition size is 657 cylinders.
  • Page 53: Formatting The Primary Partition

    10. Press any key to restart the system (the MS-DOS Startup diskette is already in drive A). Your computer reloads MS-DOS, displaying the preliminary copyright information and the date prompt. Press twice to accept the date and time shown. Enter The system now recognizes the primary partition as drive C and the extended partition as drives D and E.
  • Page 54 The screen displays this message and prompt: SELECT is used to install DOS the first time. SELECT erases everything on the specified target and then installs DOS. Do you want to continue (Y/N)? Press Y. Formatting does not begin immediately The screen displays the following: WARNING, ALL DATA ON NON-REMOVABLE DISK DRIVE C: WILL BE LOST!
  • Page 55: Copying The Remaining Files To The Hard Disk

    Copying the Remaining Files to the Hard Disk Follow the instructions below to copy the files on your other MS-DOS diskettes and the Reference diskette to drive C, the primary partition on the hard disk: Remove the MS-DOS Startup diskette from drive A and insert the diskette labeled Operating 1 in the drive.
  • Page 56: Formatting The Extended Partition

    Formatting the Extended Partition Once you have formatted the primary partition and copied the remaining MS-DOS files to the hard disk, follow this procedure to format the extended partition: Insert the working copy of your MS-DOS Startup diskette in drive A (if it is not there already). At the prompt, type the following and press A>...
  • Page 57: Booting From The Hard Disk

    Booting From the Hard Disk Now you can boot your system (load MS-DOS) from drive C on your hard disk. Be sure there is no diskette secured in drive A when you turn on or reset your computer. Otherwise, your computer tries to boot MS-DOS from the disk in drive A.
  • Page 58: Using The Equity 386

    Chapter 4 Using the Equity 386 This chapter covers the following basic procedures for using your Equity 386 computer: Locking the computer Selecting execution speed Selecting monitor type Controlling the volume Resetting the computer Using special keys on the keyboard Using disks and disk drives Turning off the computer.
  • Page 59: Selecting The Execution Speed

    Selecting Execution Speed The Equity 386 can operate at two speeds: 8 MHz or 20 MHz. At 20 MHz, the computer performs all tasks faster, and you will probably use this speed for almost everything you do. Certain application programs, however, have specific timing requirements for diskette access and can run only at the slower speed.
  • Page 60: Selecting The Monitor Type

    Use the CPU SPEED speed; move it left for 8 MHz or right for 20 MHz. Selecting the Monitor Type When you set up your computer, you used the switch on the front panel to select the type of monitor you are using with your Equity 386: either monochrome or color.
  • Page 61: Controlling The Volume

    Controlling the Volume Your Equity 386 has a speaker which enables it to beep when you perform certain operations. You can control the speaker’s loudness with the knob on the front panel, shown below. Turn it to VOLUME the right to make the sound louder or to the left to make it quieter. Resetting the Computer You can reset the Equity 386 to load a different operating system or to reload the current operating system.
  • Page 62: Special Keys On The Equity 386 Keyboard

    To reset the computer, MS-DOS must be either on a diskette in drive A or on the hard disk. There are three ways to reset. Because each is more powerful than the last, try them in the order listed here: If you are using MS-DOS, hold down key on the numeric keypad at the right of the keyboard.
  • Page 63 Key functions Purpose Moves the cursor one tab to the right in normal mode Tab I+- and one tab to the left in shift mode. Caps Lock Changes the letter keys from lower- to uppercase; changes back to lowercase when pressed again. The numeric/symbol keys on the top row of the keyboard are not affected.
  • Page 64 Purpose Control cursor location. Home, End Page Up (PgUp) Page Down (PgDn) t +,l+ Changes the function of the numeric/cursor keys from Num Lock numeric to cursor positioning; changes back when pressed again. Cancels the current command line or operation. F1 - F12 Perform special functions within application programs.
  • Page 65: Using Disks And Disk Drives

    Using Disks and Disk Drives The disk drives in your computer allow you to store data on disk, and then retrieve and use it when you like. All Equity 386 systems have at least one diskette drive; you may also have a hard disk drive and/or a second diskette drive in your system.
  • Page 66 A hard disk consists of two or more platters stacked on top of one another; so it has four or more sides with many more tracks per side than a diskette. (The number of tracks depends on the capacity of the hard disk.
  • Page 67: Types Of Diskette Drives

    Because data is stored magnetically, you can retrieve it, record over it, and erase it-just as you play, record, and erase music on a cassette tape. Types of Diskette Drives Your computer has at least one 1.2MB diskette drive. You may also have a second diskette drive, and it may be the same type or it may be different.
  • Page 68 Note You must format new diskettes before you can use them with an operating system, Formatting erases all the data an a prepares it to receive- new data; so be sure to format only new blank diskettes or diskettes that contain data you ‘See Chapter 5 for instructions on formatting diskettes.
  • Page 69: Caring For Diskettes And Diskette Drives

    If you have any combination of the above drives (360KB, 1.2MB, 720KB, or 1.44MB), you can copy files from one drive to another- using the COPY or XCOPY command-as long as the correct diskette type is in each drive. You can use these commands to copy files between the hard disk and any type of diskette.
  • Page 70: Inserting And Removing Diskettes

    Do not place anything on top of your diskettes and be sure they do not get bent. A diskette does not rotate properly in the drive if it has been damaged. Carefully label your diskettes. Attach labels firmly but gently, and only along the top of a diskette (next to the manufacturer’s label).
  • Page 71 Slide the diskette into the slot until it is in all the way, Then turn the latch down to lock it in a vertical position. This keeps the diskette in place and enables the read/write heads in the disk drive to access the diskette.
  • Page 72: Write-Protecting Diskettes

    Write-protecting Diskettes You can write-protect a diskette to prevent its data from being altered. When a diskette is write-protected, you can read it and copy data from it, but you cannot store new data on the diskette or delete any files it contains.
  • Page 73: Making Backup Copies

    On a 3½-inch diskette, the write-protect device is a small switch on the lower-right corner on the back, shown below. To write-protect a 3½-inch diskette, slide the switch toward the edge of the diskette until it clicks into position, exposing a hole in the corner. To remove the write protection, slide the switch toward the center of the diskette until it clicks into position so the hole is covered.
  • Page 74: Using A Single Diskette Drive

    Chapter 1 describes how to use DISKCOPY to copy your MS-DOS and Reference diskettes. To make backups of other diskettes, use the DISKCOPY command or the MENU program. See Chapter 5 or see your MS-DOS Reference Manual for more instructions on using DISKCOPY and MENU.
  • Page 75: Using Two Diskette Drives

    If you have only one diskette drive and no hard disk, you need to use that drive to load the operating system as well as the application programs you are using. First load the operating system; this copies it to the computer’s memory (RAM) so you do not need to leave the system diskette in the drive.
  • Page 76 If you are going to move your computer (even to another part of the room) and you are using a non-Epson hard disk, run the program called HDSIT to prepare the hard disk before moving.
  • Page 77: Backing Up The Hard Disk

    \DOS directory on drive C. Log onto that directory (if necessary) by typing CD \DOS. Or you can just insert the Reference diskette in drive A and type A: to log onto that drive. Then type the following and press Enter: HDSIT 4-20 Using the Equity 386...
  • Page 78: Turning Off The Computer

    You see a screen of information reminding you that the heads will not be unlocked until you reset the computer or turn the power off and on again. Next the program moves the heads and disables the keyboard. You can now turn off the computer and prepare to move it to the new location.
  • Page 79: Using Ms-Dos With Your Equity 386

    Chapter 5 Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386 Your Equity 386 comes with version 3.3 of MS-DOS. This operating system manages your computer by organizing the computer’s memory, controlling the monitor display, accepting keyboard input, and directing external communications. To communicate with the operating system, you use MS-DOS commands.
  • Page 80: Drive Designators

    Drive Designators MS-DOS uses letters to identify the disk drives in your system. If you have one diskette drive, that device is known as drive A. If you have two diskette drives, one is called drive A, the other drive B. If you have one hard disk drive, MS-DOS identifies its primary partition as drive C, even if you have only one diskette drive.
  • Page 81: Changing The Default Drive

    Changing the Default Drive To change the default drive, type the letter of the drive you want to change to, followed by a colon. Then press change the default from A to C, type C : and press acknowledges the change by displaying the command prompt C >. Changing to a new drive is also sometimes called logging onto that drive.
  • Page 82: Entering Ms-Dos Commands

    Some commands also have optional switches you can use. A switch is a type of parameter that alters the effects of a command. For example, suppose you want to format a 360KB diskette in your 1.2MB diskette drive. To do this, you need to add a switch to the FORMAT command like this: FORMAT A: /4 Without the /4 switch, FORMAT would try to format the diskette as...
  • Page 83: Creating And Managing Files

    If you press when a command line has an error in it, the Enter screen displays an error message. Usually, the command prompt reappears so you can try again. Type the correct command and press Enter. Creating and Managing Files All your data and programs are stored in files.
  • Page 84: Copying Files

    Some application programs add extensions to the files you create. These application programs use the extension to determine whether it is a compatible data file. Avoid using the same extensions as your application programs. Also, do not use uppercase and lowercase letters to distinguish between files.
  • Page 85 A few rules apply when copying files: You must tell MS-DOS where to find the original file and where to store the copy. You cannot create a new file with the same name and in the same directory as an existing file. If an existing file on the destination diskette or directory has the same name as the file you are copying from, the copy automatically replaces the existing file.
  • Page 86: Renaming Files

    An easy way to copy a group of files is by using wildcard characters in the filenames. You can use two wildcard characters: * and ?. The asterisk represents any group of characters and the question mark represents any single character. For example, to copy all the files on the diskette in drive A to the diskette in drive B, type the following and press COPY A:*.* B:...
  • Page 87: Deleting Files

    You can use wildcards to rename groups of files. For example, to change just the extensions of all files on drive B with the extension .NEW to .OLD, type the following and press REN B:*.NEW *.OLD rename all files that begin with the same five characters “MEMOS”...
  • Page 88: Printing Files

    Printing Files If you have a printer attached to your computer, you can print files with the PRINT command. Of course, you will probably be printing files with the application programs you use with MS-DOS, but if you need to print a file from the command prompt, follow the steps below.
  • Page 89 Whenever you format a hard disk or a diskette, MS-DOS creates one directory for you. This directory is called the root directory. Any subsequent directories you create are logically subordinate to the root directory; that is, they are directory structure might look like this: WORDPROC This arrangement would enable you to keep your word processing programs and data files in a directory called WORPROC, your...
  • Page 90: The Default Directory

    Here are some additional points to note about directories: On the root directory, the total number of files and subdirectories must not exceed 512. All directories other than the root directory can have any number of files and subdirectories. Subdirectories are named the same way files are. The name can include as many as eight characters, and you can add an extension of up to three characters.
  • Page 91: Including Filenames With Pathnames

    Here is an example of an absolute pathname: \WORDPROC\PERSONAL The backslash at the beginning of this pathname tells MS-DOS to start its journey at the root directory, proceed down the directory tree to WORDPROC, then continue down the tree to PERSONAL. Here is an example of a relative pathname: SALES Because this pathname does not begin with a backslash, MS-DOS...
  • Page 92: Including Drive Letters With Pathnames And Filenames

    This command tells MS-DOS to list on screen (TYPE) the contents of the file JEAN1204.DOC, which is stored in the directory \WORDPROC\PERSONAL. Note that the filename is connected to the pathname by a backslash character-the same character used to separate the various directories in the pathname itself. Including Drive Letters With Pathnames and Filenames As mentioned earlier in this chapter, if you want to access a file stored...
  • Page 93: Listing The Contents Of A Directory

    Listing the Contents of a Directory To list the files in the current directory, type DIR and press MS-DOS lists the names of the files in the current directory on the current drive. If the listing is too long to fit on one screen, add the /P switch to the command, like this: DIR /P This switch causes MS-DOS to pause after displaying each screenful...
  • Page 94: Creating Directories

    Creating Directories The MKDIR command lets you create directories. To create a LEDGER directory under your root directory, for example, type the following and press Enter: MKDIR\LEDGER You can abbreviate the name of this command to MD. For example, to create a SALES directory under the LEDGER directory, type the following and press Enter: MD \ LEDGER\ SALES...
  • Page 95: Formatting Diskettes

    To change from ACCOUNTS back to LEDGER, you can use the special symbol . . or you can use an absolute pathname. (The . . symbol always designates the parent directory.) In other words, you can type: CD . . CD \ACCOUNTS Formatting Diskettes Before you can store data on a new diskette, you must format it.
  • Page 96: Formatting Diskettes With A Hard Disk

    Formatting Diskettes With a Hard Disk If necessary, log onto drive C. If you are not in the directory where the file FORMAT.COM is stored, change to that directory. 2. When you see the C > prompt, type the following and press Enter: FORMAT A: You see this prompt:...
  • Page 97: Formatting Diskettes With One Diskette Drive (No Hard Disk)

    When the diskette is formatted, you see a message similar to this: Format complete 1213952 bytes total disk space 1213952 bytes available on disk Format another (Y/N)? At this point, you can either format another diskette by pressing Y and or return to the MS-DOS command prompt by Enter, pressing...
  • Page 98: Backing Up

    Follow the instructions below for your configuration. Using DISKCOPY with one diskette drive 1. Make sure your original diskette is write-protected. (See Chapter 4 for instructions.) 5-20 Using MS-DOS with Your Equity 386...
  • Page 99 If you have a hard disk, make sure you are logged onto the directory that contains the DISKCOPY.COM file. If you don’t have a hard disk, make sure your working copy of the MS-DOS Operating 1 diskette is in drive A. At the MS-DOS command prompt, type the following and press Enter: DISKCOPY A: A:...
  • Page 100 When the copy is complete, you see this message: Copy another diskette (Y/N)? Press Y and Enter return to the MS-DOS command prompt. Using DISKCOPY with two diskette drives When you use the DISKCOPY command with two diskette drives, be sure to specify both diskette drives (A: and B:).
  • Page 101: Using The Backup Command

    See your MS-DOS Reference Manual for complete instructions on using BACKUP Using the Epson HELP Program The Epson HELP program provides online information on MS-DOS commands and utility programs. You can use HELP in either of two ways: You can type HELP at the command prompt and press...
  • Page 102 To use the HELP menu, follow these steps: Type HELP at the MS-DOS command prompt and press The screen displays a menu of MS-DOS commands. Use the cursor keys to highlight the command you want information about and press Enter. If there is more than one page of information about the command you selected, you see the prompt PgUp at the top of the screen.
  • Page 103: Using The Epson Menu Program

    Using the Epson MENU Program Your Equity 386 comes with a program provided by Epson called MENU. With this program you can display a menu of commands and select the one you need. MENU is easy to use because it lets you execute commands without having to remember the exact syntax for each command.
  • Page 104: Menu Program Options

    To select an option, use the arrow keys to highlight your selection and then press Most options contain submenus; keep highlighting Enter. your selection and pressing operation. Because MENU works by calling other programs, you may see an error message similar to this when you select an option: SETPRINT.EXE not on the current disk.
  • Page 105: Using The Xtree Utility

    MENU program. Using the XTREE Utility Epson has included the XTREE program with MS-DOS to make it easier for you to manage files and run other MS-DOS programs. XTREE is fast and easy to use. It lets you do the work of many MS-DOS commands using a convenient menu format, and provides several features not available elsewhere in MS-DOS.
  • Page 106: Running Xtree

    Display data in both ASCII and hexadecimal format Display how much space is available on your disks. Running XTREE To run XTREE, log onto the directory where XTREE is located or insert the Operating 1 diskette in drive A. Type XTREE at the command prompt and press XTREE reads your disk’s directory, and then the XTREE display appears.
  • Page 107: Cautions

    key commands execute additional XTREE commands. Press the key to display the ALT DIR COMMANDS or ALT FILE COMMANDS. These commands appear on the line where the DIR COMMANDS or FILE COMMANDS normally appear. To execute an hold down the key and press the highlighted letter of the command name.
  • Page 108: Using An Autoexec.bat File

    Using an AUTOEXEC.BAT File You may find that there are some commands you want to run every time you turn on your computer. To run a command or a series of commands automatically upon startup, you can type the commands into a special file called AUTOEXEC.BAT When you load MS-DOS, it automatically looks for this file.
  • Page 109 Here’s an example of an AUTOEXEC.BAT file: PATH C:\; C:\DOS PROMPT $P The first line tells MS-DOS to look for programs or batch files in the root directory and the DOS directory. This way you can run programs in those directories without having to specify pathnames in the commands.
  • Page 110: Using Memory Beyond 640Kb

    Using Memory Beyond 640KB Your Equity 386 is equipped with at least 1MB of random access memory. 640KB is for use by the operating system, your application programs, and your data. The memory between 640KB and 1MB is reserved for use by the computer and is not available to application programs or the operating system.
  • Page 111: About Eemm386.Exe

    3. Type DEVICE=EEMM386.EXE and press Enter. Press the F6 key, and then press 5. Reboot your computer. This procedure makes the memory in your computer above 1MB available to any application program that supports the Lotus/Intel/ Microsoft Expanded Memory Specification 4.0 (LIM EMS 4.0). About EEMM386.EXE EEMM386.EXE is an expanded memory...
  • Page 112: Using Hdcache And Eemm386.Exe

    Using HDCACHE and EEMM386.EXE The HDCACHE program (described in your MS-DOS Reference Manual) cannot use expanded memory. If you use both HDCACHE and EEMM386.EXE and you want HDCACHE to use extended memory, you must not convert all your extended memory to expanded memory with EEMM386.EXE.
  • Page 113: Installing Options

    If you want to install a math coprocessor in your computer, ask your authorized Epson dealer to do it for you. Memory modules allow you to increase the amount of memory in your computer without adding a memory card. This chapter briefly describes the type and amount of memory you can use in the Equity 386.
  • Page 114 however, add memory according to certain grouping limitations to preserve the 32-bit access capability of the Equity 386. There are basically two restrictions: the total amount of memory and the way the memory is installed. Here are the guidelines: The total amount of memory must be one of the following: 1MB, 2MB, 4MB, 8MB, 10MB, or 16MB.
  • Page 115: Installing Option Cards

    This leaves either six or seven slots in which you can install option cards. You can buy option cards from authorized Epson dealers as well as other vendors. This section explains how to remove the computer’s cover, install an option card, and then replace the cover.
  • Page 116 3. Disconnect the keyboard. If the computer is locked, unlock it (using the key lock). Otherwise you cannot take off the cover. (See Chapter 4 for instructions on locking and unlocking the computer.) If the monitor is on top of the computer, lift it off and set it to one side.
  • Page 117 When the back edge of the cover has cleared the power switch, you can lift off the cover. Separate the sides from the bottom ledge of the computer by pulling them outward slightly, as shown below. Then lift off the cover and set it aside. Installing Options 6-5...
  • Page 118: Installing An Option Card

    Installing an Option Card The illustration below shows the nine option slots inside the Equity 386. (Slot number 9 is occupied by the SPF card.) Slots 1, 2, and 9 are designed for 8-bit option cards, and slots 3 through 8 are designed for 16-bit cards. As you can see below, a 16-bit card has a second connector.
  • Page 119 Usually, it does not matter which slot an option card occupies as long as the card fits in the slot. For example, you can place some &bit cards in a 16-bit slot. However, it is best to leave the SPF card in slot 9 because of the cables.
  • Page 120 Keep the screw to secure the option card to the computer. Store the slot cover in a safe place in case you remove the option card later. Unpack the option card and adjust any switches or jumpers on it if necessary. (Check the option card instructions to see if this is necessary.) When you handle the card, be careful not to touch any of the contacts on the circuit board, especially the gold-edged connector pins.
  • Page 121 If the card does not go in smoothly, do not force it-pull it all the way out and try again, keeping it straight as you insert it. Secure the end of the card to the back of the computer with the retaining screw.
  • Page 122: Changing Jumpers On The Spf Card

    See “Post-installation Setup,” below, to see if you need to make any configuration changes. Changing Jumpers on the SPF Card If you installed an additional parallel or serial port, you may need to change the jumper settings on the SPF card. Normally, the serial and parallel ports on the SPF card are addressed as the primary ports (COM1 and LPT1, respectively).
  • Page 123 SPF card jumper settings for serial port Jumper number * default setting * * the setting of jumpers 6 and 9 do not matter SPF card jumper settings for parallel port Jumper number * default setting ** the setting of jumper 10 does not matter To access the SPF card jumpers, you need to remove the card from the computer.
  • Page 124 Removing the hard disk drive controller card Disconnect the wire leading from the drive light on the front panel to the hard disk drive controller card. 2. Remove the retaining screw that secures the card at the back panel of the computer, taking care not to drop the screw. 6-12 Installing Options...
  • Page 125 Without disconnecting any cables, gently pull the card straight up, out of the slot, and then turn it over and lay it on the power supply. Removing the SPF card Unplug the disk drive cable from the SPF card as shown below. Pull it straight up and out, then lay it to one side, Installing Options 6-13...
  • Page 126 Remove the retaining screw that secures the SPF card at the back panel of the computer. Be careful not to drop the screw. Remove the card from the slot by pulling it straight up, as shown below, and set it on a soft surface with the components facing up. 6-14 Installing Options...
  • Page 127: Changing The Jumper Settings

    Changing the jumper settings Once you have removed the SPF card, you can change the necessary jumper settings. The illustration below shows the location of the jumpers on the card. Check the tables above to see which one(s) you need to change. To move a jumper from an A position to a B position, or vice versa, use your fingers or needle-nose pliers or tweezers to pull it off its current pins and gently move it to the other position, Be careful not...
  • Page 128 Replacing the SPF card Reinstall the SPF card in slot 9 as shown below, and secure it to the back of the computer with the retaining screw. Reconnect the disk drive cable to the card. 6-16 hulling Options...
  • Page 129: Removing An Option Card

    Replacing the hard disk drive controller card Reinstall the hard disk drive controller card in the appropriate slot and secure it to the back of the computer with the retaining screw. Reconnect the drive light wire to the card. Removing an Option Card If you later need to remove an option card, simply reverse the steps you followed to install it.
  • Page 130: Replacing The Cover

    Replacing the Cover After you install (or remove) an option card, follow these steps to replace the computer’s cover: Facing the front of the computer, position the cover on the computer as shown in the following illustration. Pull the sides outward slightly and ease the curved edge on each side of the cover underneath the ledge on the bottom of the computer.
  • Page 131: Post-Installation Setup

    Post-Installation Setup After you install an option card, memory modules, or a math coprocessor, you need to run the Setup program on the Reference diskette to update the configuration information. For example, if you add a hard disk, you need to let the computer know that it has the additional drive.
  • Page 132: Appendixes A Troubleshooting

    Appendix C, System Diagnostics, for instructions. If the suggestions in this appendix or Appendix C do not solve the problem, contact your authorized Epson dealer. Your dealer may be able to solve the problem; if not, he or she can refer you to an Authorized Epson Customer Care Center for service.
  • Page 133: The Computer Won't Start

    If the electrical outlet is working and all the connections are secure but your computer still won’t start, see your Epson dealer. The Computer Locks Up If the computer-does not respond to your keyboard entries, try the following: Check the key lock to see if it is locked.
  • Page 134: Monitor Problems

    Wait a few seconds. Remember that some operations the computer performs take longer than others. For example, it takes longer to recalculate an entire spreadsheet than to record one figure. If the computer remains locked up after you’ve allowed a reasonable amount of time, follow the steps in Chapter 4 to reset the computer.
  • Page 135: Diskette Problems

    Diskette Problems If you have trouble with one of your diskettes, see if any of the following questions apply: Is the diskette damaged? To find out, make a copy of the diskette. Using this copy, repeat the operation that caused the problem. If the operation works using the copy diskette, the original diskette is probably damaged.
  • Page 136: Hard Disk Problems

    Is the diskette write-protected? There may be a write-protect tab over the notch on the side of the diskette (5¼-inch) or the write- protect switch may be set (on a 3½-inch diskette). Before you remove the write-protection, check the directory of files for that diskette to see which files it contains;...
  • Page 137: Software Problems

    See Appendix D for details. You may want to contact your dealer before using this option. If none of the above procedures work, contact your Epson dealer or have an Authorized Epson Customer Care Center check your hard disk.
  • Page 138: Printer Problems

    Some programs work at only one operating speed. The Equity 386 can run at either 8 or 20 MHz. Check your software manual for this information and then change the CPU operating speed if necessary. Also see the description of the Auto speed function in Chapter 2 for information on accommodating copy-protected programs.
  • Page 139 If you used the option card to add an external device to your computer, did you use the proper cable to connect the device to the option card connector on the back panel? Did you run the Setup program to redefine your computer’s configuration after installing the option card? See Chapter 2.
  • Page 140: Power-On Diagnostics

    Appendix B Power-on Diagnostics The built-in memory (ROM) of your computer contains a series of diagnostics programs which your computer runs automatically every time you turn on the power. The diagnostics programs check the internal devices such as ROM, RAM, keyboard controller, timer, video controller, floppy disk driver, and hard disk controller.
  • Page 141: Clock And Cmos Ram Check

    If a fault in the main board is found, a number from 101 to 108 and an error message appear. This message is in the following format: l0x-System board error where x is a number from 1 to 8 that represents the specific LSI circuit in which the error is found.
  • Page 142: Ram Check

    RAM Check The computer now begins to check the RAM installed on the main memory card and any option cards. During this check, the screen displays this message: xxxxxx KB Ok where xxxxxx indicates the amount of memory in which no malfunction is found.
  • Page 143: Display Card Check

    If another failure is found, you see one of these messages: ‘j$Jj-Keyboard or system unit error J&Keyboard or system unit error Display Card Check The computer checks the color or monochrome display adapter card that is installed in the computer. An error number and message appear if any faults are found.
  • Page 144: Hard Disk Controller And Hard Disk Check

    Hard Disk Controller and Hard Disk Check The computer next checks the hard disk controller and drive unit. If a malfunction is found in the hard disk controller card, you see this error number and message: 1782-Disk controller failure If an error is found in the hard disk drive unit, one of these error messages appears: 178x-Disk x failure 179x-Disk x error...
  • Page 145: Performing System Diagnostics

    Appendix C Performing System Diagnostics This appendix describes how to check the operation of the main unit and peripheral devices of your Equity 386. You check these devices using the diagnostics program on your Reference diskette. Run the diagnostics program if you are not sure whether a device is performing correctly.
  • Page 146: Color Graphics Adapter And Crt

    Turn on or reset the computer. The OPERATION MENU appears. Press 3 to select System diagnostics When you start the System diagnostics, the computer checks the results of the power-on diagnostics and any peripheral devices that are connected to the system. Then you see a list of the devices available for testing.
  • Page 147: Modifying The Device List

    Once you confirm the DEVICE LIST, you can test only those items. If you decide later that you need to add a device, you must return to the OPERATION MENU and re-select System diagnostics. Modifying the DEVICE LIST If an installed device is missing from the DEVICE LIST, it is important that you add it to the list and test it carefully.
  • Page 148 To add a device to the list, press displays a list of other devices that are not currently included in the DEVICE LIST You see a menu similar to this: Additional DEVICE LIST 4 - Monochrome display adapter and CRT 7 - Math coprocessor 12 - Alternate serial port 21 - Alternate parallel port...
  • Page 149: Selecting A Test

    When the DEVICE LIST is correct, press 0 and then screen displays the modified DEVICE LIST for a final check. If the list is correct, press Y and You are now ready to select a test. Selecting a Test From the DEVICE LIST, select the device you wish to test. Type the number of the device, then press are asked how many times to perform the test.
  • Page 150: Resuming From An Error

    Press Y and to terminate checking if the device produces an Enter error, or press Enter You see this prompt: How many times Type the number of times you wish to repeat the test, then press The tests for the device now start. Enter.
  • Page 151: System Board Check

    If an error occurs, make a copy or a printout of the error code and message, and contact your Epson dealer or service center for assistance. Attempting to correct system board errors yourself may violate your warranty agreement.
  • Page 152: Keyboard Check

    , you see a message such as the following: 000640 KB OK If an error occurs, make a copy or a printout of the error code and message, and contact your Epson dealer or service center. Attempting to correct memory errors yourself may violate your warranty agreement.
  • Page 153: Monochrome Display Adapter And Crt Check

    You can find diagrams of all the international keyboard layouts in the MS-DOS manual. If any key is incorrect, press error code and message, or print them out, and contact your Epson dealer or service center. Monochrome Display Adapter and CRT Check Use this option to verify the operation of a monochrome display adapter, VGA, or EGA attached to a monchrome monitor.
  • Page 154: Monochrome Adapter Check

    0 - Exit Enter selection number: If an error occurs during any of these tests, record the error code and message, or print them out. Then contact your Epson dealer or service center. Monochrome Adapter Check To check the monochrome adapter, press...
  • Page 155: Video Check

    Character Set Check To check your character set, press 3 and then fonts that are included in the internal character generator display on your screen. Compare your screen display to this illustration: CHARACTER SET CHECK Is the display correct (Y/N)? After checking the character fonts, respond to the prompt: the display correct (Y/N)? If the characters match the illustration, press Y and...
  • Page 156: 11 - Run All Above Checks

    Run All Above Checks To run all the tests on the menu in sequence, press 6 and When you choose this option, all checks for the monochrome adapter and CRT are performed automatically in sequential order. Although you do not start each test, you must still supply the appropriate responses to progress from one test to the next.
  • Page 157: Color Graphics Adapter Check

    If an error occurs during any of these tests, record the error code and message, or print them out. Then contact your Epson dealer or service center. Color Graphics Adapter Check To check the color graphics adapter, press computer checks the video RAM (display memory) on the display adapter by writing test data to memory, and then reading it back and comparing it to the written data.
  • Page 158: 40-Column Character Set Check

    I s t h e d i s p l a y c o r r e c t ( Y / N ) ? After checking the character fonts, respond to the prompt: Is the display correct (Y/N)? If the characters match the illustration, press you find a problem with the characters on the screen, press to display the error message.
  • Page 159: 320X200 Graphics Mode Check

    40-COLUMN CHARACTER display After checking the character fonts, respond to the prompt: Is the display correct (Y/N)? If the characters match the illustration, press Y and a problem with the characters on the screen, press display the error message. 320x200 Graphics Mode Check check your 320x200 graphics mode, press 5 and then screen displays three colored squares-light green, brown, and red- against a cyan background.
  • Page 160: 640X200 Graphics Mode Check

    640x200 Graphics Mode Check check your 640x200 graphics mode, press 6 then screen displays three patterned squares against a contrasting background, as shown below. 640X200 GRAPHICS MODE CHECK Is the display correct (Y/H)? If the patterns on your screen are clear and distinct, press Y and then If any pattern is not clear, first check the adjustment of your Enter.
  • Page 161: Light Pen Check

    Once you examine this screen, press any key to display the next page. The eight pages, numbered 0 to 7, are displayed sequentially. After the eighth page appears, you see the prompt: Is the display correct (Y/N)? If all eight pages are correct, press Y and with an incorrect number, press message.
  • Page 162: Color Video Check

    If you do not have a light pen attached, press the test, press Y and Enter. PLACE LIGHT PEN ON CENTER OF WHITE BLOCK Touch the center of the white block on the screen with the light pen. When the light pen is correctly positioned, the block moves to another part of the screen for a second test.
  • Page 163: Sync Check

    Sync Check This test is provided for service purposes only. If you accidentally select this option, press any key to end the test. Run All Above Checks To run all the tests on the menu in sequence, press When you choose this option, all checks for the color adapter and CRT are performed automatically in sequential order.
  • Page 164: Sequential Seek Check

    The track number counts down (from 39 or 79) to 0. The seek is performed by each head, so you see the count twice. If no errors occur, the menu displays. C-20 Performing System If any errors occur, record the error Enter.
  • Page 165: Random Seek Check

    Random Seek Check This test is identical to the sequential seek check, except that the seek operation is performed on each track in random order instead of sequential order. Select option 2 from the menu to start this test. Write, Read Check This test checks the ability of the selected disk drive to read and write data from a diskette.
  • Page 166: Run All Above Checks

    Run All Above Checks run all the tests on the menu in sequence, press 4 and then When you choose this option, all checks for the diskette drive(s) and controller are performed automatically in sequential order. Although you do not start each test, you must still supply the appropriate responses to progress from one test to the next.
  • Page 167: Alternate Parallel Port Check

    Insert the loop-back connector. Then press Y and check. The computer checks the port by writing and reading data and control information, and reports errors for any pins that are faulty. Note that if you connect a printer cable instead of a loop-back connector, you will get errors.
  • Page 168 When you select option 11 from the DEVICE LIST, you see these prompts: Attach loop-back connector to serial port. Enter Y to start this check when connector is attached, or Enter N to return to the menu. Insert the loop-back connector. Then press Y and check.
  • Page 169: Alternate Serial Port Check

    Alternate Serial Port Check Use this option to test the functions of an additional serial communications (RS-232C) port. To perform the test you must insert a special loop-back connector into the alternate serial port so that the computer can check individual pins of the port. This test is identical to the check for the primary serial port.
  • Page 170: Hard Disk Drives And Controller Check

    The bit-image data is sent to the printer using a command (ESC K) compatible with Epson and IBM printers. If this pattern is printed correctly, you can use the MS-DOS GRAPHICS command to print out copies of graphics screens.
  • Page 171: Seek Check

    When you select a check from this menu, the program determines the number of hard disk drives installed in your computer. If you have more than one physical drive, then each time you select a test you see this prompt: Check which drive (C/D)? Press C or and then...
  • Page 172: Read, Verify Check

    Select option 2 from the menu to start this test. You see these messages: The data on the highest physical d e s t r o y e d b y t h i s c h e c k . Enter Y to start this check.
  • Page 173: Run All Above Tests

    The cylinder number counts down to 0. At the end of the test, you see a table of the results of the test. For example, for a hard disk with no bad tracks, you see: BAD TRACKS ..... READ ERROR TRACKS .
  • Page 174: Error Codes And Messages

    Error Codes and Messages The following table lists all the error codes and messages that may appear during diagnostics checks. Error codes and messages Message Error code System board 80386 CPU ERROR 27256 ROM CHECKSUM ERROR 8254 TIMER COUNTER REGISTER ERROR 8254 TIMER COUNTER ERROR 8237 DMA CONTROLLER REGISTER ERROR 8237 DMA REFRESH ERROR...
  • Page 176 Error codes and messages (continued) Error code Message Alternate serial port control signal ALWAYS LOW 1201 control signal ALWAYS HIGH 1201 TIMEOUT ERROR 1202 VERIFY ERROR 1203 Dot-matrix printer status 1401 Hard disk drives and controller 1701 SEEK ERROR WRITE ERROR 1702 READ ERROR 1703...
  • Page 177: Physically Formatting A Hard Disk

    Appendix D Physically Formatting a Hard Disk This appendix describes how to physically format a hard disk. This operation, sometimes called low-level or hard formatting, should not be confused with the logical formatting process performed by the MS-DOS FORMAT command. The physical formatting of a hard disk is a separate step that is usually performed by the disk manufacturer.
  • Page 178: Formatting And Checking Options

    Formatting and Checking Options To perform a physical format or to determine if a hard disk needs to be physically reformatted, follow these steps: Insert the Reference diskette in drive A. Turn on or reset the computer. The OPERATION MENU appears.
  • Page 179: Conditional Format (Normal

    Many hard disk drives are supplied with a list of bad tracks, but without the bad tracks flagged on the disk. Other hard disks are supplied with the bad tracks already flagged. In all cases, run the Non-destructive surface analysis before formatting the disk; this routine finds all bad tracks that are not flagged.
  • Page 180 When the scan is complete, the program displays information about the condition of the disk. For a hard disk with no bad tracks, the display looks like this: Scanning finished. Count of tracks flagged bad Count of tracks with other errors Count of good tracks The program then displays a warning about the consequences of proceeding with formatting:...
  • Page 181 When formatting is complete, any bad tracks are flagged, and you see a series of messages like these: Format finished. Flagging bad tracks... Cylinder is xxxx, head is yy Format completed. Press ENTER to return to the menu. Flagged tracks are identified by xxxx and yy. At this point, press to return to the HARD DISK FORMAT MENU.
  • Page 182: Unconditional Format

    Unconditional Format Use this option to format your hard disk when you want to enter the list of bad tracks before formatting begins. The main difference between unconditional and conditional formatting is the way in which bad tracks are identified. With the unconditional format, you must enter the list of bad tracks before formatting begins.
  • Page 183 Some of the messages change if the table is full or empty. However, the way that you add a bad track or make a correction is the same. add a bad track, follow these steps: Press You see this prompt: Enter cylinder number (1 - xxxx): Type the number of the cylinder containing the bad track you want to enter, and press...
  • Page 184: Destructive Surface Analysis

    Destructive Surface Analysis Use this option to accurately locate any bad tracks on a hard disk, and to flag any bad tracks that are not flagged. This test operates by a complex process of writing, reading, and verifying information on every track of the hard disk, except for tracks that are already flagged as bad tracks.
  • Page 185: Non-Destructive Surface Analysis

    If the program finds one bad track that is not flagged, the summary would show one track with a write, read error. The report is then followed by a table like this: -=====---_=_---------------- Cylinder Head Cylinder Head Confirm to register the tracks in the Write, Read Error Track Table as bad tracks.
  • Page 186 When the analysis is complete, the program displays a summary of the status of the disk. This summary lists these counts: Flagged bad tracks Tracks with read, verify errors Good tracks. If no errors occur, you see this message: read, verify error was detected. If errors are found, the program displays a table of the tracks that gave errors, similar to the one displayed by the destructive analysis.
  • Page 187: Hard Disk Drive Types

    7 3 3 4 2 . 6 6 6 3 2 0 . 3 977 40.5 CDC94205-51 1023 59.5 6 7 0 2 0 . 4 Hard No fixed disk 10.2 (Used by ESDI) 20.4 (1) 30.6 20.4 30.7 30.4 112.1 20.4 35.5 49.7...
  • Page 189: F Specifications

    Controllers Floppy disk Hard disk Interfaces Serial Parallel 80386 microprocessor, 8 or 20 MHz clockrate, switch-selectable Real, protected, and virtual 8086 modes 0 wait state (or 1 wait state selectable through software) 32-bit address and 32-bit data bus 1MB RAM on memory card; expandable...
  • Page 190: Power Supply

    Option slots Speaker Clock/calendar Power Supply Mass Storage Standard Optional Optional Optional Optional Optional Optional F-2 Specifications Nine input/output expansion slots; three with B-bit bus and six with 16-bit bus; one slot occupied by the serial/parallel/floppy disk controller card, another occupied by a hard disk controller card if installed Internal, with volume control Real-time clock, calendar, and 104-byte...
  • Page 191: Keyboard

    Four levels (normal, shift, control, alternate); user-definable Operating range: 41° to 104° F (5° to 35° C) Storage range: 22° to 158° F (-20° to 60° C) Operating range: 20% to 80%, non-condensing Storage range: 20% to 90%, non-condensing 19.6 inches (498.5 mm) 17.4 inches (442.3 mm)
  • Page 192: Glossary

    MS-DOS. See also Batch Auto speed The Equity 386 feature that enables it to automatically switch from 20 MHz to 8 MHz when accessing the diskette drive (for copy-protected programs). Backup An extra copy of a program, data file, or disk, kept in case your working copy is damaged or lost.
  • Page 193: Base Memory

    Base memory The amount of memory in the computer below 1MB that is available to MS-DOS and application programs-usually 640KB. Also called main memory. Batch file A type of file that lets you execute a series of MS-DOS commands by typing one command. Batch files are text files with the filename extension .BAT.
  • Page 194: Command Prompt

    A type of program that cannot be copied. Some copy-protected programs require you to leave the program diskette in the diskette drive while you are using it. Some also require the computer to be running at 8 MHz instead of 20 MHz. and press Ctrl...
  • Page 195: Default Drive

    C P U Central Processing Unit. The primary unit of the computer that interprets instructions, performs the tasks you indicate, keeps track of stored data, and controls all input and output operations. Current directory The directory you are logged onto and working in. Also known as the directory default...
  • Page 196: Dip Switch

    Delimiter A character or space used to separate different parts of an MS-DOS command. Device A piece of equipment that is part of a computer system and performs a specific task, such as a disk drive, a monitor, or a printer.
  • Page 197: Extended Memory

    Execution speed The speed at which the central processing unit can execute commands. Also called operating speed. The Equity 386 can run at 8 MHz or 20 MHz. Expanded memory Memory above 1MB that can be made available to certain MS-DOS application programs via LIM EMS 4.0.
  • Page 198: Floppy Disk

    Extended partition An additional MS-DOS partition; you can create one primary MS-DOS partition and one extended partition. Extension A suffix of up to three characters that can be added to a file name to better identify it. External command An MS-DOS command stored in a program file with the extension .COM or .EXE.
  • Page 199 Hard disk The enclosed unit used to store data permanently. Unlike a diskette, it is fixed in place. It can process data more rapidly and store many more files than a diskette. Hardware Any physical component of a computer system, such as a monitor, printer, keyboard, or CPU.
  • Page 200: Main Memory

    Key disk A diskette containing a copy-protected program that must remain in the diskette drive while you are using the program. Kilobyte (KB) A unit used to measure storage space in a computer’s memory or on a disk. One kilobyte equals 1024 bytes. LIM EMS Version 4.0 of the Lotus/Intel/Microsoft Expanded Memory Specification-a protocol that allows certain application programs...
  • Page 201: Memory Module

    A unit used to measure oscillation frequency (of a computer’s internal timing clock). A megahertz is one million cycles per second. The Equity 386 computer operates at 8 MHz or 20 MHz. Memory The area where your computer stores data. Memory contents can be permanent and inalterable (ROM) or temporary (RAM).
  • Page 202: Numeric Keypad

    Operating speed The speed at which the central processing unit can execute commands. Also called execution speed. The Equity 386 can run at 8 MHz or 20 MHz. Operating system A collection of programs (such as MS-DOS) that manages a computer’s operations.
  • Page 203 Partition The area defined on a hard disk for use by an operating system; to divide a hard disk into separate sections or logical drives. Pathname The list of directories and subdirectories you need to specify to locate a file. For example, the pathname for the file SALES which is located in the subdirectory BUSINESS of the root directory (\) is \BUSINESS\SALES.
  • Page 204 Read To move data from one area to another. For example, when you open a text file stored on disk, the computer reads the data from the disk and displays it on the screen. Read/write head The physical device inside a disk drive that reads and records data on the magnetic surface of a disk.
  • Page 205: Shadow Ram

    Sector A contiguous section of a disk track that provides an address at which the computer can access data. Self test The initial diagnostics procedures a system performs to check its hardware. Serial The type of interface that transmits data one bit at a time. See Interface and Parallel.
  • Page 206: System Diagnostics

    Switch An option added to an MS-DOS command that modifies the way the command works. Switches are usually preceded by a / (forward slash). For example, if you add the /S switch to a FORMAT command, MS-DOS installs the operating system on a diskette as it formats it.
  • Page 207 Wildcard A character that represents any character or group of characters. The wildcard character * (asterisk) represents a group of characters, and the wildcard character ? (question mark) represents a single character. Write To store data on a disk. Write-protect To protect the data on a diskette from being changed by placing a write-protect tab over the notch on the side of a 5¼-inch diskette or by setting the write-protect switch on a 3½-inch diskette.
  • Page 208 Alternate parallel port check, C-23 Alternate serial port check, C-25 APPEND, 5-15 Auto speed function, 2-6-7 AUTOEXEC.BAT, 5-6, 5-30 -31 Backing up, 5-20 -23 with BACKUP 5-23 with DISKCOPY, 5-20 -22 BACKUP 4-20, 5-20, 5-23 Base memory, 2-3 Batch files, 5-6 AUTOEXEC.BAT, 5-30 -31...
  • Page 209 1-4, 1-9 printer, 1-6 -9 Control codes CTRL ALT DEL, 4-5 CTRL C, 4-4 Controllers, F-1 COPY, 3-1, 3-11, 4-12, 5-6 -8, 5-20 Copying diskettes, 4-12, 4-16 -17 files, 4-12 system diskettes, 1-15 -16 Copy-protected programs, 2-6 -7...
  • Page 210 5-15 naming, 5-12 on diskettes, 5-12 pathnames for, 5-12 -15 removing, 5-16 root, 5-11 -12 DISKCOPY, 4-12, 4-17, 5-20 -22 Diskette drives, see also Hard disks assignments, 4-17 -18, 5-2 caring for, 4-12 -13 compatibility, 4-11 configuring, 2-9 -10...
  • Page 211 Extended memory, 2-3, 5-34 Extended partition, 3-4, 3-6-9 External command, 5-4 FDISK, 3-1, 3-5 -9, D-1 Files, MS-DOS, AUTOEXEC.BAT, 5-6, 5-30-31 backing up, 5-20-23 batch, 5-6, 5-30-31 COMMAND.COM, 5-11, A-5 CONFIG.SYS, 5-11, 5-32 copying, 5-6 -8 creating and managing, 5-5 -10 deleting, 5-9 EEMM386.EXE, 5-32 -34...
  • Page 212 4-20 check, 3-2-3 controller and drive check, B-5, C-26 -29 enhancing performance, 4-19 how they work, 4-8 -9 parking the heads, 4-20 -21 partitioning, 3-1, 3-4 -8 precautions, 4-19 preparing for moving, 4-20 -21 preparing for use, 3-1 -13...
  • Page 213 2-3 cards, 6-3 check, C-7 -8 extended, 2-3 main, 2-3 modules, Intro-l, 6-1 -3 setting, 2-3-5 MENU program, 5-17, 5-20, 5-25 -27 MGA card, see Video cards MKDIR (MD), 5-16 MODE, 1-9 Modems, connecting, 1-8 -9 Monitor, connecting, 1-4 -6...
  • Page 214 5-8 -9 starting, 5-1 starting from hard disk, 3-13 MS OS/2, Intro-2, 3-2 Non-destructive surface analysis, D-2, D-9 -10 Optional RAM check, B-4 Option cards, 6-1, 6-3 -20 configuring, 6-19 installing, 6-6 -17 memory, 6-3 problems, A-7 -8 removing, 6-17 -19...
  • Page 215 Parameters, 5-3 Partitioning, 3-1, 3-4 -8 PATH, 5-15 Pathnames, 5-12 -15 absolute and relative, 5-12 -13 including drive letters in, 5-14 including filenames in, 5-13 -14 Physical characteristics, F-3 Physical formatting, D-1 -10 formatting and checking options, D-1 -3 Power, connecting, 1-9 cord, 1-9 source, 1-4...
  • Page 216 RMDIR (RD), 5-16 RESET button, 4-4 -5 Resetting the computer, 4-4 -5 ROM, see Read only memory ROM BIOS, 2-8 Root directory, 5-11 -12 Sectors, 4-9 SELECT, 3-1, 3-9 -11, D-1 Serial, see also SPF card cable, 1-9 interface, 1-8 -9 port, 1-8 -9 port check (RS-232C), C-23 -24 SETMODE, 1-9...
  • Page 217 Video graphics array (VGA) card, see Video cards Video monitors, 2-5 -6 VOLUME control knob, 4-4 Wildcard characters, 5-8 Write-protect notch, 4-15 -16 Write-protect switch, 4-16 Write-protect tab, 4-15 Write-protecting diskettes, 4-15 -16 XCOPY, 4-12, 5-6, 5-20 XENIX, 3-2 XTREE, 5-20, 5-27 -29 10 Index...
  • Page 218 hard disk indicator light release latch drive slot control switch knob option card slots voltage switch power outlet power inlet parallel port serial port...

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386Equity 386/20

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