IMPORTANT SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS Read all of these instructions and save them for lacer reference. Follow all warnings and instructions marked on the product. Unplug this product from the wall outlet before cleaning. Do not use liquid cleaners or aerosol cleaners. Use a damp cloth for cleaning.
11. Never push objects of any kind into this product through cabinet slots, as they may touch dangerous voltage points or short out parts that could result in a risk of fire or electric shock. Never spill liquid of any kind on the product. 12.
While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this publication, Epson America assumes no responsibility for errors or omissions. Nor is any liability assumed for damages resulting from the use of the information contained herein.
If the interference stops, it is caused by either the peripheral device or its I/O cable. These devices usually require shielded I/O cables. For Epson peripheral devices, you can obtain the proper shielded cable from your dealer. For non-Epson peripheral devices contact the manufacturer or dealer for assistance.
MS-DOS provided in this manual, you’ll find a comprehensive reference manual for the operating system pack4 in the box with your computer. As a supplement to MS-DOS, Epson has included several time- saving utilities that make MS-DOS easier to use: HELP, MENU, and XTREE.
As your needs grow, so can your computer; you can expand your system by adding a wide variety of options. You can install most option cards compatible with the IBM” Personal Computer. For example, you can add an internal modem card to provide data communications.
At the back of the manual you’ll find a glossary of computer terms and an index. Where to Get Help Customer service for Epson products is provided by a network of authorized Epson Customer Care Centers throughout the United States.
You’ll find a warranty card and a registration card with the computer. Fill out the registration card and mail it to Epson. With this card on file, Epson can send you update information. Be sure to keep your packing materials. They provide the best protection for your computer if you need to transport it later.
Save the protector computer. If you don’t plan to use your computer for a week or more, reinsert disk drive. Choosing a Location Before you set up your computer, it is important to choose the right location. Select a spot that provides the following: A large, sturdy desk or table that can easily support the weight of your system, including all its components.
Moderate environmental conditions. Protect your computer from extremes in temperature, direct sunlight, or any other source of heat. High humidity also hinders operation, so select a cool, dry area. Avoid dust and smoke, which can damage disks and disk drives and cause you to lose valuable data.
The procedure you use to connect your monitor to the computer depends on the type of monitor you have. See your monitor manual for detailed instructions or follow these general guidelines: 1. Place your monitor on top of or near the computer. It is easiest to connect the monitor cable if the backs of the monitor and the computer are facing you.
Plug the other end of the power cord into an electrical outlet. Note If the monitor has the proper type of plug, you can plug at into the auxiliary power outlet next to the AC power inlet on the back of the computer. If you connected the monitor to the MGA card in the computer, set the color/mono monitor switch on the card to match the type of monitor you are using, either color or...
Connecting a Peripheral Device The computer has a parallel interface and a serial interface on the back panel; so you can easily connect a printer or other device with either type of interface. For example, you can use the parallel port to connect a parallel printer;...
3. Connect the other end of the cable to the printer as shown below. If the printer has retaining clips on each side of the printer port, squeeze them together to secure the cable. 4. Plug the printer’s power cord into an electrical outlet. Setting Up Your System...
Using the Serial Interface If you have a printer, modem, mouse, or any other peripheral with a serial interface, you can connect it to the serial (RS-232C) port on the back of the computer. The Apex uses a 25-pin male connector, so be sure you have the proper cable. If you are not sure, check with the store where you bought the computer and printer.
Program” in Appendix A for instructions. To redirect the printer data you can use either the MS-DOS MODE command or the Epson MENU utility. (MENU provides an easy way to use MODE. For instructions, see the description of the Mode Settings option of the MENU program in your MS-DOS Reference Manual.)
Connecting the Keyboard Follow these steps to connect the keyboard: 1. Facing the front of the computer, open the cover on the lower right comer; use the tip of your finger to pull it open from the right side. Setting Up Your System 1-11...
2. Plug the keyboard cable into the socket, as shown below. Do not force the connector, but be sure to insert it all the way. 3. Push the cable into the notch at the right side of the computer, as shown below, so the cable leads away to the right side of the computer.
Adjusting the Keyboard Angle You can change the angle of the keyboard by adjusting the legs on the bottom. Follow these steps: 1. Turn the keyboard over. 2. Press down on the front part of each leg, as shown below, and then use your thumbs to lift up the legs until they lock into place.
Only remove the cover to install and remove optional devices. If there is a hardware problem you cannot solve after reading the appropriate section in Chapter 5 on troubleshooting, contact your Epson Customer Care Center. Always turn off the power, disconnect all cables, and wait five seconds before you remove the computer’s cover.
2. To turn on the computer, press the power switch. The power indicator on the front panel lights up. After a few seconds, the computer starts to perform an internal self test. This is a series of checks the computer completes each time you turn it on to make sure everything is working correctly.
If you have the Apex 100 (no hard disk), the computer does not load MS-DOS, but instead displays the following: Non-system disk or disk error Insert system diskette in drive A and strike any key when ready These messages tell you that you need to insert the MS-DOS Startup (system) diskette in the top drive, drive A, so the computer can load the operating system.
2. When the diskette is in all the way, turn the latch down (clockwise) to lock the diskette in place. (For detailed instructions on inserting diskettes, see Chapter 2.) 3. Press any key. The computer loads MS-DOS into its memory where it will remain until you turn off the computer.
You need to set the date and time this way only once; the computer’s real-time clock keeps track of the date and time even when the computer is off. The next time you load MS-DOS, you can these prompts to accept the displayed date and time. MS-DOS updates months and years correctly-whether the month has 31, 30, 29, or 28 days—and even accounts for leap years.
If you load MS-DOS from the hard disk, the command prompt looks like this: C:\> The hard disk prompt is different because the Apex been set up with a special command that changes the command prompt to show the current directory. (A directory consists of a group of files stored together under an identifying name.
2. If the date is correct, press Enter to leave it unchanged. To change the date, type the appropriate numbers for the month, day, and year, as shown. For example, to set the date for August 30, 1989, type the following and press Enter: 8-30-89 3.
Copying System Diskettes Now that you have set up your system and loaded MS-DOS, it is important that you make copies of your MS-DOS and Reference diskettes right away. Use only the copies (usually called “working copies”) for daily use and store the originals in a safe place.
3. Insert a blank 5 1/4-inch 360KB diskette in drive B (the bottom drive) and turn the latch down to secure the diskette. 4. Type the following and press Enter. DISKCOPY A: B: The screen displays these prompts: Insert SOURCE diskette in drive A: Insert TARGET diskette in drive B: Press any key when ready ...
8. Repeat the procedure for the Startup diskette and the Reference diskette. 9. When you finish copying the last system diskette and the Copy another diskette (Y/N)? prompt appears, press N to return to the MS-DOS command prompt. Copying Diskettes on the Apex l00\20 1.
Then press contents of the Startup diskette to the computer’s memory, and then you see the following: Insert TARGET diskette in drive A: Press any key when ready . . . 4. Remove the Startup diskette and insert a blank diskette (which is to be the target) in the drive.
Chapter 2 Using Your Computer This chapter covers the following basic procedures for using your computer: Changing the operating speed Using special keys on the keyboard Interrupting a command or program Resetting and turning off the computer Using disks and disk drives. Changing the Operating Speed Your computer can operate at two speeds: 4.77 MHz or 10 MHz.
WARNING You can change the speed while the computer is on, but do not change it while you are running a program. Complete your current operation, exit the program to the MS-DOS command prompt, and then change the speed. Using Special Keys Certain keys on your keyboard serve special functions when your computer is running application programs.
Purpose Backspace Moves the cursor back one space, deleting the character to the left of the cursor. Ends a line of keyboard input or executes a Enter command (may be called the Return key in some application program manuals). Caps Lock Changes the letter keys from lower- to uppercase;...
Stopping a Command or Program You may sometimes need to stop a command or program while it is running. Many application programs provide a command you can use to cancel or even undo an operation. If you have entered an MS-DOS command that you want to stop, try one of the following commands: Hold down the Ctrl key and press C Hold down the Ctrl key and press Break.
WARNING Do not reset the computer to extra Do not the program unless you have to Same application progress classify and store new data when you exit the program. If you reset the computer without properly exiting the program, you may lose data To reset the computer, MS-DOS must be either on the hard disk or on a diskette in drive A;...
Using Disks and Disk Drives The disk drives in your computer allow you to store data on disk, and then retrieve and use it when you like. The Apex 100 has two 360KB diskette drives and the Apex 100\20 has one 360KB diskette drive and one 20MB hard disk.
stored. Double-density diskettes have either 40 or 80 tracks, and high-density diskettes have 80 tracks. The double-density, 360KB diskettes you use in your Apex have 40 tracks. A hard disk consists of two or more platters stacked on top of one another;...
Your computer uses the read/write heads in a disk drive to store and retrieve data on a disk. There is one head above the diskette and one below, so the drive can write to both sides of the diskette. To write to a disk, the computer spins it in the drive to a position where one of the read/write heads can access the diskette through the read/write slot.
If you have an optional 720KB drive, use 3 l/2-inch, double- sided, double-density, 135 TPI, 720KB diskettes with this drive. These diskettes contain 80 tracks per side, 9 sectors per track, and hold up to 720KB of information-approximately 300 pages of text. Note You cannot use 3 1/2-inch diskettes that have been formed for 1.44MB in a 720KB diskette drive.
Keep diskettes away from magnetic fields. (Remember that diskettes store information magnetically.) There are many sources of magnetism in your home or office, such as electrical appliances, telephones, and loudspeakers. Do not place diskettes on top of your monitor or near an external disk drive.
If you have the Apex 100\20, follow these additional precautions to protect your hard disk drive and its data: Never turn off the computer when the hard disk drive light is on. This light indicates that the computer is copying data to or from the hard disk.
If a diskette is in the drive but the latch is up (horizontal) and you enter a command for that drive, the computer cannot tell there is a diskette in the drive and displays an error message such as this: Drive A: not ready Make sure a diskette is inserted into the drive and the door is closed...
To remove a 3 1/2-inch diskette, press the release button to release it. When the edge pops out of the drive, pull out the diskette and store it properly. WARNING Never remove a diskette or num off the computer while the drive indicator light is on.
N o t e Some program diskettes, such as your have no notch so they are permanently write-protected. This protects them from being accidentally erased or altered. On a 3 1/2-inch diskette, the write-protect device is a small switch on the lower right comer on the back, shown below. To write-protect a 3 1/2-inch diskette, slide the switch toward the edge of the diskette in the comer.
Chapter 1 describes how to use DISKCOPY to copy your MS-DOS and Reference diskettes. To make backups of other diskettes, use the DISKCOPY command or the MENU program. See Chapter 3 for more instructions on using DISKCOPY and MENU. If you have the Apex 100\20, it is best to put most of the programs and data files you use regularly on the hard disk.
On the Apex 100\20, you can load the operating system and application programs from the hard disk, create and store your data there, and use the diskette drive from diskettes. Note If you have only one diskette drive and no hard disk, you need to use that drive to load the operating system as well as the application programs you are using.
See Chapter 3 for instructions on how to use directories. Epson also includes the XTREE utility with MS-DOS. XTREE provides simple menus that allow you to move, create, delete, and rename files and directories. This program is especially useful on the hard disk drive because of the large number of files the disk can hold.
Preparing the hard disk for moving If you need to move your Apex 100\20 to a new location- whether it is across the is a program you should run to protect the hard disk before you turn off the computer. The HDSIT program moves the disk drive’s read/write heads to a region on the disk surface that does not contain data, and locks them securely in position.
Types of MS-DOS commands Entering an MS-DOS command Creating and managing files Using directories Formatting diskettes Backing up data Using special Epson utilities Using an AUTOEXEC.BAT file. features create your own programs, see Using MS-DOS With Your Computer MS-DOS about...
Starting and Exiting MS-DOS Before you can run an MS-DOS application program, MS-DOS must be running in memory. Chapter 1 describes how to load MS-DOS on your computer. If you have the Apex 100\20, the computer loads MS-DOS from the hard disk automatically when you turn on the computer.
Using Drive Designators MS-DOS uses letters to identify the disk drives in your system. If you have one diskette drive, it is known as drive A. If you have two diskette drives, the top one is called drive A and the bottom drive is B.
Changing the default drive To change the default drive, type the letter of the drive you want to change to, followed by a colon. Then press Enter. For example, to change the default from A to C, type the following and press Enter: MS-DOS acknowledges the change by displaying the command C>.
run an external command, MS-DOS must be able to locate the file containing the command’s instructions. If it cannot find the file, MS-DOS gives you an error message. If you have the Apex 100\20, all the external files are on your hard disk (drive C) in a directory named \DOS;...
The MS-DOS command format consists of the command name, parameters, and delimiters. The command name tells MS-DOS the task you want the computer to perform. Parameters specify details such as what data you want co process and where to locate or store a file. Delimiters are characters such as spaces or commas that separate command names and parameters.
You can enter an MS-DOS command whenever you see the MS-DOS command prompt. Type the command name and any necessary parameters and delimiters and then press Enter to execute the command. MS-DOS does not execute your command until you press Enter. You can type command names and parameters in either uppercase or lowercase letters.
Naming Files Each file must have a unique filename so you can retrieve it when you need to. The filename consists of two parts: the name and the extension (which is optional). You can choose a name up to eight characters long. Create a name that identifies the information the file contains.
Copying Files You can use the COPY command to copy individual files or groups of files. COPY is an internal command; you can use it any time you see the MS-DOS command prompt. You can use the COPY command to copy files in several ways: You can copy individual files from one disk to another You can copy a group of files using wildcard characters You can copy one or more files and give them new names...
To copy the file named name the copy FACTS, COPY REPORT FACTS Now you have two files on the default drive that have the same contents but different names. In this example, you can omit the drive designators because the original file and the copy are both on the current drive.
To copy REPORT, FACTS, and MEMO from drive A to a file named DATA on drive B, type the following and press Enter: COPY A:REPORT + A:FACTS + A:MEMO B:DATA Remember these rules when copying files: You must tell MS-DOS where to find the original file and where to store the copy;...
You can shorten the RENAME command to the name of a file from HAMMERS to WRENCHES, therefore, you can type the following and press Enter: REN HAMMERS WRENCHES You can use wildcards to rename groups of files. For example, to change just the extensions of all files on drive B with the extension .NEW to .OLD, type the following and press Enter: REN B:*.NEW *.OLD...
You can use wildcards to delete groups of files. For example, to delete all files on the diskette in drive A (in the current directory), you could type the following and press Enter: DEL A:*.* Because deleting all files is a serious procedure, MS-DOS prompts you to confirm the command when you use the *.* wildcard combination with the DEL command.
3. Type the name of the device, such as LPT1, and press Enter. MS-DOS prints the file on your printer. See your MS-DOS Reference Manual for more information on the PRINT command. Using Directories You can create many files on a diskette, and a hard disk can store thousands of files.
As the number of files in your WORDPROC and SPDSHEET directories grows, you can create additional directories subordinate to those two-like this, for example: This structure would let you segregate your business word processing files from your personal word processing files, and your sales spreadsheets from spreadsheet files used for financial projections.
The following sections discuss the basics of creating and using directories. Note: The XTREE utility provides a simple way to see and organize your directories. See the description of XTREE later in this chapter. The Default Directory MS-DOS always recognizes one directory as the current directory, just as it always recognizes one drive as the default drive.
To change from PERSONAL back to WORDPROC, you can use the special symbol . . (two periods) or you can use an absolute pathname. (The . . symbol always designates the parent directory, which is the level above the current directory.) In other words, you can type: CD .
Relative pathnames can tell MS-DOS to move upward in the directory tree as well as downward. The symbol . . (two periods) in a pathname tells MS-DOS to move upward one level in the tree. Thus, if the default directory were WORDPROC (in the above example), the pathname .
example, suppose you are logged onto the root directory drive and you want to delete the file JEAN1204.DOC, which is stored in the directory \ WORDPROC\ PERSONAL of drive C. Enter the command as follows: \WORDPROC\PERSONAL\JEAN1204.DOC Note that if you change from one drive to another and then try to access a file on the previous drive, MS-DOS remembers which was the default directory when you were last logged onto that drive.
Note MS-DOS provides several commands that make using pathnames easy: APPEND lets you set a search path for date files and executable files so MS-DOS known where to find them even if you don' specify the drive and directory. PATH lets you specify a search path for commands and programs files;...
In this case, you do not need to specify the path to the LEDGER directory because it is the default directory. Listing the Contents of a Directory You can use the DIR command to list all the files in a particular directory.
This switch causes screenful of information. key. Another way to view a long directory listing is to use the /W switch: DIR /W This displays the directory listing in a wide format, as follows: Directory of File(s) As you can see, this type of listing does not show the size file or the time and date it was last modified.
The screen displays a report for every directory on the drive, for example: C:\LEDGER Path: Sub-directories:RECEIV If you would also like to see a list of all the files in the directories, add the /F switch to the command: TREE /F The screen displays the directory information shown above plus the names of all files in each subdirectory, for example: C:LEDGER\SALES...
To delete an empty directory from a disk, use the RMDIR command, or its shorthand equivalent, RD. For example, to remove the directory ACCOUNTS, which is a subdirectory in the LEDGER directory, type the following and press Enter: RD \LEDGER\ACCOUNTS If you are currently in the LEDGER directory, you can enter the command as follows: RD ACCOUNTS...
Note Besides the method described below, you can also format diskettes using the Epson MENU utility. This program is easy to use because it lets you select options from a Menu. For more information, see the section on MENU later in this chapter or see your MS-DOS Reference Manual.
The formatted diskette is now ready to store data. See the MS-DOS Reference Manual for information can use with the Formatting Diskettes on the Apex 100\20 1. If necessary, type C : to log onto drive C. 2. When you see the C> prompt, type the following and press Enter: FORMAT A: You see this prompt:...
Formatting Diskettes With One Diskette Drive (No Hard Disk) If your computer has only one diskette drive and no hard disk, follow this procedure to format a diskette: 1. Insert the working copy of your MS-DOS Startup diskette in drive A. 2.
Backing Up Data It is very important to keep backup diskettes containing copies of the files you create. You can copy data and program files several ways: You can use the COPY or XCOPY command to copy individual files or groups of files. You can use the DISKCOPY command to make an exact duplicate of a diskette.
If the diskette you are copying to has not been formatted, DISKCOPY formats it automatically before copying the data. The procedure for copying diskettes depends on whether you have one or two diskette drives. Follow the instructions below for your model. Using DISKCOPY with the Apex 1.
Using DISKCOPY with the Apex 100\20 1. Make sure the diskette you want to copy is write-protected. (See Chapter 2 for instructions.) 2. If necessary, type C> 3. At the DISKCOPY A: A: MS-DOS displays this message: Insert SOURCE diskette in drive A: Press any key when ready .
Using DISKCOPY with one drive only If your computer has only one diskette drive and no hard disk, follow these steps to copy a diskette: Make sure the diskette you want to copy is write-protected. (See Chapter 2 for instructions.) 2.
Using the BACKUP Command Use the BACKUP command to back up the data on your hard disk. It provides a convenient and efficient way to copy the files on your hard disk. BACKUP allows you to do the following: Split large files across two or more diskettes Copy only those files chat have been modified since the most recent backup Copy only those files that have been created (or modified)
Special Epson Utilities Epson has included several time-saving utilities to make MS-DOS easier for you to use: HELP lets you display information on the screen about any MS-DOS command. MENU provides an easier way to run many of the most common MS-DOS commands.
To use the HELP menu, follow these steps: HELP Type at the MS-DOS command prompt and press Enter. The screen displays a menu of MS-DOS commands. Use the cursor keys to highlight the command you want information about and press Enter. If there is more than one screen of information command you selected, you see the prompt PgUp at the top of the screen.
can also request help information for more than one command. Follow these steps: 1. At the command prompt, type names of the commands you want information about. Then press Enter. Separate each command name with a space. For example, to see help information for the DISKCOPY, FORMAT, and COPY commands, type the following and press Enter: HELP DISKCOPY FORMAT COPY...
2. Type MENU at the command prompt and see this main menu: Enter DOS Command 3. To select an option, use the arrow keys to highlight your selection and then press Enter. Most options contain submenus; keep highlighting your selection and pressing Enter until you have selected the desired operation.
Because you can perform so many tasks from the Mode Settings submenus, this option is a simpler alternative to the MS-DOS MODE command. Lets you access the Epson HELP program. Lets you run other MS-DOS commands without leaving the MENU program.
Using XTREE Epson has included the XTREE program with MS-DOS to make it easier for you to manage files and run other MS-DOS programs. XTREE is especially useful for managing the data on a hard disk, where you may have hundreds of files.
This menu provides the following information: Path: PILE DISK 3-40 Using MS-DOS With Your Computer Shows the pathname for the current directory. A single backslash identifies the root directory. The directory structure illustrated under this backslash reflects the organization of the directories on the disk.
DISK Statistics Files window DIR COMMANDS Displays all the key commands you can You use the cursor keys, letter keys, function keys, the Ctrl key, and the Alt key to perform various functions in XTREE. Use the cursor keys to move the highlighted bar. To select a file or directory, use the arrow keys to highlight the name of the file or directory.
Function keys control XTREE itself. Press F2 to display a screen of help information, or F3 to cancel a command. XTREE displays the available commands and the key that executes each command on the lower right comer of your screen. There are many ways you can put XTREE to work.
Using an AUTOEXEC.BAT File You may find that there are some commands you want to run every time you turn on your computer. To run a command or a series of commands automatically upon startup, you can type the commands in a special file called AUTOEXEC.BAT. When you load MS-DOS, it always looks for this file.
Creating an AUTOEXEC.BAT File You can create an AUTOEXEC.BAT file using any command or program that lets you create a text-only file. If you have a word processing program that can save a file as a text-only file (sometimes called an ASCII text file), you can use that program to create your AUTOEXEC.BAT file.
3. Now enter the commands you want to include in the file. Type them exactly as you want MS-DOS to execute them, and in the order you want to perform them. Press Enter at the end of each line. After you type the last command, press Enter to move the cursor to the next blank line.
If you have the Apex 100\20, another slot contains the hard disk drive controller card. Option cards are made by Epson as well as other vendors. In addition, multifunction cards allow you to add more than one feature per slot.
Removing the Cover Before you install an option card in your computer, you need to remove the cover. WARNING Never open the case of the computer while it is plugged into an electrical outlet. Turn off the power switch of the computer and any other peripheral devices connected to it;...
3. The top cover is secured by two screws on each side of the computer. The two screws on the left side of the unit are covered by small plastic inserts, as shown below. Gently remove the inserts with a small screwdriver; then remove the screws on both sides of the computer.
Inserting an Option Card Most option cards can be placed into any of the option slots. Some cards, however, must be installed in a specific slot. Check the option card manual to see if your option card must go in a specific slot. If you are installing a new video card, you must remove the MGA card that comes installed in your computer.
2. Put the option slot cover in a safe place in case you later remove the option card. Keep the screw and washer. You will use them to secure the option card to the computer. If you select one of the two slots that has a grounding tab attached, be sure to replace it in step 6.
4. Grip the card firmly by the top comers. Hold it so the connector pins are pointing down and the components facing the inside of the computer, as shown below. Insert the card straight down into the slot. Once the connector pins are in the connector slot, push down firmly (but carefully) to fully insert the card.
Removing an Access Slot Cover Some option cards, such as the video card, have an outlet for connecting an external device. If you install an option card that has an external connector for other equipment (such as a monitor), you need to remove the plastic access slot cover on the computer’s back panel that corresponds to the option card slot.
Removing an Option Card If you later need to remove an option card, simply reverse the steps you followed to install it. Remove the screw securing the card to the back of the computer and pull the card straight up and out of the slot.
3. Secure the cover by replacing the screws on both sides of the computer. Snap the plastic inserts into the side feet. 4. Replace the back panel and the three screws along the top edge. 5. Return the computer to its original position and reconnect it to the monitor, the keyboard, and any peripherals you have.
When you finish installing an option card and reconfiguring the system, you should test the option if possible. Some option cards come with their own diagnostics programs, and you can test others with the diagnostics programs on your Reference diskette. The options you can test with the Reference diskette include the following: Expansion memory 8087-1 math coprocessor...
Installing the Optional Controller First remove the cover of the computer as described earlier in this chapter. Then see the documentation supplied with the optional disk drive controller card for detailed instructions on how to connect the drives to the option card. The drive cables for drives A and B are normally connected to connector CN5 on the system board (shown in the following illustration).
Changing the Jumper Setting To disable the built-in diskette drive controller, you need to change the setting of Jumper J1 on the main system board. See the illustration above for the location of this jumper, near the option slots. If an option card is installed in slot number five, you may need to remove the card to reach the jumper.
If you still have a problem after trying the solution recommended here, consult your Epson Customer Care Center. (For the location of the center nearest you, call the Epson Consumer Information Center number: 1-800-922-89 11.) When you contact your Epson Customer Care Center, be ready...
Replace the system (Startup) diskette, if necessary, and turn the computer on again. If the computer’s power light still does not come on, check the electrical outlet for power. Turn off your computer and unplug the power cord from the wall outlet. Plug a lamp into the wall outlet, and turn it on to see if the outlet supplies power.
4. If your computer still does not respond, you can reset it with the RESET button. Follow the instructions in Chapter 2. 5. If resetting the computer does not work, turn off the computer, wait at least five seconds, and turn it on again. If you have the Apex 100, insert the Startup diskette in drive A.
2. If the power switch is on but the power light is not, turn off the monitor’s power, wait five seconds, and turn the power back on. Wait a few seconds to see if the screen displays any text. 3. If the monitor’s power light still does not come on, check the electrical outlet for power.
Check, both of which are described in Appendix D of this manual. If the diagnostics program indicates an error, contact the place where you bought the monitor. If you are using an Apex monitor, call your Epson Customer Care Center for assistance. Diskette Problems...
If you have the optional 720KB drive, use 3 1/2-inch double-sided, double-density diskettes. You cannot use 3 1/2-inch diskettes that were formatted for 1.44MB in this drive. 4. If your diskette is the right type for your drive, check to see if the diskette is write-protected.
If you are not able to copy all the files from the defective diskette, copy as many as you can and then use the MS-DOS program RECOVER. This program recovers all the data that it can read on the diskette. It is specifically designed to work on disks that may be defective.
3. If you are still having problems with your diskette drive, try running the Floppy Disk Drives and Controller Check described in Appendix D of this manual. If the diagnostics program indicates an error, consult your Epson Customer Care Center. Troubleshooting...
Hard Disk Problems If you are having problems with the hard disk in your Apex 100\20, try the following steps: 1. If this is the first time you have used the computer after setting it up and the hard disk does not load MS-DOS when you turn it on, it may be missing one of the MS-DOS system files.
Hard Disk Drive and Controller diagnostics check, as described in Appendix D of this manual. If the diagnostics program indicates an error, contact your Epson Customer Care Center. Never open the sealed unit that encloses the hard disk.
Follow the instructions in Appendix E to perform a low-level (Conditional) format. Follow the instructions in Appendix F to prepare the hard disk for use. 6. If you have installed a hard disk drive made by another company in your computer, it may need to be partitioned and formatted.
To interrupt an MS-DOS command while it is executing, try one of the following commands: Hold down the Ctrl key and press C Hold down the Ctrl key and press Break. 4. An application program can occasionally lock the computer, making it unresponsive to the keyboard. If your computer does not respond when you type on the keyboard, you can reset it.
4. If your printer is properly set up but is still not functioning, test it from the MS-DOS level. When the MS-DOS command prompt (such as A> or C>) is showing on the screen, press Shift the screen on your printer. If it does not, you may need to change the internal setting of the computer’s parallel port (or serial port for a serial printer).
3. If you changed the configuration of your computer-for example, if you added a disk drive, serial or parallel port, or display adapter card-did you change the necessary DIP switches on the computer? See Appendix A for more information. 4. If you used the option card to add an external device to your computer, did you use the proper cable to connect the device to the option card connector on the back panel? 5.
Appendix A Changing DIP Switches and Using Setup This Appendix describes how to change the DIP switches on the front panel of your computer and how to run the Setup program on your Reference diskette. You may need this information if you have changed the physical configuration of your computer or you want to set the parameters for a serial port.
Note Set the DIP switches only while your computer is off. Because software programs check the settings each time you cum on the system, do not change the settings while a program is running. Your computer has two sets of DIP switches; set 1 contains eight switches which control the computer’s internal operations, and set 2 contains four switches which control the parallel and serial ports.
Switch 1 (keyboard type)—tells your computer what kind of keyboard you are using. If you are using the keyboard chat came with your computer, this switch should be ON to select the standard keyboard. If you have purchased an enhanced (101 - key) keyboard co use with the computer, set this switch OFF.
DIP Switch Set 2 (Parallel and Serial Port Operations) The following cable lists the parallel and serial port functions controlled by DIP switch set 2. DIP switch set 2. Parallel Primary Secondary Disable Serial Primary Secondary Disable These switches cell the computer how to access the built-in parallel and serial ports.
If you install two option cards with parallel ports, designate one as the primary port and the other as the secondary port. In this ease, you need co set switches 1 and 2 ON to disable the built-in port. Note If MS-DOS searches the system for a parallel port and finds only one, it names it LPT1.
Running the Setup Program You can use the Setup program on your Reference diskette to set (or change) the following for your computer: Time and date stored in the real-time clock Primary serial port settings Secondary serial port settings. The information you define with the Setup program is scored in the computer’s CMOS RAM, which is a permanent area of the computer’s memory because it is backed up by a battery.
2. Turn on or reset the computer. You see the following Operation menu: OPERATIONMENU 1 - Setup 2 - Format 3 - Format diskette 4 - System diagnostics 5 - Prepare hard disk formoving 0 - Exit to DOS for more utilities Enter selection number:_ This is the menu for the setup and diagnostics programs on the Reference diskette.
If you do not want to change anything in the Setup menu or if you have finished making changes, press option. See “Leaving the Setup Program,” below, for instructions. See the appropriate section below for the Setup option you want to use. Setting the Real-time Clock The real-time clock in your computer keeps track of the time and date at all times-even when the computer is turned off.
If you enter an invalid time-for example, a number greater than 23 for the hours or greater than 59 for the minutes or seconds-the computer keeps and ignores your entry. Try again. You can use the backspace key, if necessary, to correct mistakes. When the time is correct, press Enter.
Note Another way to change the real-time clock's time and date is with the MS-DOS (version 3.3 or later) TIME and DATE commands. See your MS-DOS Reference Manual for instructions. Changing Serial Port Settings The primary and secondary serial port settings let you change the default values for the serial port(s) in your computer.
To verify or change the primary serial port parameters, Primary serial port highlight change the secondary serial port parameters, highlight Secondary serial port option, you see a menu similar to this: The procedure for changing the default settings is identical for the primary and secondary serial ports.
Use the arrow keys to highlight the desired communication speed and then press Enter. Parity To set the type of parity check, highlight Enter. You see the following choices: Highlight the desired type of parity check and press Enter. Data length To change the data length value, highlight and press Enter.
Leaving the Setup Program When you finish setting the options in the Setup menu, highlight the Exit such as this: Real-timeclock Primary serial port Secondary serial port Check the list to see if all the information is correct. If any setting is incorrect, highlight Enter.
2. If you have the Apex 100, insert the Startup diskette in drive A. If you have the Apex 100\20, leave the diskette drive empty. ** EXIT AND SAVE ** and 3. Highlight The program stores the new settings and resets the computer using the new configuration.
Speaker interface Option slots Keyboard Layout Function keys Mass Storage Standard diskette drive Standard hard disk drive 5 1/4-inch or 3 1/2-inch (5 1/4-inch Optional B-2 Specifications Internal, controlled by timer/ counter Five, B-bit IBM-compatible input- output expansion slots; one slot is occupied by a display adapter card and on the Apex 100\20, another contains the hard disk drive...
Parallel Port Pin Assignments Pin no. Signal name -STROBE DATA0 DATA 1 DATA 2 DATA 3 DATA 4 DATA 5 DATA 6 DATA 7 -ACK BUSY SLCT -AUTO FD -ERROR -INlT -SELECTIN 18-25 Direction Description -STROBE Data Bit 0 Data Bit 1 Data Bit 2 Data Bit 3 Data Bit 4...
Serial Port Pin Assignments Pin no. Signal name 9-19 23-25 Note: The following current loop functions are not supported: Pin 9: +Transmit current loop data Pin 11: -Transmit current loop data Pin 18: +Receive current loop data Pin 25: -Receive current loop data B-8 Specifications Direction Description No connection...
Keyboard Connector Pin Assignments Pin no. Signal name KBD CLK KBD DATA -KBD RESET Parallel Port Loop-back Connector Pin Assignments Signal name Strobe Data bit 0 Auto feed Init. printer Select input (Output signal) Serial Port Loop-back Connector Pin Assignments Signal name Transmit data Request to send...
Appendix C Power-on Diagnostics The built-in memory (ROM) of your computer contains a series of diagnostics programs, which your computer runs automatically every time you turn on the power. These programs check internal devices such as ROM, RAM, the timer, the keyboard controller, and the diskette drives. When you turn on the power, the computer performs the tests described in this appendix.
If the computer finds a fault in the main board, it stops and displays an error message such as this: 10n-System board error where n is a number from 1 to 8 that represents the specific LSI circuit causing the error. Give this error number and message to your Customer Care Center.
RAM Check The computer now begins to check the RAM installed on the main system board and any option cards. During the check, you see this message: nnn KB OK where nnn indicates the amount of memory in which no malfunction is found.
Floppy Disk Drive Seek Check Finally, the computer checks its diskette drive(s) by searching the read/write heads for any malfunction. If it finds any seek errors, you see this message: 601-Diskette error If this error occurs, make sure you have inserted the system diskette into drive A.
The table at the end of this appendix lists the error messages you may see during testing. If these instructions tell you to contact your Epson Customer Care Center, call 1-800-922-8911 for the location of the nearest Customer Care Center.
To start the system diagnostics program, follow these steps: 1. Insert the Reference diskette in drive A. 2. Turn on or reset the computer. The OPERATION MENU appears. 3. Press 4 to select press Enter. When you start the system diagnostics, the computer checks the following: The setting of the DIP switches on the front panel The positions of the internal jumpers...
If the list correctly describes your system, press Y and then Enter. If a device is missing from this list, or if you wish to change the list, press N and Enter. Note If your system uses an EGA or VGA with a color monitor, your device list should include item 5, "Color graphics adapter and CRT."...
To add a device to the list, press 1 and then Enter. The program displays a list of other devices that are not currently included in the DEVICE LIST. You see a menu similar to this: Additional DEVICE LIST 4 - Monochrome display adapter and CRT 7 - Math coprocessor (8087) 12 - Alternate serial port - Exit...
When you have finished adding or deleting devices and are back to the Modify DEVICE LIST menu, press 0 and then again. The screen displays the modified DEVICE LIST Enter for a final check. If the list not press 0 to exit to the OPERATION MENU. You are now ready to select a test.
To perform the test multiple times, press 2 and this prompt: Terminate checking if an error detected (Y/N)? Press Y and Enter to terminate checking if the device produces an error, or press N and Enter to repeat the test regardless of an error.
After printing the error message, the program displays this prompt: Printout is finished. Press ENTER to return to the menu. The program continues after an error in one of the following ways: It returns to the DEVICE LIST, or If you are running multiple tests and are not terminating on an error, the program repeats the test that caused the error.
The checks made on the 8088 CPU chip are extremely comprehensive. They ensure that the CPU instruction set is functioning correctly. If an error is reported, write down the error code and message, or print them out, and contact your Customer Care Center. Attempting to correct system board errors yourself may violate your warranty agreement.
Keyboard Check Use this option to check the operation of the keyboard. The program first checks the keyboard controller; during this check, you see the green indicator lights on the keyboard flash. If no errors are detected, you can then choose the correct keyboard layout.
The status of indicators is shown on the upper right side layout. These messages appear on the screen: KEYBOARD CHECK Press Y followed by ENTER to exit. Press N followed by ENTER if screen and keyboard do not match. If all the keys function correctly and match the characters displayed, press Y and then If all the keys function, but the characters displayed do match the keys, press Y and then...
You can select the individual checks from this menu: MONOCHROME ADAPTER AND CRT CHECK MENU 1 - Monochrome adapter check - Attribute check - Character set check - Video check Sync check - Run all above checks - Exit Enter selection number: If you run the monochrome adapter check multiple times, this menu of checks (option 1) is performed.
Attribute Check To check the display attributes of the adapter card, press 2 and then Enter. series of messages are displayed showing examples of all the possible display attributes (normal intensity, high intensity, blinking, reversed characters, and underlining). Check the information displayed on your screen, and then respond to the prompt: Is the display correct (Y/N)? Press Y and then...
After checking the characters, respond to the prompt: Is the display correct (Y/N) ? If the characters displayed match the illustration, press Y and Enter. If they do not match the illustration, press N and then Enter to display the error message. Video Check To check the video output of your monochrome adapter, press 4 followed by Enter.
Color Graphics Adapter and CRT Check option to check the operation of a color graphics Use this display adapter and monitor. This test includes several checks that allow you to identify particular problems related to the color display. To run this check, DIP switches 1-5 and 1-6 must be set correctly for a color monitor.
Color Graphics Adapter Check To check the color graphics adapter, press 1 and then Enter. The computer checks the video RAM (display memory) on the display adapter by writing test data to memory, and then reading it back and comparing it to the written data. It also tests the video enable signal of the display controller chip.
Character Set Check To check your 80-column character set, press 3 and Enter. The characters that are included in the internal character generator are displayed. Check the characters displayed on your screen against this illustration: After checking the characters, respond to the prompt: Is the display correct If the characters displayed match the illustration, press Y and then Enter.
40-column Character To check your 40-column character set, press Enter. The character fonts that are included in the internal character generator are displayed. Check the characters displayed on your screen against this illustration: After checking the characters, respond Is the display correct (Y/N)? If the characters displayed match the illustration, press Y and Enter.
The same pattern is displayed again; this time the squares are cyan, white, and magenta, and the background is red. These colors are called Color Set 1. If these are also correct, press Y and then Enter to end the test. If any colors are displayed incorrectly, check the adjustment of your monitor and make sure that both ends of the cable are plugged in firmly.
If any pattern is not displayed clearly, check the adjustment of your monitor and make sure it is connected properly. If a problem still exists, press N and Enter to display the error message. Screen Paging Check To check the screen paging of your monitor, press 7 and Enter. The video RAM on the color graphics adapter is divided into eight independent display pages.
If all eight pages are correct, press Y and filled with an incorrect number, press N and Enter co display the error message. Light Pen Check To check the function of a light pen connected to the color graphics adapter card, press that a light pen connected to the color graphics adapter is performing accurately.
Color Video Check Option 9, Color video check, displays 16 different screens, each a different color, and a message indicating the color. The screens show the following colors in the order specified below: 1 - Black 2 - Blue 3 - Green 4 - C y a n 5 - Red 6 - Magenta...
Floppy Disk Drives and Controller Check Use this option to test the performance of the diskette (floppy disk) drives inside or connected to your computer. This test includes several checks that allow you to identify particular problems related to your diskette drives. To run these tests, you need a formatted diskette so the tests can write data on the disk in the drive.
4. Insert the diskette to be formatted in the drive you selected and press Enter. numbers as the diskette is formatted. When the format is complete, you see these messages (for a 360KB diskette): Format complete 362496 bytes total disk space 362496 bytes available on disk Format another (Y/N)? You can format another diskette or return co the...
Before it performs any checks, the program determines the number of diskette drives installed in your computer. If you have more than one drive, you see this prompt each time you select a test: Check which drive (A/B)? Press A or B and then Enter. If any errors occur, record the error code and message and contact your Customer Care Center.
Write, Read Check This test checks the ability of the selected disk drive to read and write data from a diskette. The test writes to and reads from each cylinder on the diskette, starting at the center. Select option 3 from the menu to start this test. If you have only one diskette drive, you are prompted to exchange the Diagnostics (Reference) Disk for a blank diskette before running the test.
The computer spins the diskette for a few seconds then displays a message like this: The disk rotation speed is now 300.0 rpm. Note The speed for a 360KB or 720KB drive should be 300 rpm. This check permits a tolerance of ±2%. The diskette continues to spin, and the display is updated every few seconds.
Before running any tests, the computer checks on the front panel to ensure that a coprocessor is installed. If the coprocessor is missing, or if you have not set correctly, an error occurs and the test ends. The program then runs a series of checks to test the precision with which the coprocessor performs calculations and to detect whether it correctly handles exceptions.
The computer checks the port by writing and reading data and control information, and reports errors for any pins that are faulty. Note that if you connect a printer cable instead of a loop-back connector, you get errors. Parallel Port (on Video Adapter) Check Use the Parallel port (on video adapter) check to test the functions of the primary port.
Insert the loop-back connector. Then press Y start the check. First, the computer checks the serial port control lines to see that they are able to change from high to low and vice versa. No messages are displayed during this part of the test unless an error occurs.
Alternate Serial Port Check Use this option to test the functions of an additional serial communications (RS-232C) port. To perform the test you must insert a special loop-back connector into the alternate serial port so that the computer can check the individual pins of the port.
The bit-image data is sent to the printer using a command (ESC K) compatible with Epson and IBM printers. If this pattern is printed correctly, you can use the MS-DOS GRAPHICS program to print out copies of graphics screens.
When you select option 17 from the DEVICE LIST, you see this menu: HARD DISK DRIVE(S) AND CONTROLLER CHECK MENU 1 - Seek check 2 - Write, read check 3 - Error detection and correction check 4 - Read, verify check 5 - Run all above checks 0 - Exit Enter selection number:...
Write, Read Check This check tests the ability of the hard disk drive to read and write data. The test writes to and reads from each sector of the innermost cylinder of the disk, using each head. Note This test destroys all data on the innermost cylinder of the selected hard disk drive.
Error Detection and Correction Check This test checks the ability read/write error and to correct the data accordingly. Note This test destroys some data on the innermost cylinder of the selected hard disk drive. This cylinder is reserved for diagnostics, and is never used for storage by MS-DOS. Therefore, data created by MS-DOS is not destroyed.
At the end of the test, you see a table of the results For example, for a 20MB hard disk with no bad tracks, you see: BAD TRACKS ... READ ERROR TRACKS ... GOOD TRACKS ... 2460 Press ENTER to return to the menu Press Enter when you have viewed the table.
Error Codes and Messages This table lists all the error codes and messages that may appear during diagnostics checks. Error code Message System board 8088 CPU ERROR 27128 ROM CHECKSUM ERROR 8254 TIMER COUNTER REGISTER ERROR 8254 TIMER COUNTER ERROR 8237 DMA CONTROLLER REGISTER ERROR 8237 DMA REFRESH ERROR 8048 SELF DIAGNOSTIC ERROR...
Error code Message Floppy disk drives and controller FLOPPY DISK CONTROLLER ERROR SEOUENTIAL SEEK ERROR RANDOM SEEK ERROR WRITE ERROR READ ERROR Math coprocessor (8087-1) COPROCESSOR NOT INSTALLED COPROCESSOR INITIALIZE ERROR COPROCESSOR INVALID OPERATION MASK ERROR COPROCESSOR ST FIELD ERROR COPROCESSOR COMPARISON ERROR COPROCESSOR ZERO DIVIDE MASK ERROR COPROCESSOR ADDITION ERROR...
Error code Message Hard disk drives and controller 1701 SEEK ERROR WRITE ERROR 1702 READ ERROR 1703 1705 ERROR DETECTION ERROR 1706 ERROR CORRECTION ERROR D-38 Performing System Diagnostics...
Physically formatting the hard disk erases any data it contains. If you have any any data on the disk or you are unsure if formatting is necessary, contact your Epson Customer Care Center first. Someone there can advise you on the best procedure to follow.
new disk or reformatting a used disk, it, you need to run FDISK and SELECT to prepare the hard disk for use. Follow the instructions in Appendix F. Formatting and Checking Options To perform a physical format or to determine if a hard disk needs to be physically reformatted, follow these steps: 1.
Destructive surface analysis tests a formatted hard disk for bad tracks and updates the bad track table. Because this option writes and reads data on the disk, it destroys all data on any track that produces an error. You cannot run the Destructive surface analysis on a disk that has never been formatted.
Formatting a New Disk Many hard disk drives are supplied with a list of bad tracks but without the bad tracks flagged on the disk. Other hard disks are supplied with the bad tracks already flagged. If you are formatting a new hard disk that may not have been formatted, follow these steps: 1.
Note If you have more than one hard disk drive, you see this prompt: E n t e r d r i v e l e t t e r ( C / D ) ? Press C or D and then Enter. Conditional Format (Normal) Use this option to format the hard disk.
The program then displays a warning about the consequences of proceeding with formatting: WARNING! ALL DATA WILL BE DESTROYED IN ALL PARTITIONS OF HARD DISK, NOT JUST IN MS-DOS PARTITION! Do you want to start formatting (Y/N)? if there are no tracks with other errors, and you are absolutely sure that you want to format the hard disk, press Y and Enter.
Flagged tracks are identified by xxxx and yy. At this press Enter to return to the HARD DISK FORMAT MENU. If there are any tracks with other errors, scanning stops and you see this message: Scanning cancelled. Warning: This drive has an unflagged error(s), or is unformatted.
If you are formatting a disk that has never been formatted, check the list of bad tracks that came with the disk. This list identifies each defect by the head and cylinder number, which are required for the Unconditional format. To start the Unconditional format routine, press 2 and then Enter.
Some of the messages change if the table is full or empty. However, the way that you add a bad track or make a correction is the same. To add a bad track, follow these steps: 1. Press A. You see this prompt: Enter cylinder number (1 - xxxx): 2.
Destructive Surface Analysis this option to accurately locate any bad tracks on a hard disk, and to flag any bad tracks that are not flagged. WARNING If any errors occur during this check, all data on the track that produces the error is destroyed. For this reason, if you think that an unflagged bad track is causing trouble, first run option 4, Non-destructive surface analysis, to check the disk surface.
If the program finds one bad track that is not flagged, the summary would show one track with a write, read error. The report is then followed by a table like this: To flag the error tracks as bad, press Y and Enter. You then see a list of the tracks as they are flagged and then these messages: Flagging bad tracks...
When ‘the analysis is complete, the program displays a summary of the status of the disk. This summary lists the following: Flagged bad tracks Tracks with read, verify errors Good tracks. no errors occur, you see this message: No read, verify error was detected. If errors are found, the program displays a table of the tracks that gave errors, similar to the one displayed by the destructive analysis.
This type of formatting is usually done by the manufacturer and you should not need to this yourself. If you are using an Epson drive, it has already been formatted. However, you may need to perform a low-level (also called physical) format if one of the following is true: The hard disk is new and has never been formatted.
The hard disk you are using has been producing numerous read/write errors. See Appendix E for instructions on performing a low-level format. If you need to format the disk, be sure to do it before completing the steps in this appendix. WARNING The procedures described in this appendix destroy any data on the hard disk.
: and press Enter to log onto drive A. Type At the A> prompt, type screen displays the FDISK options menu. Press 1 to select the Create DOS partition option and press Enter. Press 1 to select the Create Primary DOS partition option and press Enter.
Formatting the MS-DOS Partition Once you have created the MS-DOS partition, you must format it for MS-DOS. Use the MS-DOS SELECT command to format the new partition, drive C. SELECT automatically does the following: Formats the partition Labels the partition Copies the MS-DOS system files to the hard disk.
The screen displays this message and prompt: SELECT is used to install DOS the first time. SELECT erases everything on the specified target and then installs DOS. Do you want to continue (Y/N)? 3. Press Y. Formatting does not begin immediately. The screen displays the following message: WARNING, ALL DATA ON NON-REMOVABLE DISK DRIVE C: WILL BE LOST!
SELECT copies the rest of the files from the Startup diskette to the hard disk. When all the files are copied, the A> prompt reappears. The partition on the hard disk is now formatted. Note The SELECT procedure described above copies all the files from your Startup diskette to a directory it created on drive C named /DOS.
Note The procedure described above copies all the files on the MS-DOS and Reference diskettes to the /DOS subdirectory on drive C. You may, however, prefer to store some of these commands in other subdirectories. For information of creating subdirectories, see Chapter 3 or see your MS-DOS Reference Manual.
2. Type the following and press Enter: COPY CON AUTOEXEC.BAT 3. Type the following, pressing Enter after each line: ECHO OFF PROMPT = SPSG PATH = C:\DOS 4. Then hold down the Ctrl key and press Z. Then press Enter. Booting From the Hard Disk Now you can load MS-DOS from drive C on your hard disk.
Glossary Absolute pathname A pathname that begins with the backslash character. An absolute pathname tells MS-DOS how to find its way to a given directory, starting at the root directory. See also Relative pathname. Application program A software program designed to perform a specific task, such as a word processing or spreadsheet program.
Batch file A type of file that lets you execute a series of MS-DOS commands by typing one command. Batch files are text files with the filename extension .BAT. In a batch file, each command is entered on a separate line. When you type the filename, all the commands in that file are executed sequentially.
CMOS Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor. A method of making low power silicon chips. Command An instruction you enter (usually on a keyboard) to direct your computer to perform a specific function. Command prompt The symbol or message that tells you MS-DOS is loaded and ready to receive instructions.
Current directory The directory you are as the default directory. Cursor The highlighted marker that shows your position on the screen. Cylinders See Tracks. Data Information such as text or graphics stored or processed by a computer. Data diskette A formatted diskette on which you store data files (as opposed program files).
Default drive The disk drive from which MS-DOS executes your next command, unless you tell it to do otherwise (by including a drive designator with the command). Also known as the current drive. Delimiter character or space used to separate different parts of an MS-DOS command.
D i s k d r i v e The physical device that allows the computer to read from and write to a disk. A diskette drive has a disk slot into which you insert a diskette. A hard disk is sealed inside a protective unit. Diskette A flat piece of flexible plastic coated with magnetic material and used to store data permanently.
Executable file A file containing program instructions, as opposed to data created with an application program. An executable file has the extension .BAT, .COM, or .EXE. Execution speed The speed at which the central processing unit can execute commands. Also called operating speed. The Apex can run at 4.77 MHz or 10 MHz.
Floppy disk See Diskette. Format To prepare a new disk (or an old one you want to reuse) so that it can store information. Formatting divides a disk into tracks and sectors and creates addressable locations on it. Graphics Lines, angles, curves, and other nonalphanumeric data. Hard disk The enclosed unit used to store data permanently.
Internal command An MS-DOS command that is stored in the command processor of the operating system; it is not a separate program file. This means that you can execute an internal command without specifying a pathname. Examples include COPY, DEL, RENAME, and DIR.
M e m o r y The area where your computer stores data. Memory contents can be permanent and inalterable (ROM) or temporary (RAM). Multi-graphics Adapter. The type of display adapter that can display monochrome or color text and graphics on the screen. Microprocessor A small version of a CPU contained on one semiconductor chip.
MS-DOS Microsoft Disk Operating System. The operating system that comes with your computer. See Operating system. Numeric keypad The number keys grouped to the right of the keyboard. Operating speed The speed at which the central processing unit can execute commands.
Parity Data signals sent during communications to detect errors in transmitting or receiving data. Partition The area defined on a hard disk for use by an operating system; to divide a hard disk into separate sections or logical drives. Pathname The list of directories and subdirectories you need to specify to locate a file.
Prompt A message displayed on the screen that tells you what action you need to perform next. Random Access Memory. The portion of the computer’s memory used to run programs and store data while you work. All data stored in RAM is erased when you turn off the computer;...
Red Green Blue. A type of color monitor. Read Only Memory. A portion of memory that can only be read and cannot be used for temporary storage. ROM retains its contents even when you turn off the power. Root directory The top level directory in MS-DOS, designated by a \ (backslash).
Source diskette The diskette that you are reading copy or backup operation. Stop bit A signal sent in serial communications to mark the end character. Subdirectory A directory or group of files that branches down from another subdirectory or from the root directory. Switch An option added to an MS-DOS command that modifies the way the command works.
Tracks Addressable, concentric circles on a disk, resembling the grooves on a record, which help to divide the disk into separate accessible areas. There are 40 tracks on each side of a double-sided 360KB diskette and 80 tracks on each side of a double-sided 720KB diskette.
Drive assignments, 1-18 Drives, see Diskette drives see Hard disks EGA card, see Video cards Enhanced graphics adapter, see Video cards Environmental requirements, B-3 Epson consumer Information number, Intro-3 ERASE, 3-14 Error codes and messages, C-1–4, D-36–38 External command, 3-4–6...