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Yamaha PM4000 Operating Manual

Yamaha professional audio mixing console operating manual
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  • Page 2 PM4000 OPERATING MANUAL...
  • Page 3 The wire which is coloured BROWN must be connected to the terminal which is marked with the letter L or coloured RED. * This applies only to products distributed by YAMAHA - KEMBLE MUSIC (U.K.) LTD. Professional audio mixing console Typ : PM4000...
  • Page 4: How To Use This Manual

    How to Use This Manual If you are an engineer or technician who is familiar with sound system design, much of this manual will serve as a review for you. The basic features are presented in the “BRIEF OPERATING INSTRUC- TIONS”...
  • Page 5: Table Of Contents

    2-22 2.1.6 The Monitor Module 2-25 2.1.7 The Meter Bridge PM4000 Rear Panel Features 2-27 2.2 2-34 2.4 The PW4000 Power Supply Section 3. Specifications PM4000 Mixing Console General Specifications PW4000 Power Supply Specifications PM4000 Input Characteristics PM4000 Output Characteristics Dimensional Drawings Block Diagrams Section 4.
  • Page 6 Page Sect. Title 6-16 6.15 Stereo Master to Matrix ST Bus: Pre or Post ST Master Fader 6-17 6.16 Installation of Optional Input Transformers 6-18 6.15 Hints on Circuitry For Remote Control of the VCA Masters and Mute Groups Section 7. Operating Notes and Hints Console Gain Structure...
  • Page 7: Section 1. Introduction

    Section 1 Introduction...
  • Page 8 Section 1. Introduction rectly set controls. For this reason, the PM4000 is equipped with level detection at several stages. Input LED meters and "PEAK" LEDs are provided. The latter not only monitor the input preamp level, they check for overboost in the EQ section.
  • Page 9 Group Master Faders. Because the VCA Master levels are voltage controlled, the PM4000 can be automated, at least to the extent of controlling group levels. A rear panel multi-pin connector can be used for this purpose.
  • Page 10 The specifications are honest and conservative. The performance is audibly superb. Physically, the PM4000 is as appealing as it is electronically. An all new chassis design with aircraft- style bracing offers increased strength to sustain repeated trips on the road.
  • Page 11 Section 2 Brief Operating Instruction...
  • Page 12: Section 2. Brief Operating Instructions

    Figure 2-1a. PM4000 Standard Input Module (upper portion of module) Section 2. Brief Operating Instructions 2.1 PM4000 Front Panel Features NOTE: Features are numbered to correspond with the numbers on these module drawings. In the case of the input modules, where the standard monaural module and stereo modules are similar, we have used the same feature number where the features are identical.
  • Page 13 TOM POWER switch is on. An LED in the switch turns on when phantom power is being applied to the channel input connector. When both the Master and this switch are on, +48 volts is applied to both pins 2 & 3 of the channel input XLR connector for remote power- ing of condenser microphones.
  • Page 14 Clipping at this stage can occur even though the input signal is not clipping, due to boost (gain) applied with the EQ circuitry. In the PM4000, clipping in the equalizer is detected and shown on the PEAK indicator [7] adjacent to the GAIN control.
  • Page 15 NOTE: In some applications, it is preferable to have the PRE position be Pre-Fader & Post-EQ rather than Pre- Fader & Pre EQ. The PM4000 is equipped with internal switches that make it easy to change the “Pre” of each AUX send in this manner.
  • Page 16 VCA MASTER Fader is set precisely to the nominal position (green LED "NOMINAL" LED illuminated). Figure 2-1c. PM4000 Standard Input Module (lower portion of module) 23. MUTE (Assign 1 - 8) Engaging any of these 8 locking switches enables the corresponding Group MUTE MASTER switch(es) to “kill”...
  • Page 17 NOTE: Since the console operator may normally be listening to the stereo bus or one or more group busses by means of engaging their cue switches, the PM4000 is set up for input cue priority. As soon as one or more input channel cue switches are engaged, any bus cue signal will be replaced by the input cue signal(s).
  • Page 18: The Stereo Input Module

    Figure 2-2a. PM4000 Stereo Input Module (upper portion of module) 2.1.2. The Stereo Input Module The PM4000 comes with at least four stereo input modules, located in near the master section. More of these stereo modules can be ordered in lieu of the monaural input modules.
  • Page 19 input is available at odd-numbered busses, and the right input at even numbered busses (and, of course, L&R in are available to the L&R stereo bus). In L position, the right input is deactivated, and the left input connector is available to all group busses and the L&R sides of the stereo bus.
  • Page 20 Therefore, each PM4000 stereo input module has an optional function that causes the Ø switch to instead reverse the polarity of only the left input.
  • Page 21 Clipping at this stage can occur even though the input signal is not clipping, due to boost (gain) applied with the EQ circuitry. In the PM4000, clipping in the equalizer is detected and shown on the PEAK indicators [7S] adjacent to the GAIN controls.
  • Page 22 NOTE: In some applications, it is preferable to have the PRE position be Pre-Fader & Post-EQ rather than Pre- Fader & Pre EQ. The PM4000 is equipped with internal switches that make it easy to change the “Pre” of each AUX send in this manner.
  • Page 23 20S. MT PRE (switch) and L, R (level meters) The channel level meters consist of two rows of 6 LEDs each that display the left and right signal levels from -20 dB u to +6 dBu, plus PEAK (3 dB below clipping).
  • Page 24: The Master Module

    Figure 2-3a. PM4000 Master Module (matrix section of module) 2.1.3 The Master Module (1 - 8) These eight modules are identical, except that each controls a differently-numbered set of Group Master, VCA Master and Matrix Output channels. MATRIX SECTION 28. SUB IN...
  • Page 25 Figure 2-3b. PM4000 Master Module (aux send and group sections of module) 33. CUE (Matrix cue) Pressing this switch part-way down causes momentary contact; pressing it further locks it down. When the CUE switch is illuminated, the module’s matrix mix signal (post insert point, pre...
  • Page 26 GROUP SECTION 39. PAN (group to stereo bus) This pan control is operational only when the adjacent GROUP-TO-ST switch is engaged. It then pans the group signal between the left and right sides of the stereo mixing bus. The signal is derived after the group master fader.
  • Page 27 Figure 2-3c. PM4000 Master Module (VCA master section of module) VCA SECTION 46. VCA MUTE Engaging this switch is the equivalent of setting the VCA master fader at maximum kill. The switch is illuminated when the master fader is muted. This affects all input channels assigned to the correspondingly numbered VCA group.
  • Page 28: The Stereo Master Module

    2 . 1 . 4 T h e S t e r e o M a s t e r M o d u l e This module controls the output of the stereo bus and the two aux stereo busses. Figure 2-4a. PM4000 Stereo Master Module (upper portion of module) AUX 2 STEREO SEND MASTER SECTION 48.
  • Page 29 This cluster of controls and switches functions identically to the Aux 1 Stereo Send Master Section [48-52], except they affect the Aux 2 Stereo Output. Figure 2-4b. PM4000 Stereo Master Module (lower portion of module) STEREO MASTER SECTION 54. STEREO-TO-MTRX...
  • Page 30: The Tb (Talkback) Module

    2.1.5 The TB (Talkback) Module Figure 2-5a. PM4000 TB Module (upper portion of module) 59. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 (TB/OSC To Group Bus Assign)
  • Page 31 Figure 2-5b. PM4000 TB Module (middle portion of module) oscillator when it is not actually in use. NOTE: Even though the oscillator may not be assigned to any busses, it is still possible that you would inadvert- ently select it when preparing to use the talkback feature, or that some signal could leak into busses (albeit at low levels).
  • Page 32 MUTE switch is engaged. The group is muted when the switch is illuminated. An input channel will not be muted, however, if its MUTE SAFE switch is engaged. Figure 2-5c. PM4000 TB Module (lower portion of module) Page 2-21...
  • Page 33: The Monitor Module

    2.1.6 The Monitor Module Figure PM4000 Monitor Module 2-6a. (upper portion of module) 77. SOLO MODE (switch) This locking, red, illuminated switch flashes when engaged, indicating the console monitor system is set to the SOLO mode. In this mode, input channel CUE/SOLO switches mute all other channels, much like a recording console SOLO function.
  • Page 34 Monitor B left and right output connectors. The switch is illuminated when the output is on. Figure 2-6b. PM4000 Monitor Module (middle portion of module) 82. 2TR IN 1, 2TR, IN 2, ST CH3, ST CH4, ST OUT...
  • Page 35 Figure 2-6c. PM4000 Monitor Module (lower portion of module) 90. PHONES (Level control) This 2-gang rotary control adjust the output level at both stereo PHONES output jacks. It affects any signals which may be fed to these outputs. 91. INPUT CUE / SOLO...
  • Page 36: The Meter Bridge

    2.1.7 The Meter Bridge The PM4000 is equipped with 2 jumbo and 12 or 16 large, illuminated VU meters, depending on the size of the mainframe. Each meter has true VU ballistics to indicate approximate loudness, plus a red "PEAK" LED which responds to instantaneous levels that are beyond the scale of the meter.
  • Page 37 96. II (Group/Matrix/Aux meters and indicators) On 24 and 32 channel mainframes, these four meters monitor the correspondingly numbered busses, as described above in item [95]. In 40 or 48 channel mainframes, these eight meters display the eight group outputs or the eight matrix outputs (redundant with the first two selections for the I set of meters [95]), or the aux outputs.
  • Page 38: Pm4000 Rear Panel Features

    2.2 PM4000 Rear Panel Features All XLR connectors and phone jacks are balanced. Outputs and patch points are +4 dBu level unless otherwise noted. Channel inputs, sub inputs, sub outputs, and primary outputs all rely upon XLR-3 type connectors wired Pin 2=high, Pin 3=low, Pin 1=ground.
  • Page 39 EQ. Refer to Section 6 for details. OTHER REAR PANEL FEATURES 107. Cooling Fan The PM4000 contains three or four cooling fans, depending on mainframe size, distributed across the rear panel. These operate continuously to draw heat away from the internal circuits and prolong component life.
  • Page 40 (playback) from a two-track tape machine, although it can be used for any stereo, line-level input. Figure 2-9. PM4000 Rear Panel: Sub In Connectors 113. 2 TR IN 2 (L, R) This pair of female XLR connectors make signal...
  • Page 41 INSERT IN jack, regardless of whether an external source is plugged in or not. Figure 2-10. PM4000 Rear Panel: Group, Matrix and Stereo Insert In/Out Connectors Figure 2-11 PM4000 Rear Panel: Aux Insert In/Out Connectors 119. MTRX INSERT 1-8 (IN, OUT)
  • Page 42 Figure 2-12. PM4000 Rear Panel: VCA/Mute Control Connector and Master Mode Switches 126. MUTE: SLAVE/OFF/MASTER (1-4, 5-8) & CUE/SOLO On/Off MASTER The pair of rotary, screwdriver-operated switches labeled MUTE determine whether this console or a remote console’s master mute switches control this...
  • Page 43 MUTE EXT 1 MUTE EXT 2 Figure 2-13. VCA/MUTE Connector Pin Assignments Figure 2-14. PM4000 Rear Panel: Bus Output Connectors 130. GROUP OUT (1 - 8) These eight male XLR connectors output signal from the eight group mixing busses, just after the Group Master Faders.
  • Page 44 It also may be fed to a monitor console’s input channel (which is monitored via CUE) or COMM input to enable the PM4000 operator to communicate with the other console’s operator. 135. OSC OUT This male XLR connector outputs signal from the console’s oscillator/noise generator when the OSC...
  • Page 45: The Pw4000 Power Supply

    2.4 The PW4000 Power Supply Figure 2-16. PW4000 Power Supply (Front and Rear Panels) 141. POWER This alternate-action switch turns on the AC input to the supply, and thereby provides the necessary output voltages to the console via the umbilical power cable.
  • Page 46 144. DC OUTPUT (Umbilical Connector) This locking, multi-pin connector provides the necessary DC voltages from the PW4000 power supply to the PM4000 console. The cable must be connected correctly before attempting to operate the console. See Figure 2-17 for the pin assignments.
  • Page 47: Section 3. Specifications

    Section 3 Specifications...
  • Page 48: Pm4000 Mixing Console General Specifications

    PM4000 Mixing Console General Specifications Total Harmonic Distortion <0.1% (THD+N) <0.01% (2nd - 10th harmonics) (Master Output) Frequency Response (Master Output) 0 ± Hum & Noise (48 Channels) -128 dB (20 Hz - 20 kHz) -100 dB -85 dB (89 dB S/N) RS + Input Gain = Max.
  • Page 49: Pw4000 Power Supply Specifications

    VU Meters (0 VU = +4 dBu output) 2 large meters 24 or 32 channel consoles 12 small meters 40 or 48 channel consoles 16 small meters VU Meter Peak Indicators LED (red) Phantom Power +48 V dc Dimensions 2086 x 346 x 1121 mm 48 Channel (W x H x D) 1846 x 346 x 1121 mm...
  • Page 50 NOTES: *1 PM4000 -24: 24 ch, -32: 32 ch, -40C: 40 ch, -48C: 48 ch *2 All XLR connectors are electronically balanced. Phone jacks are balanced with Tip = signal high (+), Ring = signal low (-), and Sleeve = ground.
  • Page 51: Dimensional Drawings

    Dimensional Drawings PM4000 Console (all versions) Page 3-4...
  • Page 52 Page 3-5...
  • Page 53 PM4000 Console Rear Profiles Page 3-6...
  • Page 54: Block Diagrams

    Module Block Diagrams (See back of the manual for overall system block diagram) Page 3-7...
  • Page 55 Page 3-8...
  • Page 56 Page 3-9...
  • Page 57 Page 3-10...
  • Page 58 Page 3-11...
  • Page 59 Page 3-12...
  • Page 60: Section 4. Installation Notes

    Section 4 Installation Notes...
  • Page 61: Planning An Installation

    4.1 Planning An Installation Before installing the PM4000, it is worthwhile considering how it will be used, how it is going to be connected, and what is the best way to implement the installation. To begin with, there must be a surface upon which the console can be mounted.
  • Page 62: How To Obtain A Safety Ground When Using A 2-Wire Outlet

    To be certain the voltage is adequate, check it again after turning on the PW4000 with the PM4000 connected, and with any power amplifiers turned on if they are connected to the same power mains.
  • Page 63: Improperly Wired Ac Outlets: Lifted Grounds

    Figure 4-2. Testing a 2-wire AC Outlet and a 3-Prong to 2-Prong Adaptor 4.2.4 Improperly Wired AC Outlets: Lifted Grounds A "lifted ground" condition exists if the ground or green wire from the outlet’s safety ground is discon- nected or missing. In older wiring, the heavy green wire was sometimes omitted from internal wall wiring in favor of letting the metal flex conduit or pipe suffice as the ground path from the electrical service entrance.
  • Page 64: Ac Safety Tips

    way to ground via the safety ground, instead of via a person’s body. When checking AC power lines at the outlet, be sure you have proper testing tools and some familiarity with the danger of shock hazards from AC power. Follow the dia- gram shown here, being careful not to touch metal with your hands.
  • Page 65 Yamaha mixing console or of any related equipment; neither shall Yamaha be liable for any such damages arising from defects or damage resulting...
  • Page 66: Ground Loops

    Dangerous potential differences can also occur without such shorts. Two individual localized ground points, if they are not directly connected, cannot be assumed to be at the same potential – far from it, in fact. Virtually anyone who has played in a band has, at one time or another, experienced a shock when touching both the guitar and the microphone.
  • Page 67: Basic Grounding Techniques

    ment. If one of these conditions is not met, then instead of going directly to earth ground and disappearing, these circulating ground loop noise currents (which act like signals) travel along paths that are not intended to carry signals. The currents, in turn, modulate the potential of the signal-carrying wiring (they are super- imposed on the audio), producing hum and noise voltages that cannot easily be separated from program...
  • Page 68: Balanced Lines And Ground Lift Switches

    are required to implement this approach, since ground is not carried between components. One drawback is that cables may not all be the same – some having shields carried through at both ends, and others not, depending on the equipment – so it becomes more complicated to sort out the cabling upon setup and breakdown of a portable system.
  • Page 69: Audio Connectors And Cables

    Use of the proper cables is essential if the full potential of high quality sound equipment is to be realized. Figure 4-11a. T/R/S Phone Plug Wiring For PM4000 Insert In/Out Jacks and Direct Out Jacks Figure 4-11c. Female XLR Connector Wiring For PM4000 3-pin XLR Outputs Page 4-9...
  • Page 70: Types Of Cable To Use

    The PM4000 is fitted with only two types of audio connectors: 3-pin XLRs, both male and female, and 3- circuit (tip/ring/sleeve) phone jacks (also known as ¼” stereo phone jacks, although their function is sometimes to carry a balanced mono signal rather than a stereo signal).
  • Page 71 Figure 4-12. Cables For Use With Unbalanced Sources NOTE regarding Figure 4-12. For microphone cables, conect the shield to pin 1 at both ends of the XLR cable. For line-level signal cables, cut the shield as illustrated. Page 4-11...
  • Page 72 Figure 4-13. Cables For Use With Balanced Sources Page 4-12...
  • Page 73: The Pro's And Con's Of Input Transformers

    (an “electronically balanced input”). The latter approach is used in the PM4000, and was chosen for several reasons: (1) it is more “transparent” sounding than most transformer inputs, (2) it cannot be saturated by low frequency, high-level signals as can a transformer, (3) it is lighter in weight.
  • Page 74: Noise And Losses In Low And High

    “bridging” transformer (not to be confused with the “bridged” connections of a stereo power amp output in mono mode). In general, the PM4000 has no need for input transformers since it already has electronically bal- anced inputs. In the occasional instances where abso-...
  • Page 75: Direct Boxes

    The transformer was designed specifically for use in a guitar direct box. When connected to a typical electric guitar pickup, and an XLR channel input on a PM4000, the transformer reflects the optimum load impedance to both the guitar pickup and the mic preamp input. This preserves optimum frequency response and transient response.
  • Page 76 8. 3 be installed when the direct box is used with inputs having greater than 2 impedance (for example, a standard Yamaha PM2800M input). It is OK to leave the resistor in circuit with 1 inputs, although better results will be obtained if the resistor is omitted in this case.
  • Page 77: Active Guitar Direct Box

    9V “transistor radio” type batteries, or by phantom power from the PM4000 or any condenser microphone power supply. The circuit can be constructed on a piece of perf board, or on terminal strips, or on a printed circuit layout.
  • Page 78 Before actually mounting the selected components, it is wise to carefully plan out each rack with an eye to signal flow, heat flow, and weight distribution. It might be best to mount together components that function as a group: the equalizer, active crossover and power ampli- fier for a single loudspeaker or array, for example.
  • Page 79 SECTION 5 Gain Structure and Levels...
  • Page 80: Section 5. Gain Structure And Levels

    GAIN STRUCTURE AND LEVELS 5.1 STANDARD OPERATING LEVELS There are a number of different “standard” operating levels in audio circuitry. It is often awkward to refer to a specific level (i.e., +4 dBu) when one merely wishes to describe a general sensitivity range. For this reason, most audio engineers think of operating levels in three general categories: A.
  • Page 81: Dynamic Range And Headroom

    5.2 Dynamic Range and Headroom 5.2.1 What Is Dynamic Range? Every sound system has an inherent noise floor, which is the residual electronic noise in the system equipment (and/or the acoustic noise in the local envi- ronment). The dynamic range of a system is equal to the difference between the peak output level of the system and the noise floor.
  • Page 82 Figure 5-1. Dynamic Range and Headroom in Sound Systems Page 5-3...
  • Page 83: A General Approach To Setting Levels In A Sound System

    This corre- sponds to an average 0 VU indication on the PM4000 meters (0 VU +4 dBu, which allows 20 dB headroom before the console reaches its maximum +24 dBu output level).
  • Page 84 Remember that with a 20 dB headroom figure, a power amplifier as powerful as 500 watts will operate at an average 5 watts output power. In some systems such as studio monitoring, where fidelity and full dynamic range are of utmost importance, and where sensitive loudspeakers are used in relatively small rooms, this low average power may be adequate.
  • Page 85: Gain Overlap And Headroom

    Hence, a power amplifier with a +4 dBu sensitivity rating will be driven 20 dB into clipping if driven with the full output capability of the PM4000. It would appear, then, that the console has “too much” output capability, but this is not really true.
  • Page 86: Section 6. Optional Functions

    Section 6 Optional Functions...
  • Page 87 The PM4000 is factory wired to suit what Yamaha engineers believe to be the greatest number of applica- tions. Yamaha recognizes, however, that there are certain functions which must be altered for certain specific applications. In designing the PM4000, a...
  • Page 88: Removing And Installing A Module

    Removing and Installing A Module Figure 6-1. Removal of PM4000 Module 1. Turn the Power OFF first, before removing or installing a module. 2. Loosen the screws at the top and bottom of the rear panel input/output strip corresponding to the module being removed (except Master section modules).
  • Page 89: Mono Input Direct Out Jack: Pre-Fader Or Post-Fader (Switch) Pre-On Or Post-On Switch (Jumper)

    6.2 Mono Input Direct Out Jack: Pre-Fader or Post-Fader (switch) Pre-ON or Post-ON Switch (jumper) A slide switch in each input module permits the Direct Out point to be altered. As shipped, the console is set so that the Direct Out point is derived after the EQ and Fader (technically speaking, it comes after the VCA Figure 6-2.
  • Page 90: Mono Input Aux Sends: Pre Fader & Eq Or Pre Fader/Post Eq

    6.3 Mono Input Aux Sends: Pre Fader & EQ or Pre Fader/post EQ Ten slide switches in each input module permit each of the eight mono auxiliary sends and the two stereo aux sends to be altered. As shipped, the console is wired so that if the front-panel aux PRE/OFF/POST switch is set to PRE position, the aux send is derived ahead of the the fader and equalizer (but after the high pass filter).
  • Page 91: Mono Input Cue/Solo Switch: Pre-Fader Or Follow Mt Pre Switch

    6.4 Mono Input Cue/Solo Switch: Pre- Fader or Follow MT PRE Switch As shipped from the factory, the mono input channel CUE/SOLO switch applies signal to the left and right cue busses from a point which is derived just ahead of the channel fader (actually, just ahead of the fader- controlled VCA).
  • Page 92: Stereo Input Cue/Solo Switch: Pre-Fader Or Follow Mt Pre Switch

    6.5 Stereo Input Cue/Solo Switch: Pre- Fader or Follow MT PRE Switch As shipped from the factory, the stereo channel CUE/ SOLO switch applies signal to the left and right cue busses from a point which is derived just ahead of the channel fader (actually, just ahead of the fader-con- trolled VCA).
  • Page 93: Mono & Stereo Input Channel Mt Pre Switch: Pre- Or Post-On Switch

    6.6 Mono & Stereo Input Channel MT PRE Switch: Pre- or Post-ON Switch Two jumpers in each mono input module (four on each stereo input module) permit the channel level meter’s MT PRE switch function to be altered. As shipped, when the channel is set so that the meter is in Figure 6-6.
  • Page 94: Stereo Input Channel Insert In/Out Jacks: Pre-Eq Or Post-Eq

    6.7 Stereo Input Channel Insert In/Out Jacks: Pre-EQ or Post-EQ Four jumpers in each stereo input module permit the two pair of Insert In/Out points to be altered separately. As shipped, the console is set so that the Insert In/Out points come after the channel equalizer.
  • Page 95 6.8 Stereo Input Channel Aux Sends: Pre Fader & EQ or Pre Fader/Post EQ Eight slide switches in each stereo input module permit each of the eight mono auxiliary sends and to be altered. Two more switches perform the same function for the two stereo aux sends.
  • Page 96: Stereo Input Channel Aux Sends

    6.9 Stereo Input Channel Aux Sends 1-8: L+R Blend or Stereo Pairs A single slide switch in each stereo input module changes the signal source for the Aux Sends 1 through 8 (without regard to pre or post status). As shipped, these Aux Sends each carry a mono combination of the left Figure 6-9.
  • Page 97: Stereo Input Channel Stereo

    6.10 Stereo Input Channel Stereo Aux Sends 1 & 2: L+R Blend or Stereo Pairs A slide switch in each stereo input module changes the signal source for the two stereo aux sends (without regard to pre or post status). As shipped, the two Stereo Figure 6-10.
  • Page 98: Stereo Input Channel Feed To Monitor

    6.11 Stereo Input Channel Feed to Monitor Module ST IN 3 or ST IN 4 The Monitor module has provisions for selection and monitoring of signals assigned from the “Stereo In 3” and “Stereo In 4” modules. However, the stereo module numbers are arbitrarily designated;...
  • Page 99: Phase Switch Function: Change Polarity Of

    6.12 Phase Switch Function: Change Polarity of Both L and R inputs, or of L Only As shipped, the Stereo Input Module’s Phase Swich (Ø) [8S], which is really a polarity switch, reverses the polarity of both the left and right inputs to the module. Figure 6-12.
  • Page 100: Stereo Input Module: Output Enable

    6.13 Stereo Input Module: Output Enable Jumpers to Group, Stereo and Aux Busses The stereo input module may be used as an effects return module. In this case, it could be disastrous if an incoming signal were to be assigned to the bus which is feeding the signal processor whose output is coming into the module.
  • Page 101: Master Module: Group-To-Matrix Assigned

    6.14 Master Module: Group-to-Matrix Assigned Pre or Post Group Master Fader A slide switch in each master module permits the module’s group send to the mix matrix to be altered. As shipped, the console is preset so that when the GROUP- TO-MTRX switch is on, the matrix is fed signal after the Group Master Fader (but before the GROUP ON/off switch).
  • Page 102: Stereo Master To Matrix St Bus: Pre Or Post

    6.15 Stereo Master to Matrix ST Bus: Pre or Post ST Master Fader A slide switch in Stereo Master module enables the signal applied to the matrix stereo bus from that module to be derived from two different points. As shipped, the switch is preset so the matrix is fed its Figure 6-15.
  • Page 103: Installation Of Optional Input Transformers

    “piggy back” mounts to the module’s main circuit board. Refer to Figure 6-16A. An optional transformer balancing option may be installed by a Yamaha PM4000 dealer or a qualified electronic service technician. The modi- fication kit contains a replacement circuit board for the original differential preamplifier, and a separate input transformer.
  • Page 104: Hints On Circuitry For Remote Control Of

    Control of the VCA Masters and Mute Groups The VCA/MUTE CONTROL connector on the PM4000 rear panel is provided primarily so that two consoles may be linked, and just one console’s VCA MASTER FADERS and/or MUTE MASTER switches will affect both consoles input channels. However, it is possible to create an independent controller so that these functions can be remoted from the console.
  • Page 106: Section 7. Operating Notes And Hints

    Section 7 Operating Notes and Hints...
  • Page 107: Console Gain Structure

    7.1.3 Establishing The Correct Input Channel Settings In the case of the PM4000, the input channel meter LEDs [20] [20S] make it relatively simple to obtain the correct gain structure at the input stage. Begin with the...
  • Page 108: Establishing The Correct Group Master Settings

    Given the correct GAIN and PAD settings, adjust the channel Fader to its nominal (0 dB) setting. This setting provides the best range of control, with some boost available if the signal must be raised in the mix, and plenty of resolution for fading the signal down in the mix.
  • Page 109: Establishing The Correct Aux Return Settings

    Assum- ing the auxiliary processors are brought into one or more of the PM4000 stereo input channels, those channels (used as returns) are ready to be calibrated. The CUE switch for any of these input channels of little value in calibration because it derives signal ahead of the EQ and fader.
  • Page 110: Channel Muting And Gain Structure

    An alternate approach involves the use of a VCA. In the PM4000, there is one VCA in each input module. That VCA takes the place of the post-Fader booster amplifier in a conventional console configuration. The PM4000 channel Fader is a variable resistor, but it does not have audio flowing through it.
  • Page 111 trolled Amplifier) in the input module. The audio signal flowing through that VCA is, in turn, increased or decreased in level according to the control voltage applied to the VCA. One advantage of the VCA is that the control voltage applied to it can come from more than one point.
  • Page 112 NOTE: Channels and outputs are selected at random in this illustration. The VCA Master Fader controls multiple input channels, and their outputs to all bus- ses (assuming Post-fader AUX sends). There is no single insert IN/OUT point that can process this VCA-controlled group of inputs, however. NOTE: Channels and outputs are selected at random in this illustration.
  • Page 113: Using The Channel Insert In Jack As A Line Input

    The matrix is considerably more conve- nient and less costly than actually using an external line mixer, and in the case of the PM4000, it is more flexible as well. Let’s “walk through” the PM4000 mix matrix. Each matrix “channel”...
  • Page 114 The Mix Matrix is Located on the Top portion of Master Modules 1-8 Figure 7-3. Front Panel View and Block Diagram of PM4000 Mix Matrix Page 7-8...
  • Page 115: The Mix Matrix In General Sound Reinforcement

    [34] to mute the output to the speaker system, thereby eliminating any uncertainty in re-establishing program levels. If the PM4000 internal slide switches are reset so that the Group-to-Matrix and Stereo-to-Matrix feeds are derived pre-fader (as described in Sections 6.12 and 6.13), then the Group and Stereo Master Faders will not...
  • Page 116: Uses Of The Matrix To Pre-Mix Scenes

    A related use for the MTRX SUB IN connectors is to inject a test signal for speaker setup and testing. While the PM4000 test oscillator can be assigned to the Group or Stereo busses, which, in turn, feed the matrix, it is likely that the Group and Stereo Master Faders will not be set at nominal levels for the show.
  • Page 117 These are but a few of the ways that the PM4000’s ability to mute overlapping groups of input channels can be used to advantage.
  • Page 118: Stereo Panning To The Eight Group Mixing Busses

    7.2.6 Stereo Panning To the Eight Group Mixing Busses The input channel bus assignment is very flexible. One can assign a channel directly to the stereo bus using the ST switch [3], and the PAN pot will place the signal between the left and right sides of that stereo bus.
  • Page 119: Section 8. Applications

    Section 8 Applications...
  • Page 120: General

    TV show and music video production, AV audio production, and general recording. We explain a few reasons why the PM4000 is well suited to these applications below, but rather than focus on specific end-user applications, we feel it is more important to point out how some of the PM4000 sub- systems can be used to accomplish specific mixing tasks.
  • Page 121: Post Production

    In any case, the PM4000 is well suited to the task. Its many inputs can be switched to handle virtually any input level, from the lowest level mics to very “hot”...
  • Page 122: Sound Reinforcement

    Master Mute switch, turn on or off assigned groups of input channels. The PM4000 has other useful features for sound reinforcement, such as: numerous LEDs to display switch status and signal levels with far more reliability than conventional lamps;...
  • Page 123: The Mix Matrix Allows The 8 Groups Plus

    8.2.2 The Mix Matrix Allows the 8 Groups Plus the Stereo Bus to Function as 10 Subgroups. It is relatively straightforward to use the mix matrix to create up to eight mono outputs or four stereo out- puts from the eight subgroups and the stereo bus. However, it is equally easy to use the stereo bus not to create a stereo mix, but instead to create two additional subgroups.
  • Page 124 Figure 8-3. System Diagram For 5 Independent Stereo Output Mixes via the Stereo Bus and the Mix Matrix Page 8-5...
  • Page 125: How To Use The Vca Masters Plus The

    8.2.4 How to Use the VCA Masters Plus the Group Master Faders to Obtain the Functional Equivalent of 16 Subgroups. Let’s assume the object is to obtain a stereo output (or a pair of mono outputs). Some input channels can be assigned to the Group busses via their assign switches [1].
  • Page 126: Using More Than One Vca Master To Control The Same Input Channels In Order To Handle Overlapping Scenes

    24 to 48 channel faders every so often, the PM4000 designers came up with a better idea. Use the VCA system. The eight VCA Master Faders can be thought of as eight “scene”...
  • Page 127: Section 9. Maintenance

    Section 9 Maintenance...
  • Page 128: Cleaning The Console

    DO NOT USE SOLVENTS TO CLEAN THE FOAM ELEMENTS. 9.1.3 Pots And Faders Yamaha DOES NOT recommend the routine use of any contact cleaners or solvents for cleaning pots or faders. Such “preventive maintenance” can actually do more harm than good by removing the lubricating film on certain pots or faders.
  • Page 129: Meter Lamp Replacement

    These techniques should be known to most experienced sound system operators. In the case of the PM4000 console, however, there are a number of apparent fault conditions, which the operator may inadvertently create simply by setting controls in a particular configuration, whereby no signal reaches the output.
  • Page 130: What To Do In Case Of Trouble

    The PM4000 is supported by Yamaha’s worldwide network of factory trained and qualified dealer service personnel. In the event of a problem, contact your nearest Yamaha PM4000 dealer. For the name of the nearest dealer, contact one of the Yamaha offices listed below.
  • Page 132 YAMAHA VN02300...