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Fluke 45 User Manual

Dual display multimeter
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45

Dual Display Multimeter

Users Manual
PN 855981
January 1989, Rev. 4, 7/97
© 1999 Fluke Corporation, All rights reserved. Printed in USA
All product names are trademarks of their respective companies.

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  • Page 1: Dual Display Multimeter

    ® Dual Display Multimeter Users Manual PN 855981 January 1989, Rev. 4, 7/97 © 1999 Fluke Corporation, All rights reserved. Printed in USA All product names are trademarks of their respective companies.
  • Page 2 Fluke’s warranty obligation is limited, at Fluke’s option, to refund of the purchase price, free of charge repair, or replacement of a defective product which is returned to a Fluke authorized service center within the warranty period.
  • Page 3: Dual Display Multimeter

    Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. Stock No. 004-000-00345-4. Declaration of the Manufacturer or Importer We hereby certify that the Fluke Model 45 Dual Display MultiMeter is in compliance with BMPT Vfg 243/1991 and is RFI suppressed. The normal operation of some equipment (e.g.
  • Page 5: Table Of Contents

    Chapter Introduction ... 1-1 Introducing the Fluke 45 Dual Display Multimeter... 1-1 Options and Accessories ... 1-2 Where to go from Here ... 1-2 Getting Started ... 2-1 Introduction... 2-1 Getting Started ... 2-1 Unpacking and Inspecting the Meter... 2-1 Front Panel and Rear Panel ...
  • Page 6 Preparing the Meter for Operations via the RS-232 Interface ... 5-2 Setting Communication Parameters (RS-232)... 5-2 RS-232 Print-Only Mode... 5-3 Cabling the Meter to a Host or Printer (RS-232)... 5-4 Character Echoing and Deletion... 5-4 Device Clear Using ^C (CNTRL C)... 5-4 RS-232 Prompts...
  • Page 7 Installing the IEEE-488 Interface ... 5-5 Enabling the IEEE-488 Interface... 5-5 Addressing the Meter... 5-5 Cabling the Meter to a Host... 5-6 Getting Started With An Installation Test... 5-6 Installation Test for RS-232 Operations ... 5-6 Installation Test for IEEE-488 Operations ... 5-6 If Test Fails...
  • Page 9: List Of Tables

    Table 1-1. Accessories... 1-2 3-2. Voltage Ranges and Full Scale Values... 3-6 3-3. Current Ranges and Full Scale Values ... 3-7 3-4. Ohms Ranges and Full Scale Values... 3-7 3-5. Frequency Ranges and Full Scale Values (Slow and Medium*) ... 3-7 3-6.
  • Page 10 Users Manual 6-3. Performance Tests for mA Current Functions ... 6-7 6-4. Performance Tests for A Current Functions... 6-7 6-5. Replacement Parts ... 6-7...
  • Page 11 Figure 2-1. Front Panel ... 2-2 2-2. Rear Panel ... 2-2 2-3. Adjusting Handle... 2-3 2-4. Summary of Basic Pushbutton Operations... 2-4 2-5. Measuring Voltage, Resistance, or Frequency... 2-7 2-6. Measuring Current or Frequency ... 2-7 2-7. Continuity Testing... 2-8 2-8.
  • Page 12: Introduction

    To avoid electric shock or injury, read the "multimeter safety" sheet preceding Chapter 2 before using the meter. The Fluke 45 Dual Display Multimeter (also referred to as "the meter") is a 4/2-digit (30,000 count) meter with a 5-digit (100,000 count) high resolution mode. The meter is designed for bench-top, field service, and system applications.
  • Page 13: Options And Accessories

    RS-232 modem cable. Connects the Fluke 45 to a modem with properly configured DB-25 male pin connector. QuickStart ™, a PC software package, simplifies operation of the Fluke 45 when using the RS-232 computer interface. Readings are recorded in files that can be accessed by Lotus...
  • Page 14 Chapter 6: Maintenance Describes how to perform basic maintenance and repairs (e.g., replacing fuses) and how to order replacement parts. Complete service and repair procedures are contained in the "Fluke 45 Dual Display Multimeter Service Manual" (P/N 856042). Appendices A. Specifications B.
  • Page 15 Users Manual...
  • Page 16 MULTIMETER SAFETY The Fluke 45 Dual Display Multimeter has been designed and tested according to IEC Publication 348, Safety Requirements for Electronic Measuring Apparatus. This manual contains information and warnings which must be followed to ensure safe operation and retain the meter in safe condition. Use of this equipment in a manner not specified herein may impair the protection provided by the equipment.
  • Page 18: Getting Started

    Introduction Chapter 2 explains how to prepare the meter for operation, discusses general operating features, and walks you through the basics of taking some common measurements. Getting Started Unpacking and Inspecting the Meter Carefully remove the meter from its shipping container and inspect it for possible damage or missing items.
  • Page 19 TO AVOID ELECTRIC SHOCK DISCONNECT MEASURING TERMINALS BEFORE OPENING CASE WARNING: TO AVOID DAMAGE OR INJURY USE ONLY IN CIRCUITS LESS THAN 4800VA FLUKE CORPORATION MADE IN USA PAT. 4,217,543 4,556,867 4,532,470 4,825,392 4,857,878 5,332,963 5,418,464 DES 311,700 Shift aam01f.eps...
  • Page 20: Turning The Meter On

    If you have not already done so, plug the line cord into the connector on the rear of the meter. The meter will operate on any line voltage between 90 V ac and 264 V ac without adjustment, and any frequency between 45 and 440 Hz. However, it is only warranted to meet published specifications at 50/60 Hz.
  • Page 21 Users Manual -Press to Toggle In and Out of Decibels -Press to Toggle In and Out of Relative Mode FUNCTION MODIFIER BUTTONS FUNCTION BUTTONS: -Press to Select a Function RANGE BUTTONS: -Press AUTO to Toggle In and Out of Manual Ranging; -Press to Up Range or Down Range -Press to Select Touch Hold;...
  • Page 22: Selecting A Measurement Range

    EXAMPLE: Press select the decibels modifier. Press multiple buttons simultaneously. EXAMPLE: Press (calculated) in the primary display. For more details on the uses of each button, refer to Chapter 3, "OPERATING THE METER FROM THE FRONT PANEL." Selecting a Measurement Range Measurement ranges can be selected automatically by the meter in "autorange"...
  • Page 23: Measuring Voltage, Resistance, Or Frequency

    Users Manual Measuring Voltage, Resistance, or Frequency To measure voltage, resistance, or frequency, press the desired function button and connect the test leads as shown in Figure 2-5. The meter will select the appropriate range in the autorange mode, and an annunciator on the display will indicate measurement units.
  • Page 24 VOLTAGE SOURCE Figure 2-5. Measuring Voltage, Resistance, or Frequency CURRENT SOURCE Note: Measurement can be also made using current clamp without breaking circuit. Figure 2-6. Measuring Current or Frequency Taking Some Basic Measurements DUAL DISPLAY MULTIMETER 600V CAT I 1000V CAT I FUSE F1 500 mA F 250V...
  • Page 25 Users Manual TEST CIRCUIT Note: This is a Diode Test Function with a Continuity Beeper. DUAL DISPLAY MULTIMETER 600V CAT I 1000V CAT I FUSE F1 500 mA F 250V FUSED FREQ Figure 2-7. Continuity Testing DUAL DISPLAY MULTIMETER 600V CAT I 1000V CAT I FUSE F1 500 mA...
  • Page 26: Operating The Meter Under Battery Power (Optional)

    To perform a diode or transistor junction test, press function. (Each press of test leads across the diode as shown in Figure 2-8. Notice how the test leads are placed. Reversing the polarity will reverse-bias the diode. Operating the Meter Under Battery Power (Optional) The meter can be powered by an 8 V, lead-acid battery.
  • Page 27 Users Manual 2-10...
  • Page 28: Operating The Meter From The Front Panel

    Configure the computer interface (RS-232 or IEEE-488). Take an audio power reading. Send measurements directly to a printer or terminal through the RS-232 interface (RS-232 print-only mode). These and other front panel operations are described in the remainder of Chapter 3.
  • Page 29: Display

    Users Manual Display The meter has a 5-digit, vacuum-fluorescent, dual display. This display shows measure- ment readings, annunciators, and messages. The annunciators indicate measurement units and the meters operating configuration. The dual display allows you to see two properties (e.g., volts ac and frequency) of the input signal you are measuring.
  • Page 30 Reading Rate: Slow, Medium, Fast MIN MAX Remote State Modifier with or without Decibels Front Panel Lockout Modifier (REMS or RWLS)) REMOTE SMF MAX EXT TRG HOLD Less Than 1/2 Hour Battery Power Remains Figure 3-2. Display Annunciators DUAL DISPLAY MULTIMETER Figure 3-3.
  • Page 31: Input Terminals

    Users Manual Neither function modifiers (REL, dB, HOLD, and MN MX) nor the manual range mode can be selected in the secondary display. Measurement ranges in the secondary display are always selected through autoranging. Input Terminals The input terminals, shown in Figure 3-4, are located on the left of the front panel. The meter is protected against overloads up to the limits shown in Table 3-1.
  • Page 32: Selecting A Measurement Function

    FUNCTION and FREQ and FREQ 100 mA and COM and FREQ 10A and COM All Functions Any terminal to earth Selecting a Measurement Function Press a function button (white), shown in Figure 3-5, to select a measurement function To select ac + dc total rms readings, press When you select a function, annunciators turn on to indicate the function selected.
  • Page 33 Users Manual Amps DC Volts DC Volts AC Amps AC Frequency Fast Reading Rate Range Full Scale 300 mV 300.0 mV 3.000 V 30 V 30.00 V 300 V 300.0 V 1000 V* 1000 V* * 750V for volts ac Resistance Diode Test/Continuity FREQ...
  • Page 34 Table 3-3. Current Ranges and Full Scale Values Fast Reading Rate Range Full Scale 30 mA 30.00 mA 100 mA 100.0 mA 10 A 10.00 A* * 20 A for maximum of 30 seconds Table 3-4. Ohms Ranges and Full Scale Values Fast Reading Rate Range Full Scale...
  • Page 35: Manual Ranging

    Users Manual Press to Toggle In and Out of Manual Ranging. "AUTO" Annunciator Turns off when Manual Range Selected. AUTO Manual Ranging Press to toggle in and out of manual ranging. The range you are in when you enter the manual range mode becomes the selected range. In manual range, the meter remains in the selected range regardless of input.
  • Page 36: Frequency Measurement Rates

    Frequency Measurement Rates The rate at which frequency measurements are taken is a factor of the frequency being measured (see Table 3-6). When the frequency function has been selected, pressing frequency update rate. Table 3-6. Frequency Measurement Rates Frequency @ > 150 Hz @ 100 Hz @ 60 Hz @ 15 Hz...
  • Page 37: Selecting A Function Modifier

    Users Manual Table 3-7. Maximum Sinewave Inputs for Frequency Measurements Range 300 mV 30 V 300 V 750 V The input signal sensitivity is listed under the frequency specifications in Appendix A. These values are based on sine waveforms. The signal level must be increased for lower crest factor inputs (the crest factor is the ratio of the peak voltage to the ac rms voltage of the waveform).
  • Page 38: Rel (Relative Readings) Modifier

    -Press to Toggle In and Out of Relative Modifier HOLD MN MX -Press to Select Touch Hold Modifier; -Press to Force New Reading; -Press and Hold Down for 2 Seconds to Exit. Figure 3-7. Function Modifier Selection Buttons REL (Relative Readings) Modifier When the relative modifier (REL) is selected, the reading on the primary display is always the difference between the relative base and an input measurement.
  • Page 39: Db (Decibels And Audio Power) Modifier

    Users Manual modifier is selected, the relative base is shown in the secondary display. To turn off this feature, press dB (Decibels and Audio Power) Modifier The decibels modifier takes a voltage measurement, converts it to dBm (measure of decibels relative to one milliwatt), and displays the result on the primary display. Press to toggle in and out of the decibels modifier.
  • Page 40: Hold (Touch Hold) Modifier

    HOLD (Touch Hold) Modifier The Touch Hold modifier allows you to take a measurement and "hold" that measurement on the display. This feature can be particularly advantageous in difficult or hazardous circumstances when you might want to keep your eyes fixed on the probes, and then read the display when it is safe or convenient to do so.
  • Page 41: Selecting A Measurement Rate (Rate)

    Users Manual Hold, then converts the measurement to decibels, then determines if the measurement is either a new minimum or maximum value, and then subtracts the relative base from the measurement. When using multiple modifiers, the order in which modifiers are selected is important. For example, if maximum value (which ever is currently displayed) becomes the relative base.
  • Page 42 Table 3-10. Pushbuttons then Show volts ac reading in secondary display then Show volts dc reading in secondary display then Show amperes ac reading in secondary display then Show amperes dc reading in secondary display then Show ohms reading in secondary display then Show Hz reading in secondary display then...
  • Page 43: Using The Compare (Comp) Function

    Users Manual Using The Compare (Comp) Function The compare function (COMP) provides an easy way to determine if a reading falls within a designated range of values. In the compare mode, the meter displays a reading in the primary display and indicates in the secondary display if that value is lower (LO) than, higher (HI) than, or within a range (PASS) you selected.
  • Page 44: Using The List Editor

    Using the List Editor Use the list editor to select an option from a list. Table 3-11 summarizes the options available through the list editor. To use the list editor, proceed as follows: 1. Press 2. Press the appropriate modifier button, as indicated in Table 3-11, to call the list editor on an options list.
  • Page 45: Using The Number Editor

    Users Manual To Set Touch Hold Minimum Response Level Decibel Reference Impedance in Ohms RS-232 Baud Rate IEEE-488 Address(If IEEE-488 Interface Installed and selected.) RS-232 PrintOnly Mode (If RS-232 Interface Selected) Trigger Type 3. When you have scrolled to 16, press becomes bright, indicating that it is the selected value.
  • Page 46: Power-Up Configuration

    The last number entered (or, in REL, the last measured value) is shown with the left most digit displayed in normal intensity and the remaining digits dim. (If the number is negative, the minus sign is dim.) Related annunciators are lit, and "EDIT" is shown in the secondary display.
  • Page 47: Calibration

    The CAL ENABLE button is located in the lower-right corner of the display. Press and Hold for three seconds to enable calibration. The meter allows for closed case calibration using reference sources. See the Fluke 45 Dual Display Multimeter Service Manual (P/N 856042) for calibration procedures.
  • Page 48: Applications

    Introduction Chapter 4 discusses some applications that will help you use the meter effectively. These applications assume you are familiar with the basic operation of the meter and have a basic understanding of electronics. A sophisticated understanding of electrical circuits is not necessary.
  • Page 49: Using Measurement Functions In Combination

    Users Manual Using Measurement Functions in Combination The dual display allows you to display two properties of the input signal being measured. Any combination of two properties from the list below is allowed, even those that may not be useful: Volts dc Volts ac Current dc...
  • Page 50 Table 4-1. Sample Dual Display Applications Primary Display Secondary Display Volts DC Volts AC Volts DC Current DC Volts DC Current AC Volts AC Current DC Volts AC Current AC Volts AC Frequency dB (in Volts dc) Frequency Current DC Current AC MN MX Actual Value...
  • Page 51: Response Times

    Users Manual CIRCUIT LOAD Figure 4-2 DC Voltage and DC Current Measurement on Input Signal The lead from the internal measuring circuitry of the meter to the COM binding post (on the front panel) is the same for both voltage and current measurements. The resistance of this lead is approximately .003 .
  • Page 52: How The Meter Makes Dual Display Measurements

    When measuring AC + DC, (or any dual display combination of AC and DC) in the fast reading rate, the Fluke 45 may show significant reading errors. This results from a lack of filtering on the DC portion of the measurement for the fast reading rate.
  • Page 53 Users Manual Table 4-2. Typical Single Measurement Response Times (in Seconds) Meas. Auto Function Range 1.00 2.20 0.60 0.60 1.40 0.50 FREQ 1.20 Time to autorange a new measurement from the lowest to the highest range and to display the result. Typical time to change to the next higher or lower range and display the result.
  • Page 54: Update Rate In The Dual Display Mode

    Update Rate in the Dual Display Mode The update rate is the time between successive measurements for a steady state signal. In the dual display mode (when both the primary and secondary displays are on), if the measurement functions or the ranges selected for the primary and secondary displays are different, the update rate for each measurement function will vary from the update rate for that measurement function when only the primary display is on.
  • Page 55: Thermal Voltages

    Users Manual Table 4-4. Typical Measurement Intervals (in Seconds) for Dual Display Measurements Meas. Range 300 mV 300V 1000V 30 k 300 k 30 M 300 M FREQ* * Frequency greater than 150 Hz. Refer to frequency measurement rates in Table 3-6. Thermal Voltages Thermal voltages are the thermovoltaic potentials generated at the junction between dissimilar metals.
  • Page 56: When Measuring Resistance

    When Measuring Resistance Two-Wire Configuration The meter measures resistance in a two-wire configuration using a resistance ratio (some- times called ratio-ohms) technique. Two-wire resistance measurements are simple to set up and yield good results for most measurement conditions. The full-scale voltage for each resistance range is shown in Table 4-5. The test lead is positive with respect to the COM lead.
  • Page 57: Effects Of Internal Noise In Ac Measurements

    When measuring AC + DC, (or any dual display combination of AC and DC) In the fast reading rate, the Fluke 45 may show significant reading errors. This results from a lack of filtering on the DC portion of the measurement for the fast reading rate.
  • Page 58 * RMS CAL IS THE DISPLAYED VALUE FOR AVERAGE RESPONDING METERS THAT ARE CALIBRATED TO DISPLAY RMS FOR SINE WAVES Figure 4-3. Waveform Comparison Chart METERED VOLTAGES AC COMPONENT ONLY COMPONENT RMS CAL* FLUKE 45 1.000 1.000 0.000 0.421 0.436 0.900 0.779...
  • Page 59 Users Manual 4-12...
  • Page 60: Operating The Meter Using The Computer Interface

    An annotated sample program, illustrating the use of the RS-232 computer interface, is provided at the end of Chapter 5. Refer to Chapter 3 for complete descriptions of all meter functions and features. Remote calibration procedures are provided in the Fluke 45 Dual Display Multimeter Service Manual (P/N 856042).
  • Page 61: Preparing The Meter For Operations Via The Rs-232 Interface

    Preparing the Meter for Operations via the RS-232 Interface The RS-232 interface allows ASCII, asynchronous, serial communication between the meter and a host, a serial printer, or terminal. Setting Communication Parameters (RS-232) The communication parameters for the RS-232 computer interface are shown in Table 5-1 as they are set when the meter leaves the factory.
  • Page 62: Rs-232 Print-Only Mode

    The print-only mode is intended to be used primarily in those cases where you want to send measurements taken by the meter to a printer or terminal automatically. While the meter will respond to remote commands during "print-only" operations, we recommend first setting the meter’s echo mode to "OFF"...
  • Page 63: Cabling The Meter To A Host Or Printer (Rs-232)

    RS41 cable connected end-to-end. Alternatively, a cable intended for interconnecting two IBM PC/ATs can be used. To connect the meter to a specific brand of RS-232 printer, use the cable that would be used to connect that printer to an RS-232 port on an IBM PC/AT (DB-9 connector).
  • Page 64: Preparing The Meter To Be Operated Via Ieee-488 Interface

    Preparing the Meter to be Operated via IEEE-488 Interface To turn the meter into a fully programmable element of an automated testing system, use the IEEE-488 Interface option, as described below. IEEE-488 Operating Limitations The following limitations govern the IEEE-488 interface: A maximum of 15 devices can be connected in a single IEEE-488 bus system.
  • Page 65: Cabling The Meter To A Host

    2. Verify that the meter’s IEEE-488 address is set correctly. 3. Turn on the host or controller. 4. Enter the following at the host: This is a program as entered from a Fluke 1722A Instrument Controller using Fluke BASIC commands. Syntax may vary with the host. INIT PORT 0<CR>...
  • Page 66: If Test Fails

    5. Verify that the meter sends the following response FLUKE, 45, nnnnnnn, n.n Dn.n nnnnnnn is your meter’s serial number, n.n identifies the main software version, and Dn.n identifies the display software version. If Test Fails If the meter does not respond to the test procedure as indicated: 1.
  • Page 67: Typical Ieee-488 Input Strings

    Typical IEEE-488 Input Strings Two typical strings that could be sent to the meter over the IEEE-488 interface are shown in Figure 5-1. These strings are written in Fluke BASIC to be sent from a Fluke 1722A Instrument Controller. Sending Numeric Values to the Meter...
  • Page 68 RULE 2: READ QUERY RESPONSES BEFORE SENDING ANOTHER COMMAND STRING. Output data remains available in the output buffer until it is read by the host or until the next command string is received by the meter. This means the meters output buffer must be read by the host before, rather than after, the next command string is sent to the meter.
  • Page 69 Users Manual In the following examples, <space> between commands is for readability only. However a <space> between a command and its argument is required. The PRINT command sends a terminator at the end of the string. EXAMPLE 1: The following string configures the meter and triggers an ohms reading to be shown on the primary display.
  • Page 70: How The Meter Processes Output

    How the Meter Processes Output The following paragraphs summarize how the meter processes output. The meter outputs an alphanumeric string in response to a query command from the host. (Query commands are easily identified because they all end with "?".) An output string is terminated by a Carriage Return and Line Feed (<CR><LF>) for RS-232 applications or a Line Feed with End or Identity (<LF><EOI>) for IEEE-488.
  • Page 71: Setting The Trigger Type Configuration

    Users Manual 2. Press "tri" and a number corresponding to the selected trigger type ("1", "2", "3", "4", or "5" from Table 5-3) are displayed. is pressed before (rather than simultaneously with) will toggle from autorange to manual range or vice-versa, depending upon the range mode you are in.
  • Page 72: Service Requests

    A measurement is triggered while the input is greater than +3 V. A method for using DTR (pin 4) and an external switch to trigger a measurement is shown in Figure 5-2. Send the IEEE-488 GET interface message (IEEE-488 Operations). Type Internal External...
  • Page 73 Users Manual the bus responds to the poll by sending the contents of its Status Byte Register. If an instrument on the bus has made a service request, the request service bit (RQS, bit 6) of its Status Byte Register will be set to 1, identifying it as an instrument that requested service. The contents of the Status Byte Register (STB) is determined by the Service Request Enable Register (SRE), Event Status Register (ESR), Event Status Enable Register (ESE), and the output buffer.
  • Page 74 & & & & & Service Request Generation & Figure 5-3. Overview of Status Data Structures Figure 5-3 reprinted from ANSI/IEEE Std 488.2-1987. Copyright 1988. By the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. By permission of the IEEE Standards Department. Operating the Meter Using the Computer Interface Service Requests (IEEE-488 Only and Status Registers Standard...
  • Page 75: Event Status And Event Status Enable Registers

    Users Manual Event Status and Event Status Enable Registers The Event Status Register (ESR) assigns specified events to specific bits (see Figure 5-4 and Table 5-6). When a bit in the ESR is set (i.e., 1), the event that corresponds to that bit has occurred since the register was last read or cleared.
  • Page 76: Status Byte Register

    Table 5-6. Description of Bits in ESR and ESE Bit No. Name Operation Complete (OPC). Not used. Query Error (QYE). Device-Dependent Error (DDE) Execution Error (EXE) Command Error (CME) Not used. Power On Status Byte Register The Status Byte Register (STB) is a binary-encoded register that contains eight bits. Note that the Service Request Enable Register (SRE) uses bits I through 5 and bit 7 to set bit 6, the request service (RQS) bit, as enabled by the SRE.
  • Page 77: Service Request Enable Register

    Users Manual Bit No. Not used. Not used. Not used. Not used. Message Available (MAV) Event Status (ESB) Master Summary Status† (MSS) Not used. † As read by *STB? command. If the Status Byte Register is read by a serial poll, bit 6 is returned as RQS. Service Request Enable Register The SRE Register is an 8-bit register that enables or disables (i.e., masks) corresponding summary messages in the Status Byte Register.
  • Page 78: Computer Interface Command Set

    6 will always be zero.) Convert the returned value to binary to determine the status of register bits. EXAMPLE *SRE? Reads the value of the SRE Register. Assume "32" is returned. Converting 32 to the binary 00100000 indicates that bit 5 in the SRE is set to 1.
  • Page 79 Meter returns the identification code of the meter as four fields separated by commas. These fields are: manufacturer ("FLUKE"); model ("45"); seven-digit serial number; version of main software and version of display software. Meter sets the Operation Complete bit in the Standard Event Status Register when parsed.
  • Page 80 EXAMPLE: Decimal 9 (8 plus 1) converts to binary 000010010, meaning the A/D self-test failed and EEPROM calibration data are bad. Command required by IEEE-488.2 standard. Non-operational in Fluke 45 Dual Display Multimeter. Command accepted but has no effect. 5-21...
  • Page 81: Function Commands And Queries

    Users Manual Function Commands and Queries The commands in Table 5-11 relate to measurement functions. See Table 5-13 for ranges and measurement rates. Refer to Chapter 3 for a detailed description of each function. Commands under Primary Display and Secondary Display cause functions to be performed on the primary display or secondary display, respectively.
  • Page 82 Table 5-12. Function Modifier Commands and Queries Command Meter enters decibels modifier. Any reading shown in the primary display is in decibels. An Execution Error is generated if the meter is not in a volts ac and/or dc function. DBCLR Meter exits the decibels modifier and displays readings in normal units.
  • Page 83 Users Manual Table 5-12. Function Modifier Commands and Queries (cont.) Command MAXSET Meter enters MN MX modifier with <numeric value> as the maximum value.<numeric <numeric value> value> can be a signed integer, signed real number without exponent, or signed real number with exponent.
  • Page 84: Range And Measurement Rate Commands And Queries

    Range and Measurement Rate Commands and Queries The commands in Table 5-13 relate to ranging and measurement rates (i.e., readings/ second). In the autorange mode, the meter automatically selects a range for each reading; in the manual range mode, the user selects a fixed range. Table 5-13.
  • Page 85: Measurement Queries

    Users Manual Table 5-13. Range and Measurement Rate Commands and Queries (cont.) Command RANGE1? Returns the range presently selected on the primary display. RANGE2? Returns the range presently selected on the secondary display. If the secondary display is inactive, an Execution Error is generated. RATE <speed>...
  • Page 86: Compare Commands And Queries

    Compare Commands and Queries The commands in Table 5-15 cause the meter to determine whether a measurement is higher than, lower than, or within a specified range. These commands correspond to the COMP, HI, and LO buttons on the front panel. Table 5-15.
  • Page 87: Miscellaneous Commands And Queries

    Users Manual Miscellaneous Commands and Queries Miscellaneous commands and queries are summarized in Table 5-17. Command ^C (CNTRL C) The RS-232 equivalent of IEEE-488 DCL. Causes <CR><LF> and =><CR><LF> to be output. FORMAT <frmt> Set output <frmt> to "1" or "2". Format 1 is compatible with IEEE-488.2. Format 1 outputs measurement values without measurement units (e.g., "VDC,"...
  • Page 88: Rs-232 Remote/Local Configurations

    RS-232 Remote/Local Configurations The commands in Table 5-18 are used with the RS-232 interface to set up the Remote/ Local configuration of the meter. These commands are valid only when the RS-232 interface is enabled. Table 5-18. Remote/Local Configuration Commands Command REMS Puts the meter into the IEEE-488 REMS state, i.e., IEEE-488 remote operating mode...
  • Page 89: Sample Program Using The Rs-232 Computer Interface

    Users Manual Sample Program Using the RS-232 Computer Interface Figure 5-5 is an annotated BASIC A program, written for an IBM PC (or compatible), that demonstrates how the meter can be used with the RS-232 computer interface. Figure 5-5. Sample Program for RS-232 Computer Interface 5-30 aam23f.eps...
  • Page 90: Sample Programs Using The Ieee-488 Computer Interface

    Operating the Meter Using the Computer Interface Sample Programs Using the IEEE-488 Computer Interface Sample Programs Using the IEEE-488 Computer Interface Figure 5-6 illustrates three annotated GWBASIC programs, that demonstrate how the meter can be used with three different IEEE-488 Interface driver cards. aam24s.tif Figure 5-6.
  • Page 91 Users Manual aam25s.tif Figure 5-6. Sample Programs for IEEE-488 Computer Interface (cont.) 5-32...
  • Page 92 Operating the Meter Using the Computer Interface Sample Programs Using the IEEE-488 Computer Interface aam26s.tif Figure 5-6. Sample Programs for IEEE-488 Computer Interface (cont.) 5-33...
  • Page 93 Users Manual aam27s.tif Figure 5-6. Sample Programs for IEEE-488 Computer Interface (cont.) 5-34...
  • Page 94 Operating the Meter Using the Computer Interface Sample Programs Using the IEEE-488 Computer Interface 5-35...
  • Page 95: Maintenance

    Chapter 6 provides the information necessary for the user to perform basic maintenance. Users should not attempt to perform maintenance not described in this chapter. Qualified service personnel should refer to the 45 Service Manual (P/N 856042) for complete main- tenance, service, and calibration procedures.
  • Page 96: Current Input Fuses

    Users Manual Current Input Fuses The 100 mA and 10 A inputs are protected by user-replaceable fuses. The 100 mA input is protected by a fuse rated at F 500 mA, 250 V (Fast blow), 1500 A minimum breaking capacity, IEC-127 Sheet I. The 10 A input is protected by a fuse rated at F 15 A, 250 V (Fast blow), 10,000 A breaking capacity, [or F 15 A, 600 V, (Fast blow), 10,000 A minimum breaking capacity].
  • Page 97: Replacing The 100 Ma Input Fuse

    If the fuse is good, the meter will read between .04 the meter will read >10 M to OL. Replacing the 100 mA Input Fuse For protection against fire or arc flash, replace a blown fuse only with one of identical rating. The 100 mA input fuse is mounted in the front panel input jack (see Figure 6-2).
  • Page 98: Self-Test Diagnostics And Error Codes

    2. Connect a cable from the Output VA HI and LO connectors of the 5700A to the and COM connectors on the Fluke 45. Select the function and range on the Fluke 45 and the input level from the 5700A using the values listed in Table 6-2. The display should read between the minimum and maximum values listed in the table.
  • Page 99: Service

    Connect a cable from the Output VA HI and LO connectors of the 5725A to the l0A and COM connectors on the Fluke 45. Select the function and range on the Fluke 45 and the input level from the 5700A using the values contained in Table 6-4. The dis- play should read between the minimum and maximum readings listed in the table.
  • Page 100 Users Manual Table 6-2. Performance Tests for Volts, Diode Test, Ohms, and Frequency, Functions (cont.) Function Range (Rate) Using decades of 3: 30 k 300 k 30 M * 300 M * Using decades of 1.9: 30 k 300 k 30 M * 300 M * Using decades of 1:...
  • Page 101: Replacement Parts

    Parts that can be replaced by the user are listed in Table 6-5. Other parts must be replaced by qualified service personnel only, following the procedures in the Service Manual. Replacement parts and price information can be obtained from Fluke or an authorized Fluke distributor. To ensure prompt and efficient handling, include the following...
  • Page 102 Y8023* Shielded IEEE-488 four-meter (13-feet) cable. Plug and jack at each end. * Fluke accessories that are available from your authorized Fluke distributor. In USA, for Fluke parts, call 1 -800-356-4731. To ensure safety, use exact replacement only. Table 6-5. Replacement Parts (cont.) DESCRIPTION FLUKE PART NO.
  • Page 103: Appendices

    Appendix Specifications ... A-1 ASCII/IEEE-488 Bus Codes ... B-1 IEEE-488.2 Device Documentation Requirements... C-1 Appendices Title Page...
  • Page 104 Users Manual...
  • Page 105: Specifications

    Introduction Appendix A contains the specifications of the Fluke 45 Dual Display Multimeter. These specifications assume: A 1-year calibration cycle An operating temperature of 18 °C to 28 °C (64.4 °F to 82.4 °F) Relative humidity not exceeding 90 % (non-condensing) (70 % for 1,000 k range Accuracy is expressed as +(percentage of reading + digits).
  • Page 106 Users Manual DC Voltage Range 300 mV 30 V 300 V 1000 V 100 mV 1 µV 1000 mV 10 µV 10 V 100 V 1 mV 1000 V 10 mV Input Impedance 10 Me in parallel with <100 pF In the dual display mode, when the volts ac and volts dc functions are selected, the 10 M dc input divider is in parallel with the 1 M ac divider.
  • Page 107 Maximum Input 1000V dc or peak ac on any range True RMS AC Voltage, AC-Coupled Range 300 mV — — 30 V — 300 V — 750 V — 100 mV 1 µV 1000 mV 10 µV 10 V 100 µV 100 V 1 mV 750 V...
  • Page 108 When measuring ac + dc, (or any dual display combination of ac and dc) in the fast reading rate, the Fluke 45 may show significant reading errors. This results from a lack of filtering on the dc portion of the measurement for the fast reading rate.
  • Page 109 — 1 µA 10 µA 10 µA 100 µA 1 mA 10 mA Appendices Specifications Burden Accuracy Voltage 0.45 V 1.4 V 0.25 V 0.14 V 1.4 V 0.25 V Burden Voltage* 0.14 V 0.45 V 1.4 V 0.25 V...
  • Page 110 Users Manual Accuracy Range mA (To 100 mA) mA (To 100 mA) mA (To 100 mA) A (1-10A) A (1-10A) A (0.5 to 1A) A (0.5 to 1A) mA accuracy specifications apply within the following limits, based on reading rate: Slow Reading Rate: Medium Reading Rate: Fast Reading Rate:...
  • Page 111 Ohms Resolution Range Slow Medium — 10 m — 100 M 30 k — 300 k — — 30 M — 300 M * — 100 k — 1000 10 m — 10 k 100 m — 100 k — 1000 k —...
  • Page 112 5 Hz-100 kHz 100 kHz - 300 kHz 300 kHz - 1 MHz Above 1 MHz Sensitivity Level of AC Current Frequency 5 Hz-20 kHz 45 Hz-2 kHz Note Resolution Slow & Medium .01 Hz .1 Hz .1 Hz 1 Hz...
  • Page 113 When the meter is set to measure frequency and there is no input signal (i.e., the input terminals are open), the meter may read approximately 25 kHz (rather than zero). This is due to internal capacitive pickup of the inverter power supply into the high-impedance, input circuitry. With source impedance of <2 k , this pickup will not affect the accuracy or stability of the frequency reading.
  • Page 114 Users Manual General Common Mode Voltage Size Weight Power Standards RS-232-C Options Battery (Option -01 K) IEEE-488 (Option -05K) 1000 V dc or peak ac maximum from any input to earth 9.3 cm high, 21.6 cm wide, 28.6 cm deep (3.67 in high,8.5 in wide, 11.27 in deep) Net, 2.4 kg (5.2 Ibs) without battery;...
  • Page 115 Appendix B ASCII/IEEE-488 Bus Codes...
  • Page 116 Users Manual...
  • Page 117 Appendices ASCII/IEEE-488 Bus Codes...
  • Page 119 2. A description of device behavior when the address is set outside the range 0-30, Section 5.2. It is not possible to set the Fluke 45 address outside the specified range. 3. A description of when a user initiated address change is recognized by the device.
  • Page 120 Users Manual The default meter setting is: volts tic, autoranging, secondary display inactive. A different power-up configuration can be set by pressing time; the present configuration of the meter then becomes the power-up configuration. A description of message exchange options: 5A.
  • Page 121 10.14. The *IDN? query returns, for example: FLUKE, 45, 1234567, 1.0 D1.0 where "1234567" will be replaced by the serial number of an actual meter, and "1.0 Dl .0 " are the version numbers of the main software and the display sub-system software, respectively.
  • Page 122 Users Manual 18. The size of the resource description, if the *RDT command or *RDT? query are implemented, Sections 10.30 and 10.31. The *RDT and *RAT? commands are not implemented. 19. A description of the states affected by *RST (Section 10.32), *LRN? (Section 10.17), *RCL (Section 10.29), and *SAY (Section 10.33).