MK V and MK VII Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System Pilot's Guide 060-4241-000 • Rev. D - March 2000 MK V & MK VII EGPWS Pilot Guide...
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ABLE OF ONTENTS SECTION 1 Introduction ..............4 SECTION 2 System Description ............7 SECTION 3 Operational Procedures ........... 46 SECTION 4 Definitions ............... 57 Request for Information ..............59 060-4241-000 • Rev. D - March 2000 MK V & MK VII EGPWS Pilot Guide...
EGPWS. The information in this document is intended as a general explanation of the Honeywell EGPWS. It contains a general description of system performance assuming identified options are active, and highlights deviations in system performance resulting when a feature is disabled.
The EGPWS incorporates several “enhanced” features: What is the EGPWS? • Terrain Alerting and Display (TAD) provides a graphic dis- play of the surrounding terrain on the Weather Radar continued Indicator, EFIS, or a dedicated display. Based on the aircraft’s position and the internal database, the terrain topography (within the display range selected) that is above or within 2000 feet below the aircraft altitude is presented on the system display.
Airplane Flight Manual (AFM) or EGPWS Airplane Flight Manual Supplement (AFMS) or contact Honeywell for assistance. The EGPWC is packaged in a 2 MCU ARINC 600-6 rack mounted enclosure weighing less than 8 lbs. No special vibration isolation mounting or forced air-cooling is required.
Caribbean (expanding as data is obtained). 3. A worldwide airport database containing information on hard-surface runways 3500 feet or longer in length. For a specific list of the airports included, refer to Honeywell document 060-4267-000 or access on the Internet at website www.egpws.com.
Honeywell is constantly striving to improve the EGPWS data- EGPWS base in content, resolution, and accuracy. Notification of a Database Database update is accomplished by Service Bulletin. Data- continued base updates are distributed on PCMCIA data cards and downloaded via a card slot in the front panel of each EGPWC.
BASIC FUNCTIONS: Mode 1 provides alerts for excessive descent rates with respect MODE 1 to altitude AGL and is active for all phases of flight. This mode Excessive has inner and outer alert boundaries as illustrated in the diagram and graph below. Descent Rate Penetration of the outer boundary activates the EGPWS caution...
If the Aural Declutter feature is disabled, the sinkrate alert boundary remains fixed and the aural message “SINKRATE” Continued repeats continuously until the outer boundary is exited. The EGPWS offers a Steep Approach option for given aircraft Steep types that desensitizes the alert boundaries to permit steeper Approach than normal approaches without unwanted alerts.
The graph below shows how the upper boundary of the Mode 2 alert envelope varies as a function of the aircraft speed. As Continued airspeed increases from 220 knots to 310 knots, the boundary expands to provide increased alert times at higher airspeeds. With version -210-210 and later models, the Mode 2A upper limit is reduced to 1250 feet for all airspeeds when the Terrain Alerting and Display (TAD) function is enabled and available.
Mode 2B provides a desensitized alerting envelope to permit normal landing approach maneuvers close to terrain without unwanted alerts. Mode 2B is automatically selected with flaps in the landing configuration (landing flaps or flap over-ride selected) or when making an ILS approach with Glideslope and Localizer deviation less than 2 dots.
During an approach, if the aircraft penetrates the Mode 2B envelope with either the gear or flaps not in the landing Continued configuration, the aural message “TERRAIN, TERRAIN” is gen- erated and the EGPWS caution lights illuminate. If the aircraft continues to penetrate the envelope, the EGPWS warning lights illuminate and the aural message “PULL UP”...
lights and the aural message “DON’T SINK, DON’T SINK”. The aural message is only enunciated twice unless altitude loss Continued continues. Upon establishing a positive rate of climb, the EGPWS caution lights extinguish and the aural alert will cease. If the Aural Declutter feature is disabled, the warning is enunciated continuously until positive climb is established.
aircraft is not descending excessively. It also provides alerting for protection against an unintentional gear-up landing. Continued Below 1000 feet AGL and above 190 knots airspeed, the Mode 4A aural alert is “TOO LOW TERRAIN”. This alert is dependent on aircraft speed such that the alert threshold is ramped between 500 feet at 190 knots to 1000 feet at 250 knots.
tween 245 feet at 159 knots to 1000 feet at 250 knots. Below 245 feet AGL and less than 159 knots airspeed, the Mode Continued 4B aural alert is “TOO LOW FLAPS”. For turboprop and select turbofan aircraft, the “TOO LOW FLAPS” warning curve is lowered to 150 feet AGL and less than 148 knots.
Mode 4C is based on an EGPWS computed Minimum Terrain Clearance (MTC) floor, that increases with Radio Altitude. It is Continued active after takeoff when the gear or flaps are not in the landing configuration. It is also active during a low altitude go-around if the aircraft has descended below 245 feet AGL.
Mode 5 provides two levels of alerting for when the aircraft descends below glideslope, resulting in Excessive activation of EGPWS caution lights and aural messages. Deviation The first level alert occurs when below 1000 feet Radio Below Altitude and the aircraft is 1.3 dots or greater below the Glideslope beam.
• The upper altitude limit for the alert is modulated with vertical speed. For descent rates above 500 FPM, the upper Continued limit is set to the normal 1000 feet AGL. For descent rates lower than 500 FPM, the upper limit is desensitized (reduced) to a minimum of 500 feet AGL.
Mode 6 provides EGPWS advisory callouts based on the menu-selected option established at installation (set by Advisory program pin configuration). These callouts consist of Callouts predefined Radio Altitude based voice callouts or tones and an excessive bank angle warning. There is no visual alerting provided with these callouts.
Refer to an appropriate Airplane Flight Manual or EGPWS Airplane Flight Manual Supplement for callout identification in a specific application or contact Honeywell. Another feature available in the Altitude Callouts (options) is a Smart “Smart 500”...
The callout “BANK ANGLE, BANK ANGLE” advises of an excessive roll angle. The EGPWS provides several excessive Continued bank angle envelopes supporting Air Transport, Business, or Military aircraft types (only Air Transport and Business are ad- Bank Angle dressed below). Callout One envelope is defined for turbo-prop and jet business aircraft Business...
The Air Transport Basic Bank Angle limits are similar to the Business Aircraft Bank Angle limits except above 150 feet the Air Trans- bank limit remains at 40 as shown below. port Bank Angle Continued Bank Angle Option 1 provides bank angle advisory thresholds at 35, 40, and 45 independent of altitude.
Mode 7 is designed to provide alerts if the aircraft encounters windshear. Two alerting envelopes provide either a Windshear Windshear Caution alert or a Windshear Warning alert each with distinctive aural and visual indications to the flight crew. Alerting EGPWS windshear is provided for certain (not all) aircraft types and is a function of certain additionally required input signals and enabled internal detection algorithms.
Windshear Warning alerts are given if a decreasing headwind (or increasing tailwind) and/or a severe downdraft exceed a Continued defined threshold. These are characteristic of conditions within or exiting an encounter with a microburst. Windshear Warning results in illumination of red Windshear Windshear Warning lights and an aural siren followed by the message Warning...
ENHANCED FUNCTIONS: Due to terrain features at or near certain specific airports Envelope around the world, normal operations have resulted in nuisance Modulation or missed alerts at these locations in the past. With the introduction of accurate position information and a terrain and airport database, it is possible to identify these areas and adjust the normal alerting process to compensate for the condition.
In -210-210 and later versions, the TCF alert envelope Terrain and Envelope Bias Factor are improved. The alert Clearance envelope is limited to a minimum of 245 feet AGL Floor adjacent to the runway as illustrated in the following Continued diagrams.
In -210-210 and later versions, a Runway Field Runway Clearance Floor feature is included. This is similar to Field the TCF feature except that RFCF is based on the current Clearance aircraft position and height above the destination Floor runway, using Geometric Altitude (in lieu of Radio Altitude).
This is accomplished (when enabled) based on aircraft posi- Terrain tion, flight path angle, track, and speed relative to the terrain Look database image forward the aircraft. Ahead Through sophisticated look ahead algorithms, both caution and Alerting warning alerts are generated if terrain or an obstacle conflict continued with “ribbons”...
(via program pin selection). Refer to an applicable AFM or EGPWS AFMS for specific application information or contact Honeywell for additional information. When a compatible Weather Radar, EFIS, or other display is...
Non-Peaks The Non-Peaks display provides a graphical plan-view image of the surrounding terrain as varying density patterns of green, Display yellow, and red as illustrated in the following graphics. The selected display range is also indicated on the display, and an indication that TAD is active is either indicated on the display (i.e., “TERR”) or by an adjacent indicator.
When a caution alert is triggered, the terrain (or obstacle) that Non-Peaks created the alert is changed to solid yellow (100% density) as Display illustrated below. continued 60 Seconds from projected impact “Caution Terrain!” Caution Terrain is solid Yellow Avidyne FlightMax 850 shown When a warning alert is triggered, the terrain (or obstacle) that created the alert is changed to solid red (100% density) as illustrated below.
Essentially, pilots should note that any yellow or red painted Non-Peaks terrain is at, or above the aircraft’s altitude and appropriate Display terrain clearance needs to be provided. continued Based on the display system used, there may be additional "Pop-Up" and terrain display features.
is presented the same as the color of the terrain display PEAKS containing that elevation (i.e., red if the terrain/obstacle with DISPLAY that elevation is depicted as red in the terrain plan view, yellow continued if yellow, etc.). When the aircraft is 500 feet (250 with gear down) or less above the terrain in view (yellow or red is displayed), the Peaks color scheme is identical to the standard display, with the ex- ception of the addition of sea level when supported by the...
The following illustrate the Peaks display at a high relative PEAKS altitude. DISPLAY continued Avidyne FlightMax 850 shown 060-4241-000 • Rev. D - March 2000 MK V & MK VII EGPWS Pilot Guide...
When the aircraft is greater than 500 feet (250 with gear down) PEAKS above the terrain in view (no yellow or red displayed), DISPLAY additional (green) color bands are presented. These added continued bands are computed and displayed as a function of the highest and lowest elevations in view.
The EGPWS TCF and TAD functions are available when all TCF/TAD required data is present and acceptable. Aircraft position and INOP and numerous other parameters are monitored and verified for INHIBIT adequacy in order to perform these functions. If determined invalid or unavailable, the system will display Terrain inoperative or unavailable annunciations and discontinue the terrain display if active.
Altitude Calibrated Altitude (determined during approach), and Geometric Barometric Altitude (if available). Estimates of the VFOM for Altitude each of these are determined and applied in order to determine continued its weight in the final altitude. The blending algorithm gives the most weight to altitudes with a higher estimated accuracy, reducing the effect of less accurate altitudes.
MESSAGE MODE d, j “Windshear, Windshear, Windshear” ....................h, i, k “Pull Up” 1, 2, TA ............................... “Terrain, Terrain” ................. 2, TA “Obstacle, Obstacle” ............................“Terrain” ....................2 a, c “Minimums” ................................ c, f “Caution Terrain, Caution Terrain” ....................c, g “Caution Obstacle, Caution Obstacle”...
The EGPWS uses various input signals from other on-board System systems. The full compliment of these other systems is Inputs dependent on the EGPWS configuration and options selected. Systems providing Altitude, Airspeed, Attitude, Glideslope, and position are required for basic and enhanced functions. Accelerations, Angle-of-Attack (AOA), and Flap position is required for Windshear.
This feature reduces the potential for nuisance alerts caused by Radio false tracking of the Radio Altimeter. Altitude continued Pitch and Roll Attitude, Latitude and Longitude Position, Body FMS, IRS, Normal and Longitudinal Accelerations, Magnetic and True AHRS, Accel- Track Angles, Magnetic and True Heading, Inertial Altitude, erometer Groundspeed, and mode.
The EGPWS provides both audio and visual outputs. System Outputs Audio outputs are provided as specific alert phrases, and altitude callouts or tones provided by an EGPWS speaker and via the cockpit Interphone system for headset usage. Several audio output levels are available. They are established during the installation of the EGPWS.
• Obstacle Awareness Enabled – Enables obstacle alerting and Options display. continued • TAD Alternate Pop Up – If TRUE, disables automatic terrain display when TAD or Obstacle alert is active. • Mode 6 Volume Reduction – Selects reduced Mode 6 vol- ume (-6 dB).
• PLI Select/Deselect – Used for displaying or deselecting the display of EGPWS derived Pitch Limit Indicator (PLI) signals when a Windshear warning occurs. For additional options information contact Honeywell. 060-4241-000 • Rev. D - March 2000 MK V & MK VII EGPWS Pilot Guide...
ECTION Operational Procedures System Constraints ................45 System Activation ................46 EGPWS Self Test ................... 47 Normal Procedures ................50 Caution Alerts ................51 Warning Alerts ................51 Glideslope Alerts ................51 Advisory Callouts ................52 Windshear Caution ................. 52 Windshear Warning ................
System constraints for the EGPWS are: System • If terrain data is unavailable for a particular area, then Constraints Terrain and Obstacle alerting and display is not available for that area and the affected display area is colored MAGENTA. • The display of terrain and obstacle information is intended to serve as a situational awareness tool.
• The EGPWS terrain/obstacle database includes System cataloged human-made obstructions 100 feet high or Constraints greater within North America and portions of the Caribbean continued (expanding). The database is not all-inclusive and newer, smaller, or unknown obstructions could be encountered. Refer to an appropriate AFM or EGPWS AFMS for specific system limitations and procedures.
EGPWS status annunciations are provided for GPWS System inoperative (mode 1-6 functions), Terrain inoperative (TAD/TCF Activation functions), and windshear inoperative. continued Refer to an appropriate AFM or EGPWS AFMS for specific system and status requirements. The EGPWS provides a Self-Test capability for verifying and EGPWS indicating intended functions.
level 1 Self Test is used to verify proper operation of the EGPWS EGPWS on the ground as follows: Self-Test 1. Ensure that adequate aircraft power is available and the continued EGPWS and associated systems are powered. 2. Ensure that any EGPWS inhibiting switches are in the normal (non-inhibiting) position.
• G/S CANCEL annunciators turn off. EGPWS • Red warning (“PULL UP” or “GPWS”) annunciators turn Self-Test continued • “PULL UP” is announced over speaker. • Red warning annunciators turn off. • Red Windshear warning annunciators turn on. • (Siren) “WINDSHEAR, WINDSHEAR, WINDSHEAR” is announced over speaker.
A successful test is accomplished if all expected indications are observed and no inoperative functions or display anomalies are indicated or observed. For more specific information, refer to an applicable AFM or EGPWS AFMS, or contact Honeywell. The EGPWS provides visual and/or audio alerts for detected: Normal Procedures •...
Recommended response to EGPWS alerts are as follows: 1. Stop any descent and climb as necessary to Caution eliminate the alert. Analyze all available instruments and Alerts information to determine best course of action. 2. Advise ATC of situation as necessary. 1.
Advisory callouts being advisory in nature are used to Advisory announce an event or condition (e.g., “Minimums”). Callouts Response to these callouts should be in accordance with standard operating procedures. This alert generally occurs due to increasing performance Windshear windshear conditions (i.e., increasing headwind, decreasing Caution tailwind, and/or updraft).
If overboost is required, adjust throttles back to maximum Windshear rated thrust as soon as safety has been assured. Warning Overboosting engines while at high angle of attack near continued airplane stall may cause engine stall, surge, or flameout. Maintain escape attitude and thrust and delay retracting flaps or landing gear until safe climb-out is assured.
(as installed) may be used as required for an Procedures emergency situation (e.g., landing gear up). For additional information refer to an applicable AFM or EGPWS AFMS or contact Honeywell. 060-4241-000 • Rev. D - March 2000 MK V & MK VII EGPWS Pilot Guide...
ECTION Acronyms shall be interpreted as shown: Definitions Airplane Flight Manual AFMS Airplane Flight Manual Supplement Above Ground Level AHRS Attitude/Heading Reference System Angle of Attack Above Sea Level Air Traffic Control Built In Test CFIT Controlled Flight into Terrain Computed Terrain Clearance Decibels Decision Height...
PCMCIA Personal Computer Memory Card Industry Association Pitch Limit Indicator Plan Position Indicator Predictive Windshear System Queens Field Elevation -Corrected Baro. Altitude Relative To Field Elevation Queens Natural Elevation Queens Natural Height RAIM Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring RFCF Runway Field Clearance Floor Static Air Temperature Terrain Awareness Terrain Alerting and Display...
Dear Honeywell EGPWS Customer: This form is a request for information that will allow Honeywell to notify you of future updates to your Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System. Please Honeywell complete the information below and fax the information sheet to at 425-885-8722 or return via U.S.