Enhanced ground proximity warning system (126 pages)
Summary of Contents for Honeywell Bendix/King KTA970
KTA970/ KMH980 Pilot’s Guide Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System/ Multi-Hazard Awareness System Rev. 3 006-18273-0000...
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Revision History Manual KTA970/KMH980 Pilot’s Guide Revision 3, January 2005 Part Number 006-18273-0000 This revision clarifies the determination of when other aircraft are on the ground, and clarifies the GA-EGPWS Self-Test process. The following pages were changed or added: Front Cover, Copyright, 14, 55, 56, Back Cover...
Revision History Manual KTA970/KMH980 Pilot’s Guide Revision 2, December 2003 Part Number 006-18273-0000 This revision corrects some errors, incorporates additional EGPWS capability and removes references to a specific type of database card. The following pages were changed or added: Front Cover, Copyright, ii, 35-37, 41, 46, 50-64, Back Cover...
Revision History Manual KTA970/KMH980 Pilot’s Guide Revision 1, April 2002 Part Number 006-18273-0000 This revision incorporates changes from the GA-EGPWS.
Revision History Manual KTA970/KMH980 Pilot’s Guide Revision 0, September 2001 Part Number 006-18273-0000 This is the original version of this publication.
TCAS I Introduction KTA 970/KMH 980 Pilot’s Guide INTRODUCTION TCAS I (an acronym formed from the phrase Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System) is an airborne system used for detecting and track- ing aircraft near your own aircraft. TCAS I includes a TCAS processor, antennas, a traffic display and a means to control the system.
KTA 970/KMH 980 Pilot’s Guide TCAS I Introduction TCAS: • Is compatible with the ATC System • Determines if a threat exists from ATCRBS or Mode S Transponder equipped aircraft • Provides display and audio announcement to the crew - Position information displayed on a traffic display - Synthesized voice •...
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KTA 970/KMH 980 Pilot’s Guide TCAS I Theory of Operation and Symbology SECTION I : THEORY OF OPERATION AND SYMBOLOGY Section I describes TCAS I Theory of operation and symbology. Rev 2 006-18273-0000...
KTA 970/KMH 980 Pilot’s Guide TCAS I Theory of Operation and Symbology TCAS I OPERATION TCAS I monitors the airspace surrounding your aircraft by interrogating the transponder of the Intruding aircraft. The interrogation reply enables TCAS I to compute the following information about the Intruder: 1.
KTA 970/KMH 980 Pilot’s Guide TCAS I Theory of Operation and Symbology SL B In sensitivity level B, TCAS I performs surveillance and tracking functions and provides traffic advisories. The conditions for sensitiv- ity level B are based on own aircraft in-flight and: (1) If radio altitude source is installed and own aircraft altitude is above 2,000 feet AGL (radio altitude).
KTA 970/KMH 980 Pilot’s Guide TCAS I Theory of Operation and Symbology TCAS I SURVEILLANCE VOLUMES Surveillance volume is that volume of airspace within which other aircraft with Mode S or ATCRBS transponders are tracked by own aircraft’s TCAS I. The display volume is controlled by the operator and is not nec- essarily the same as the tracking volume.
KTA 970/KMH 980 Pilot’s Guide TCAS I Theory of Operation and Symbology No altitude number or trend arrow will appear beside any Intruder that is Non-Altitude Reporting (NAR). If TCAS I direction finding techniques fail to locate the azimuth of another aircraft, a NO BEARING message appears on the screen when the Intruder becomes a Traffic Advisory.
KTA 970/KMH 980 Pilot’s Guide TCAS I Theory of Operation and Symbology TRAFFIC ADVISORY (TA) A symbol change to a filled yellow circle indicates that the Intruding air- craft is considered to be potentially hazardous. Depending upon TCAS I sensitivity level, TCAS I will display a TA when time to CPA (Closest Point of Approach) is 15 to 30 seconds.
KTA 970/KMH 980 Pilot’s Guide TCAS I Theory of Operation and Symbology OFF SCALE TRAFFIC Threat aircraft (TAs) that are beyond the selected display range are indi- cated by one half of the traffic symbol at the edge of the screen. The position of the half-symbol represents the bearing of the Intruder.
KTA 970/KMH 980 Pilot’s Guide TCAS I Theory of Operation and Symbology TCAS I INDICATIONS AND VOICE ANNOUNCEMENTS “Traffic, Traffic” Situation: One Intruder is ahead near the 2:00 o’clock position, between 2 and 3 miles, 400 feet below your altitude and closing. TCAS I recognizes the threat and issues a TA.
KTA 970/KMH 980 Pilot’s Guide TCAS I Theory of Operation and Symbology Intruders may be seen in surrounding airspace, but not on the TCAS I display. The situations in which this may happen are: • Most small aircraft have one transponder antenna located on the bot- tom of the aircraft.
KTA 970/KMH 980 Pilot’s Guide TCAS I Theory of Operation and Symbology • The display may not be in the correct viewing mode to show the intruder. The relative altitude modes for the display (KMD 550/850) are: - Normal mode: -2700 feet to +2700 feet - Above mode : -2700 feet to +9000 feet - Below mode: -9000 feet to +2700 feet Other control head / display combinations may vary on the altitude...
KTA 970/KMH 980 Pilot’s Guide TCAS I Controls and Displays SECTION II: CONTROLS AND DISPLAYS TCAS I CONTROLS This section describes the control units for the TCAS I equipment. A cou- ple of control units are described. The TCAS I functions can be con- trolled by various control panels or discrete switches.
KTA 970/KMH 980 Pilot’s Guide TCAS I Controls and Displays The following illustration defines the data that appears on the Traffic Display Page: 1 Display Range - RNG:###nm 2 TCAS Operating Mode - TCAS TST, TCAS SBY, TA Only, or TCAS Fail 3 Icon Bar - Displays icons representing data available (black) and displayed (color) 4 Current Flight Level - FL:###...
KTA 970/KMH 980 Pilot’s Guide TCAS I Controls and Displays Figure 1 Figure 2 VIEW - Toggles between altitude volume views of NORMAL, ABOVE and BELOW. This key may be enabled or disabled in system configuration. NORMAL displays traffic that is between -2700 feet and +2700 feet relative to own aircraft.
KTA 970/KMH 980 Pilot’s Guide TCAS I Controls and Displays The CP 66B amber Fail Annunciator will light during self test and in nor- mal operation will flash if a system failure has been detected. If a failure has been detected, turning the Power Switch to OFF will turn off the flashing annunciator.
KTA 970/KMH 980 Pilot’s Guide TCAS I Controls and Displays WEATHER ONLY MODE In this mode of operation, only weather radar information is displayed until a Traffic Advisory is issued by the TCAS I Processor. The range is controlled by the weather radar range control in this mode of operation.
KTA 970/KMH 980 Pilot’s Guide TCAS I Controls and Displays TCAS I ONLY MODE In this mode the screen’s origin RNG 5 point is 1/3 up from the bottom of the screen. Only TCAS I information is displayed. This mode is maintained unless another mode is manually selected.
KTA 970/KMH 980 Pilot’s Guide TCAS I Controls and Displays TCAS I Fault Annunciations: Weather Only and Weather with TCAS I Mode In the event of a failure, all TCAS I information will be removed from the display. One of the following failure messages will be annunciated in the upper left corner of the screen.
KTA 970/KMH 980 Pilot’s Guide TCAS I Operational Procedures SECTION III: OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES TCAS I Traffic Display Test Page SECTION III DESCRIBES OPERATION OF THE TCAS I SYSTEM Rev 2 006-18273-0000...
KTA 970/KMH 980 Pilot’s Guide TCAS I Operational Procedures TCAS I OPERATING PROCEDURES TCAS I warns the operator with an aural and visual Traffic Advisory whenever TCAS I detects another transponder equipped aircraft and predicts the Intruder to be a threat. The pilot should NOT initiate evasive maneuvers using information from the traffic display only or on a traffic advisory (TA) only, without visually sighting the traffic.
KTA 970/KMH 980 Pilot’s Guide TCAS I Operational Procedures Use of the TCAS I self-test function in-flight will inhibit TCAS I operation for up to eight seconds. During initial departure, select the 10 nm TCAS I range or lower because the traffic density is the greatest near the airport.
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KTA 970/KMH 980 Pilot’s Guide TCAS I System Considerations SECTION IV: SYSTEM CONSIDERATIONS Traffic Display SECTION IV EXPLAINS CONSIDERATIONS OF THE TCAS I SYS- TEM; WARNINGS AND LIMITATION, AND NOTES. Rev 2 006-18273-0000...
KTA 970/KMH 980 Pilot’s Guide TCAS I System Considerations LIMITATIONS AND NOTES LIMITATIONS Refer to the Airplane Flight Manual. NOTES The capability of TCAS I is dependent upon the type of transponder in the Intruding aircraft: The Intruding aircraft must be equipped with a properly operating transponder for normal TCAS I operation.
KTA 970/KMH 980 Pilot’s Guide TCAS I Appendix TCAS I SELF TEST The TCAS I self test determines the operational status of the entire TCAS I system. Select self test on the KMD 550/850. Once begun, self test con- tinues automatically for approximately eight seconds. During self test, nor- mal TCAS I operation is inhibited.
KTA 970/KMH 980 Pilot’s Guide TCAS I Appendix At the conclusion of a successful Self Test, a synthesized voice announces: “TCAS SYSTEM TEST OK” FAILURE CONDITIONS: Should a failure be detected during self test, the audio message says: “TCAS SYSTEM TEST FAIL” A “TCAS”...
KTA 970/KMH 980 Pilot’s Guide TCAS I Appendix GLOSSARY OF TCAS I TERMS ABBREVIATIONS AND DEFINITIONS AFM or AFMS Airplane Flight Manual or Airplane Flight Manual Supplement. AGL Above Ground Level. Height above the ground. ATC Air Traffic Control. A federally operated ground based system that manages aircraft traffic flow.
KTA 970/KMH 980 Pilot’s Guide TCAS I Appendix Mode S Transponder Transponder that replies to ATC interrogations giving an ATCRBS identification code, encoded altitude and other data fields including discrete aircraft address and airspeed capability. Non-Altitude Reporting traffic. Non-Threat Intruder An aircraft that has entered the TCAS I surveil- lance volume at a distance greater than 5 miles or altitude greater than 1200 feet above or below your own aircraft.
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Based on 30 years experience in the development and advancement of Ground Proximity Warning Systems for Air Transport, Regional and Commuter Airlines, Military aircraft and Corporate aviation, Honeywell brings this vital safety technology to all segments of General Aviation. Using our proprietary world-wide terrain database, obstacle database,...
KTA 970/KMH 980 Pilot’s Guide EGPWS Introduction WHAT IS THE GA-EGPWS? The Bendix/King GA-EGPWS is a small lightweight computer that can be installed in most single- and multi-engine piston aircraft, small turboprop aircraft and other aircraft in which a Terrain Avoidance & Warning System is applicable.
KTA 970/KMH 980 Pilot’s Guide EGPWS Introduction Should the aircraft fly into danger where a conflict with terrain or a known obstacle is imminent, the system will provide both visual and aural alerts and warnings to the pilot. The system also provides alerts and warnings for excessive rates of descent and inadvertent descents or altitude loss after take-off.
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KTA 970/KMH 980 Pilot’s Guide EGPWS Functions and Features GA-EGPWS FUNCTIONS AND FEATURES AIRCRAFT POSITION The GA-EGPWS uses GPS information from either an aircraft-installed GPS receiver, or an internal GPS receiver contained in the GA-EGPWS computer itself. It is good for the pilot to be aware of the actual position source being used by the system, as the internal GPS is not used for navigation of the aircraft.
This altitude information allows the system to do two main tasks. First, by using a special “derived-altitude” developed by Honeywell called “Geometric Altitude”, the GPS and uncorrected pressure altitude infor- mation is blended together by the system to provide accurate altitude information, which is using the same Mean Sea Level (MSL) reference as the terrain, obstacle and runway databases in the system.
Terrain data is supplied from the same proprietary database used by other Honeywell EGPWS products, and is divided into three regions worldwide. (See pictures below). The terrain data is divided into grid patterns of various sizes, from areas about 1/4 nm square resolution to areas of about 5 nm square.
Presently, there are some 70,000-plus obstacles in the database, but they are all in the area of North America. As more reliable information becomes available, Honeywell will expand the capability to provide alert- ing and warning for obstacles in other areas of the world.
KTA 970/KMH 980 Pilot’s Guide EGPWS Functions and Features TERRAIN AWARENESS DISPLAY The GA-EGPWS can be interfaced to numerous types of cockpit dis- plays. Graphical display of GA-EGPWS terrain and obstacle data is the most important enhancement to Situational Awareness. This is especial- ly true for lower performance aircraft.
KTA 970/KMH 980 Pilot’s Guide EGPWS Functions and Features The following figure shows the Terrain Display color patterns when the aircraft is at higher altitudes, where terrain is a least 250 feet below the aircraft altitude for the display range selected by the pilot. The system will adjust colors on the Terrain Display automatically as the aircraft altitude changes.
KTA 970/KMH 980 Pilot’s Guide EGPWS Functions and Features Installations without a heading input into the GA-EGPWS will either have a NORTH oriented or BLANK display when on the ground. Depending upon configuration the display will automatically transition to a TRACK UP (MAG XXX TRK) orientation upon reaching a configurable airspeed (typically 10 to 45 kts GPS ground speed).
KTA 970/KMH 980 Pilot’s Guide EGPWS Functions and Features listed, or may display colors in slightly different densities than those list- ed, but the system is designed to present the most appropriate Terrain Display capable on the various display types which are usable by the system.
KTA 970/KMH 980 Pilot’s Guide EGPWS Functions and Features Display Orientation Geometric Altitude Display Range Here Magnetic Track is Displayed as MSL or GSL up and at 160°. Nautical Miles Range Rings Peaks Elevation Outer ring is selected Maximum elevation is range, inner ring is half displayed over minimum the selected range.
KTA 970/KMH 980 Pilot’s Guide EGPWS Functions and Features The following illustration is a general representation of the “Look-Ahead” functionality. If the aircraft flight path approaches to within approximately 30 seconds of a threat area, the voice message “Terrain Ahead” (or “Obstacle Ahead”) or optionally “Terrain Terrain, Pull Up”...
KTA 970/KMH 980 Pilot’s Guide EGPWS Functions and Features The following figure is a graphical representation of the Runway Field Clearance Floor in both Class B and Class C configurations. Runway Field Clearance Floor (RFCF) EXCESSIVE RATE OF DESCENT ALERTING AND WARNING The GA-EGPWS uses both GPS Vertical Velocity and pressure altitude to compute vertical velocity information when the aircraft does not pro-...
KTA 970/KMH 980 Pilot’s Guide EGPWS Functions and Features Initially, the voice alert “Sink Rate” will be heard, and the yellow caution alert annunciator lamp will illuminate. If the aircraft continues in the high rate of descent, the “Sink Rate-Sink Rate” voice alert will be repeated at an increasing frequency.
KTA 970/KMH 980 Pilot’s Guide EGPWS Functions and Features As the pilot adjusts the flight path of the aircraft and a positive rate of climb is re-established, the voice alert “Don’t Sink” will cease and the yel- low caution annunciator lamp will extinguish. NOTE: It is important for the pilot not to over-react to this situation.
KTA 970/KMH 980 Pilot’s Guide EGPWS Functions and Features AIRCRAFT CONFIGURATION ALERTS (GEAR & FLAP ALERTS ) Some GA-EGPWS units will provide aircraft configuration alerts to notify the pilot of Gear Up and Flaps Up conditions when close to the ground. These alerts are functions that may be selected during installation.
KTA 970/KMH 980 Pilot’s Guide EGPWS Functions and Features The bank angle call-out is based on the aircraft’s roll angle versus Computed Terrain Clearance. Bank Angle alerting is shown in the fol- lowing figure. The Bank Angle alert is triggered when the aircraft banks greater than 40 degrees from 50 to 150 feet AGL The alert value limit then varies linearly form 40 degrees at 150 feet AGL to where the roll angle limit is 50 degrees at 1600 feet AGL and above.
KTA 970/KMH 980 Pilot’s Guide EGPWS Normal Procedures NORMAL PROCEDURES GA-EGPWS SYSTEM SELF-TEST Prior to flight, the system should be tested for proper operation. Normally, this is done by the pilot during the BEFORE TAKE-OFF check. All aircraft power and systems should be up and running, and the GA- EGPWS “Not Available”...
KTA 970/KMH 980 Pilot’s Guide EGPWS Normal Procedures Pressing the Self-Test switch as the Level One Self-Test is completed will initiate Level Two of the internal test capability. Level Two provides information about any faults the system may be detecting. Normally, this will not be necessary.
KTA 970/KMH 980 Pilot’s Guide EGPWS Normal Procedures RECOMMENDED PROCEDURES FOR GA-EGPWS WARNINGS IN FLIGHT “PULL UP” If in Instrument conditions or at night where visual judgement of the situation is not assured: 1. Level wings and simultaneously pitch up at a rate of 2 to 3 degrees per second to the aircraft’s BEST ANGLE of CLIMB attitude and speed.
KTA 970/KMH 980 Pilot’s Guide EGPWS Normal Procedures RECOMMENDED PROCEDURES FOR GA-EGPWS ALERTS IN FLIGHT “Terrain Ahead” Condition: Aircraft flight path is in conflict with terrain/obstacle. Action: Take IMMEDIATE action to adjust flight path away from “Obstacle Ahead” threat until alert/warning ceases. “Caution Terrain”...
KTA 970/KMH 980 Pilot’s Guide Additional EGPWS Information ADDITIONAL INFORMATION AUDIO MESSAGE PRIORITY Only ONE message is produced at any one time. The highest priority voice message takes precedence, and may IMME- DIATELY interrupt any lower priority message as shown in the table below.
KTA 970/KMH 980 Pilot’s Guide Additional EGPWS Information Note 1: These are the only voices that can interrupt. Note 2: The preface voices will always be given prior to the warning voice. Note 3: Voice message is continuous. Note 4: Voice message will repeat every 10 seconds. Note 5: Voice message may be disabled depending upon configuration.
KTA 970/KMH 980 Pilot’s Guide Additional EGPWS Information Note 5: Voice message may be disabled depending upon configuration. Note 6: Certain GA-EGPWS units only, messages may be disabled depending upon configuration. GA-EGPWS COCKPIT LAMPS & SWITCHES A representative sample of a possible annunciator and switch installation is pictured below.
The GA-EGPWS database is contained in a removable card installed in the top of each unit. It is up to the GA-EGPWS customer to determine if a specific database is applicable to their operation. Honeywell estimates that the GA-EGPWS customer will update their database approximately once per year.
1-800-247-0230 if calling from within the United States or Canada (913) 712-3145 if calling from outside the United States or Canada (913) 712-3904 FAX e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Database updates may also be ordered on-line by visiting www.gpsdatabase.com NOTE: If ordering a database card for the GA-EGPWS, the serial num- ber of the unit must be given at the time of ordering to ensure getting the proper type of card.
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