Introduction The Epson LX-90 printer combines low price with the high quality and advanced capabilities formerly available only on more expensive printers. The LX-90 User’s Manual tells you how to set up your printer. This Printer Interface Cartridge Operation Manual gives you the specific information you need to use the LX-90 with your PCjr computer.
E x p a n d e d e m p h a s i z e d Typewriter-style Near Letter Quality Emphasized p r i n t i n g bold Double-strike bold printing Compressed narrow printing printing Elite...
Chapter Installation and Operation After you have set up your printer and loaded the paper (following the directions in the LX-90 User’s Manual), you are ready to plug in your Printer Interface Cartridge (PIP™) and begin printing. Inserting the Printer Interface Cartridge Inserting the PIC is easy.
Draft / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : : < = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ;...
Figure 1-2. Control panel You have already used the control panel for a special purpose, printing the test patterns. Here are the main functions of the lights and buttons on this panel: The POWER light glows green when the power is on. The READY light glows green when the printer is ready to accept data.
FF (Form Feed)-advances continuous paper to the top of the next page or ejects a single sheet of paper. LF (Line Feed)-advances the paper one line at a time. The control panel can also be used to turn on several printing func- tions using SelecType, a feature which is described in the next chapter.
Chapter 2 SelecType The LX-90 enables you to use a feature called SelecType to produce five special typestyles: T y p e w r i t e r - s t y l e N e a r L e t t e r Q u a l i t y , Emphasized bold printing,...
Figure 2-1. Turning SelecType on When you press the ON LINE and FF buttons, the LX-90 signals in three ways that SelecType is on. The printer beeps. The READY light turns off. The ON LINE light begins flashing. Selecting typestyles In SelecType, each button has a function: ON LINE selects typestyles.
Table SelecType modes 2-1. Typestyle Mode A B C D E F G H I J K L M n o p q r s t u v w x y z A B C E D E F G H I J K L M n o p q r s t u v w x y z Emphasized Double-strike A B C D E F G H I J K L M n o p q r s t u v w x y z...
Now, run the program by typing RUN and pressing ENTER, or print your file or document by following the printing instructions of your software. The LX-90 will print your example in standard single- strike printing, as shown below: T h i s i s a n e x a m p l e o f L X - 9 0 p r i n t i n g .
Mode combination Two of the SelecType modes (NLQ and emphasized) can be com- bined to create an impressive If you this combina- effect. want to see tion, turn your printer off and back on and follow the instructions below : 1.
Table 2-2. Mode combinations Double- Emphasized Mode Compressed Elite s t r i k e • N L Q Emphasized • • Double-strike • • • Compressed • • Elite • • Don’t worry about harming your printer if you try to combine two modes that the LX-90 can’t mix.
Chapter 3 Elements of Dot Matrix Printing and Computer/Printer Communications This chapter is for those of you who want to know something about how your printer works. It’s a simple, non-technical explanation of the basics of dot matrix printing that will help you understand some of the later chapters, particularly the ones on user-defined characters and graphics.
Changing Pitches In addition to pica, in which there are characters per inch, the LX-90 can also print in other widths, or pitches. It does so by reducing the distance between pin firings. In the elite mode it prints 12 charac- ters per inch and in the compressed mode it prints slightly more than characters per inch.
NLQ Mode The preceding examples are in the LX-90’s draft mode, but the LX-90 also has the high-quality NLQ (Near Letter Quality) mode that you have seen in previous chapters. The NLQ letters are more fully-formed than the draft letters because they are made up of many more dots as you can see below.
ESCape and ASCII The details of printer-computer communication are complex, but for most purposes all you need to know is that the computer sends a series of codes (each consisting of one or more numbers) to the printer, and the printer interprets them. Some codes tell the printer to print a character, and other codes tell it to turn on or off certain printer functions, such as emphasized or Near Letter Quality.
Chapter 4 LX-90 Features The next four chapters describe many of the printing features of the LX-90. You can read these chapters if you wish, but you may not need to. Whether or not you use the rest of this manual depends upon your expertise, your interest, and the software you plan to use.
printer for you and all you have to know about the printer is how to turn it on and how to load paper. If you need help with the installation program for your software, see Appendix E. How to Run BASIC Programs If you want to know just enough about BASIC to run the dem- onstration programs in this manual, here’s all you need.
In Chapter 3 you saw the enlargements of the three LX-90 pitches. Now you’ll learn how to produce them. Pica Printing The first exercise is a simple three-line program to print a sample line of characters in pica, the standard pitch. Enter this program: FOR X=65 TO 105 50 LPRINT CHR$(X);...
Now run the program to see the line printed in compressed mode. ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]ˆ-'abcdefghi Cancelling Codes As you saw in the third version of the print pitch program, you must cancel a code when you don’t want it any more. With very few exceptions, the LX-90 modes stay on until they are cancelled.
you may have turned on, and the current position of the print head becomes the top of page setting. Some of the demonstration programs end with a reset code (Escape “@“) so that the commands from one program will not inter- fere with the commands in the next one.
Enter and run the following program to see how the NLQ mode is turned on by an ESCape sequence: 10 LPRINT CHR$(27)"x"CHR$(l); 20 FOR X=65 TO 105 LPRINT CHR$(X); NEXT X: LPRINT ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]ˆ-'abcdefghi Note that you use a lowercase x, not a capital X, in line Because of the high resolution of the NLQ mode, it prints only in pica, not in elite or compressed.
Chapter 5 Print Enhancements and Special Characters Besides the pitches (pica, elite, and compressed) covered in Chap- ters 3 and 4, the LX-90 offers many other typestyles. Bold Modes Two of the typestyles (emphasized and double-strike) are bolder than standard printing. Emphasized Mode In the emphasized mode the LX-90 prints dot twice, with the...
Emphasized works only in draft pica and NLQ modes. In elite and compressed the dots are already so close together that even with the reduced print speed, the cannot fire, retract, and again fire the LX-90 pins quickly enough to print overlapping dots. You do sacrifice some print speed with emphasized, because the print head slows down and prints twice as many dots, but the increase in print quality is well worth it.
Expanded Mode Perhaps the most dramatic mode on the LX-90 is expanded. It pro- duces extra-wide characters that are good for titles and headings. For this mode, the dot pattern of each character is expanded and twice as many dots are printed. You can see the difference between pica and expanded pica if you enter and run this program: l0 LPRINT "This is standard printing."...
When you run the program, your printout should match the one below, showing that the two modes combine with no ‘trouble. T h i s i s s t a n d a r d p r i n t i n g . A later section in this chapter explains a special ESCape code, Mas- ter Select, which allows you to control seven features with one ESCape sequence.
Master Select The LX-90 has a special ESCape code called Master Select that allows you to choose any possible combination of seven different modes: pica, elite, compressed, emphasized, double-strike, expanded, and underline. The format of Master Select code is ESCape “!” followed by a number that is calculated by adding together the values of the modes listed below: underline...
The printer’s priority list causes a combination of emphasized and elite to produce elite only, a combination of emphasized and com- pressed to produce emphasized only, and a combination of all three to produce compressed elite. Also remember that elite or compressed will cancel pica.
Chapter Page Formatting Although the LX-90 printer has many sophisticated commands to set margins, line spacing, and horizontal and vertical tabs, this chap- ter won’t take up your time with extensive discussions of these because most are taken care of by applications programs. Instead, this chapter describes a few commands that the average user might need.
You should be aware that a few applications programs reset the printer before each document or file they print. These programs will, of course, cancel your new margin settings. If your program resets the printer, use its installation program to remove all codes from the ini- tialization sequence.
The standard line spacing is the only one you need for almost all printing of text, but in some cases you may want to increase or decrease the space between lines. The LX-90 has several commands to do this. ESCape “0” or ESCape “1” decreases the line spacing to l/9-inch, and ESCape “2”...
The centering command centers line of text between the margins. This is handy for headings, titles, and captions. Right justification is the opposite of left justification. The right mar- gin is even and the left is not. Auto justification puts extra spaces between words where necessary so that both the left and right margins are even.
Chapter 7 User-Defined Characters The LX-90 has several hundred different characters stored in its Read Only Memory. Although this number includes draft, Near Let- ter Quality, international, and graphics characters, sometimes you would like to have a few more. For those occasions when you need a special character or a few letters in a different typeface, the LX-90 allows you to create your own characters and print them just as if they were ordinary letters.
Your user-defined characters can be utilitarian or imaginative, any- thing from a scientific symbol to script letters for your initials. Just follow the simple steps below. The only restriction on your creativity is that the characters you define must follow the same rules that govern the rest of the characters printed by the LX-90.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Figure Grid for designing draft characters 7-2. Because the last two columns are reserved for the space between characters, they are not included in the grid. And since most charac- ters do not use the bottom two rows, a heavy line indicates the usual lower limit for an LX-90 character.
Definition program 1 The BASIC program below will help you translate your design into a character your LX-90 can print. Type it in now so that you can run it soon. 100 DIM F(9) 110 FOR I=1 TO 9 120 PRINT "WHICH ROWS HAVE DOTS IN COLUMN";I 130 INPUT R: IF R=0 THEN 150 140 F(I)=F(I)+2A(R-1) 150 IF R=0 THEN NEXT I ELSE GOT0 130...
Running the program Now run the program. For each of the nine columns, the program asks for the numbers of the rows in which you want dots to appear. Enter the row numbers one at a time, pressing the key after ENTER each one.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Figure 7-5. Using the bottom eight rows Definition program 2 Once the character looks right, type in the next program. The pro- gram as listed creates the symbol for Mercury, but you can use it for any characters you create if you make one or two changes explained after the program listing.
210 DATA 112,8,0,138,116,138,0,8,112 220 DATA 58,68,2,128,0,128,2,68,58 Check your work by making sure that there are nine numbers in each DATA line and that the numbers are separated by commas. To define more than one character, use the total number of charac- ters you are defining instead of the in line can define as...
NLQ grid Because the NLQ characters can use as many as 18 dots vertically and 12 dots horizontally, you plan your designs on a different grid than the one for draft characters. Figure Grid NLQ characters 7-6. On this grid you can use any numbered line or space. As you can see, that includes the bottom line and the line on the right side.
Figure 7-7. Data numbers for one column To calculate the data numbers for this column, note which dots are used in the top group (the top eight positions) and add their values together. Then go down to the middle group (the next 8 positions) and add the values of any dots that are used there.
Figure 7-8. Musical design and data numbers If you look at each column individually, you can see how the data numbers are calculated. NLQ definition program 1 Now type in and run the following program. It has the data num- bers for the musical design.
10 LPRINT CHR$(27)"x"CHR$(1) 20 LPRINT CHR$(27) ":"CHR$(0)CHR$(0)CHR$(0); LPRINT CHR$(27)"%"CHR$(1)CHR$(0); LPRINT CHR$(27)"&"CHR$(~)~(("; 50 LPRINT CHR$(0)CHR$(12)CHR$(0); FOR X=1 TO 70 READ C: LPRINT CHR$(C); NEXT X 90 LPRINT "YOUR CHARACTER IN PICA: < < <" 100 LPRINT "IN EXPANDED EMPHASIZED PICA: "; 110 LPRINT CHR$(27)"!*<...
10 J=1: IF J>3 THEN A=58 ELSE A=60 20 LPRINT CHR$(27)"x"CHR$(1) 30 FOR X=58 TO 63: LPRINT CHR$(X)" ";: NEXT X 40 LPRINT CHR$(27) ":"CHR$(0)CHR$(0)CHR$(0) 50 LPRINT CHR$(27)"%"CHR$(1)CHR$(0); 60 LPRINT CHR$(27)"&"CHR$(0)CHR$(A)CHR$(A-1+J); 70 FOR Y=1 TO J 80 LPRINT CHR$(0)CHR$(l2)CHR$(0); 90 FOR X=1 TO 36: READ C: LPRINT CHR$(C) 100 NEXT X: NEXT Y 110 FOR X=58 TO 63: LPRINT CHR$(X)"...
Chapter 8 Introduction to Dot Graphics The dot graphics mode allows your to produce pictures, LX-90 graphs, charts, or almost any other pictorial material you can devise. Instead of using the standard letters and numbers, the graphics mode prints dots column by column and line by line. You plan where you want the dots to appear and then use a program to tell the LX-90 where to put them.
INSTALLATIONS BY MONTH 0 JUL The quickest and easiest way to print graphics on your LX-90 is to use a commercial graphics program. With such programs you usually create an image on your monitor or TV screen and then give a com- mand to send the image to the printer.
In the main graphics mode, however, the LX-90 prints only one column of pins for each code it receives, and it uses only the top eight of the nine pins. Therefore, your graphics program must send codes for dot pat- terns, one number for each column in a line.
The graphics command requires more than one number to specify how many columns to reserve because as many as 1920 columns are possible in graphics printing. Since the LX-90 doesn’t use decimal numbers larger than 255, the graphics mode command uses two num- bers for reserving columns.
0 and 255, and no numbers are duplicated. Now that you know the principles of Epson graphics, you’re ready for two simple exercises, more densities, and then something more complex as a basis for writing your own programs.
WIDTH Statements Some software (including IBM Personal Computer BASIC) auto- matically inserts the control codes for a carriage return and a line feed after every 80 - 130 characters. This insertion is usually no problem with text, but it can spoil your graphics. In the graphics mode it may insert the control codes in the middle of a line.
10 WIDTH "LPT1:",255 20 LPRINT CHR$(27)"A"CHR$(7) 30 FOR R=1 TO 3 40 LPRINT CHR$(27)"K"CHR$(100)CHR$(0); 50 FOR X=1 TO 50: LPRINT CHR$(85)CHR$(42); 60 NEXT X: LPRINT 70 LPRINT CHR$(27)"K"CHR$(100)CHR$(0); 80 FOR X=1 TO 50: LPRINT CHR$(42)CHR$(85); 90 NEXT X: LPRINT: NEXT R 100 LPRINT CHR$(27)"@"...
Density Varieties Although all the examples so far in this chapter have been in the single-density graphics mode, the LX-90 offers five other eight-pin density modes and two nine-pin ones. Nine-pin graphics is not neces- sary for most uses, but you can find its command (ESCape “ ”) in Appendix B.
Reassigning Code The LX-90 has a graphics command that changes one graphics mode to another. You can use it with many commercial graphics soft- ware programs to change the density and shape of your printouts. The code is ESCape “?s” n, where s is one of the four alternate graphics codes (K, L, Y, or Z) and n is the number of the new code (O-6).
Once you have chosen the number of columns you want to use, you can have your program do the calculations for you with the fol- lowing format: CHR$(27)"L"CHR$(N MOD 256)CHR$(INT(N/256)); N is the total number of columns you want to specify. The MOD (modulus) function calculates the value for n1, and the INT (integer) function calculates the value for For programming languages...
lines, but no dots can overlap. In low-speed double density dots can be placed on vertical lines and they can overlap. Now look at the figure designed for high-speed double density. It should point you in the right direction for your own designs. Figure 8-4.
In this program the number in the DATA statements signals the end of a print line. This is the reason for the IF-THEN statement in line that skips to line and causes a line feed. The other special technique used in this program is found in lines and 630.
Notice that the first line stores the whole graphics command in a single string variable. In order to do this you must put plus signs between the elements of the command. Once you have done this at the beginning of the program, each time you enter LPRINT G$; you have issued the graphics command.
Appendix A LX-90 Characters This appendix is a listing of the characters produced by the decimal codes from 0 through 255. For each code the listing provides the deci- mal number (Dec), the hexadecimal number (Hex), and a printout of the character that is printed by that code (Char).
Alternate Character Mode (NLQ) Dec Hex Char Dec Hex Char Dec Hex Char Dec Hex Char none 32 20 blank ‘ 01 none 98 62 none " 100 64 101 65 e & 103 67 g 10 0A LF 11 0B VT 12 0C FF 13 0D CR 109 6D m...
Alternate Character Mode (NLQ) Dec Hex Char Dec Hex Char Dec Hex Char Dec Hex Char 128 80 none 160 A0 192 CO 224 E0 161 A1 193 C1 225 E1 129 81 none 130 82 none 162 A2 194 C2 226 E2 131 83 163 A3...
WordStar manual for custom installation, and consult your dealer if you need more information. For Artpak™ use the “Set-up of System” operation to select Epson with Graftrax. Also select the alternate character set with DIP switch 1 - 6 (see Appendix D) because Artpak uses some of the con- trol codes above 137 decimal.
SelecType Features and Solutions Some software sends a reset code before it begins printing. This can- cels any SelecType settings. If you find that SelecType does not change your printing, the reset code is probably the reason. The solution is to use the installation program for your software to remove all codes from the initialization sequence.
See that the ON LINE and READY lights are on. (Be sure that you do not touch the power switch and cancel all the modes.) 2. Press the buttons to enter SelecType. ON LINE Press the button twice. (This is the code for empha- ON LINE sized.) Notice that the ON LINE light is blinking and that it is on more than it is off.
If the printer beeps and stops printing when it is not out of paper, turn the printer off and check to see if the paper is loaded correctly. If the paper is loaded correctly, turn the printer back on and try to print again.
The hexadecimal numbers are the codes received by the printer, and the guide section helps you find a certain place in the list of codes. Each character in the guide section corresponds to one of the codes. If the code is for a printable character, that character is printed. If the code is for a non-printable character, such as the ESCape code or the code for a line feed or carriage return, a dot is printed.
Some software changes one or more codes when sending them to the printer. The ability of the LX-90 to dump in hexadecimal lets you determine which codes are creating problems for your system. A data dump printout of a program shows you exactly what the printer is receiving, regardless of what the computer is sending.
Here is the way to adjust the width when it is the only problem. Tell the computer that the print line is wider than 80 characters with this WIDTH statement: WIDTH "LPT1:",255 The 255 is a special number that prevents the computer system from inserting a CR-LF into the line.
Appendix B Control Codes in Numeric Order Different programs use different methods to send these control codes to your LX-90. If you use BASIC, you send a control code using LPRINT CHR$(27) followed by CHR$(n), where n is a number from the decimal (Dec) column below.
Carriage return. Prints the contents of the buffer and resets the buffer character count to Shift out. Turns expanded mode ON for the length of the line. Can be cancelled by ASCII 20 or ESC “W0”. Works with pica, elite, or com- pressed mode.
Defines user characters in RAM. Format: ESC 38 26 & ESC “&” 0 c1 c2 a d1 . . . d11 The 0 is for future use, cl is the starting char- acter, c2 is the ending character. Both cl and c2 must be between 58 and 63 inclusive.
ESC 53 ESCape “5” 1 causes the LX-90 to perform an automatic line feed with each carriage return. ESCape “5” 0 cancels ESCape “5” 1. Selects standard character set if alternate ESC 54 character set has been previously selected. See Appendix A for character set tables. ESC 55 Selects alternate character set.
ESC 66 42 B Sets up to 16 vertical tabs in the current line spacing. Tab settings are not affected by sub- sequent changes in line spacing. Format: ESC “B” n1 n2 ... nk O where nk = 1 - 255. Terminate this tab sequence with 0 or a number less than the last defined tab (nk).
Forces an immediate line feed of n/216 inches ESC 74 4A J without changing the current line spacing. Prints the contents of the buffer without a car- riage return. Format: ESC “J” n where n = O-255. Turns single-density graphics mode ON. Prints ESC 75 4B K 480 dots per 8-inch line.
Sets the right margin. Also cancels all text that ESC 81 51 Q is in the print buffer. Format: ESC “Q” n where n ranges from: 2 - 80 in pica 3 - 96 in elite* 4 - 137 in compressed* 4 - 160 in compressed elite* * You may need a WIDTH statement.
Turns quadruple-density graphics mode ON. ESC 90 5A Z Prints 1920 dots per 8-inch line. Format: ESC “Z” n1 n2 followed by n data numbers, where n = total number of dot columns, n1 = n MOD 256 n2 = INT (n/256). For example, to print 1920 dots, n1 = 128, n2 = 7.
Control Key Chart Some applications programs can use control key codes for decimal values The table below gives you the proper values. The Control O-27. key column indicates that you press the control key at the same time you press the key for the letter or symbol in that column. For example, you press the control key and A at the same time to send the value 1.
Appendix C Control Codes by Function This appendix shows the control codes that are in Appendix B, but this time they are arranged by categories. This appendix enables you to find a particular code quickly but does not give all the details on the format and use of each code. See Appendix B or the appropriate chapter for further information.
Forms Control Turns the paper-out sensor OFF. ESC “8” Turns the paper-out sensor ON. ESC “9” ESC “C” Sets the form length in inches. Sets the form length in lines. ESC “C” ESC “N” n Turns variable skip over perforation ON. Turns skip over perforation OFF.
Appendix D The DIP Switches Several tiny switches called DIP (for Dual In-Line Package) switches are in the back of your LX-90 printer. These switches control a number of important printer functions. Although the factory set- tings are the best for most uses, you may want to change some of them.
Always turn the power OFF (with the switch on the right side of the printer) before you change the setting of any of these switches. Any changes made while the power is on will be ignored until you turn the printer off and back on.
Switch 1-5 controls the paper-end detector. When it is ON, the detec- tor is inactive, causing printing to continue even when the printer is out of paper. When it is OFF, the printer stops when the end of the paper passes the paper-end detector. See Paper Out Sensor in Chapter selects the character set.
INDEX Alternate character mode, Al, A6-A9, D3 American Standard Code for Information Interchange. See ASCII Applications programs. See Commercial software Artpak, El ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange), 16 codes listed for all characters, Al-A9 Automatic test. See Test pattern Automatic line feed, D3 BASIC programs, how to run, 18 BASIC, IBM PC, E6-E7...
Data dump mode, E4-E6 Default settings, 20 DIP switches, Dl-D3 Dot graphics. See Graphics Dot matrix printing, 13-15 Double-strike mode, 24, 27 Can also be set with SelecType Draft mode, 3, 15, D2 Dumping data in hexadecimal, E4-E6 Elite mode, 14-15, 19-22 Can also be set with SelecType Emphasized mode, 23-28 Can also be set with SelecType...
IBM Personal Computer BASIC, E6 Installation. See Set-up operations; Commercial software Interface. See PIC Justification with NLQ, 31-32 Left margin. See Margins Length of page. See Page LE, 6, E2-E3 See also Control panel, Line feed Line feed, 30 automatic, DIP switch setting for, Line spacing, 30-31 in graphics, 47 Listing programs, 6...
Page, top of, 21 Page formatting. See formatting Panel buttons, selecting typestyles with. See SelecType Paper length, D2 Paper-out light, 5 Paper-out sensor, 31 DIP switch control of, D3 Perforation. See Skip over perforation PIC. See Printer Interface Cartridge Pica mode, 14-15, 19-22 Pins, numbering of, 48 Pitch comparison table, 22 See also Pica;...
SelecType feature, 7-12 cancelling functions with, E2-E3 troubleshooting, E2-E3 Self test. See Test pattern Set-up operations for printer, 3-6 Single-sheet printing, 31 Skip over perforation, 30 Spacing. See line spacing Spreadsheets. See commercial software String variables in graphics, 57-58 Subscript mode, 28 Superscript mode, 28 Switches.
Epson label or logo, the rating label or serial number, has been removed from your Epson product, or if, in the sole opinion of Epson, your Epson product has been damaged by faulty or leaking batteries not supplied by Epson, or by accident, misuse, neglect, or improper packing, shipping, modification or servicing, by other than Epson or an authorized Epson Service Center.