DO NOT modify this unit or commission others this plate. You should record the model number, serial to do so unless specifically authorized by Yamaha. Prod- number, and the date of purchase in the spaces provided uct performance and/or safety standards may be dimin- below and retain this manual as a permanent record of ished.
The control unit is classified as a Class 1 laser product. One of the IMPORTANT NOTICE FOR THE UNITED KINGDOM labels below is located on the inside of the CD drive unit. Applies to Power Adaptor L’unité de commande est classée produit laser de Classe 1. Une des Connecting the Plug and Cord étiquettes ci-dessous ou une étiquette similaire se trouve à...
Information for Users on Collection and Disposal of Old Equipment and used Batteries These symbols on the products, packaging, and/or accompanying documents mean that used electrical and electronic products and batteries should not be mixed with general household waste. For proper treatment, recovery and recycling of old products and used batteries, please take them to applicable collection points, in accordance with your national legislation and the Directives 2002/96/EC and 2006/66/EC.
If these corrective measures do not produce satisfactory results, please contact the local retailer authorized to distribute this type of product. If you can not locate the appropriate retailer, please contact Yamaha Corporation of America, Electronic Service Division, 6600 Orangethorpe Ave, Buena Park, CA 90620 The above statements apply ONLY to those products distributed by Yamaha Corporation of America or its subsidiaries.
Disklavier Control Unit DKC-850 Operation manual...
1480 Ryoke, Kakegawa, Shizuoka, 436-0038, JAPAN Piano Division, Yamaha Corporation The source code will be provided at no charge; however, we may require you to reimburse Yamaha for the cost of delivering the source code to you. The source code download is also available on the following website: http://download.yamaha.com/sourcecodes/disklavier_e3/...
Important Precautions Read the following before operating the Disklavier control unit. ■ Warnings ■ Cautions • Do not locate the Disklavier control unit in a • Turn off all audio devices when connecting to place subject to excessive heat, low the Disklavier control unit.
■ Interference • When the battery-powered unit is not going to be used for a prolonged period of time, remove the • The Disklavier control unit uses high-frequency dry batteries from the unit. Otherwise the digital circuits that may cause interference to batteries will run down and their electrolyte may radios and TVs placed close to it.
Table of Contents Chapter 1 Introduction Obtaining an ID and Password for the IDC Service (IDC Registration)..........35 Features ..............1 Connecting the Disklavier to the Internet .... 35 Items Supplied with the Disklavier Control Unit ..1 Accessing the Internet......... 37 Names of Parts and Their Functions......2 Checking Your Account Information....
Chapter 9 Video Synchronization Setting the Disklavier Control Unit for Audio Data Reception/Transmission........113 Video Synchronized Recording......71 Hooking Up MIDI Devices ......... 115 Video Synchronized Playback ......75 Setting the Disklavier Control Unit for MIDI Data Chapter 10 CD Synchronization Reception ............116 Setting the Disklavier Control Unit for MIDI Data CD Synchronized Recording........76 Transmission .............
Chapter Introduction Names of Parts and Their Functions ■ Front Panel [ON/OFF] button Cursor/[ENTER] buttons Turns on or shuts down the Disklavier control unit. Cursor: Used to select options and parameters. Press once to turn it on, and once again to shut it Press this button inclining down.
Chapter Introduction ■ Rear Panel USB TO DEVICE port MIDI OUT terminal Used to connect a USB flash memory, an optional For models to be replaced with Disklavier control USB floppy disk drive, etc. unit: Used to connect external MIDI equipment. LAN port For models to be connected with the MIDI cables: Used to connect to the Internet.
Chapter Introduction ■ Remote Control [ON/STANDBY] button [RECORD] button ( page 32) Turns on the Disklavier control unit or puts it in the Used to engage the record standby mode before standby mode. recording starts. Number keypad [PLAY] button ( page 25) Used for direct album/song selection and to enter a Used to start playback.
Chapter Introduction [BACK] button [PAUSE] button ( page 26) Used to cancel the selection, and return to the Used to pause playback. previous screen. [STOP] button ( page 26) [VOLUME] buttons ( page 31) Used to stop playback and recording. Used to adjust the volume.
The disk compatibility between MIDI devices. When a song includes songs for listening enjoyment, piano study in the Yamaha XG format is played on another XG disks for the piano student, and accompaniment compatible tone generator or synthesizer, it will disks for vocal and instrumental practice.
Checking the Type of Your Piano The Disklavier control unit can be connected to several models of the Yamaha Disklavier pianos, however, connections and setup procedures vary depending on the piano model. Check the model number on the existing control unit and find your piano model following the descriptions below before connecting.
Tighten Loosen Cautions • Use the Yamaha PJP-PS02/PJP-PS04 adaptor, or an equivalent recommended by Yamaha. Use of other AC adaptors may result in damage, overheating, or fire. • Do not stretch the cable or bend its ends. • Do not attempt to use the cable if it is stretched or if the ends of the cable have been bent. Attempting to do so may cause interruptions to the power supply.
Chapter Getting Started Important • Be sure to backup the data on your control unit to the floppy disk before connecting. • Please keep the disconnected control unit for future maintenance. Turn on your piano, and reset settings on your control unit to its factory default.
Remote control sensor Cautions • Use the Yamaha PJP-PS02/PJP-PS04 adaptor, or an equivalent recommended by Yamaha. Use of other AC adaptors may result in damage, overheating, or fire. • Do not stretch the cable or bend its ends. • Do not attempt to use the cable if it is stretched or if the ends of the cable have been bent. Attempting to do so may cause interruptions to the power supply.
Chapter Getting Started Important Be sure to backup the data on your control unit to the floppy disk before connecting. Turn on your piano, and reset settings on your control unit to its factory default. For details on setting, refer to your piano’s owner’s manual. Turn off your piano, and disconnect the power cable from the AC wall outlet.
Chapter Getting Started Connecting Monitor Speakers To listen to the internal XG tone generator voices, you have to connect monitor speakers. Connection methods vary depending on whether your piano is equipped with the Silent Piano™ function or not. ■ For Pianos Equipped with the Silent Piano™ Function Connect the AUX IN jacks of your piano to the OUTPUT jacks on the rear Note:...
Chapter Getting Started Using the Remote Control The Disklavier control unit is equipped with a remote control which allows convenient control from almost anywhere in the room. This section provides notes on handling the remote control. ■ Installing Batteries in the Remote Control Before the remote control can be used, the two batteries supplied with the Disklavier control unit must be installed.
Chapter Getting Started ■ Using the Remote Control To use the remote control, point it at the remote control sensor on the front panel. Approx. 5 m 30° 30° 30° 30° 30° 30° 30° 30° Turning On the Disklavier Control Unit Make sure that the AC adaptor is plugged into the AC wall outlet.
Chapter Getting Started Setting the Type of Your Piano [SYSTEM] “PianoType” After you have connected the Disklavier control unit to your piano, you must set the type of your piano. Press [SYSTEM] on the remote control. The system menu screen appears. =SYSTEM MENU= (1/2) Clock Adj.
Chapter Getting Started Press [ENTER]. If the piano type has been changed, this unit is automatically rebooted. =PianoType= estarting... Setting the Internal Calendar [SYSTEM] “TimeZone” and “Clock Adj.” The Disklavier control unit has an internal calendar that can be set from 1/ Setting the correct time is also 1/1985 00:00:00 to 12/31/2084 23:59:59.
Chapter Getting Started Press [+/YES] and [–/NO] to change the time zone. = ime Zone= -+EN imeZone=GM +2 Examples of Time Zone Note: The time zone listed here should be The chart below shows the correspondence between the time zone used only as a guide.
Chapter Getting Started ■ Calendar Select “Clock Adj.” with the cursor buttons ([ ]), then press [ENTER]. (1/2) =SYSTEM MENU= Clock Adj. TimeZone Backup Restore The current date and time appear. =Clock Adjust= 009/01/01 13:54:30 Press [ENTER]. The time setup screen appears with the cursor flashing on the hours display.
Chapter Getting Started Turning Off the Disklavier Control Unit (Standby Mode) Note: Press [ON/STANDBY] on the remote control. Press [ON/STANDBY] on the remote control to turn the Disklavier The ending screen appears, and [ON/OFF] on the front panel lights control unit back on. red.
Standard MIDI File format 1 for playback only. The name of the file should have an extension as “.MID” or “.mid.” E-SEQ Format developed by Yamaha, for playback only. The name of the file should have an extension as “.FIL” or “.fil.” Basic Precautions for Using CDs ■...
Basic Song Playback Chapter Types of Playable Software PianoSoft and PianoSoft·Plus When piano songs such as those contained in PianoSoft and PianoSoft·Plus software are played back on the Disklavier, the piano parts are actually played by the Disklavier keyboard, and the keys move up and down as though they were being played by an invisible performer.
Chapter Basic Song Playback Selecting Medium and Their Contents [SELECT] Insert a desired medium. CD eject button USB flash memory USB port Press [SELECT]. The media selection screen appears with the current selected medium highlighted. =MEDIA SELECT= Memory Front panel Remote control Note:...
Chapter Basic Song Playback Press [ENTER] or [ The album selection screen appears. =ALBUM SELECT= 01:50 Greats for t Note: Select a desired album with the cursor buttons ([ The maximum number of the selectable albums in a medium is 99. =ALBUM SELECT= Note: 01:50 Greats for t...
Chapter Basic Song Playback ■ Song Playback Screen Here are a few things that you will often see during playback. Memory LR SO V+00 A02-001 iano Sonate <00:00> Media Song Format The selected medium is displayed here. The format of the selected song is displayed here. Display Description Album/Song Number...
Chapter Basic Song Playback Using the Number Keypad Album or song selection screen Number button You can also select albums or songs directly with the number keypad on the remote control. Note: Press the corresponding number button, then press If you enter a number higher than [ENTER].
Chapter Basic Song Playback Stopping Playback During playback [STOP] Press [STOP]. Front panel Remote control Playback stops, and the song returns to the beginning. [PLAY/PAUSE] on the front panel turns off, and the counter is reset to “00:00” or “001-1.” Pausing Playback During playback [PAUSE]...
Chapter Basic Song Playback Fast Preview & Review During playback [FORWARD] or [REVERSE] During playback, fast preview and review allow you to quickly search Note: No sound is produced by the piano through a song while listening to the sound. This is useful for locating a when fast-previewing or reviewing desired position within a song.
Chapter Basic Song Playback Fast Forward & Reverse Stop or pause mode [FORWARD] or [REVERSE] In the stop or pause mode, fast forward and reverse allow you to quickly locate a desired position in a song. Reverse can also be used to return a song to the beginning, ready to play again.
Chapter Basic Song Playback Searching a Specific Section of a Song During playback or stop/pause mode [SEARCH] Playback can be started from a specified point in a song. Instead of using fast forward or preview, you can use this function to go directly to a desired point within a song.
Chapter Basic Song Playback Listening to the DisklavierRadio Media selection screen “D-Radio” You can listen to streaming broadcasts of music, with many channels of Note: DisklavierRadio is available only on music contents. models of which the control unit is replaced with the Disklavier control unit.
Chapter Basic Song Playback ■ Muting the Sound Note: Press [PAUSE] or [STOP]. Streaming broadcasts continue during muting. Therefore, the song “MUTE” appears on the upper right of the screen. broadcasted when releasing muting may differ from the one when muting.
Basic Recording Chapter A song that you play on the Disklavier can be recorded and the recorded song can be easily saved for the selected medium. Furthermore, you can title your new recording for simple distinguish before recording. Recording a New Song [RECORD] You can save a new song that you play for an album.
Chapter Basic Recording Titling a Song at the Start of Recording [RECORD] [FUNC.]×2 Title a new song before you start recording. Select a destination medium and album. To select a medium and album, see Chapter 3 “Basic Song Playback – Selecting Medium and Their Contents”...
Chapter Basic Recording ■ Entering Characters How to Enter Characters with the Remote Control The following illustration shows how to enter characters with the remote control. Number keypad Overwrites a number. [SEARCH] button Overwrites a dot (.). [REVERSE] button Deletes a character. The characters on the right of the deleted one move to the left for one character space.
IDC service with any other Please register at the following website: instrument (such as the Clavinova), https://member.yamaha.com/myproduct/regist/ you do not need to register again. You can use your ID and password Once you have an IDC account, you will interact with that account using obtained through that registration.
Chapter Internet Direct Connection (IDC) ■ Connecting the Disklavier Control Unit to the Note: Depending on the contract with your Internet Internet provider, you may not be able to connect two or more devices (for example, a computer and this Connection example 1: unit) to the Internet.
The purchaser acknowledges that connection to the Internet and use of the Disklavier control unit Internet features is done at the risk of the purchaser. In no event shall Yamaha, its subsidiaries or Yamaha’s and/or its subsidiaries’ directors, officers, or employees be responsible for unauthorized access, loss or alteration of the data of the purchaser or be liable for any damage from intrusions.
Chapter Internet Direct Connection (IDC) Press [INTERNET] on the remote control. The Internet menu screen appears. =Internet= (1/1) *D-Radio *MyAccount *Update Select a desired menu with the cursor buttons ([ ]), then press [ENTER]. Perform operations on the screen that appears. Checking Your Account Information [INTERNET] “MyAccount”...
Chapter Internet Direct Connection (IDC) Select “MyAccount” with the cursor buttons ([ ]), then press [ENTER]. =Internet= (1/1) *D-Radio *MyAccount *Update The MyAccount screen appears. =MyAccount= 1:Account Information 2:Subscription Status Select a desired option with the cursor buttons ([ then press [ENTER]. Perform operations on the screen that appears.
Chapter Internet Direct Connection (IDC) Select “Update” with the cursor buttons ([ ]), then press [ENTER]. =Internet= (1/1) *D-Radio *MyAccount *Update The update screen appears if there is any update program available. = pdate= pdate Available ------------------------ You can scroll the screen up or down with the cursor buttons ([ Following the instructions on the screen, select the option with the cursor buttons ([ ]), then press...
Chapter Internet Direct Connection (IDC) Setting the Disklavier Control Unit for the Internet Connection [SETUP] “Network” You can change various settings related to the Internet connection. In most To use the Internet connection, cases, you do not have to change the default factory settings. inquire of your Internet service provider.
Chapter Internet Direct Connection (IDC) Select a desired option with the cursor buttons ([ ]), then press [+/YES] and [–/NO] to change setting. If you select “Information” on the network setting screen, the current network setting appears. To return to the network setting screen, press [BACK] after confirming.
Advanced Song Playback Chapter Changing the Playback Tempo [TEMPO –] or [TEMPO +] You can speed up or slow down the playback tempo. Slowing down the Note: You cannot change the playback playback tempo can be useful when practicing a difficult piano part. tempo of songs on audio CDs.
Chapter Advanced Song Playback Press [TRANSPOSE –] or [TRANSPOSE +] on the remote control. The transposition setting screen appears. =Memory= TRANS-/0/+ TRANS +01key Note: Press [TRANSPOSE –] or [TRANSPOSE +] to change the You can also use the dial on the key.
Chapter Advanced Song Playback Press [REPEAT] to select repeat modes. The following options are available: Option Description Repeats all songs on the selected album. Repeats selected song. Shuffles the order of songs on the selected album and repeats the cycle. Plays back songs normally.
Chapter Advanced Song Playback Note: To set point B, press [A-B] again. You cannot set point B that is beyond the selected song. Point B is set. =Memory= <02:22> A-B Playback starts from point A, continues up to point B and, returns to point A and playback starts repeatedly.
Chapter Advanced Song Playback Notes of displays: Note: Guide part can be set on the models Display Description capable of the SmartKey playback. Left hand part Note: For the SmartKey song, “ON”, Right hand part “OFF” and “G” appear sequentially Pedal part each time you press [PART SELECT L] or [PART SELECT R].
Chapter Advanced Song Playback To replay the pedal part, press [+/YES] to select “ON” with the cursor is on “P=.” Piano Part =ON R=OFF P=ON Press [BACK] to return to the song playback screen. Adjusting the Volume Balance among the Keyboard Playing, Ensemble Sound, and Software Playback [BALANCE] Besides adjusting the overall volume, the volume balance among the...
Chapter Advanced Song Playback ■ Adjusting the Audio Balance Press [BALANCE] twice on the remote control. The audio balance setting screen appears. =BALANCE= AUDIO BALANCE 100 ×2 Note: Press [+/YES] and [–/NO] to adjust the volume of the You can also use the dial on the audio.
Chapter Advanced Song Playback Adjusting the Pitch of Audio During playback [FUNC.] You can temporarily adjust the pitch of the song contains audio Note: This function cannot be used to (PianoSoft·PlusAudio, SmartPianoSoft) or an audio CD for your listening adjust the pitch of external audio pleasure.
Chapter Advanced Song Playback Press [+/YES] and [–/NO] to change the audio pan. =CD= -+ENT AudioPan=Left The following pan settings are available: Option Description Left Audio of the L channel is output to both of the L and R channels. Center Audio of the L channel is output to the L channel, and the R channel is output to the R channel.
Chapter Advanced Song Playback Select “TimerPlay” with the cursor buttons ([ ]), then press [ENTER]. =SETUP MENU= (1/3) *TimerPlay *AudioI/O *MIDI *M-Tune The timer play setting screen appears. Timer switch =TimerPlay= >TimerPlay=OFF 01[### ##:## ---- Program Time Function Album number selection Confirm that the cursor is on the timer switch, then press [+/YES] and [–/NO] to switch the timer play on and off.
Chapter Advanced Song Playback The following functions are available: PLAY Starts playback of songs. STOP Stops playback of songs. Starts playback of songs at random. Turns off the Disklavier (standby mode). When “PLAY” or “RND” is selected, the album selection parameter appears.
Chapter Advanced Song Playback Press [ ] to move the cursor to the hour parameter, then press [+/YES] and [–/NO] to set hours. =TimerPlay= >TimerPlay=ON 01[M-F 08:00 PLAY Mem01] Press [ ] to move the cursor to the minute parameter, then press [+/YES] and [–/NO] to set minutes.
Chapter Advanced Song Playback Skipping the Blank Part at the Beginning of a Song [SETUP] “Playback” When there is a blank part created at the beginning of the recorded song, turning on this function automatically skips the unwanted part and starts playback from the actual beginning of the song.
Chapter Advanced Song Playback SmartKey™ Playback Select a SmartKey song [PLAY] Special SmartKey software uses all the “SmartKey” features to create an Note: SmartKey playback is available only exciting way in which non-players can learn to play simple melodies, one when the control unit of models with note at a time, without the need for written music.
Chapter Advanced Song Playback ■ Key notation As a reference, “C3” is middle “C”, which means “C4” is an octave above middle “C” and so on. C 2 D 2 F 2G 2 A 2 C 3 D 3 F 3G 3A 3 C 4 C2 D2 E2 F2 G2 A2 B2 C3 D3 E3 F3 G3 A3 B3 C4 Middle C Inactivating the Key Movement during Playback...
Advanced Recording Chapter This chapter describes further functions for the advanced piano recording such as playing and measuring the current playing song tempo with the metronome, recording the left-hand part and the right-hand part separately. Recording with the Internal Metronome [METRONOME] [RECORD] You can use the metronome to record songs.
Chapter Advanced Recording To change the volume, move the cursor to the volume parameter (“VOLUME”) with the cursor buttons ([ ]), then press [+/YES] and [–/NO]. =METRONOME= TEMPO=125bpm =3/4 VOLUME= VOLUME= SOUND=BUZZER The volume can be adjusted in 4 steps. To change the sound, move the cursor to the sound parameter (“SOUND”) with the cursor buttons ([ ]), then press [+/YES] and [–/NO].
Chapter Advanced Recording Recording the Left and Right Parts Separately [RECORD] [FUNC.] When recording an L/R song, the left- and right-hand parts can be recorded separately. Either part can be recorded first, and the pedals can be recorded with the first part. While you record the second part, the first part will play back for monitoring.
Chapter Advanced Recording Press [RECORD]. Press [ ] and [ ] to select the L/R song with the left- hand part that you have just recorded, then press [ENTER]. Press [FUNC.] in the recording standby screen. The part selection screen appears. =Memory= L=PLY R=OFF The part that has already been recorded is displayed as “L=PLY.”...
Chapter Advanced Recording Press [STOP] when you finish playing your song. The following screen appears. =Memory= Save to Disk? *SAVE *NEW *CANCEL The following table gives a description of each of the options. Option Description SAVE The second part is saved with the first part under the current song number, overwriting the previously saved first part.
Chapter Advanced Recording Press [PART SELECT R] to set both parts to record. The split point setting screen appears. =Memory= LR=REC SPLIT=C3 The above display shows that the default keyboard split point is note C3, or middle C. In this case, note C3 and notes below are saved as the left-hand part and notes above C3 are saved as the right-hand part, as shown in the following figure.
Chapter Advanced Recording Re-recording One Part [RECORD] Select the L/R song [PART SELECT L] or [PART SELECT R] You can re-record the only one part left-hand or the right-hand of the existing L/R song. Select a desired medium and album. To select a medium and album, see Chapter 3 “Basic Song Playback –...
Chapter Advanced Recording Press [STOP] when you finish playing your song. The following screen appears. =Memory= Save to Disk? *SAVE *NEW *CANCEL The following table gives a description of each of the options. Option Description SAVE The re-recorded part is saved with the other existing part under the current song number, overwriting the selected part.
Chapter Advanced Recording Select a desired medium and album. To select a medium or album, see Chapter 3 “Basic Song Playback – Selecting Medium and Their Contents” on page 22. Press [RECORD]. Press [ ] and [ ] to select the song in which you want to change the tempo, then press [ENTER].
Chapter Advanced Recording Press [STOP] to save the tempo change. The following screen appears. =Memory= Save to Disk? *SAVE *NEW *CANCEL The following table gives a description of each of the options. Option Description SAVE The song is saved at its new tempo under the current song number.
Advanced Piano Playing Chapter Playing the Disklavier along with the Internal Metronome [METRONOME] The internal metronome helps you playing along the meter (beat) and the Note: The tempo parameter displayed on tempo you set. Also the volume of the metronome can be adjusted. the metronome setting screen indicates the number of beats in a minute, and one beat represents a...
Chapter Advanced Piano Playing To change the volume, move the cursor to the volume parameter (“VOLUME”) with the cursor buttons ([ ]), then press [+/YES] and [–/NO]. =METRONOME= TEMPO=125bpm =3/4 VOLUME= VOLUME= SOUND=BUZZER The volume can be adjusted in 4 steps. To change the sound, move the cursor to the sound parameter (“SOUND”) with the cursor buttons ([ ]), then press [+/YES] and [–/NO].
Chapter Advanced Piano Playing Press [+/YES] and [–/NO] to select a voice group. Changing the voice group displays the top voice of that group in the voice parameters. =VOICE= roup=02<ChromaticPerc> Voice=040<Celesta >[ M ] To change the voice, press [ ] to move the cursor to the voice parameter, then press [+/YES] and [–/NO].
Video Synchronization Chapter You can record a song synchronized with the video, and enjoy a synchronized playback of piano and video later on. This feature offers great listening experience with sight. Video Synchronized Recording [SETUP] “AudioI/O” Connect a camcorder and a DVD recorder ...
Chapter Video Synchronization Select “OMNI OUT” with the cursor buttons ([ then press [+/YES] and [–/NO] to change setting to “SYNC”. =AudioI/O= OMNI OUT=SYNC OMNI OUT Vol=M-Volume Press [ENTER] to complete the operation. Press [SETUP] to exit from the setup menu. Note: Connect a camcorder and a DVD recorder to the Disklavier Confirm the shape of input/output...
Chapter Video Synchronization ■ Starting Video Synchronized Recording Select a destination medium and album. To select a medium and album, see Chapter 3 “Basic Song Playback – Selecting Medium and Their Contents” on page 22. Press [RECORD]. The video synchronized recording standby screen appears, and [RECORD] on the front panel lights red, and [PLAY/PAUSE] flashed in green.
Chapter Video Synchronization ■ Using the Camcorder only If your camcorder has both mic input and audio output, you can perform video synchronized recording using the camcorder only. 1. Set the Disklavier control unit following the procedures 1 to 5 on page 71.
Chapter Video Synchronization Video Synchronized Playback You can enjoy piano playback with the video recorded on the DVD Note: Be sure to rewind the video cassette recorder. to locate the beginning of the recording. It may take some time before piano playback starts if you Perform the video synchronized recording in advance.
CD Synchronization Chapter You can record a piano performance along with the playback of songs on commercially available CDs. Once you record a song with this feature, later on, you can enjoy piano playback along with the played back songs on the CD. CD Synchronized Recording Insert an audio CD [RECORD]...
Chapter CD Synchronization Adding Disklavier Accompaniment to Commercial CD Songs (PianoSmart™ Playback) Insert a CD Select a SmartPianoSoft song [PLAY] You can add a Disklavier piano performance you recorded or on commercially available SmartPianoSoft software to the playback of songs on your favorite CDs.