Angle (DVD): Some DVDs contain the recording of
multiple viewing angles. This player allows the user
to select desired one of the recorded angles during
playback of such a DVD.
Audio language (DVD): Some DVDs contain the re-
cording of multiple audio languages. This player al-
lows the user to select desired one of the recorded
audio languages during playback of such a DVD.
Aspect ratio: The ratio between the horizontal and ver-
tical sizes of picture displayed on a TV screen. The
aspect ratio of ordinary TV is 4:3, and that of
widescreen TV is 16:9.
Pan & scan (DVD): Method of displaying a horizon-
tally-long picture recorded in 16:9 aspect ratio on a
4:3 TV screen by trimming part of picture.
In general, the trimming positions for pan & scan are
determined uniformly by the reproducing device.
However, the pan & scan of DVD allows the software
producer to specify the trimming positions to be used
Letterbox (DVD): Method of displaying a horizontally-
long picture recorded in 16:9 aspect ratio on a 4:3 TV
screen by attaching bands at the top and bottom of
the screen and displaying the horizontally-long pic-
ture at the center of screen.
Frame (DVD, VCD): Each frame of a moving picture,
that is displayed 30 times a second with NTSC and
25 times a second with PAL. These TV formats repro-
duce moving pictures by displaying still pictures se-
Field (DVD, VCD): Part of a frame obtained by divid-
ing the video data of each frame by two. Each frame
of ordinary TV is constituted by displaying the fields
Frame still/Field still (DVD, VCD): Types of still pic-
tures obtained by temporarily stopping a moving pic-
ture. The frame still picture may produce blur in the
picture because it displays two specific fields alter-
nately, but the picture quality is higher. The field still
picture has lower picture quality because it uses half
the picture information of frame still, but is not ac-
companies with picture blur.
IPB display (DVD): With the MPEG2 which is one of
the video display methods of DVD, each picture is
divided into the following three picture types before
being coded in digital signal.
I-picture (Intra coded): This is the standard video
and can constitute a picture by itself. As the highest
picture quality can be obtained, the still image of I-
picture is most suitable for use when adjusting the
P-picture (Predictive coded): Picture calculated
based on past pictures (I-picture or P-picture).
B-picture (Bidirectionally predictive coded): Pic-
ture calculated by comparing the previous and next
pictures (I-pictures or P-pictures). This picture type
contains least amount of video information.
P.B.C. (PlayBack Control) (VCD): VIDEO CDs carry-
ing messages such as "Playback Control Capable" can
be played interactively by selecting the desired play
position or information in hierarchical structures
while watching the menus displayed on the TV screen.
OSD (On-Screen Display): OSD is a method of inter-
active operations using the menus and icons displayed
on the TV screen.
On-Screen Message: Message displayed on the TV screen
when an operation is performed.
Chapter 7: Other Information
Downconversion: Conversion of PCM signal with high
sampling rate such as 96 kHz and 192 kHz into a
signal with a sampling rate of 48 kHz or 44.1 kHz.
Dynamic range: Difference between the minimum re-
producible audio signal and maximum reproducible