Vibration Noise Exhaust system Emission Ignition Oil / lubrication Temperature Electrics Power transmission Inertia Application power calculation Published by: Honda Europe NV European Engine Center Langerbruggestraat 104 B 9000 Gent Belgium Printed in Belgium - 1 -...
ENGINE INSTALLATION CHECK PRINCIPLES Safety in usage is of the utmost importance for a customer when working with a Honda engine powered OEM product and should always be given priority in importance over preventing trouble with the engine or equipment.
ENGINE APPLICATION Alignment of the engine PTO shaft and equipment shaft Engine PTO shaft coupling Engine inclination Thrust and radial load on engine PTO shaft Application / frame components Non standard fuel tank: position, level, filter, ventilation and safety Battery: size , position, connection Electric wire size, fuses Engine bed rigidity and flatness, frame rigidity DYNAMIC CHECK OF THE APPLICATION...
AIR CLEANER TYPES OF HONDA STANDARD AIRCLEANERS Semi-dry Oil bath Dual Silent Cyclone Excessive dust, fine Excessive dust Excessive dust Excessive dust No excessive dust dust Noise reduction Extension of Not suitable for maintenance inclined operation Leads to reduced power if...
AIR CLEANER The cyclone aircleaner is composed of a primary cyclone aircleaner and dual element aircleaner. Dual element air cleaner Air guide Air guide fins ENGINES WITH CYCLONE AIRCLEANER ARE EQUIPPED WITH INTERNALLY VENTED CARBURETTOR Air intake port Discharge port Primary air cleaner Internal vent port Function:...
MODIFICATIONS TO THE AIR CLEANER ASSEMBLY: QUALITY STANDARDS AND TESTS The Honda genuine air cleaner element is guaranteed to offer the prescribed cleaning efficiency for its full service life. When altering the standard air cleaner system, some important quality tests have to be performed.
FUEL SYSTEM CARBURETTOR OPERATION Choke operation With the choke valve closed and throttle valve open, vacuum in the carburetor venturi is high. Fuel is drawn up through the pilot jet and mixed with air from the pilot air jet; this fuel/air mixture passes through the idle port and bypass port.
FUEL SYSTEM JETTING At high altitudes, the air is less dense and the standard carburetor main jet will produce an excessively rich air-fuel mixture. Performance will decrease and fuel consumption will increase as a result. High altitude performance can be improved by installing a smaller diameter main jet. With suitable carburetor jetting, engine horsepower will decrease approximately 10% for each 1000-meter increase in altitude.
FUEL SYSTEM FUEL CONSUMPTION Specific fuel consumption is generally expressed in g/kWh. Specific fuel consumption of engines can be compared by this numerical value even if the horsepower or displacement is different. A fuel consumption of 313g/kW.h indicates that 313 grams of fuel are consumed per one kilowatt in one hour. Sample calculation: Fuel consumption when GX160 rated output is 2.8 kW / 2600 min As shown in the following graph, the fuel required for one hour of operation at 2600 min...
FUEL SYSTEM FUEL SUPPLY FUEL TANK POSITION Max. The fuel from the fuel tank flows through the float 500 mm needle valve into the carburetor’s float chamber. Gravity feed To assure a correct operation of the float needle valve (opening / closing pressure), the maximum level difference between a separately mounted fuel tank and the carburetor float level should be kept within 150 to 500mm.
FUEL SYSTEM PROPANE FUELED ENGINES Propane is a by-product of the petroleum refining process. It is an extremely clean burning and relatively efficient fuel. Because of this, it can be used in engines operated in well ventilated indoor areas. But, propane isn’t without its disadvantages: it causes engines to run at higher operating temperatures it reduces lubrication to the valve guide area because it is a dry gas, not a liquid it reduces the engines power output: the calorific value of propane is higher than that of gasoline,...
Butane freezes at 0°C and therefore can not be used where the supply tank is subjected to temperatures below the freezing point. For this reason, plus the fact that the system recommended for Honda engines are “vapor” systems, we recommend primarily propane gas to be used in Honda engines.
FUEL SYSTEM MATCHING AND INSTALLATION RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PROPANE ENGINES • Engine stops at high engine speed should be avoided, it can cause afterburn because of higher engine operating temperature. First lower the engine speed before stopping the engine. • Cooling is critical for propane engines. Install the engine so that the sufficient volume of cooling air can be drawn in under the normal operation conditions.
POWER OUTPUT POWER Power (P) is the amount of work done in a certain period of time. Is expressed in Watts : 1W = 1 N (ewton) x m (eter) / s (ec) 1kW = 1000 W The old unit is HP (Horse Power) 1 horsepower (HP) is the power required to raise a 75 kg weight to a height of 1 meter in 1 second.
POWER OUTPUT PERFORMANCE CURVES A: Maximum torque curve B: Maximum B.H.P. curve C: Recommended operating max. B.H.P. D: Recommended output range E: Recommended minimum output curve G: Recommended operating speed range H: Continuous rated output Power curves are of standard test engines. Power output will decrease 3.5 % for each 300m elevation increase above sea level and decrease 1 % for each 5.6°C increase above the standard temperature of 15.6°C.
POWER OUTPUT PERFORMANCE TESTS • SAE in USA Performance tests are conducted according to SAE standard measured at carburetor entrance. Nr. J607a : Temperature : 16 °C Pressure : 760 mmHg Humidity : 0 % Note The SAE standard SAE J607a has been replaced by SAE J1349 and later by SAE J1995 SAE J607a and SAE J1349 treat NET power, where as SAE J1995 mentions GROSS power.
Three types of governor systems are commonly used: centrifugal, air-vane or electric governor. Honda general purpose engines use a centrifugal governor system. At a certain engine speed setting (by the control lever) there is a balance between the governor spring force and the centrifugal force of the governor weights exerted on the governor arm.
POWER OUTPUT GOVERNOR PERFORMANCE The governor is usually associated with controlling the engine speed, but it also effects the available power output of the engine. For this reason, the effect of the governor control must also be considered in the application of the engine. Wide open throttle: Close power curve...
An indication on required power output when the engine is loaded is given by the engine speed drop calculation. Honda’s standard for speed drop is 5% for high speed applications and up to 8% for low speed applications. Exceeding this 5% or 8% speed drop will extend into the maximum up to the wide open throtttle power range.
POWER OUTPUT OUTPUT CONFIRMATION METHOD True power output of an engine should be measured on a power bench; a simplified power measurement method on the application is introduced here. Governor rod Rated Control lever Governor arm NOTE For some engine types, the governor arm movement is opposite Procedure Initially, adjust the engine speed to the maximum required speed without load and block the throttle lever in this position.
POWER OUTPUT DIESEL ENGINE POWER OUTPUT Determine power output by checking exhaust gas temperature and/or specific fuel consumption at the specified engine speed. Power output can be approximately determined by comparing the measured data with the data given for the specific model, type and operating speed range.
FASTENERS - MATERIAL ROLLING ELEMENT BEARINGS Rolling element bearings are classified by design features and usage. 1. Direction of the predominant load 2. The rolling element 3. Design feature - radial bearings - ball - angular movement - thrust bearings - roller - angular misalignment BEARING CLEARANCE...
VIBRATION 5 Vibrations and sounds are transmitted in basically the same way. VIBRATION SYSTEM Vibrating Resonance Transmission Vibrator Vibration of force system system (sound generator) The vibration system is a general term for all components that should be considered when troubleshooting and preventing vibrations and sounds.
VIBRATION NATURAL FREQUENCY The frequency of a vibration system (spring + weight) is determined by the strength of the spring and the weight. This frequency is unique to that particular Time vibration system and is called a natural frequency. The stronger the spring, the higher the natural frequency.
VIBRATION VIBRATION ACCELERATION Acceleration means an amount of change in velocity within a specific period of time (cm/s², m/s²). “G” is a unit of vibration acceleration based on gravitational acceleration. 980 cm/s² = 9.8 m/s² = 1G INDICATION CHARACTERISTICS OF VIBRATION METERS A vibration is expressed by the amplitude, vibration speed and vibration acceleration.
VIBRATION FREQUENCY PICK-UP Many different kinds of pick-ups are available, although only two types: the electrokinetic (velocity type) pick-up and the piezoelectric (acceleration type) pick-up are most commonly used because of their outstanding ease of use and stability. The piezoelectric pick-up is most commonly used for measuring vibration acceleration of automobiles and engines. Important notes to remember: •...
VIBRATION Allowable G value for GX(V) / GC(V) engines Engine direction Allowable G value: EQ Peak Allowable G value: RMS GX 120 – 390 vertical longitudinal lateral GX 100 standard vertical longitudinal lateral GX 100 tamper type GXH 50 GXV 50 – 390 GX(V) 610 / 620 / 670 GCV 520/530 GXV 520/530...
VIBRATION VIBRATION ISOLATING TECHNIQUES Rigid mount engine bed In case the engine is mounted on a solid frame or engine base following point should be considered. the dimensions (length and width) of the engine base / frame should be as small as possible to avoid vibration amplification the thickness of the engine bed should be kept to a minimum of 6 mm to avoid bending by weight or belt tension.
VIBRATION MOUNTING ARRANGEMENTS WHEN THE BELT POWER TAKE-OFF IS ACROSS THE MOUNTING SYSTEM HORIZONTAL BELT PULL Rear isolator Front isolator Rear isolator VERTICAL BELT PULL Front isolator Rear isolator Install the engine so that there is no resonance when the engine speed is within the working speed range. Raise the engine speed slowly and be sure that the resonance does not increase abnormally at a given engine speed.
NOISE NOISE An important point in making the evaluation of the OEM product and meeting with the users satisfaction is the low noise level of the equipment. The extent of noise is influenced by the design of the OEM product and is closely related to vibration and resonance vibration.
NOISE METHODS OF MEASURING SOUNDS The sensitivity of the human hearing sense varies by the frequency. For this reason, a sound level meter has switches for selecting frequency compensation characteristics patterns (A, B, C, F) so that sensitivity to sounds may be varied freely.
NOISE SOUND POWER LEVEL: L According to EC regulations, sound level of machines for outdoor use is expressed as sound power level L dB(A). + 10 log S + K = sound power level of the source tested in dB(A) = the surface sound pressure level, expressed in dB(A) : logaritmic average of a minimum of 6 measurements.
NOISE LOCATION AND NUMBER OF MEASURING POINTS In the hemispherical measuring surface, there shall be in principle 12 measuring points (a minimum of 6 points) with the following coordinates: x = (x / r) r y = (y / r) r z = (z / r) r The values x/r, y/r, z/r and z are given in the table below : x / r...
NOISE NOISE DAMPING PRINCIPLES Basically, mufflers are divided into two types according to two physical principles: reflection and absorption. However, standard mufflers mostly comprise a combination of reflection and absorption. Reflection mufflers Consist of chambers of varying length which are connected together by pipes. The differences in cross-sections of the pipes and the chambers, the diversion of the exhaust gasses and the resonators formed by the connecting pipes with the chambers produce muffling which is particularly effective at low frequencies.
EXHAUST SYSTEM EXHAUST SYSTEM Engines are equipped originally with the most appropriately designed exhaust muffler. In some applications however, changes to the exhaust pipes and muffler are necessary to cope with limited build-in space or noise restrictions. If the standard exhaust system of an engine is modified, exhaust gas flow resistance (backpressure) usually increases and engine performance is reduced.
EXHAUST SYSTEM EXHAUST BACKPRESSURE MEASUREMENT Test nipple Inside diameter 4mm Tube length > 150mm Test condition • Full load condition • Oil temperature 80 – 100°C • Measurement time 20 s. • Tools: manometer with scale: mmAq or mmHg !! In case the muffler is equipped with spark arrester, measurement must be done with spark arrester included !! Cylinder head exhaust port Exhaust pipe...
EMISSION PRODUCTS OF COMBUSTION An ideal combustion engine would burn its fuel completely. The combustion by-products (exhaust gas) of this theoretical ideal engine would be carbon dioxide (CO ) and water vapour (H In a real internal combustion engine, when the flame front set off by the spark hits the relatively cool cylinder walls, some of the fuel is quenched and incomplete combustion results.
EMISSION Oxygen (O measured as a percentage of the exhaust gas - %, indicates the accuracy of the carburetor setting. If the oxygen content is measured as the pilot screw is adjusted, a jump in the reading of at least 0.5 % shows the crossover point from rich to lean.
EMISSION 5 ENGINE DESIGN – EMISSION The concentration of the pollutants: hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO) and oxides of nitrogen (NO expelled by the engine; are dependent to a great extent on the excess-air factor lambda ( λ ) which is the air/fuel ratio at which the engine is being operated.
EMISSION In the side valve cylinder head design, the clearance between part of the cylinder head and piston at the end of the compression stroke is very small. This forms an area of “squish”, from which gas is ejected into the main chamber. The turbulence that this jet generates ensures rapid combustion.
EMISSION Currently most engines have a compression ratio of about 9 : 1, for which a side valve geometry would be unsuitable. Overhead valve (OHV) engines have a better combustion chamber for these higher compression ratios. If the camshaft is mounted in the crankcase, the valves are operated by push rods and rocker arms. A more direct alternative is to mount the camshaft in the cylinder head (OHC –...
EMISSION Wedge chamber Hemispherical chamber Bowl in piston chamber Bath-tub chamber WEDGE COMBUSTION CHAMBER This is a simple chamber that produces good results. The valve drive train is easy to install, but the inlet and exhaust manifold have to be on the same side of the cylinder head. HEMISPHERICAL CHAMBER This chamber has been popular for a long time in high-performance engines since it permits the use of larger valves.
Any modification to these systems changes intake pressure or exhaust backpressure and affects the exhaust emission values of the engine. Any alteration to the standard aircleaner system or exhaust system has to be tested and approved by Honda. CARB /EPA EMISSION REGULATION...
The “Air Index Tag” is attached on the high tension cord of the engine. The “Emission control label” is on the fan cover of the engine. Only the Honda factory is authorized to install this label at the time of production. Air Index Tag...
EMISSION EU (European Community) Emission regulation BASIC CONCEPT OF 2002/88/EC Ø The regulation is based on Industry demand (1998) to conform with existing US EPA emission regulations Ø A two stage approach will be applied: Stage 1 in 2004 and Stage 2 foreseen for 2008 Ø...
IGNITION IGNITION TIMING As there is a time lag between the spark plug sparking , the mixture igniting and the mixture exploding in the combustion chamber - dead commonly expressed as flame travel speed – center the spark plug must be timed to spark before the piston reaches the Top Dead Center (TDC).
IGNITION SYMBOLS USED ON NGK SPARK PLUGS - 51 -...
OIL / LUBRICATION FUNCTION OF OIL Ø REDUCES FRICTION Ø DISTRIBUTES FORCE As the load on ball bearings, roller bearings, chains, etc. is on a point or across a surface, a large force is applied to the contact point. Oil enlarges the area to which the force is applied and distributes force to prevent concentration at one point.
OIL / LUBRICATION SAE VISCOSITY GRADE Oils are classified in accordance with SAE (American Society of Automotive Engineers) standards. The relationship with ambient temperature is shown in the table below. (A higher number corresponds to a higher viscosity) Select the correct type of engine oil, conform with the engine temperature operating conditions.
Recommended oil level Steeper operating angles are permitted , if Level at which oil checked by an application test and approved alert is activated by Honda. - 54 -...
FRIGID CLIMATE USE ( below –15 °C ) For use in temperature below –15 °C, matching of the engine and application is necessary; consult Honda for instructions. If the engine is used at extremely cold temperatures below the normal operating temperature range, resistance due to the increased engine oil viscosity will cause hard starting.
TEMPERATURE TEMPERATURE MEASURING METHOD • Use “Type K” thermocouples and a handy type temperature gauge with 6 channel input selection capability. • Engine speed during temperature measurement should be within the recommended operating range and temperatures should be measured under the assumed load condition most commonly used by customers. •...
TEMPERATURE EXHAUST GAS TEMPERATURE Exhaust manifold Cylinder Drill a hole in the exhaust pipe as near to the cylinder head side head as possible. Insert the thermocouple probe so Thermocouple it extends to the exhaust port/exhaust pipe gasket area. Ensure the probe does not contact the inner surface of the manifold/port as this will alter the measurement result.
TEMPERATURE GD 320 / 321 / 410 / 411 Maximum temperature (converted) Engine oil temperature 120 °C Fuel inside fuel tank temperature 60 °C Exhaust gas temperature Within recommended operating range (see performance curves) GD 1100 / 1250 Cooling water temperature (at engine discharge) 2600 rpm type Under 105 °C 3000 rpm type Under 100 °C...
TEMPERATURE ROTATING SCREEN GRID The engine may overheat due to a drop in cooling efficiency caused by: Screen grid • clogging of the cooling air inlet of the recoil starter housing by straw, grass clipping (lawn and grass cutting) and other debris. •...
TEMPERATURE COOLING AIR INTAKE The engine must be provided with a cooling duct so that fresh air can be drawn directly from outside the enclosure cover; preventing that cooling air is mixed with the hot air inside the engine enclosure. Install the cooling air duct with the intake port in a place free from dust and dirt.
To verify that an engine installation provides satisfactory cooling, it requires a careful test program under the most realistic, severe operating conditions. Be sure that the engine meets all temperature requirements as stated in the Honda standards. - 61 -...
ELECTRICS LAMP COILS 4 types of lamp coils are available; connecting these coils in series or parallel will double the output voltage or output power. Lamp coils are used to feed appliances, not needing a regulated voltage such as light-bulbs. Special care should be taken to the engine speed because this will influence directly the lamp coil’s output voltage and power.
ELECTRICS CHARGE COIL POWER CONSUMPTION AND PERFORMANCE 18A charging coil : engine power loss The charge coil and lamp coil performance is directly related to the engine operating speed. When making a coil selection for a certain application, verify the engine’s operating speed range in this application. 18A charging coil : performance curve Calculate the engine power loss from the charge coils and lamp coils when making an engine power selection.
ELECTRICS ELECTRIC STARTER MOTOR On engines equipped with electric starter motor and directly coupled to an application (direct drive, belt drive, chain drive, etc…), the load on the starter motor should be checked. If the starter motor current is too high, a provision should be made for unloading the engine when starting. For example : centrifugal clutch, belt tensioner.
POWER TRANSMISSION STANDARD REDUCTION UNITS R-TYPE ½ reduction with centrifugal clutch Clutch engagement at 1800 min-1 Clutch lock at 2200 min-1 L-TYPE ½ reduction with chain-sprocket H-TYPE 1/6 reduction with planetary gear - 67 -...
POWER TRANSMISSION STANDARD OUTPUT SHAFTS S: straight (mm) L: straight (mm) Metric standard type ½ reduction type for applications with low Used for power transmission rotational speed through pulley, centrifugal clutch and direct coupling Q: straight (inch) H: straight (inch) Imperial standard type 1/6 reduction type for Used for power transmission...
POWER TRANSMISSION POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS The power transmissions between the engine output shaft and the application can be classified into three types: Direct drive - direct shaft coupling as used on generator, pump. Belt drive - as used on plate compactor, compressor. Other drive –...
POWER TRANSMISSION BELT DRIVE SYSTEMS Pulley allignment Angular misalignment Parallel misalignment Calculation of pulley ratio • Check the operating speed of the equipment • Determine the recommended operating speed of the engine • Determine the minimum diameter of the smallest pulley (see minimum pulley diameter-belt type) •...
POWER TRANSMISSION Minimum pulley diameter – belt type Small pulley diameters increase the bending stress on the V-belt, have a limited contact area between belt and pulley and therefore reduce the transmission efficiency and durability. Minimum diameter pulleys should be avoided as much as possible. •...
POWER TRANSMISSION CALCULATION OF BELT SPEED Belt speed (m/s) = Π x (small pulley diameter mm) x (small pulley rpm) 60 x 1000 Ideally, V-belt speed should be approximately 15 m/s to 20 m/s. Power transmission efficiency drops when V-belt speed is over 22 m/s. V-belt speed should not exceed 30 m/s.
POWER TRANSMISSION POWER CORRECTION FACTORS FOR V-BELT DRIVES The table below gives the power multiplication factors for different kinds of applications and running periods. The procedure is to multiply the actual power which has to be transmitted by the correction factor and to determine the belt size according to this corrected power.
POWER TRANSMISSION BELT DRIVE: CALCULATION OF RADIAL LOAD The radial load on the engine crankshaft on belt drive systems is composed of: the static radial load determined by the belt tension (see page 72) the dynamic radial load determined by the engine torque and the diameter of the engine pulley The smaller the pulley diameter on the engine’s crankshaft, the higher is the radial load.
POWER TRANSMISSION DIRECT DRIVE SYSTEMS • Use a flexible coupling on the drive shaft when the attachment is very heavy, heavily pulsating or when the alignment is not precise. Flexible coupling • Timing of attachment power cycle to engine power cycle In applications where a single cylinder engine is directly coupled to a multi-cylinder, pulsating application (multi- cylinder compressor, waterpump, hydraulic pump), it is important to synchronize the power cycle of the engine (combustion stroke) with the power cycle of the application (high pressure, maximum delivery reached).
INERTIA INERTIA Inertia is that property of matter, which causes a resistance to any change in the motion or velocity of a body. The present consideration of inertia relates to changes in the rotational speed of the engine, caused by the flywheel and the rotating members directly attached to the engine crankshaft.
INERTIA INERTIA OF ROTATING MEMBERS Some standard formulas are available for determining the rotational inertia or m r² of less complex shapes. The “m r² “ formula can be used to determine the approximate rotational inertia of flywheels, pulleys, gears, etc. Solid cylinder or disc Ring or thin-walled Ic = 1/12 mr²...
INERTIA The single cylinder engine has unique characteristics that must be considered in the power output, power transmission and vibration. The illustration shows the typical cyclical speed variation of a single cylinder engine. The horizontal line marked as “ Crankshaft rpm” is the average engine speed, such as you would read on a typical tachometer with normal damped response.
APPLICATION POWER CALCULATION Use the following formulas to calculate the approximate maximum horsepower of the engine to drive a given application. COMPRESSOR Air displacement (l/min) x maximum pressure (bar) = Max. engine power (HP) GENERATOR Max. power output alternator (kVA) x 1.34 = Max. continuous engine power (HP) = Max. engine power (HP) Alternator efficiency 0.8 0.85 CENTRIFUGAL WATER PUMP...
Conversion table: engine mechanical power to generator electrical power Maximum Generator output (VA) (1) Engine model Max. engine Max. governored alternator efficiency (2) Power (W) engine power (W) 0.70 0.80 (95%) (85%) (*80%) G100K2 1380 1170 G150K1 2380 2020 1410 1620 G200K1 3230 2750 1920...