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D-Link DES-3326S User Manual

Layer 3 switch
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DES-3326S
Layer 3 Switch
User's Guide
First Edition (June, 2001)
651E3326S015
Printed In Taiwan
RECYCLABLE

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  Summary of Contents for D-Link DES-3326S

  • Page 1 DES-3326S Layer 3 Switch User’s Guide First Edition (June, 2001) 651E3326S015 Printed In Taiwan RECYCLABLE...
  • Page 2: Wichtige Sicherheitshinweise

    Wichtige Sicherheitshinweise Bitte lesen Sie sich diese Hinweise sorgfältig durch. Heben Sie diese Anleitung für den spätern Gebrauch auf. Vor jedem Reinigen ist das Gerät vom Stromnetz zu trennen. Vervenden Sie keine Flüssig- oder Aerosolreiniger. Am besten dient ein angefeuchtetes Tuch zur Reinigung. Um eine Beschädigung des Gerätes zu vermeiden sollten Sie nur Zubehörteile verwenden, die vom Hersteller zugelassen sind.
  • Page 3 18. Zum Netzanschluß dieses Gerätes ist eine geprüfte Leitung zu verwenden, Für einen Nennstrom bis 6A und einem Gerätegewicht grőßer 3kg ist eine Leitung nicht leichter als H05VV-F, 3G, 0.75mm2 einzusetzen.
  • Page 4: Limitation Of Liability

    This Warranty applies on the condition that the product Registration Card is filled out and returned to a D-Link office within ninety (90) days of purchase. A list of D-Link offices is provided at the back of this manual, together with a copy of the Registration Card.
  • Page 5 Any package returned to D-Link without an RMA number will be rejected and shipped back to Purchaser at Purchaser's expense, and D-Link reserves the right in such a case to levy a reasonable handling charge in addition mailing or shipping costs.
  • Page 6 D-Link's applicable product documentation, will be corrected.
  • Page 7: Copyright Statement

    The product's Registration Card, provided at the back of this manual, must be sent to a D-Link office. To obtain an RMA number for warranty service as to a hardware product, or to obtain warranty service as to a software product, contact the D-Link office nearest you.
  • Page 8: Fcc Warning

    FCC Warning This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference when the equipment is operated in a commercial environment.
  • Page 9: Table Of Contents

    Introduction ... 13 Layer 3 Switching ... 13 The Functions of a Layer 3 Switch... 15 Features ... 16 Ports ... 16 Performance Features... 16 Layer 2 Features ... 16 Layer 3 Switch Features... 18 Traffic Classification and Prioritization ... 19 Management ...
  • Page 10 Switch LED Indicators ... 37 Stacking Module LED Indicators... 37 Connecting The Switch... 39 Switch to End Node ... 39 Switch to Hub or Switch ... 40 Switch Stack Connections ... 41 10BASE-T Device ... 42 100BASE-TX Device ... 43 Switch Management and Operating Concepts ...
  • Page 11 Assigning IP Network Addresses and Subnet Masks to VLANs ... 170 Defining Static Routes... 171 Getting Started ... 171 Management... 171 Configuring the Switch ... 172 User Accounts Management... 172 Saving Changes ... 175 Factory Reset... 177 USING WEB-BASED MANAGEMENT ... 178 Advanced Setup...
  • Page 12 Identifying a Data Loop ... 335 Avoiding Trouble ... 335 Brief Review of Bitwise Logical Operations... 342 Index... 344...
  • Page 13: Introduction

    ASIC – in hardware instead of software. Where a traditional router would have one, or at best a few, Fast Ethernet ports, the DES-3326S Layer 3 switch has 24 Fast Ethernet ports and optionally, 2 Gigabit Ethernet ports.
  • Page 14 Ethernet port to connect to a separate device, which in turn, connects the network to a WAN or the Internet. The DES-3326S can be thought of as 24 Fast Ethernet Layer 2 switching domains with a wire-speed router between each domain.
  • Page 15: The Functions Of A Layer 3 Switch

    A Layer 3 switch can be placed anywhere within a network core or backbone, easily and cost-effectively replacing the traditional collapsed backbone router. The DES-3326S Layer 3 switch communicates with a WAN router using a standard Ethernet/Fast Ethernet port. Multiple DES-3326S switches can be linked via the optional, 2-port Gigabit Ethernet module.
  • Page 16: Features

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Features The DES-3326S Switch was designed for easy installation and high performance in an environment where traffic on the network and the number of users increase continuously. Switch features include: Ports •...
  • Page 17 Data forwarding rate 148,800 pps per port at 100% of wire-speed for 100Mbps speed. • Data filtering rate eliminates all error packets, runts, etc. at 14,880 pps per port at 100% of wire-speed for 10Mbps speed. DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide...
  • Page 18: Layer 3 Switch Features

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide • Data filtering rate eliminates all error packets, runts, etc. at 148,800 pps per port at 100% of wire-speed for 100Mbps speed. • 8K active MAC address entry table per device with automatic learning and aging (10 to 9999 seconds).
  • Page 19: Traffic Classification And Prioritization

    4 priority queues Management • RS-232 console management via a console terminal or PC. • Spanning Tree Algorithm Protocol for creation of alternative backup paths and prevention of network loops. DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide port out-of-band network...
  • Page 20 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide • SNMP v.1 Agent. • Fully configurable either in-band or out-of-band control via SNMP based software. • Flash memory for software upgrades. This can be done in-band via TFTP or out-of-band via the console.
  • Page 21: Switch Stacking

    IEEE 802.3 LAN committee. It is an extension of the 10Mbps Ethernet standard with the ability to transmit and receive data at 100Mbps, while maintaining the Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Ethernet protocol. DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide...
  • Page 22: Gigabit Ethernet Technology

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Gigabit Ethernet Technology Gigabit Ethernet is an extension of IEEE 802.3 Ethernet utilizing the same packet structure, format, and support for CSMA/CD protocol, full duplex, flow control, and management objects, but with a tenfold increase in theoretical throughput over 100Mbps Fast Ethernet and a one hundred-fold increase over 10Mbps Ethernet.
  • Page 23: Unpacking And Setup

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide NPACKING AND ETUP This chapter provides unpacking and setup information for the Switch. Unpacking Open the shipping carton of the Switch and carefully unpack its contents. The carton should contain the following items: ♦...
  • Page 24: Installation

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Installation Use the following guidelines when choosing a place to install the Switch: ♦ The surface must support at least 3 kg. ♦ The power outlet should be within 1.82 meters (6 feet) of the device.
  • Page 25: Rack Installation

    Figure 2-1. Installing rubber feet for desktop installation Rack Installation The DES-3326S can be mounted in an EIA standard-sized, 19- inch rack, which can be placed in a wiring closet with other equipment. To install, attach the mounting brackets on the switch’s side panels (one on each side) and secure them with...
  • Page 26: Power On

    Figure 2-2B. Installing the switch on an equipment rack Power on The DES-3326S switch can be used with AC power supply 100-240 VAC, 50 - 60 Hz. The power switch is located at the rear of the unit adjacent to the AC power connector and the system fan.
  • Page 27: Power Failure

    ♦ The 100M LED indicator may remain ON or OFF depending on the transmission speed. Power Failure As a precaution in the event of a power failure, unplug the switch. When power is resumed, plug the switch back in. DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide...
  • Page 28: Identifying External Components

    DENTIFYING This chapter describes the front panel, rear panel, optional plug-in modules, and LED indicators of the DES-3326S. Front Panel The front panel of the Switch consists of LED indicators, an RS-232 communication port, a slide-in module slot, and 24 (10/100 Mbps) Ethernet/Fast Ethernet ports.
  • Page 29: Rear Panel

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide ♦ A front-panel slide-in module slot for Gigabit Ethernet ports can accommodate a 2-port 1000BASE-T Gigabit Ethernet module, Ethernet module, Ethernet module, or a 2-port GBIC-based Gigabit Ethernet module. ♦ Twenty-four high-performance, NWay Ethernet ports all...
  • Page 30: Side Panels

    Optional Plug-in Modules The DES-3326S 24-port Fast Ethernet Layer 3 Switch is able to accommodate a range of optional plug-in modules in order to increase functionality and performance. These modules must be purchased separately.
  • Page 31: 100Base-Fx Fiber Module (2Km/15Km)

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide 100BASE-FX Fiber Module (2Km/15Km) Figure 3-5. 100BASE-FX two-port module ♦ Front-panel module. ♦ Two 100BASE-FX (with SC type connector) Fiber ports. ♦ Fully compliant with IEEE802.3u. ♦ Support Full-duplex operation only. ♦ IEEE 802.3x compliant Flow Control support for full-duplex.
  • Page 32: 1000Base-Sx Fiber Module

    ♦ Connects to 1000BASE-SX devices at full-duplex. ♦ Allows connections using multi-mode fiber optic cable in the following configurations: Modal bandwidth (min. overfilled launch) Unit: MHz*km Operating distance Unit: meters DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide 62.5µm 62.5µm Identifying External Components 50µm 50µm...
  • Page 33: 1000Base-Lx Fiber Module

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Channel insertion loss Unit: dB 1000BASE-LX Fiber Module Figure 3-8. 1000BASE-LX two-port module ♦ Front-panel module. ♦ Connects to 1000BASE-LX devices at full-duplex. ♦ Supports multi-mode fiber-optic cable connections of up to meters connections.
  • Page 34: Gbic Two-Port Module

    5 km (LX only). GBIC modules are available in –SX and –LX fiber optic media. ♦ IEEE 802.3x compliant Flow Control for full-duplex. Stacking Module with GBIC Port Figure 3-10. Stacking Module with one GBIC port DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Identifying External Components...
  • Page 35 ♦ 7-segment LED display to indicate switch ID number within the switch stack. The optional Stacking Module allows up to 6 DES-3326S Switches to be interconnected via their individual Stacking Modules. This forms a 6 switch stack that can then be managed and configured as thought the entire stack were a single switch.
  • Page 36 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Figure 3-11. Up to 6 Switches in a Switch Stack The stacking ports are marked IN and OUT. The IEEE 1394 compliant cable must be connected from an IN port on one switch to an OUT port on the next switch in the stack.
  • Page 37: Switch Led Indicators

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Switch LED Indicators The LED indicators of the Switch include Power, Console, and Link/Act. The following shows the LED indicators for the Switch along with an explanation of each indicator. Figure 3-12. The LED Indicators ♦...
  • Page 38 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Figure 3-13. Stacking Module LED Indicators The Link and Act LEDs have the same function as the corresponding LEDs for the switch’s Ethernet ports. The Link LED lights to confirm a valid link, while the ACT LED blinks to indicate activity on the link.
  • Page 39: Connecting The Switch

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide ONNECTING WITCH This chapter describes how to connect the DES 3226 to your Fast Ethernet network. Switch to End Node End nodes include PCs outfitted with a 10, 100 or 10/100 Mbps RJ-45 Ethernet/Fast Ethernet Network Interface Card (NIC) and most routers.
  • Page 40: Switch To Hub Or Switch

    Switch via a two-pair Category 3, 4 or 5 UTP/STP cable. ♦ A 100BASE-TX hub or switch can be connected to the Switch via a two-pair Category 5e UTP/STP cable. DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Connecting The Switch...
  • Page 41: Switch Stack Connections

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Switch Stack Connections Up to 6 DES-3326S switches can be stacked, using the optional stacking module, into a switch stack that can then be configured and managed as a single unit. The Web-based Management agent of the Master Switch can configure and manage all of the switches in a switch stack −...
  • Page 42: 10Base-T Device

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Figure 4-. Switch Stack connections between optional stacking modules 10BASE-T Device For a 10BASE-T device, the Switch’s LED indicators should display the following: ♦ 100 LED speed indicator is OFF. ♦ Link/Act indicator is ON.
  • Page 43: 100Base-Tx Device

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide 100BASE-TX Device For a 100BASE-TX device, the Switch’s LED indicators should display the following: ♦ 100 LED speed indicator is ON. ♦ Link/Act is ON. Connecting The Switch...
  • Page 44: Switch Management And Operating Concepts

    So, the console can be used to set up and manage the switch even if the network is down. DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide ANAGEMENT PERATING...
  • Page 45: Diagnostic (Console) Port (Rs-232 Dce)

    6 – Using the Console Interface). A network administrator can manage, control and monitor the switch from the console program. The DES-3326S contains a CPU, memory for data storage, flash memory for configuration data, operational programs, and SNMP agent firmware. These components allow the switch to be actively managed and monitored from either the console port or the network itself (out-of-band, or in-band).
  • Page 46: Managing Switch Stacks

    If a new Master is elected, all Switches in the stack must rebooted. This includes situations where the new Master is determined by MAC address, for example, if the original Master is removed from the stack. DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Switch Management and Operating Concepts...
  • Page 47 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide • The Master Switch can be chosen automatically. Switch software auto-detects the MAC address of each Switch in the stack. The Switch with the lowest value MAC address is elected to function as the Master. The...
  • Page 48 After reconfiguration and restarting the Switches, the new stack order becomes: Stack Order 1(original Master) 6 (added Switch) Table 5-3. Switch Stack Order − Final DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide MAC Address 001122334450 001122334451 001122334452 001122334453 001122334454...
  • Page 49: Switch Ip Address

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Switch IP Address Each Switch must be assigned its own IP Address, which is used for communication with an SNMP network manager or other TCP/IP application (for example BOOTP, TFTP). switch’s default IP address is 10.90.90.90. You can change the default Switch IP Address to meet the specification of your networking address scheme.
  • Page 50: Traps

    Traps Traps are messages that alert you of events that occur on the Switch. The events can be as serious as a reboot (someone DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide commands config xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx/yyy.yyy.yyy.yyy. Switch Management and Operating Concepts...
  • Page 51 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide accidentally turned OFF the Switch), or less serious like a port status change. The Switch generates traps and sends them to the network manager (trap recipient). Trap recipients are special users of the network who are given certain rights and access in overseeing the maintenance of the network.
  • Page 52: Snmp

    DView. SNMP performs the following functions: DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide SNMP enables network Switch Management and Operating Concepts...
  • Page 53 • Modifying the configuration of network devices. The DES-3326S has a software program called an ‘agent’ that processes SNMP requests, but the user program that makes the requests and collects the responses runs on a management station (a designated computer on the network).
  • Page 54 Learning state to the Forwarding state, or from the Forwarding state to the Blocking state. The trap is not DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Up to four trap recipient IP This trap signifies that the...
  • Page 55: Mibs

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide sent if a new root trap is sent for the same transition. • Link Change Event whenever the link of a port changes from link up to link down or from link down to link up.
  • Page 56: Packet Forwarding

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Object-Identity (OID) at the network manager. MIB values can be either read-only or read-write. Read-only MIBs variables can be either constants that are programmed into the Switch, or variables that change while the Switch is in operation.
  • Page 57: Filtering

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide other ports. This process is referred to as ‘learning’ the network topology. MAC Address Aging Time The Aging Time affects the learning process of the Switch. Dynamic forwarding table entries, which are made up of the...
  • Page 58 IP address to another can be filtered from the network. The entry may specified as either a source, a destination, or both (switch must be in IP Routing mode). DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Packets sent from one manually Switch Management and Operating Concepts...
  • Page 59: Spanning Tree

    (at the time of a primary link failure) is also accomplished automatically – without operator intervention. The DES-3326S STP allows two levels of spanning trees to be configured. The first level constructs a spanning tree on the links between switches. This is referred to as the Switch or Global level.
  • Page 60 Port Priority A relative priority for each port – lower numbers give a higher priority and a greater DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide A combination of the User- set priority and the switch’s MAC address. The Bridge...
  • Page 61: Bridge Protocol Data Units

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide chance of a given port being elected as the root port Port Cost evaluate calculates selects the path with the minimum cost as the active path. Table 5-5. STP Parameters – Port Group Level...
  • Page 62: Creating A Stable Stp Topology

    The goal is to make the fastest link the root port. DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Switch Management and Operating Concepts This is the switch...
  • Page 63 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide STP Port States The BPDUs take some time to pass through a network. This propagation delay can result in topology changes where a port that transitioned directly from a Blocking state to a Forwarding state could create temporary data loops.
  • Page 64 From listening to learning or to disabled • From learning to forwarding or to disabled • From forwarding to disabled • From disabled to blocking Figure 5-2. STP Port State Transitions DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Switch Management and Operating Concepts...
  • Page 65 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide When STP is enabled, every port on every switch in the network goes through the blocking state and then transitions through the states of listening and learning at power up. If properly configured, each port stabilizes to the forwarding or blocking state.
  • Page 66 Port Cost A Port Cost can be set from 1 to 65535. The lower the number, the greater the probability the port will be chosen to forward packets. DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide The Forward Delay can be Switch Management and Operating Concepts...
  • Page 67: Illustration Of Stp

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Illustration of STP A simple illustration of three Bridges (or three switches) connected in a loop is depicted below. In this example, you can anticipate some major network problems if the STP assistance is not applied.
  • Page 68 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Figure 5-3. Before Applying the STA Rules In this example, only the default STP values are used. Switch Management and Operating Concepts...
  • Page 69 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Figure 5-4. After Applying the STA Rules The switch with the lowest Bridge ID (switch C) was elected the root bridge, and the ports were selected to give a high port cost between switches B and C.
  • Page 70: Link Aggregation

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Link Aggregation Link aggregation is used to combine a number of ports together make single high-bandwidth data pipeline. participating parts are called members of a link aggregation group, with one port designated as the master port of the group.
  • Page 71 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Figure 5-5. Link Aggregation Group Data transmitted to a specific host (destination address) will always be transmitted over the same port in a link aggregation group. This allows packets in a data stream to arrive in the same order they were sent.
  • Page 72: Vlans

    4. A VLAN that is not assigned an IP interface will behave as a layer 2 VLAN – and IP routing, by the switch, will not be possible to this VLAN regardless of the switch’s operating mode. DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide nodes single 802.1Q...
  • Page 73: Q Vlan Packet Forwarding

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide IEEE 802.1Q VLANs Some relevant terms: Tagging - The act of putting 802.1Q VLAN information into the header of a packet. Untagging - The act of stripping 802.1Q VLAN information out of the packet header.
  • Page 74 3 bits or user priority, 1 bit of Canonical Format Identifier (CFI – used for encapsulating Token Ring packets so they can be carried DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Switch Management and Operating Concepts The tag is...
  • Page 75 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide across Ethernet backbones) and 12 bits of VLAN ID (VID). The 3 bits of user priority are used by 802.1p. The VID is the VLAN identifier and is used by the 802.1Q standard. Because the VID is 12 bits long, 4094 unique VLANs can be identified.
  • Page 76 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Figure 5-8. Adding an IEEE 802.1Q Tag Port VLAN ID Packets that are tagged (are carrying the 802.1Q VID information) can be transmitted from one 802.1Q compliant network device to another with the VLAN information intact.
  • Page 77 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Within the switch, different PVIDs mean different VLANs. (remember that two VLANs cannot communicate without an external router). So, VLAN identification based upon the PVIDs cannot create VLANs that extend outside a given switch (or switch stack).
  • Page 78: Tagging And Untagging

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Tagging and Untagging Every port on an 802.1Q compliant switch can be configured as tagging or untagging. Ports with tagging enabled will put the VID number, priority and other VLAN information into the header of all packets that flow into and out of it.
  • Page 79 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide and the destination port transmits it to its attached network segment. If the packet is not tagged with VLAN information, the ingress port will tag the packet with its own PVID as a VID (if the port is a tagging port).
  • Page 80: Ip Addressing And Subnetting

    VLANs are based on layer 3 information, but this does not constitute a ‘routing’ function. The DES-3326S allows an IP subnet to be configured for each 802.1Q VLAN that exists on the switch. Even though a switch inspects a packet’s IP address to...
  • Page 81: Ip Addresses

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide • Subnet – a portion of a network sharing a particular network address. • Subnet mask – a 32-bit number used to describe which portion of a Network Address refers to the subnet and which portion refers to the host.
  • Page 82 Binary Octet Digit Decimal Equivalent Binary Number 128+64+32+16+8+4+2+1= Table 5-8. Binary to Decimal Conversion DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Switch Management and Operating Concepts (A bit is a binary 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255...
  • Page 83: Address Classes

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Each digit in an 8-bit binary number (an octet) represents a power of two. The left-most digit represents 2 raised to the 7 power (2x2x2x2x2x2x2=128) represents 2 raised to the 0 power is equal to one, by definition).
  • Page 84: Subnet Masking

    AND operation between the IP address and the subnet mask results in the Network Address. For example: 00001010.00101010.01001001.11010010 Class A IP address 11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000 Class A Subnet Mask 00001010.00000000.00000000.00000000 Network Address DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide NETWORK.node.node.node NETWORK.NETWORK.node.node NETWORK.NETWORK.NETWORK.node Switch Management and Operating Concepts 10.42.73.210 255.0.0.0 10.0.0.0...
  • Page 85: Calculating The Number Of Subnets And Nodes

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide The Default subnet masks are: • Class A – 11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000 • Class B – 11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000 • Class C – 1111111.11111111.11111111.00000000 Additional bits can be added to the default subnet mask for a given Class to further subnet a network.
  • Page 86 11 “1”s or 11 bits used to mask the network address from the node address. Written in CIDR notation this becomes: 10.32.0.0/11 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide above example Switch Management and Operating Concepts...
  • Page 87 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide # of Subnet Mask Bits 255.192.0.0 255.224.0.0 255.240.0.0 255.248.0.0 255.252.0.0 255.254.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.128.0 255.255.192.0 255.255.224.0 255.255.240.0 255.255.248.0 255.255.252.0 255.255.254.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.1 255.255.255.1 255.255.255.2 255.255.255.2 255.255.255.2 255.255.255.2 Table 5-9. Class A Subnet Masks...
  • Page 88 IP interfaces are set up on the switch. An example is presented below: VLAN Name System (default) Engineering Marketing Finance Sales DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide 1022 2046 4094 8190 16382 CIDR # of...
  • Page 89 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Backbone Table 5-12. VLAN Example – Assigned Ports In this case, 6 IP interfaces are required, so a CIDR notation of 10.32.0.0/11 (or a 11-bit) addressing scheme will work. This addressing scheme 11111111.11100000.00000000.00000000...
  • Page 90: Internet Protocols

    VLANs are based on layer 3 information, but this does not constitute a ‘routing’ function. The DES-3326S allows an IP subnet to be configured for each 802.1Q VLAN that exists on the switch. Even though a switch inspects a packet’s IP address to...
  • Page 91: Protocol Layering

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Protocol Layering The Internet Protocol (IP) divides the tasks necessary to route and forward packets across networks by using a layered approach. Each layer has clearly defined tasks, protocol, and interfaces for communicating with adjacent layers, but the exact way these tasks are accomplished is left to individual software designers.
  • Page 92 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide system or network, but must communicate and interoperate. This requires very well-defined and well-known methods for transferring messages and data. This is accomplished through the protocol stack. Protocol layering simply tool visualizing organization of the necessary software and hardware in a network.
  • Page 93 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Between two protocol stacks, members of the same layer are known as peers and communicate by well-known (open and published) protocols. Within a protocol stack, adjacent layers communicate by an internal interface. This interface is usually not publicly documented and is frequently proprietary.
  • Page 94 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Layer 2 switching forwards packets based on the unique MAC address of each end station and offers high-performance, dedicated-bandwidth of Fast or Gigibit Ethernet within the network. Layer 2 does not ordinarily extend beyond the intranet.
  • Page 95 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide communicating. TCP and UDP are well-known protocols in the transport layer. TCP is a “connection-oriented” protocol, and requires the establishment of parameters for transmission prior to the exchange of data. Web technology is based on TCP.
  • Page 96 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide TCP/IP is a layered set of protocols. An example, such as sending e-mail, can illustrate this. There is first a protocol for sending and receiving e-mail. This protocol defines a set of commands to identify the sender, the recipient, and the content of the e-mail.
  • Page 97: Packet Headers

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide The information required for IP to do its job is contained in a series of octets added to the beginning of the packet called headers. A header contains a few octets of data added to the packet by the protocol in order to keep track of it.
  • Page 98 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide The header also contains a sequence number that is used to ensure the packets are received in the correct order. packets are not numbered, but rather the octets the packets contain are. If there are 100 octets of data in each packet, the first packet is numbered 0, the second 100, the third 200, etc.
  • Page 99 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide The window field controls the amount of data being sent at any one time. It would require too much time and overhead to acknowledge each packet received. Each end of the TCP connection declares how much data it is able to receive at any one time by writing this number of octets in the window field.
  • Page 100 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Figure 5-11. IP Packet Header The flags and fragment offset are used to keep track of packets that must be divided among several smaller packets to cross networks for which they are too large.
  • Page 101 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide There is no relationship between the MAC address of a network node and its IP address. There must be a database of Ethernet addresses and their corresponding IP addresses. Different protocol families can be in use on the same network.
  • Page 102 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide TCP and UDP Well-Known Ports Application protocols run ‘on top of’ TCP/IP. When an application wants to send data or a message, it gives the data to TCP. Because TCP and IP take care of the networking details, the application can look at the network connection as a simple data stream.
  • Page 103 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide No two TCP connection can have the same set of numbers, but only one number needs to be different. example, for two users to send files to the same destination at the same time.
  • Page 104 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide the response are very short. There is no need to divide the query or response between multiple packets, so the complexity of TCP is not required. If there is no response to the query after a period of time, the query can simply be resent.
  • Page 105: The Domain Name System

    Internet and has been adapted for use within intranets. For two DNS servers to communicate across different subnets, the DNS Relay of the DES-3326S must be used. The DNS servers are identified by IP addresses. Mapping Domain Names to Addresses Name-to-address translation is performed by a program called a Name server.
  • Page 106: Dhcp Servers

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide entire name translation, or simply return the address of the next DNS server if the server receiving the query cannot resolve the name. When a DNS server receives a query, it checks to see if the name is in its subdomain.
  • Page 107: Ip Routing

    Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) request that contains its new IP address. For two DHCP servers to communicate across different subnets, the BOOTP/DHCP Relay of the DES-3326S must be used. The DHCP servers are identified by IP addresses. IP Routing IP handles the task of determining how packets will get from their source to their destination.
  • Page 108: Packet Fragmentation And Reassembly

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Gateways connect a network with one or more other networks. Gateways can be a computer with two network interfaces or a specialized device with multiple network interfaces. The device is designed to forward packets from one network to another.
  • Page 109: Arp

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide When IP is transmitting large files, large packets are much more efficient than small ones. It is preferable to use the largest possible packet size, but still be able to cross networks that require smaller packets.
  • Page 110: Multicasting

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide computer has an entry. If it does, the local computer reads the remote computer’s MAC address and writes it into the destination field of the packets to be sent. If the remote computer does not have an ARP cache entry, the local computer must send an ARP request and wait for a reply.
  • Page 111: Address Assignment

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) for special purposes. For example, the block of multicast addresses ranging from 224.0.0.1 to 224.0.0.225 is reserved for use by routing protocols and some other low-level topology discovery and maintenance protocols.
  • Page 112 ‘querier’. This router then keep track of the membership of multicast groups that have active members on the network. IGMP is used to determine whether DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Mobile Agents DHCP Servers and Relay Agents...
  • Page 113 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide the router should forward multicast packets it receives to the subnetworks it is attached to or not. A multicast router that has received a multicast packet will check to determine if there is at least one member of a multicast group that has requested to receive multicast packets from this source.
  • Page 114 The router with the lowest IP address is elected as the querier. The explicit group leave message is added to decrease latency, and routers can ask for membership reports from a particular multicast group ID. DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Switch Management and Operating Concepts...
  • Page 115: Multicast Routing Algorithms

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide The transition states a host will go through to join or leave a multicast group are shown in the diagram below. Figure 5-16. IGMP State Transitions Multicast Routing Algorithms An algorithm is not a program. An algorithm is a statement of how a problem can be solved.
  • Page 116: Multicast Spanning Trees

    (leads to a router) or not. Multicast spanning trees do not use group membership information when deciding to forward or drop a given multicast packet. DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Switch Management and Operating Concepts...
  • Page 117 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Reverse Path Broadcasting (RPB) Reverse Path Broadcasting (RPB) algorithm enhancement of the multicast spanning tree algorithm. RPB constructs a spanning tree for each multicast source. When the router receives a multicast packet, it then checks to determine if the packet was received on the shortest path back from the router to the source.
  • Page 118 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Reverse Path Multicasting (RPM) Reverse Path Multicasting (RPM) introduces an enhancement to RPB – an explicit method to prune branches of the spanning tree that have on active multicast group members for the source.
  • Page 119: Multicast Routing Protocols

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Multicast Routing Protocols This section contains an overview of two multicast routing protocols – Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol (DVMRP), and Protocol Independent Multicast-Dense Mode (PIM-DM). The most commonly used routing protocol (not a multicast routing protocol), the Routing Information Protocol, is discussed in a later section.
  • Page 120: Routing Protocols

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide other routers will discard multicast packets from that source. If two multicast routers on a network have the same distance back to a multicast source, the router with the lowest IP address is elected.
  • Page 121 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide distance (represented by the number of hops or routers between the advertising router and the remote network). So, the vector is the network address and the distance is measured by the number of routers between the local router and the remote network.
  • Page 122 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide RIP can also be slow to converge (to remove inconsistent, unreachable or looped routes from the routing table) because RIP messages propagate relatively slowly through a network. Slow convergence can be solved by using split horizon update, where a router does not propagate information about a route back to the interface on which it was received.
  • Page 123 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Figure 5-17. RIP v.1 Message Format Switch Management and Operating Concepts...
  • Page 124: Rip 1 Message

    Family of Source Network field (IP has a value of 2). This will determine how the address field is interpreted. RIP specifies that the IP address 0.0.0.0 denotes a default route. DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Meaning Switch Management and Operating Concepts...
  • Page 125 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide The distances, measured in router hops are entered in the Distance to Source Network, and Distance to Destination Network fields. RIP 1 Route Interpretation RIP was designed to be used with classed address schemes, and does not include an explicit subnet mask.
  • Page 126 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Figure 5-18. RIP Message Format RIP version 2 also adds a 16-bit route tag that is retained and sent with router updates. It can be used to identify the origin of the route.
  • Page 127 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide “state” is a description of that interface and its relationship to neighboring routers. The state contains information such as the IP address, subnet mask, type of network the interface is attached to, other routers attached to the network, etc. The collection of link-states are then collected in a link-state database that is maintained by routers running OSPF.
  • Page 128 Each router will then have its own Shortest Path Tree (from the perspective of its location in the network DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide information changes, advertisement −...
  • Page 129: Ospf Cost

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide area) even though every router in the area will have and use the exact same link-state database. The following sections describe the information used to build the Shortest Path Tree. OSPF Cost Each OSPF interface has an associated cost (also called “metric”) that is representative of the overhead required to send...
  • Page 130 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Figure 5-19. Constructing a Shortest Path Tree Switch Management and Operating Concepts...
  • Page 131 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Router A 128.213.0.0 Router B Router C 192.213.11.0 Router D 222.211.10.0 Figure 5-20. Constructing a Shortest Path Tree The diagram above shows the network from the viewpoint of Router A. Router A can reach 192.213.11.0 through Router B with a cost of 10+5=15.
  • Page 132 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Router A 128.213.0.0 Router B Router C 192.213.11.0 222.211.10.0 Figure 5-21. Constructing a Shortest Path Tree - Completed Note that this shortest path tree is only from the viewpoint of Router A. The cost of the link from Router B to Router A, for instance is not important to constructing Router A’s shortest...
  • Page 133 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide receive particular link-state updates are located. ensure that routing updates are not flooded throughout the entire network and to reduce the amount of bandwidth consumed by updating the various router’s routing tables.
  • Page 134 External link-state updates carry routing information to networks outside the Autonomous System. The Autonomous System Border Router is responsible for generating and distributing these updates. DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide System Border Switch Management and Operating Concepts...
  • Page 135: Ospf Authentication

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide OSPF Authentication OSPF packets can be authenticated as coming from trusted routers by the use of predefined passwords. The default for routers is to use not authentication. There are two other authentication methods − simple password authentication (key) and Message Digest authentication (MD-5).
  • Page 136: Virtual Links

    0s together using a logical path between each area 0. Virtual links can also be added for redundancy to protect against a router failure. A virtual link is DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Switch Management and Operating Concepts This is the...
  • Page 137 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide configured between two border routers that both have a connection to their respective area 0s. Neighbors Routers that are connected to the same area or segment become neighbors in that area. Neighbors are elected via the Hello protocol.
  • Page 138: Designated Router Election

    Building Adjacency Two routers undergo a multi-step process in building the adjacency relationship. description of the steps required: DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide OSPF requires these following Switch Management and Operating Concepts This limits the A priority of zero...
  • Page 139 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide • Down − No information has been received from any router on the segment. • Attempt networks (such as Frame Relay or X.25), this state indicates that no recent information has been received from the neighbor.
  • Page 140 Hello packet • Database Description packet • Link-State Request packet The Link-State Update packet • • Link-State Acknowledgment packet DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide − routers Routers have link-state that looks that sent will Switch Management and Operating Concepts...
  • Page 141 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide The OSPF Packet Header Every OSPF packet is preceded by a common 24 byte header. This header contains the information necessary for a receiving router to determine if the packet should be accepted for further processing.
  • Page 142 Packet Length Router ID Area ID Checksum Authentication Type Authentication DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Description Link-State Request Link-State Update Link-State Acknowledgment The length of the packet in bytes. includes header. The Router ID of the packet’s source.
  • Page 143 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide authentication scheme. Table 5-16. OSPF Packet Header The Hello Packet Hello packets are OSPF packet type 1. They are sent periodically on all interfaces, including virtual links, in order to establish and maintain neighbor relationships.
  • Page 144: Hello Interval

    Hello Packet Version No. Checksum Hello Interval Field Network Mask Options Hello Interval Router Priority DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Packet Length Router ID Area ID Auth entication Type Authentication Authentication Network Mask Optio Router Dead Interval...
  • Page 145 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Router Dead Interval Designated Router Backup Designated Router Neighbor Switch Management and Operating Concepts Priority. Priority is used in the election of the DR and BDR. If this field is set to...
  • Page 146 Database Description Packet Version No. Checksum Reserved I M MS Link-State Advertisement Heade Figure 5-24. Database Description Packet Field Options DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide acket Length Router ID Area ID thentication Type Authentication Authentication Reserved Options DD Sequence No.
  • Page 147 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide I – bit M – bit MS – bit DD Sequence Number Table 5-18. Database Description Packet The rest of the packet consists of a list of the topological database’s pieces. database is described by its link state advertisement header.
  • Page 148 Request packet itself. The router may receive even more recent instances in response. The format of the Link-State Request packet is shown below: Link-State Request Packet Version No. Checksum DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide cket Length Router ID Area ID thentication Type Authentication...
  • Page 149 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Figure 5-25. Link-State Request Packet Each advertisement requested is specified by its Link-State Type, Link-State ID, and Advertising Router. This uniquely identifies the advertisement, but not its instance. Link-State Request packets are understood to be requests for the most recent instance.
  • Page 150 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Link-State Update Packet cket Length Version No. Router ID Area ID Checksum thentication Type Authentication Authentication Number of Advertisemen Link-State Advertisement s ... Figure 5-26. Link-State Update Packet The body of the Link-State Update packet consists of a list of link-state advertisements.
  • Page 151 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide AllSPFRouters, to the multicast address AllDRouters, or as a unicast packet. The format of this packet is similar to that of the Data Description packet. The body of both packets is simply a list of link-state advertisement headers.
  • Page 152 The format of the Link State Advertisement Header is shown below: DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide originates Multiple instances of the link state Switch Management and Operating Concepts...
  • Page 153 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Link-State Advertisement Link-State Age Link-State Checksum Figure 5-28. Link-State Advertisement Header Field Link State Age Options Link State Type Switch Management and Operating Concepts Header Optio Link-State ID Advertising Router Link-State Sequence Numb...
  • Page 154 Link State ID Advertising Router Link State Sequence Number Link State Checksum DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide This field identifies the portion of the internet environment that is being described advertisement. contents depend advertisement’s State Type. The Router ID of the router that originated the Link State Advertisement.
  • Page 155 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Length Table 5-19. Link-State Advertisement Header Router Links Advertisements Router links advertisements advertisements. Each router in an area originates a routers links advertisement. and cost of the router’s links to the area. All of the router’s links to the area must be described in a single router links advertisement.
  • Page 156 Option field if and only if the router is able to calculate a separate set of routes for each IP Type of Service (TOS). Router links advertisements are flooded throughout a single area only. DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Optio Link-State ID Advertising Router...
  • Page 157 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Field V – bit E – bit B – bit Number of Links Table 5-20. Routers Links Advertisement The following fields are used to describe each router link. Each router link is typed. The Type field indicates the kind of link being described.
  • Page 158 Type Link ID DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide A quick classification of the router link. the following: Type Point-to-point connection another router. Connection transit network. Connection stub network. Virtual link. Identifies the object that this router link connects to.
  • Page 159 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Link Data No. of TOS Switch Management and Operating Concepts router’s Router ID. address Designated Router. network/subnet number. Neighboring router’s Router ID Contents again depend on the link’s Type field. For connections networks, it specifies the network’s...
  • Page 160 A transit network is a multi-access network that has more than one attached router. The network links advertisement is originated by the network’s Designated router. DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide given, should be set to 0. The cost of using this router link for TOS 0.
  • Page 161 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide attached to the network, including the Designated Router itself. The advertisement’s Link State ID field lists the IP interface address of the Designated Router. The distance form the network to all attached routers is zero, for all TOS.
  • Page 162 Other that the difference in the Link State ID field, the format of Type 3 and 4 link state advertisements is identical. Summary Link Advertisement Link-State Age Link-State Checksum DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide adjacent Designated Router (DR) listed. includes itself in this list.
  • Page 163 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Figure 5-31. Summary Link Advertisement For stub area, Type 3 summary link advertisements can also be used to describe a default route on a per-area basis. Default summary routes are used in stub area instead of flooding a complete set of external routes.
  • Page 164 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide advertisements. Table 5-24. Summary Link Advertisement Autonomous Systems External Link Advertisements Autonomous Systems (AS) link advertisements are Type 5 link state advertisements. These advertisements are originated by AS boundary routers. A separate advertisement is made for each destination known to the router, that is external to the AS.
  • Page 165 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide AS External Link Advertisem Link-State Age Link-State Checksum Figure 5-32. AS External Link Advertisement Field Network Mask E – bit Switch Management and Operating Concepts ents Optio Link-State ID Advertising Router Link-State Sequence Num...
  • Page 166 Forwarding Address Metric External Route Tag Table 5-25. AS External System Advertisement DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide metric. Data advertised destination will forwarded address. Forwarding Address is set to 0.0.0.0, data traffic will be forwarded instead to originator.
  • Page 167: Web-Based Switch Management

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Introduction The DES-3226 offers an embedded Web-based (HTML) interface allowing users to manage the switch from anywhere on the network through a standard browser such as Netscape Navigator/Communicator or Microsoft Internet Explorer. The Web browser acts as a universal access tool and can communicate directly with the Switch using the HTTP protocol.
  • Page 168: Before You Start

    Before You Start The DES-3326S Layer 3 Switch supports a wide array of functions and gives great flexibility and increased network performance by eliminating the routing bottleneck between the WAN or Internet and the Intranet. Its function in a network can be thought of as a new generation of router that performs routing functions in hardware, rather than software.
  • Page 169: Vlan Layout

    VLAN Layout VLANs on the DES-3326S have rather more functions than on a traditional layer 2 switch, and must therefore be laid-out and configured with a bit more care. Layer 3 VLANs (VLANs with an IP interface assigned to them) could be thought of as network links –...
  • Page 170: Assigning Ip Network Addresses And Subnet Masks To Vlans

    Assigning IP Network Addresses and Subnet Masks to VLANs The DES-3326S allows the assignment of IP subnets to individual VLANs. Any VLAN configured on the switch that is not assigned an IP subnet, will behave as a layer 2 VLAN and will not be capable of IP routing –...
  • Page 171: Defining Static Routes

    123 represent the IP address of the switch. Note: The Factory default IP address for the switch is 10.90.90.90. In the page that opens, click on the Login to DES-3326S Manager button: Web-Based Switch Management connection...
  • Page 172: Configuring The Switch

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Figure 6-1. Login Button This opens the management module’s main page. The switch management features available in the web-based are explained below. Configuring the Switch User Accounts Management From the Main Menu, highlight Setup User Accounts and press Enter, then the User Account Management menu appears.
  • Page 173 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Figure 6-2. User Accounts Control Table Click New to add a user. Figure 6-3. User Accounts Control Table - Edit 1. Enter the new user name, assign an initial password, and then confirm the new password. Determine whether the new user should have Root, User+, or User privileges.
  • Page 174: Admin And User Privileges

    Admin and User Privileges There are two levels of user privileges: Admin and User. Some menu selections available to users with Admin privileges may not be available to those with User privileges. DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Web-Based Switch Management...
  • Page 175: Saving Changes

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide The following table summarizes the Root, User+ and User privileges: Switch Configuration Management Configuration Network Monitoring Community Strings Stations Update Firmware and Configuration Files System Utilities Factory Reset Reboot Switch User Account Management...
  • Page 176 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide When this is done, the settings will be immediately applied to the switching software in RAM, and will immediately take effect. Some settings, though, require you to restart the switch before they will take effect. Restarting the switch erases all settings in RAM and reloads the stored settings from the NV-RAM.
  • Page 177: Factory Reset

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Figure 6-5. Save Configuration Confirmation Click the OK button to continue. Once the switch configuration settings have been saved to NV- RAM, they become the default settings for the switch. These settings will be used every time the switch is rebooted.
  • Page 178: Using Web-Based Management

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Figure 6-6. Factory Reset Screen Click Yes if you want the switch to retain its current IP address. Click No to reset the switch’s IP address to the factory default, 10.90.90.90 (with a Subnet Mask of 255.0.0.0 and Default Gateway 0.0.0.0)
  • Page 179 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide following at a minimum must be configured or known for the switch to be managed: • IP Address • Subnet Mask • Administrator password In addition, several other parameters may need to be configured or known to properly communicate with the switch or allow full management capability.
  • Page 180: Saving Configuration Changes

    RAM, select Save Changes from the main screen. Click on the Save Configuration button to enter the current configuration into NV-RAM. The configuration will then be loaded into the switch’s memory when it is restarted. DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Web-Based Switch Management If the switch is...
  • Page 181 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Figure 6-7. Save Changes Screen Starting and Stopping the Web-based Manager Do the following to use the web-based manager: 1. Start a Java-enabled Web browser from any machine with network access to the switch.
  • Page 182 Web-based Manager’s User Interface user interface configuration and management screens, allows you to view performance statistics, and permits you to graphically monitor the system status. DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide provides access Web-Based Switch Management various switch...
  • Page 183: Areas Of The User Interface

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Areas of the User Interface The figure below shows the user interface. The user interface is divided into 3 distinct areas as described in the table. Area 1 Area 2 Area 3 Figure 6-9.
  • Page 184 Allows the selection of commands. Presents switch information based on your selection and the entry of configuration data. DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Web-Based Switch Management...
  • Page 185: Setting Up The Switch

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide This section, arranged by topic, describes how to perform common monitoring and configuration tasks on the DES- 3326Ss switch using the Web-based Manager, you can perform any of the tasks described in the following sections.
  • Page 186 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Figure 6-10. Switch Information – Basic Settings Web-Based Switch Management...
  • Page 187 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide The Switch Information window shows which (if any) external modules are installed, and the switch’s MAC Address (assigned by the factory and unchangeable). In addition, the Boot PROM and Firmware Version numbers are shown. This information is helpful to keep track of PROM and Firmware updates and to obtain the switch’s MAC address for entry into another network...
  • Page 188 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Figure 6-11. Basic Switch Setup Web-Based Switch Management...
  • Page 189 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide switch’s 10.90.90.90 with a subnet mask of 255.0.0.0 and a default gateway of 0.0.0.0. To manually assign the switch’s IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway address: Select Manual from the Get IP From drop-down menu.
  • Page 190 DHCP Manual Subnet Mask DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide addresses, network masks, and default gateways to be assigned by a central BOOTP server. If this option is set, the Switch will first look for a BOOTP server...
  • Page 191 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Default Gateway VLAN Name Web-Based Switch Management Class B network, and 255.255.255.0 for a Class C network, but custom subnet masks are allowed. IP address that determines where packets with a destination address outside the current subnet should be sent.
  • Page 192: Snmp Settings

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide SNMP Settings Some settings must be entered to allow the switch to be managed from an SNMP-based Network Management System such as SNMP v1 or to be able to access the Switch using the Telnet protocol or the Web Manager.
  • Page 193: Configuring Community Strings

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide addresses entered will be allowed to access the switch to manage or configure it. Configuring Community Strings To configure SNMP Community strings, click on the SNMP Community Setup link. This window is used to create an SNMP community string and to specify the string as having read only or read-write privileges for the SNMP management host.
  • Page 194: Setting Up Trap Receivers

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Figure 6-13. SNMP Community Setup Setting Up Trap Receivers This allows the switch to send traps (messages about errors, etc.) to management stations on the network. Click the SNMP Trap Recipients link in the Network Management folder. The...
  • Page 195: Stacking Information

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Figure 6-14. Trap Receivers The IP Address field is the IP address of a management station (a computer) that is configured to receive the SNMP traps from the switch. The SNMP Community String is similar to a password in that stations that do not know the correct string cannot receive or request SNMP information from the switch.
  • Page 196 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide management agent. To change a switch’s order in the stack, you must use the console Command Line Interface. The number of switches in the switch stack (up to 6 − total) are displayed in the upper right-hand corner of you web-browser.
  • Page 197 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide To view the stacking information, click on the Stacking Information link from the Basic Setup folder: Figure 6-17. Stacking Information The Unit ID field displays the switch’s order in the stack. The switch with a Unit ID of 1 is the Master Switch.
  • Page 198 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Figure 6-18. The Stacking Module’s Front Panel Notice the Link and Act LEDs. These LEDs have the same function as the corresponding LEDs for the switch’s Ethernet ports. The Link LED lights to confirm a valid link, while the ACT LED blinks to indicate activity on the link.
  • Page 199 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Entering the show stacking command with no parameters returns all of the relevant stacking information for all of the switches in the stack: Figure 6-19. Console CLI show stack Command The same switch stack information is displayed in the console as is displayed in the Web-based management agent.
  • Page 200 (configured as the master): With the management station’s console connected to the serial port of the switch with the lowest MAC address, enter the following command at the prompt: DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Web-Based Switch Management This is the...
  • Page 201 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide config stacking mode slave This will configure the switch with MAC address 00-00-00-22- 22-00 to always have a Unit number greater than 1 (as a slave). Now you will have to move the management stations’s console...
  • Page 202: Configure Ports

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Configure Ports Click the Port Configurations link from the Basic Setup folder: Figure 6-21. Port Configurations Web-Based Switch Management...
  • Page 203 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Click on the port you want to configure on the Port Configurations menu and then click the Edit button. This will open the following dialog box: Figure 6-22. Port Configurations − Edit...
  • Page 204 The following fields can be set: Parameter State <Enabled> Speed/Duplex <Auto> DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide feature that prevents Description Toggle the State <Enabled> field to either enable or disable a given port.
  • Page 205: Serial Port Settings

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Flow Control: Auto Lock <Disabled> Serial Port Settings The Serial Port Settings window allows the configuration of switch’s serial communications using SLIP. Click on the Serial Port Settings link from the Basic Setup folder.
  • Page 206 The following fields can then be set: Console Settings Parameter Baud Rate Data Bits DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Description Displays the serial bit rate used to communicate with a management station. The console baud rate is 9600 bits per second.
  • Page 207 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Stop Bits Auto-Logout Web-Based Switch Management interface uses 8 data bits. Displays the number of bits used to indicate that word completely transmitted. The console interface uses 1 stop bit. This sets the time the interface can...
  • Page 208: Advanced Setup

    Go to the Advanced Setup folder, select VLAN Configurations, and click the 802.1Q VLANs link to open the following dialog box: DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide The switch allows the assignment of an IP interface to each VLAN, in IP Routing mode.
  • Page 209 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Figure 6-24. 802.1Q VLANs To delete an existing 802.1Q VLAN, click the corresponding click-box to the left of the VLAN you want to delete from the switch and then click the Delete button.
  • Page 210 The following fields can then be set in either the Add or Edit dialog boxes: Parameter VLAN ID (VID) DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Description Allows the entry of a VLAN ID in the Add dialog box, or displays the VLAN ID of an existing VLAN in the Edit dialog box.
  • Page 211 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide VLAN Name Port Tagged/Untagged Untagged Egress Forbidden Web-Based Switch Management Allows the entry of a name for the new VLAN in the Add dialog box, or for editing the VLAN name in the Edit dialog box.
  • Page 212 Checking can be used to limit traffic by filtering incoming packets whose PVID does not match the PVID of the port. DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide the VLAN and that the port is forbidden from becoming a member of the VLAN dynamically.
  • Page 213 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Figure 6-27. Port VLAN ID (PVID) The following field can be set: Parameter PVID GVRP <Disabled> Ingress Filter <Disabled> Web-Based Switch Management Description Port VLAN classification mechanism associates a port with a specific...
  • Page 214 Go to the VLAN Configurations link and click on the Switch GVRP link: Figure 6-28. – Switch GVRP Parameter GVRP <disabled> DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Ingress filtering. Description Group VLAN Registration Protocol (GVRP) – this enables and disables GVRP changing the port GVRP settings.
  • Page 215: Layer 3 Ip Networking

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Layer 3 IP Networking To access the Layer 3 IP Networking links, select Configure Layer 3 - IP Networking from the Advanced Setup folder. Setting Up IP Interfaces Each VLAN must be configured prior to setting up the VLAN’s corresponding IP interface.
  • Page 216 Go to the Advanced Setup folder, and click on the Layer 3 IP Networking link, and then click on the Setup IP Interfaces link to open the following dialog box: DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Network Number 10.32.0.0 10.64.0.0...
  • Page 217 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Figure 6-29. Setup IP Interface To setup an new IP interface, click the New button: Figure 6-30. Setup IP Interface – Add To edit an existing IP interface, click on the Edit button:...
  • Page 218 Setup folder to enter the changes into NV-RAM. The following fields can be set: Parameter Interface Name IP Address DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Description This field displays the name for the IP interface. The default IP interface is named “System”.
  • Page 219 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Subnet Mask VLAN Name Active <Yes> Switch Port/Member Setup the Routing Information Protocol (RIP) Click on the Setup IP Interfaces link and then click on the RIP Settings folder. Then click on the RIP State link to open...
  • Page 220 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Figure 6-32. RIP Status This window allows RIP to be globally enabled and disabled on the switch without changing the RIP configuration. To configure RIP on the switch, highlight Setup RIP from the RIP Settings folder (under the Layer 3 IP Networking folder).
  • Page 221 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide To edit a RIP configuration, click the corresponding Interface Name click-box and then click the Edit button: Figure 6-34. Setup RIP – Edit The following fields can be set: Parameter Interface Name TX Mode <Disabled>...
  • Page 222 Configuration menu below. To configure an MD5 Key, click the MD5 Key Table Configuration link to open the following dialog box: DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Only, and V1 and V2. This entry specifies which version of the RIP...
  • Page 223 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Figure 6-35. MD5 Key Table The following fields can be set: Parameter Key ID Web-Based Switch Management Description A number from 1 to 255 used to identify the MD5 Key. A alphanumeric string of between 1...
  • Page 224 General link: The following parameters can be set or are displayed: Parameter OSPF Route ID DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Figure 6-36. Setup OSPF Description A 32-bit number (in the same format as an IP address −...
  • Page 225 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Current Route ID AS Border Router State OSPF Area Setting This menu allows the configuration of OSPF Area IDs and to designate these areas as either Normal or Stub. Normal OSPF areas allow Link-State Database (LSDB) advertisements of routes to networks that are external to the area, Stub areas do not allow the LSDB advertisement of external routes.
  • Page 226 Parameter Area ID Type Stub Import Summary LSA Stub Default Cost DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Description A 32-bit number in the form of an IP address (xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx) uniquely identifies the OSPF area in the OSPF domain.
  • Page 227: Ospf Interface Configuration

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Remove OSPF Interface Configuration To configure an OSPF Interface, click on the OSPF Interface Configuration link: Figure 6-38. OSPF Interface Configuration All of the IP Interfaces currently configured on the switch will be displayed.
  • Page 228 The following fields can be set: Parameter Interface Name Area ID Router Priority Hello Interval DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Description Displays previously configured on the switch. Allows the entry of an OSPF Area ID configured above.
  • Page 229 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Dead Interval State Auth Type Web-Based Switch Management OSPF Hello packets, in seconds. Between 5 and 65535 seconds can be specified. The Hello Interval, Dead Interval, Authorization Type, and Authorization Key should be the same for all routers on the same network.
  • Page 230 To view the current configuration of any OSPF Interface on the switch, click the corresponding Interface’s click- box and then click the Monitor button to open the following dialog box: DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Table menu. When MD5 is selected, the...
  • Page 231 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Figure 6-40. OSPF Interface Configuration − Monitor Virtual Interface Configuration Virtual Interfaces are used by OSPF to link areas that do not have a physical connection to the backbone (also called Area 0) or to link areas of the backbone itself that are discontinuous.
  • Page 232 The following fields can be set or are displayed: Parameter Transit Area ID Neighbor Router Status DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Description Allows the entry of an OSPF Area ID − previously defined on the switch − that...
  • Page 233: Area Aggregation Configuration

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Area Aggregation Configuration Area Aggregation allows all of the routing information that may be contained within an area to be aggregated into a summary LSDB advertisement of just the network address and subnet mask.
  • Page 234: Route Redistribution Settings

    Table on the local DES-3326Ss switch is also redistributed. To configure Route Redistribution on the switch, click on the Route Redistribution link under the Layer 3 IP Network folder. DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Sometimes called Address. The 32-bit number in the...
  • Page 235 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Figure 6-43. Route Redistribution Settings The following fields can be set or are displayed: Parameter Source Protocol Destination Protocol Metric Type Metric Web-Based Switch Management Description Allows the selection of the protocol of the source device.
  • Page 236 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Count in the RIP routing protocol. Web-Based Switch Management...
  • Page 237: Ip Multicasting

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide IP Multicasting The functions supporting IP multicasting are added found under the IP Multicast Routing Protocols folder, from the Layer 3 IP Networking folder. IGMP Snooping, DVMRP, and PIM-DM can be enabled or disabled on the switch without changing the individual protocol’s configuration.
  • Page 238: Igmp Snooping Settings

    Configurations to open the following dialog box: Figure 6-45. IGMP Control Setup The following fields can be set: Parameter State <Disabled> DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Description Allows the entry of the VLAN ID (VID) for which IGMP Snooping is to be configured.
  • Page 239: Igmp Interface Configuration

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Query Max Response Robustness Var IGMP Interface Configuration To configure an IGMP Interface on the switch, click on the IGMP Interface Configuration link under the IP Multicast Routing Protocols folder: Web-Based Switch Management and Enabled.
  • Page 240 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Figure 6-46. IGMP Interface Setup The Internet Group Multicasting Protocol (IGMP) can be configured on the switch on a per-IP interface basis. Each IP interface configured on the switch is displayed in the above IGMP Interface Configuration dialog box.
  • Page 241 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide This dialog box allows the configuration of IGMP for each IP interface configured on the switch. IGMP can be configured as Version 1 or 2 by toggling the Version field using the pull-down menu.
  • Page 242: Dvmrp Interface Configuration

    To configure DVMRP for an IP interface, Click the DVMRP Interface Configurations link from the Routing Protocols folder: Figure 6-48. DVMRP Interface Configuration DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide seconds. This length of time between sending IGMP queries.
  • Page 243 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Figure 6-49. DVMRP Interface Configuration − Edit This menu allows the Distance-Vector Multicast Routing Protocol to be configured for each IP interface defined on the switch. The Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol (DVMRP) is a hop-based method of building multicast delivery trees from multicast sources to all nodes of a network.
  • Page 244 Parameter Interface Name<System> IP Address Probe Interval <10> DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Description Displays the name of the IP interface for which DVMRP is to be configured. This must be a previously defined IP interface. Displays corresponding to the IP Interface name entered above.
  • Page 245 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Neighbor Timeout Interval <35> Metric <1> State <Disabled> PIM-DM Settings The Protocol Independent Multicast – Dense Mode (PIM-DM) protocol should be used in networks with a low delay (low latency) and high bandwidth as PIM-DM is optimized to guarantee delivery of multicast packets, not to reduce overhead.
  • Page 246 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide PIM-DM has no explicit ‘join’ messages. It relies upon periodic flooding of multicast messages to all interfaces and then either waiting for a timer to expire (the Join/Prune Interval) or for the downstream routers to transmit explicit ‘prune’ messages indicating that there are no multicast members on their respective branches.
  • Page 247 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide To configure PIM-DM for a given IP Interface, click the corresponding click-box and then click the Edit button: Figure 6-51. PIM-DM Interface Configuration − Edit The following fields can be set: Parameter...
  • Page 248: Static Router Port Settings

    • IGMP queries (from the router port) will be flooded to all ports. DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide This field allows an entry of between 0 and 18724 seconds. This interval also determines the time interval the...
  • Page 249 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide • All UDP multicast packets will be forwarded to the router port. Because routers do not send IGMP reports or implement IGMP snooping, a multicast router connected to the router port of the Layer 3 switch would not be able to receive UDP data streams unless the UDP multicast packets were all forwarded to the router port.
  • Page 250 Figure 6-53. Static Router Port Settings − Add The following fields can be set: Parameter VLAN Name Port DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Description Displays the name of the VLAN the static router port belongs to. Each port can be set individually as a router port by clicking the port’s...
  • Page 251: Port Mirroring

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Port Mirroring To configure a port for port mirroring: Click the Mirroring link and then the Target Port Selection link: Figure 6-54. Target Port Selection The target port is the port where information will be duplicated and sent for capture and network analysis.
  • Page 252 The following fields can be set: Parameter Source Port Direction <Ingress> DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Description Allows the entry of the port number of the port to be mirrored. This port is the source of the packets to be duplicated and forwarded to the Target port.
  • Page 253: Priority

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Priority To configure a forwarding priority for a given MAC address: Click the Priority link on the Configuration menu: Figure 6-55. Setup MAC Address Priority To add a MAC Address to the MAC Address Priority table,...
  • Page 254 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Figure 6-56. MAC Address Priority − Add To edit the priority configuration for a given MAC Address entry to the MAC Address Priority table, click the corresponding click-box for the MAC Address entry, and click the Edit button: Figure 6-57.
  • Page 255 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide The following fields can be set: Parameter MAC Address VLAN Name User Priority <0> Source/Destinatio n <Source> Web-Based Switch Management Description Allows the entry of the MAC address of the station for which priority...
  • Page 256: Filtering

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Filtering IP Address Filtering With the switch configured to Layer 3 Operation mode, both MAC and IP addresses can be entered into the filtering table, using their respective entry menus. To enter an address, open...
  • Page 257 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Figure 6-59. IP Address Filtering − Add To edit an existing IP address entry in the filtering table, click the Edit button. Figure 6-60. IP Address Filtering − Edit The following fields can be set:...
  • Page 258 Source/Destinatio n <Source> DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide This field can be toggled between Source, Destination, and Either. The IP address entered into the filtering table can be filtered as a source (packets will not be received from the...
  • Page 259: Forwarding

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Forwarding MAC Address Aging Time The MAC Address Aging Time specifies the length of time a learned MAC Address will remain in the forwarding table without being accessed (that is, how long a learned MAC Address is allowed to remain idle).
  • Page 260: Unicast Mac Address Forwarding

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Unicast MAC Address Forwarding MAC addresses can be statically entered into the switch’s MAC Address Forwarding Table. These addresses will never age out. To enter a MAC address into the switch’s forwarding table,...
  • Page 261 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Figure 6-63. Unicast MAC Address Settings − Add To edit an existing entry in the MAC address in the MAC Address Forwarding Table, click the Edit button: Figure 6-64. Unicast MAC Address Settings − Edit...
  • Page 262: Multicast Mac Address Forwarding

    Forwarding folder and then the MAC Forwarding folder and then click on the Multicast MAC Address Settings link: DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide of an end station that will be entered into the switch’s static forwarding table when adding a new entry.
  • Page 263 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Figure 6-65. Multicast MAC Address Settings To add a new multicast MAC address to the switch’s forwarding table, click the New button: Figure 6-66. Multicast MAC Address Settings − Add To edit an existing entry to the switch’s forwarding table, click the entry’s corresponding click-box and then click...
  • Page 264 Parameter MAC Address:[ VLAN Name Port: [ None Egress DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Description Allows the entry of the MAC address of an end station that will be entered into the switch’s static forwarding table. Allows the entry of the VLAN name of the VLAN the MAC address below is a member of −...
  • Page 265 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Forbidden IP Forwarding Entries into the switch’s forwarding table can be made using both MAC addresses and IP addresses. Static IP forwarding is accomplished by the entry of an IP address into the switch’s Static IP Routing table.
  • Page 266 IP Address <0.0.0.0> Subnet Mask <0.0.0.0> Gateway IP DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Description Allows the entry of an IP address that will be a static entry into the switch’s Routing Table. Allows the entry of a subnet mask corresponding to the IP address above.
  • Page 267: Static Arp

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide <0.0.0.0> Metric <1 > Static ARP To make a static ARP entry, click the IP Forwarding folder and then the Static ARP link: To delete an existing static ARP entry, click corresponding click-box and then click the Delete button.
  • Page 268: Spanning Tree

    On the port level, the settings are implemented on a per user-defined Group of ports basis. DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Description The IP address of the ARP entry. The MAC address of the ARP entry.
  • Page 269 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide To globally configure STP on the switch, click the Spanning Tree folder, and then the STP Switch Settings link: Figure 6-72. STP Switch Settings is absolutely necessary to change them. The following fields can be set: Parameter Status <Enabled>...
  • Page 270 < 2 > Forward Delay: (4 .. 30 sec) <15 > Priority: (0 .. 65535) <32768> DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide down menu. This will enable or disable the Spanning Tree Protocol (STP), globally, for the switch.
  • Page 271 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide The Hello Time cannot be longer than the Max. Age. Otherwise, a configuration error will occur. Observe the following formulas when setting the above parameters: Max. Age ≤ 2 x (Forward Delay - 1 second) Max.
  • Page 272 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Figure 6-73. STP Port Settings Web-Based Switch Management...
  • Page 273 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide In addition to setting Spanning Tree parameters for use on the switch level, the switch allows for the configuration of groups of ports, each port-group of which will have its own spanning tree, and will require some of its own configuration settings.
  • Page 274: Link Aggregation

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Link Aggregation Link aggregation allows several ports to be grouped together and to act as a single link. This gives a bandwidth that is a multiple of a single link’s bandwidth. Link aggregation is most commonly used to link a bandwidth intensive network device or devices –...
  • Page 275 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide aggregation group. If two redundant link aggregation groups are configured on the switch, STP will block one entire group – in the same way STP will block a single port that has a redundant link.
  • Page 276 The following fields can be set: Parameter Group ID Master Port <1> Unit DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Description Allows the entry of a number used to identify the link aggregation group − when adding a new group. Displays Group selected link aggregation group −...
  • Page 277: Utilities

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Port Member State <Disabled> Utilities TFTP Utilities Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) services allow the switch firmware to be upgraded by transferring a new firmware file from a TFTP server to the switch. A configuration file can also...
  • Page 278 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide TFTP Services folder and finally click on the Download Firmware from TFTP Server link: Figure 6-77. Download Firmware from Server Select which switch of a switch stack you want to update the firmware on.
  • Page 279 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Click Download to record the IP address of the TFTP server. Use the Save Settings to enter the address into NV-RAM. Click Start to initiate the file transfer. Use Configuration File on Server To download a configuration file for the switch’s, click on...
  • Page 280 To download a configuration file for the switch’s, click on the Basic Setup folder and then the Switch Utilities folder and then the TFTP Services folder and finally click on the Upload history Log to TFTP Server link: DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Web-Based Switch Management...
  • Page 281 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Figure 6-80. Save Switch History To TFTP Server Enter the IP address of the TFTP server and the path and filename for the history log on the TFTP server. Click Apply to make the changes current.
  • Page 282 BOOTP HOPS Count Limit [4 ] BOOTP/DHCP Relay Time Threshold [0 ] DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Description This field can be toggled between Enabled and Disabled using the pull- down menu. It is used to enable or...
  • Page 283 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide To configure the BOOTP/DHCP Relay interface, click on the BOOTP/DHCP Relay Interface Configuration link: Figure 6-82. BOOTP/DHCP Relay Interface Configuration To add a new entry, click the New button: Figure 6-83. BOOT/DHCP Relay Interface Configuration − Add...
  • Page 284: Dns Relay

    BOOTP/DHCP Server <0.0.0.0> DNS Relay To configure DNS Relay, click on the DNS Relay link: DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Description The interface name of the IP interface on which the BOOTP or DHCP servers reside on.
  • Page 285 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide The following fields can be set: Parameter DNS Relay State <Disabled> Name Server (1) <0.0.0.0> Name Server (2) <0.0.0.0> DNSR Relay Cache Server Status <Disabled> DNS Relay Static Table Lookup Status <Disabled>...
  • Page 286 Figure 6-86. DNS Relay Static Table Configuration − Add The following fields can be set: Parameter Domain Name Address <0.0.0.0> DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Description The domain name of the static DNS table entry. The IP address of the domain name above.
  • Page 287: Network Monitoring

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Network Monitoring The SR24i provides extensive network monitoring capabilities that can be viewed from the under Network Monitoring menu. Network monitoring on the switch is divided into Layer 2 and Layer 3 functions, depending upon which operating mode the switch is in.
  • Page 288 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Figure 6-87. Port Utilization window Select the desired port by clicking on the front panel display. The Update Interval field sets the interval at which the error statistics are updated. Web-Based Switch Management...
  • Page 289: Port Error Statistics

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide The following field can be set: Parameter Update Interval <Suspend> Port Error Statistics The Port Error Packet Statistics window displays the packet errors that the switch can detect and displays the results on a per port basis.
  • Page 290 The following fields from above are described in more detail: Parameter Unit Port DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Description Allows the selection of a particular switch in a switch stack if you have installed...
  • Page 291 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Update Interval <Suspend> RX Frames CRC Error Undersize Oversize Fragment Jabber Web-Based Switch Management port on the switch. The interval (in seconds) that the table is updated. The default is Suspend. Received packets.
  • Page 292 CRC Error Late Collision Excessive Collision Single Collision Collision DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide The total number of events in which packets were dropped due to a lack of resources. Transmitted packets. The number of frames for which the...
  • Page 293: Port Packet Analysis

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Port Packet Analysis The Port Packet Analysis window displays the size of packets received or transmitted by a given switch port. In addition, statistics on the number and rate of unicast, multicast, and broadcast packets received by the switch are displayed.
  • Page 294 Frames/sec Unicast RX Multicast RX Broadcast RX RX Bytes RX Frames DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Description The interval (in seconds) that the table is updated. The default is 2 seconds. The number of packets (or frames)
  • Page 295 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide TX Bytes TX Frames MAC Address Table This allows the switch’s dynamic MAC address forwarding table to be viewed. When the switch learns an association between a MAC address and a port number, it makes an entry into its forwarding table.
  • Page 296: Ip Address Table

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Figure 6-90. Browse Address Table – sequential window IP Address Table To view the contents of the IP Routing table, click on the IP Address Table link: Web-Based Switch Management...
  • Page 297 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Web-Based Switch Management...
  • Page 298 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Figure 6-91. IP Address Table Web-Based Switch Management...
  • Page 299: Routing Table

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide The following fields are displayed: Parameter Destination Address Mask Gateway Jump Interface Name Hops Protocol Routing Table To view the switch’s routing table, click the Routing Table link: Web-Based Switch Management Description IP address of a learned or statically entered destionation.
  • Page 300 Parameter IP Address Netmask Gateway Interface Name Hops Protocol DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Description The IP address of the router. The subnet mask corresponding to the IP address above. address between the switch and this router.
  • Page 301: Arp Table

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide ARP Table To view the switch’s ARP table, click on the ARP Table link: Web-Based Switch Management...
  • Page 302 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Figure 6-93. ARP Table Web-Based Switch Management...
  • Page 303 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide OSPF Link State Database Table The switch maintains two OSPF Link State Databases (LSDB) − Internal and External. The Internal LSDB describes the Link State Advertisements (LSA) for OSPF Antonymous Systems (AS).
  • Page 304 Cost Displays the routing metric associated with the link. Sequence Displays corresponding to number of times the current link has been advertised as changed. DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide environment advertisement. destination address. network format. sequence Web-Based Switch Management −...
  • Page 305 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide OSPF Neighbor Table Figure 6-95. OSPF Neighbor Table The following fields are displayed. Parameter Neighbor ID The router ID of a neighboring router. IP Address The IP address of the neighboring router.
  • Page 306 TOS routing. Virtual Indicates the relationship between the Neighbor State switch and the neighbor router. State Changes The number of times the neighbor router has changed state. DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Description Web-Based Switch Management For example,...
  • Page 307 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide DVMRP Neighbor Address Table To view the DVMRP neighbor address table, click on the DVMRP Neighbor Address Table link: Figure 6-97. DVMRP Routing Table The Source Address and Source Mask fields allow the entry of an IP address and corresponding subnet mask to search the table for.
  • Page 308: Gvrp Status

    VLAN. The GVRP status screen displays the ports on the switch that are currently Egress or Untagged ports. To view the GVRP status table, click on the GVRP Status link: DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Figure 6-98. GVRP Status Web-Based Switch Management...
  • Page 309: Router Ports

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Router Ports This displays which of the switch’s ports are currently configured as router ports. A router port configured by a user (using the console or Web-based management interfaces) is displayed as a static router port, designated by S. A router port that is dynamically configured by the switch is designated by D.
  • Page 310 Multicast The IP address of the multicast group. Group MAC Address The MAC address of the multicast group. Reports The total number of reports received for this group. DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Description Web-Based Switch Management...
  • Page 311: Ip Multicast Forwarding Table

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide IP Multicast Forwarding Table To view the switch’s IP multicast forwarding table, click on the IP Multicast Forwarding Table link: Figure 6-101. IP Multicast Forwarding Table Parameter Multicast The IP address of the multicast group.
  • Page 312: Igmp Group Table

    The name of the IP interface the IGMP Name Group resides on. Multicast The IP address of the multicast group. Group Last Reporter The IP address of the last IGMP report sender. DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Description Web-Based Switch Management...
  • Page 313: Dvmrp Routing Table

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Querier IP The IP address of the IGMP querier. Expire The total number of hops (routers) packets are allowed to cross. DVMRP Routing Table To view the switch’s DVMRP routing table, click on the DVMRP Routing Table link: Figure 6-103.
  • Page 314: Switch History

    The time since the last cold start of the switch is also recorded. To view the switch history log: Click the Switch History link on the Applications menu: DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Web-Based Switch Management...
  • Page 315 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Figure 6-104. Switch History Web-Based Switch Management...
  • Page 316: Technical Specifications

    IEEE 802.3x Full-duplex Flow Control ANSI/IEEE 802.3 Nway auto-negotiation Protocols: CSMA/CD Data Transfer Half-duplex Rates: 10 Mbps Ethernet 100Mbps Fast Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet Topology: Star DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide ECHNICAL PECIFICATIONS Full-duplex 20Mbps 200Mbps 2000Mbps Technical Specifications...
  • Page 317: Physical And Environmental

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide General Network Cables: 10BASE-T: 2-pair UTP Cat. 3,4,5 (100 m) EIA/TIA- 568 100-ohm STP (100 m) 100BASE-TX: 2-pair UTP Cat. 5 (100 m) EIA/TIA-568 100-ohm STP (100 m) Fiber Optic: IEC 793-2:1992 Type A1a - 50/125um multimode Type A1b - 62.5/125um multimode...
  • Page 318 Table: Packet Filtering/ Forwarding Rate: MAC Address Learning: Forwarding Table Age Time: DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Performance Store-and-forward 8 MB per device 8K MAC address per device Full-wire speed for all connections. 148,800 pps per port (for 100Mbps)
  • Page 319: Understanding And Troubleshooting The Spanning Tree

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide NDERSTANDING AND ROUBLESHOOTING THE When the spanning-tree algorithm determines a port should be transitioned to the forwarding state, the following occurs: • The port is put into the listening state where it receives BPDUs and passes them to the switch’s CPU.
  • Page 320: Blocking State

    Blocking State A port in the blocking state does not forward packets. When the switch is booted, a BPDU is sent to each port in the switch putting these ports into the blocking state. A switch initially assumes it is the root, and then begins the exchange of BPDUs with other switches.
  • Page 321 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Understanding and Troubleshooting the Spanning Tree Protocol...
  • Page 322: Listening State

    Does not add addresses to its forwarding database • Receives BPDUs and directs them to the CPU. • Processes BPDUs received from the CPU. • Receives messages. Understanding and Troubleshooting the Spanning Tree Protocol DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide responds network management...
  • Page 323 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Understanding and Troubleshooting the Spanning Tree Protocol...
  • Page 324: Learning State

    Adds addresses to its forwarding database. • Receives BPDUs and directs them to the CPU. • Processes and transmits BPDUs received from the CPU. • Receives messages. Understanding and Troubleshooting the Spanning Tree Protocol DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide responds network management...
  • Page 325 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Understanding and Troubleshooting the Spanning Tree Protocol...
  • Page 326: Forwarding State

    • Receives BPDUs and directs them to the system CPU. • Receives messages. Understanding and Troubleshooting the Spanning Tree Protocol DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide station location information into its responds network The port management...
  • Page 327 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Understanding and Troubleshooting the Spanning Tree Protocol...
  • Page 328: Disabled State

    • Does not receive BPDUs for transmission from the system CPU. • Receives messages. Understanding and Troubleshooting the Spanning Tree Protocol DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide A port in the disabled state is virtually responds network management...
  • Page 329 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Understanding and Troubleshooting the Spanning Tree Protocol...
  • Page 330: Troubleshooting Stp

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Troubleshooting STP Spanning Tree Protocol Failure A failure in the STA generally leads to a bridging loop. bridging loop in an STP environment comes from a port that should be in the blocking state, but is forwarding packets.
  • Page 331: Full/Half Duplex Mismatch

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide to transition its port 2 from the blocking state to the forwarding state. It should be noted: A port must continue to receive BPDUs advertising superior paths to remain in the blocking state.
  • Page 332: Unidirectional Link

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide In the above example, port 1 on B is configured as a full- duplex port and port 1 on A is either configured as a half- duplex port, or left in auto-negotiation mode. Because port 1 on B is configured as a full-duplex port, it does not do the carrier sense when accessing the link.
  • Page 333 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Any failure that allows a link to remain up while providing one- way communication is very dangerous for STP. In this example, port 2 on B can receive but not transmit packets. Port 2 on C should be in the blocking state, but since it can no longer receive BPDUs from port 2 on B, it will transition to the forwarding state.
  • Page 334: Packet Corruption

    BPDU would reset the timer. If the MAX AGE is set too low, this time is reduced. Resource Errors The DES-3326S Layer 3 switch performs its switching and routing functions primarily in hardware, using specialized ASICs.
  • Page 335: Identifying A Data Loop

    DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Identifying a Data Loop Broadcast storms have a very similar effect on the network to data loops, but broadcast storm controls in modern switches have (along with subnetting and other network practices) have been very effective in controlling broadcast storms.
  • Page 336 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Organize the redundant links and tune the port cost parameter of STP to force those ports to be in the blocking state. For each VLAN, know which ports should be blocking in a stable network.
  • Page 337 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide This is a common network design. The switches C and D have redundant links to the backbone switches A and B using trunks. Trunks, by default, carry all the VLAN traffic from VLAN 1 and VLAN 2.
  • Page 338 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide switches A and B and two blocked ports per VLAN. This increases the chance of a data loop. In this example, the VLAN definitions are extended to switches A and B. This gives only a single blocked port per VLAN and allows the removal of all redundant links by removing switch A or B from the network.
  • Page 339 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Impact of Layer 3 Switching. The IP routing operational mode of the DES-3326S Layer 3 switch can accomplish the following: • Building information with its peers using routing protocols. • Receiving packets and forwarding them to the correct...
  • Page 340 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Using layer 3 switches and IP routing eliminates the need for STP port blocking because the packets are routed by destination addresses. The link redundancy remains, and relying on the routing protocols gives a faster convergence than with STP.
  • Page 341 DES-3326S Layer 3 Fast Ethernet Switch User’s Guide Understanding and Troubleshooting the Spanning Tree Protocol...
  • Page 342: Brief Review Of Bitwise Logical Operations

    The logical operation compares 2 bits and if they are both “ then the result is 1”, The logical operation compares 2 bits and if either or both bits are then the result is “1”, The logical XOR (exclusive OR) exactly one of them is a result is “0”.
  • Page 343 The logical NOT operation simply changes the value of a single bit. If it is a the result is “1”, operation is carried out on a single bit. if it is a the result is “0”, “0”, This “1”.
  • Page 344: Index

    Bridge Hello Time ...62, 261 Bridge Max. Age...62, 261 Bridge Priority ...62 Browse the Routing Table...288 Configuration ...178 Connections Switch to End Node ...36 Switch to Hub or Switch...37 Console ...34 NDEX console port ... 14, 25 Console port (RS-232 DCE)... 42 Console port settings...
  • Page 345 RAM Buffer Rear Panel ... 26 RS-232... 14 Saving Changes ... 168 Setting an IP Address ... 46, 172 Setting Up The Switch ... 178 Setting Up Web Management 171 Setup... 21 Single Coll ... 283 Spanning Tree Algorithm... 17 Spanning Tree Algorithm (STA) ...
  • Page 346 Authentication Failure ...48, 51 Broadcast Storm...52 Cold Start ...48, 51 Link Change Event ...49, 51 New Root ...48 Port Partition ...51 Topology Change...48, 51 Warm Start...48, 51 Traps ...47, 50 trunk group...66 Unpacking ...20 untagging... 68 Untagging ... 68 VLAN ... 55 web-based management...
  • Page 347 D-LINK TAIWAN 2F, No. 119 Pao-Chung Road, Hsin-Tien, Taipei, Taiwan TEL: 886-2-2910-2626 FAX: 886-2-2910-1515 WEB: www.dlinktw.com.tw U.K. D-LINK EUROPE D-Link House, 6 Garland Road, Stanmore, London HA7 1DP U.K. TEL: 44-181-235-5555 FAX: 44-181-235-5500 WEB: www.dlink.co.uk E-MAIL: info@dlink.co.uk U.S.A. D-LINK U.S.A.
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