CANON fits, and any claims from a third party due to the use of the program samples in this manual.
X-07 This manual explains the functions of the Hand Held Computer X-07), (hereiruifter called the its accessories, adaptors, software, etc. This manual gives detailed explanations starting with how to turn on the power and how to use the keyboard. For those of you who already have...
FCC REGULATION This equipment generates and uses radio frequency energy and if not in stalled and used properly, that is, in strict accorda n ce with the manufac turer's instructions, may cause interference to radio and television reception. It has been type tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B computing device in accordance with the specifications in Subpart J of Part of FCC Rules, which are designed to provide reasonable protection against such interference in a residential installation.
Table of contents Chapter 1 Learning how to operate the X-07 Before using the X-07 The X-07 Commencing to operate the X-07 BASIC programming Memory of the X-07 The keyboard and the LCD How to the use a cassete recorder...
Chapter 3 Reference Hardware specifications for the X-07 Internal structure of BASIC Interface specifications How to use the Color Graphic Printer X-710_130 List of BASIC instructions and functions...
Learning how to operate the X-07 Special functions and peripheral devices Reference...
On the BASIC Reference Manual and the Programming Guide for Beginners This manal explains not only the X-07 itself, but also the various parts of the X-07 as a system. Therefore, it does not fully explain the BASIC language in...
The keyboard and the LCD How to use a cassette recorder The X-07 is so compact that it can be placed on the palm of a hand. Yet, inside this compact body, there is a potential to surpass a personal computer. This chapter explains only a part of the functions of the X-07, but it is important that you become familiar with the equipment.
Output from the bus line to a CRT, etc. is via a connected interface unit. Serial input/output terminal Serial input/ For connecting an optical coupler, RS-232C output terminal level convertor, or another X-07. This ter minal conforms to the RS-232 C specifications.
IC, CANON will not take responsibility. Reset switch The reset switch is used as the last resort when the X-07 malfunctions. Do not use this switch carelessly. Please note that when the reset switch is depressed, programs and data might be erased.
With optical couplers, cableless communication (no need for bothersome cables) can be performed. The X-07 has a built-in alarm timer (timer and calendar). Set the alarm to a desired time, and it will sound an alarm on the desired date, day of the week, and time, or play back a melody you have programmed.
Commencing to operate the X-07 Before turning on the power 1.3. 1 First, insert the batteries. Refer to the illustations below, and insert four AA batteries into the battery compartment. Make sure that you do not mix up the ( + ,...
There you will find a ON/BREAK key and an OFF key. The power is turned on when you depress the ON/BREAK key if the batteries are loaded. If the power is not turned on, check the following items before assuming that the X-07 has malfunctioned. Batteries are loaded. Batteries have not run down.
Turning OFF the power does not cut the power to all the circuits of the X-07. Only the power to the LCD and the parts which perform calculations (these parts consume much power) is cut.
Using the X-07 as a calculator 1.3.4 X-07 As the is a handy personal computer, you must master programming to make the maximum use of all its capabilities. However, to execute simple calculations, there is no need to create a program. And, some of you who are...
Eample: 15 x15 =225 15 ¢!.l is used to indicate multiplication (x).) "*" 100+25=4 100/2 5 ¢!.l ( + ).) ("/"is used to indicate division 367 -167 = 200 ¢!.l 367 - 167 Such functions as cosine, sine, and logarithm can also be used. Unlike calculators which have keys for such functions, each function must be typed on the keyboard.
A , B 150 , 50 ¢D B 200 A- B B 7500 A/B RUN is a command to the computer meaning "run" according to the pro gram. When the computer receives this command, it executes the program in sequence according to the line numbers. In this program, by the INPUT statement of Line values input from the keyboard by the user are read into the variables A and B.
Making corrections 1.4.2 When inputting a program you are always bound to make typing mistakes. The following keys are used to correct typing mistakes: Cursor keys � . �.� . [E These keys move the cursor in the direction of the ar row on their keys.
Here, move the cursor to the position after "PRINT" of Line I 00, and add "THE PRICE OF X-07 ', A as the contents to be displayed. Here, if the RETURN key is depressed, THEN 200, which is not needed, is in...
occurs. Please try it. The situation is a little different, but the following is an example of two statements beging added together. A>O THEN key was not After inputting the above statement, let's say that the was input after depressing the key.
When the ON/BREAK key is depressed, the LIST command is canceled, and listing cannot be resumed even if you want to list the next program line. To list the program again, the LIST command must be input again. This is very inconvenient.
L IST 20·30 Lines of the program are listed. LIST 20-30 INPUT "A , B" ; A , B PRINT "A B" ; A � LIST 50· LIST PRINT "A B" ; A PRINT "A/ B"; A / B � Ls1T PROGRAM INPUT "A , B"...
Memory of the X-07 1.5.1 Saving programs The previous sections explained the BASIC language and programs. Once a program has been created, it can be executed many times by using the RUN command. Accordingly, it is necessary to save the program in some way.
The RAM file and the text area 1. 5 . 2 Th e area of memory which you can use is divided into the text area and the RA M file. The text area is where a program is edited and executed. We have not paid particular attention to this area, but all the previous programs were created and executed in this area.
RAM: PROG 1024/889 � PROGl P ("P") "PROGl" means that a program with the file name is sav ed in the RAM file. 1 0 2 4/8 8 9 means that the maximum size of the RAM file is 1024 bytes, and that 889 bytes of unused area remains. A byte is an unit of memory capacity, and one byte equals one character (alphabet, number, etc.).
Erasing an old program 1 .5 .3 Even after a program has been saved in the RAM file, it is still retained in the text area. In order to create a new program, the old program in the text area must first be erased.
LOAD "file name" Loads a program in the file indicated by a "file name" into the text area. DELETE "file name", "<file type>" Deletes an unnecessary file in the file. Lists the files saved in the file. "file name" Directly executes a program in the file without loading it into the text area.
The Keyboard and the LCD 1.6.1 The keyboard The layout of the keyboard is as shown below. � Ca11on [Q]iJ HAND HELDCOMPUTER � CJ G ITJ ITJ ITJ w GJUJTDUJ GJ IT! GJ GJ GJ GJ GJ GJ GJT�JGJGJ w DJ G;J GJ GJ GJ GJ GJ GJ CJGJG:ITJ CJ CJ GJ GJ GJ GJ GJ GJ GJ Cl 8J CJ ITJ E:'.l E:l...
Also, when a key is depressed, a "pip" is heard. This is called a "key click". This is for checking whether or not a key has been depressed completely. The key click function can be terminated and restored with the X07-BASIC CONSOLE command.
This key is sani e as the shift key of a typewriter. When depressed along with certain keys, it gives a command to the X-07 to move the cursor or cancel a command, etc. For details, please refer to the BASIC Reference Manual.
1.6.3 Changing the mode of the keyboard To input many different types of character with a compact keyboard, each key is set with several types of character. Which key is set to which character is referred to as the "key mode". A key will write a character in one key mode, and a different character in another key mode.
Ten-key mode CJ m mm mm u w mm rn rn 0000GJ80000GJ OJ � 0000000J00CJCJ[J 000GGJ0@JCJCJ ITJCJ When the BASIC starts, the keyboard is set to the alphanum eric mode. The keyboard can be set to each mode by depressing the key (graphic mode) and the key (ten-key mode).
Next, set the cassette recorder to the recording mode, and then, execute the CSA VE command. CSAVE "FILE" RETURN In this procedure, the "CANON" file which was saved in the RAM file was loaded into the text area, and then, saved onto the cassette tape with the file name "FILE".
"REC" button. The cassette recrder starts recording as soon as the CSA VE command is executed, and stops recording automatically when a program is saved. There are cassette recorders which cannot fast forward or rewind the tape when it is in the REMOTE mode. In such a case, the MOTOR command is quite useful.
1.7.6 How to verify a program Once a program is saved, it should be checked to make sure that it was saved correctly. This is because cassette recorders and cassette tapes are not made to record programs, and distortions can be added when they are used to perform such functions.
1.7.7 Loading a program The CLOAD command is used to load a saved program from a cassette tape. First, load the cassette tape into the cassette recorder. Use the tape counter, and fast forward the tape to a position a little before the beginning of the pro gram you want to load.
How to control peripheral devices This chapter explains how to use the special functions (timer, alarm, etc.) of the X-07 and its peripheral devices (printers, utility cards, optical coupler,etc.). When using a peripheral device, please read its instruction manual carefully.
Special functions of the X-07 2.1.1. The timer There is a timer inside the X-07 which functions even when the power is turned OFF. To read the contents of the timer, type PRINT TIME$ 15 : 33 : 36 Hr. Min. Sec.
2.1.2. The calendar tio ns in co nju nc tio n wi th th e tim er . Th e X- 07 has a bu ilt -in cal en da r wh ich fu nc To rea d the con ten ts of the cale nda r, typ e, PRINT DATE$ ¢D...
2.1.3 The alarm The X-07 also has a built-in alarm which functions in conjunction with the calendar and the timer. It can be set as a wake-up alarm or to automatically turn ON the power. In order to use the alarm, the alarm switch must first be turned ON. This is ac...
<year> Type a number 4 digit long. <month> Type a number between 1 and 12. <day> Type a number between 1 and 31. <day of week> This is somewhat complicated. Hexadecimal form Decimal form &H40 Sunday &H20 Monday &HlO Tuesday &HOS Wednesday &H04...
Start program 2.1.4. The X-07 can be set to execut e a progra m when the power is turned ON. Such a prog ram is calle d a "sta rt prog ram" . The func tions and the comm and relat...
example, START$= "RUN"+ CHR$(13) When the power is turned ON, it is same as typing, In other words, it is as though the character string stored in the START$ function is typed on the keyboard for you. (CHR$(13) is the control code for carriage return.) User defined keys (function keys) 2.1.5...
?Tl ME$ + CH R$(13) lf1] Displays the actual on the LCD. � CLOAD" Complete this command by typing the file name, and then, depress the RETURN key to execute the CLOAD command. [_§) LOCATE Moves the position of the cursor. [§} LIST This is the LIST command.
[fl] IfI] Tr y the ke y. Ne xt, try the [fj) ). If the re is a pr og ram in the tex t are a, de pr ess the � RE TU RN ke y, an d the n the ke y.
The functions of the user defined keys can be changed freely by the user. For � example, when the key is depressed, LIST_ is displayed on the LCD. However, in order to execute this command, you [E!J must depress the RETURN key. Let's change the key, so that when it is depressed, it will automatically execute the LIST command.
Accordingly, to define such a character, type FONT$(12S) ="&HOO, &HFS, &HAS, &HFS, &HAS, &HFS, &HOO, Use the CHR$ function to make sure that the character was defined correctly. PRINT CHR$(12S) RETURN The FONT$ function can be in a statement, and if variables are used instead of constants to define the FONT$ function, it can be used in many interesting ways.
2. 2 Peripheral devices Many peripheral devices can be 2.2.1 connected Many peripheral devices can be connected to the X 0 7, such as a printer, an optical coupler, a RS-232C level convertor, utility cards, etc., to further extend its function s.
The main peripheral devices This sectio n goes into some detail s about the repres entati ve perhip heral device s of the X-07. Color Graphic Printer (X-710) This is a 4-color switchable X-Y plotter type printer. It is compact and can be carried anywhere.
RAM (planned). 4K memory cards (4K RAM cards) have a lithium battery for back-up power. Therefore, their contents are retained even when they are taken out of the X-07. Application cards (ROM cards) are available as mask ROM for each type of application. CANON program cards (ROM/RAM cards) which incorporate both ROM and RAM are also available.
B5.5(W) x 2.9(H) x 54(D) mm (applicable to all cards) Dimensions CA NO N pr og ra m ca rd s (R OM /R AM ca rd s) ma sk RO M an d 4K CM OS RA M. Th e CA NO N pro gra m car ds inc orp ora te SK d wo rk are a.
BK byte mask ROM Optical Coupler (X-721) This device changes the output from the serial terminal into infrared rays for cableless communication with another X-07 or other peripheral devices. The transmitting/receiving section is designed so that its directivity can be changed easily.
RS-232C Level Convetor (X-722) This device converts the outputs of the Optical Coupler X· 721 or of the serial terminal to RS-232C signals. Specifications Power supply Dimensions 200 (W) 26.5 (H) 86 (D) mm Weight 190 g.
X-07. There are four types of utility card: memory cards RA M RAM cards), CANON program cards memory cards cards), 2.3.2 How to insert a utility card The utility card compartment is located on the bottom of the X-07. • � Utility card compartment...
RAM cards) have CMOS RAM,and a battery for back-up power. Therefore, stored programs and data are retained even X-07. when they are removed from the We will now explain how to use these cards. file We quickly covered the RAM file in Chapter...
RAM area (from the youngest address) is reserved for the text area. The RAM file is reserved an area specified by the Please look at the diagram below. by itself X-07 RAM card X-07 RAM file...
RAM area is always the same (i.e. same type of memory card is always used). However, problems can arise if you use the X-07 sometimes with a memory card and other times without a memory card.
BASIC system cannot process the RAM file. In such a case, input Y , and depress the RETURN key to destroy the old RAM file in the X-07. If you do not want to destroy the contents of the RAM file, turn OFF the power, and then, remove the RAM card.
Cre ate Sy ste m? is aga in disp laye d. Nex t, Now, the old RAM file has been cleared , and you can reserve a RAM file in the RAM card. The "Crea te System ?" messa ge is also display ed if a differe nt card with a dif RETURN when "Create ferent size of RAM file area is inserted.
When the power is turned ON with an ap plicatio n card inserte d, an utility progra m other than the BASIC might start. This also applies when a CANON program card is inserted . Therefore, before using an application or a CANON program card, always...
Centronics specifications can be con nected to the X-07. Of these three printers, the Color Graphic Printer X-710 is very portable, can print out in 4 colors, can be used as a graphic plotter, and has many other outstanding features.
Now, connect the X-710 to the X-07 using the connection cable. When the X-710 is connected to the X-07 with the power of the X-07 turned ON, the power might be cut temporarily, and "Low battery" might be displayed on the LCD.
LPRINT CHR$ ( 1 8) Now, you can use the LLIST command. Graphic commands 2.4.5 For detials of all the commands related to the X-710, please refer to Chapter Reference or the instruction manual for the X-710. This section describes only the main graphic commands. As the X-710 is a plotter-type printer, the basic commands are pen up, pen down and the position of the pen.
X-07 is used as a plotter. First reset the X-710 by depressing its reset button, and execute the following pro gram on the X-07. A4 mm matrix is drawn on the X-710. LPRINT CHR$ ( 1 8) LPRINT"M 240, O"...
2.5.1 The Optical Coupler X-721 One X-721 can be connected to the X-07 and another X-721 to another X-07 or to the RS-232C Level Convertor X-722 for cableless communication. There is no need for bothersome cable connections for transmitting/receiving pro...
X-721. If th e above instruction i s executed during a program, the INPUT # 1 and the PRINT# 1 instructions inputs/outputs signals through the X-721. following programs. Transmitting X-07 INIT#1, "OPT:" INPUT A$ PRINT# 1 , A$...
PRINT A$; GOTO 20 The input from the keyboa rd of the transm itting X-07 is stored in the variab le A$, , and then, the input is transm itted throug h the optica l couple r by the 1 stateme nt.
This method is the most basic form of communicating data. Telephone, radio, TV, etc. use serial communication. However, inside the X-07, several units) data are handled in parallel. Accor dingly, such parallel data must be converted to serial data. The form of this conversion is set by the transmission mode.
RS-232C Level Convertor X-722 through the optical couplers . Then the data can be transmitted through an acoustic coupler. The serial input/ output termina l of the X-07 has only 9 pins which is the min mum number of pins needed to conform to the RS-232C specifica tions.
Inputs/outputs to a serial printer. PRT: These five devices use the ACIA (Asynchronous Communication Interface Adopter) and baud rate generators. The X-07 has only one ACIA and one baud rate generator. Therefore, it cannot open all these devices at the same time.
# 2 is assigned to the serial 1/0 device, file number # 1 is canceled. Now, the X-07 uses the baud rate generator to output sound through the com pact magnetic speaker. For this reason, when the INIT# instruction is used along with the BEEP instruction, an error similar to the above example occurs.
2.6.3 Device chart This chart shows the devices and their device names, and the restrictions of !N IT# instructions' s parameters. Device charat Device Meaning 1st parameter Input Output 2nd parameter name CON: Console KBD: Keyboard COM: Serial I/O device Baud rate: 100 ACIA mode: A to (RS-232C)
Util ity car d con nec tor 4K byte or SK byte RAM or RAM /RO M card can be conn ecte d. Ext ens ion bus con nec tor An addr ess bus, a data bus and a timi ng bus can be used .
3. 1. 3 Structure of memory The main CPU in the X-07 consists of a NSC-800, which is bus compatible with the intel 8085. 64K bytes of memory area can be accessed directly. In the X-07, memory area is reserved as follows:...
5 FFF. This is so that the RAM area can be used continuously. Switching of this address range is performed with a DIP switch. In this way, the X-07 can be extended to a 16K RAM (connect a RAM to the memory socket) or a 24K RAM (further connect a SK RAM memory card) system.
A 000 -A FF F (4K byt es) Th is are a is par t of the BA SIC int erp ret er and is for a TV scr een con tro l RO M. It exi sts in an ext ens ion sta tio n and not in the X-0 7, and fun ctio n s alo ng wit h the BA SIC RO M of the X- 07.
Address for each pointer 2. 2 Address (HEX) Pointer OO B2 TXTTAB 0322 VARTAB 0324 ARYTAB 0326 STREND OlDD STKTOP 0204 FRETOP OlDF MEMSIZ 0210 RAMSTRT 0212 RAMEND (10) ROlSTRT 0013 (11 ) ROlEND (12) R02STRT 0024 (13} R02END 0026 3 On the interior of BASIC SYSTEM WORK area The area covers 0 - 551.
The start of this area is indicated by VARTAB (0322 H). • The pattern and the format of variable is as follows: • Variable pattern bytes Pointer The contents of arrays are input here. • Stack area The start of this area is indicated by STKTOP (01 DDH) •...
Machine language area The range of this area is indicated by MEMSIZ (01 DFH) and • RAMSTRT (0210 H). The size of this area can be freely changed by changin g the value of • MEMSIZ , which is set with the second paramete r of the CLEAR inst ruc tion .
3. 2. 4 Structure of the RAM file area side) of the RAM area, The text area is reserved from the lower part and the RAM file is reserved from the upper part (near FFFF side) of the RAM area. The size of the RAM file is set with the BASIC FSET instruction. Each file in the RAM file is automatically reserved an area according to its size.
The contents of the RAM file are inserted between two 4 byte FILE KEYWORDs. When is depressed, the KEYWORDs causes the day and the time (hours, minutes and seconds) at which this operation took place to be memorized. RAMSTRT and RAMEND pointers indicate the starting and end locations of the RAM file, respectively.
3. 2. 5 ROM and BASIC The interface between the BASIC system and ROM is created from a 4 character keyword ("love") and 3 entry addresses. Address 1 Address O Address 2 � Entry addresses 0000 FFFF The keyword is created from 4 bytes. "I"...
Work area 2. 7 The work area used by the BASIC system can be divided into 4 types. Conventionally initialized area. ® Area initialized when the power is turned ON. Area initialized when the BASIC system is reset. General work area. ®...
EXEC &HEE1F RETURN When the above is typed, the will not accept inputs from the keyboard, X-07 and will handle inputs from the serial I device as though they were from the keyboard (i.e. becomes the console device). The X-07 can be remote controlled from afar through the RS-232C Level Convertor.
Communication format wi th on e sta rt bi t an d tw o bi ts) of da ta is tra ns m itt ed /r ec eiv ed On e by te sto p bi ts fo r a to ta l of 11 bi ts. .
Data are transmitted/receive d in one signal line. The Serial transmission maximu m an d mi nim um vo lta ge of th e sig na l lin e is method timely set to 1 and 0 , respectiv ely. Is a figure indicating how many bits of data can be Baud rate transferred per second ( 1baud=1 bit/second).
3. 3. 3 Parallel port specifications na l fo r pa ral lel da ra tra ns mi ssi on , Th e pa ral lel po rt is th e ou tpu t ter mi cif ica tio ns. Eig ht sig na l lin es are lin ed an d it co nfo rm s to the Ce ntr on ics spe 8 bit s) of da ta can be sen t at on e tim e.
3. 3. 4 Connector and cable of each interface Cassette connector • Signal Pin no. Cassette recorder name One way to REMOTE jack REM• Signal ground REM- One way to REMOTE jack Connect to playback (EAR) jack Connect to recording jack Serial port connector •...
Parallel port connector • 15 13 II 9 1 4 12 10 8 Singal Direction Contents Pin no. name DATA1 DATA2 DATA3 Output data to printer. DATA4 DATA 1 is LSB and DATA 8 is MSB. DATA5 DATA6 DATA? DATA8 STROBE Strobe signal for printer to read DATA BUSY...
• (back of X-07) 24 28 32 36 25 29 33 Signal Signal Signal Signal Pin no. Pin no. Pin no. Pin no. name name name name KACL INTA RESET BUZZ INTR RSTC VCC2 10/M VCC2 WAIT Cassette cable •...
3. 4 How to use the Color Graphic Printer X-71 O 3.4.1 Hardware X-Y plotter with 4 colored ball point pens • Minimum X-Y division (minimum step): 0.2mm each • Text mode • Number of printing characters: 64 types (ASCII codes) Number of printing units: 16 types (80 characters/line to 5 characters /line) Graphic mode...
D ..DRAW D x 1 , Y 1 , x 2 , y 2 , .., xn, yn yn ) Draws a line from one point (x i . y1,) to the next point (xn, F ..NEW LINE Executes CR/LF only when the alpha rotate (Q) is zero.
Instructions Fu nctio ns Data DATA READ RESTORE Memory and machine language EXEC PEEK POKE Editing commands LIST LLIST LIST# LIST@ Power switch Console·cursor control CONSOLE CSR LIN CONSOLE@ FONT $ LOCATE KEY $...
Functions Instructions Character strings CHR$ INSTR LEFT$ MID$ RIG HT$ STR$ ST RING $ Ca lcula tion s Timer ALM$ DATE$ TIME$...
Instructions Functions Others BEEP MOTOR REM(') HEX$ START$...
7-1, Nishi-shlnjuku 2-chome, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160, Japan P.O. Box 5050, Shinjuku Dai-ichl Selmei Building, Tokyo 160, Japan CANON U.S.A., INC. HEAD OFFICE One Canon Plaza, Lake Success,N.Y. 11042, U.S.A. CHICAGO 140 Industrial Drive, Elmhurst, Illinois 60126, U.S.A. LOS ANGELES 123 Paularlno Avenue East, Costa Mesa, California 92626, U.S.A.