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Casio fx-9860G AU User Manual

Casio user's guide calculator fx-9860g au.
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fx-9860G AU
User's Guide
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   Summary of Contents for Casio fx-9860G AU

  • Page 1

    AU User’s Guide http://edu.casio.com...

  • Page 2

    Important! Please keep your manual and all information handy for future reference.

  • Page 3

    BEFORE USING THE CALCULATOR FOR THE FIRST TIME... This calculator does not contain any main batteries when you purchase it. Be sure to perform the following procedure to load batteries, reset the calculator, and adjust the contrast before trying to use the calculator for the first time.

  • Page 4

    • If the Main Menu shown to the right is not on the display, open the back cover and press the P button located inside of the battery compartment. P button 5. Use the cursor keys (f, c, d, e) to select the SYSTEM icon and press w, then press 1( ) to display the contrast adjustment screen.

  • Page 5: Basic Calculations 2

    Quick-Start TURNING POWER ON AND OFF USING MODES BASIC CALCULATIONS REPLAY FEATURE FRACTION CALCULATIONS EXPONENTS GRAPH FUNCTIONS DUAL GRAPH DYNAMIC GRAPH TABLE FUNCTION 20050401...

  • Page 6: Turning Power On And Off

    When you’re done, you’ll have mastered the basic operation of this calculator and will be ready to proceed with the rest of this user’s guide to learn the entire spectrum of functions available.

  • Page 7: Parentheses Calculations

    1. Press +gb)w Built-In Functions This calculator includes a number of built-in scientific functions, including trigonometric and logarithmic functions. Example: 25 × sin 45˚ Important! Be sure that you specify Deg (degrees) as the angle unit before you try this example.

  • Page 8

    SET UP 1. Press to display the Setup screen. cccccc1 2. Press to specify degrees as the angle unit. 3. Press to clear the menu. 4. Press to clear the unit. cf*sefw 5. Press REPLAY FEATURE With the replay feature, simply press was performed so you can make changes or re-execute it as it is.

  • Page 9: Fraction Calculations

    FRACTION CALCULATIONS key to input fractions into calculations. The symbol “ { ” is used You can use the to separate the various parts of a fraction. Example: 1. Press db$bg+ 2. Press dh$jw Converting an Improper Fraction to a Mixed Fraction While an improper fraction is shown on the display, press mixed fraction.

  • Page 10

    EXPONENTS Example: 1250 × 2.06 1. Press bcfa*c.ag 2. Press 3. Press and the ^ indicator appears on the display. 4. Press . The ^5 on the display indicates that 5 is an exponent. 5. Press Quick-Start 20050401...

  • Page 11

    GRAPH FUNCTIONS The graphing capabilities of this calculator makes it possible to draw complex graphs using either rectangular coordinates (horizontal axis: x ; vertical axis: y) or polar coordinates (angle: θ ; distance from origin: r). All of the following graphing examples are performed starting from the calculator setup in effect immediately following a reset operation.

  • Page 12

    2. Press (ROOT). Press for other roots. Example 3: Determine the area bounded by the origin and the X = –1 root obtained for Y = X(X + 1)(X – 2) 1. Press (G-SLV) ∫ 2. Press dx). 3. Use to move the pointer to the location where X = –1, and then press move the pointer to the location where X = 0, and...

  • Page 13

    DUAL GRAPH With this function you can split the display between two areas and display two graph windows. Example: To draw the following two graphs and determine the points of intersection Y1 = X(X + 1)(X – 2) Y2 = X + 1.2 SET UP !mcc1 1.

  • Page 14

    d e f c 3. Use again. As you do, a box appears on the display. Move the pointer so the box encloses the area you want to enlarge. 4. Press , and the enlarged area appears in the inactive (right side) screen. DYNAMIC GRAPH Dynamic Graph lets you see how the shape of a graph is affected as the value assigned to one of the coefficients of its function changes.

  • Page 15

    4. Press (VAR) of 1 to coefficient A. bwdwb 5. Press (SET) to specify the range and increment of change in coefficient A. 6. Press 7. Press (DYNA) to start Dynamic Graph drawing. The graphs are drawn 10 times. • To interrupt an ongoing Dynamic Graph drawing operation, press Quick-Start to assign an initial value...

  • Page 16

    2. Use TABLE, and then press 3. Input the formula. v(v+b) (v-c)w 4. Press (TABL) to generate the number table. To learn all about the many powerful features of this calculator, read on and explore! Quick-Start to highlight 20050401...

  • Page 17

    Precautions when Connecting to a Computer A special USB driver must be installed on your computer in order to connect to the calculator. The driver is installed along with the Program-Link software (FA-124) that comes bundled with the calculator. Be sure to install the Program-Link software (FA-124) on your computer before trying to connect the calculator.

  • Page 18: Handling Precautions

    • Avoid dropping your calculator and subjecting it to strong impact. • Do not store the calculator or leave it in areas exposed to high temperatures or humidity, or large amounts of dust. When exposed to low temperatures, the calculator may require more time to display results and may even fail to operate.

  • Page 19

    It is up to you to keep back up copies of data to protect against its loss. In no event shall CASIO Computer Co., Ltd. be liable to anyone for special, collateral, incidental, or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of the purchase or use of these materials.

  • Page 20: Table Of Contents

    Contents Getting Acquainted — Read This First! Chapter 1 Basic Operation Keys ... 1-1-1 Display ... 1-2-1 Inputting and Editing Calculations ... 1-3-1 Option (OPTN) Menu ... 1-4-1 Variable Data (VARS) Menu ... 1-5-1 Program (PRGM) Menu ... 1-6-1 Using the Setup Screen ... 1-7-1 Using Screen Capture ...

  • Page 21

    Chapter 5 Graphing Sample Graphs ... 5-1-1 Controlling What Appears on a Graph Screen ... 5-2-1 Drawing a Graph ... 5-3-1 Storing a Graph in Picture Memory ... 5-4-1 Drawing Two Graphs on the Same Screen ... 5-5-1 Manual Graphing ... 5-6-1 Using Tables ...

  • Page 22

    PRGM Mode Function Keys ... 8-2-1 Editing Program Contents ... 8-3-1 File Management ... 8-4-1 Command Reference ... 8-5-1 Using Calculator Functions in Programs ... 8-6-1 PRGM Mode Command List ... 8-7-1 Program Library ... 8-8-1 Chapter 9 Spreadsheet Spreadsheet Overview ... 9-1-1 File Operations and Re-calculation ...

  • Page 23

    Appendix Error Message Table ... Input Ranges ... -2-1 Specifications ... -3-1 Key Index ... -4-1 P Button (In case of hang up) ... Power Supply ... -6-1 Contents 20050401 -1-1 -5-1...

  • Page 24: Read This First

    Main Menu are indicated like this. uFunction Keys and Menus • Many of the operations performed by this calculator can be executed by pressing function keys 1 through 6. The operation assigned to each function key changes according to the mode the calculator is in, and current operation assignments are indicated by function menus that appear at the bottom of the display.

  • Page 25

    About Display Screens This calculator uses two types of display screens: a text screen and a graph screen. The text screen can show 21 columns and 8 lines of characters, with the bottom line used for the function key menu.

  • Page 26: Chapter 1 Basic Operation

    Basic Operation Keys Display Inputting and Editing Calculations Option (OPTN) Menu Variable Data (VARS) Menu Program (PRGM) Menu Using the Setup Screen Using Screen Capture When you keep having problems… Chapter 20050401...

  • Page 27: Keys

    1-1-1 Keys 1-1 Keys 20050401...

  • Page 28

    k k k k k Key Table Page Page 5-11-1 5-2-7 1-1-3 1-4-1 2-4-7 1-1-3 2-4-7 2-4-5 2-4-5 2-4-10 2-4-12 2-4-11 2-4-10 Page 1-8-1 1-3-7 3-1-2 2-6-2 1-1-2 Keys Page Page 5-2-1 5-10-1 1-6-1 1-7-1 1-5-1 1-2-1 2-4-5 2-4-5 2-4-5 2-4-4 2-4-5 2-4-4...

  • Page 29

    Key Markings Many of the calculator’s keys are used to perform more than one function. The functions marked on the keyboard are color coded to help you find the one you need quickly and easily.

  • Page 30: Display

    1-2 Display k Selecting Icons This section describes how to select an icon in the Main Menu to enter the mode you want. u u u u u To select an icon 1. Press m to display the Main Menu. 2.

  • Page 31

    Use this mode to perform spreadsheet calculations. Each file • contains a 26-column × 999-line spreadsheet. In addition to (Spreadsheet) the calculator’s built-in commands and S commands, you can also perform statistical calculations and graph statistical data using the same procedures that you use in the STAT mode.

  • Page 32

    About Display Screens This calculator uses two types of display screens: a text screen and a graph screen. The text screen can show 21 columns and 8 lines of characters, with the bottom line used for the function key menu.

  • Page 33

    Normal Display The calculator normally displays values up to 10 digits long. Values that exceed this limit are automatically converted to and displayed in exponential format. u How to interpret exponential format +12 indicates that the result is equivalent to 1.2 × 10 the decimal point in 1.2 twelve places to the right, because the exponent is positive.

  • Page 34

    Hexadecimal Values u Degrees/Minutes/Seconds • In addition to the above, this calculator also uses other indicators or symbols, which are described in each applicable section of this manual as they come up. k k k k k Calculation Execution Indicator Whenever the calculator is busy drawing a graph or executing a long, complex calculation or program, a black box “k”...

  • Page 35: Inputting And Editing Calculations

    1-3 Inputting and Editing Calculations Note • Unless specifically noted otherwise, all of the operations in this section are explained using the Linear input mode. k k k k k Inputting Calculations When you are ready to input a calculation, first press A to clear the display. Next, input your calculation formulas exactly as they are written, from left to right, and press w to obtain the result.

  • Page 36

    Inputting and Editing Calculations In the Linear input mode, pressing !D(INS) changes the cursor to ‘‘ ’’. The next function or value you input is overwritten at the location of ‘‘ ’’. Acga ddd!D(INS) To abort this operation, press !D(INS) again. u To delete a step ○...

  • Page 37

    Inputting and Editing Calculations u To insert a step ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example To change 2.36 Ac.dgx ddddd u To change the last step you input ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example To change 369 Adgj*d 1-3-3 to sin2.36 3 to 369 20050401...

  • Page 38

    k k k k k Using Replay Memory The last calculation performed is always stored into replay memory. You can recall the contents of the replay memory by pressing d or e. If you press e, the calculation appears with the cursor at the beginning. Pressing d causes the calculation to appear with the cursor at the end.

  • Page 39

    k Making Corrections in the Original Calculation ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example 2.3 entered by mistake for 14 Abe/a*c.d Press J. Make necessary changes. Execute again. k k k k k Using the Clipboard for Copy and Paste You can copy (or cut) a function, command, or other input to the clipboard, and then paste the clipboard contents at another location.

  • Page 40

    Inputting and Editing Calculations 3. Press 1(COPY) to copy the highlighted text to the clipboard, and exit the copy range specification mode. To cancel text highlighting without performing a copy operation, press J. Math input mode 1. Use the cursor keys to move the cursor to the line you want to copy. 2.

  • Page 41

    !j(PASTE) k k k k k Catalog Function The Catalog is an alphabetic list of all the commands available on this calculator. You can input a command by calling up the Catalog and then selecting the command you want. u To use the Catalog to input a command 1.

  • Page 42

    k Input Operations in the Math Input Mode Selecting “Math” for the “Input Mode” setting on the Setup screen (page 1-7-1) turns on the Math input mode, which allows natural input and display of certain functions, just as they appear in your textbook. Note •...

  • Page 43

    Inputting and Editing Calculations u Math Input Mode Functions and Symbols The functions and symbols listed below can be used for natural input in the Math input mode. The “Bytes” column shows the number of bytes of memory that are used up by input in the Math input mode.

  • Page 44

    Inputting and Editing Calculations u Using the MATH Menu MAT mode, pressing 4(MATH) displays the MATH menu. In the RUN • You can use this menu for natural input of matrices, differentials, integrals, etc. • {MAT} ... {displays the MAT submenu, for natural input of matrices} •...

  • Page 45

    Inputting and Editing Calculations ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 1+ 2 Example 2 To input A(b+ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ To input 1+ Example 3 Ab+4(MATH)6(g)1( a+(X)+b 1-3-11 20050401...

  • Page 46

    Inputting and Editing Calculations ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example 4 To input 2 Ac*4(MATH)1(MAT)1(2 2) $bcc e!x( u When the calculation does not fit within the display window Arrows appear at the left, right, top, or bottom edge of the display to let you know when there is more of the calculation off the screen in the corresponding direction.

  • Page 47

    Inputting and Editing Calculations u Inserting a Function into an Existing Expression In the Math input mode, you can make insert a natural input function into an existing expression. Doing so will cause the value or parenthetical expression to the right of the cursor to become the argument of the inserted function.

  • Page 48

    Inputting and Editing Calculations u Functions that Support Insertion The following lists the functions that can be inserted using the procedure under “To insert a function into an existing expression” (page 1-3-13). It also provides information about how insertion affects the existing calculation. Function Key Operation Improper Fraction...

  • Page 49

    Inputting and Editing Calculations • Note the following cursor operations you can use while inputting a calculation with natural display format. To do this: Move the cursor from the end of the calculation to the beginning Move the cursor from the beginning of the calculation to the end u Math Input Mode Calculation Result Display Fractions, matrices, and lists produced by Math input mode calculations are displayed in natural format, just as they appear in your textbook.

  • Page 50

    Inputting and Editing Calculations u Math Input Mode Input Restrictions Note the following restrictions that apply during input of the Math input mode. • Certain types of expressions can cause the vertical width of a calculation formula to be greater than one display line. The maximum allowable vertical width of a calculation formula is about two display screens (120 dots).

  • Page 51: Option (optn) Menu

    1-4 Option (OPTN) Menu The option menu gives you access to scientific functions and features that are not marked on the calculator’s keyboard. The contents of the option menu differ according to the mode you are in when you press the K key.

  • Page 52

    u Option menu during numeric data input in the STAT, TABLE, RECUR, EQUA and S SHT modes • • {LIST}/{CPLX}/{CALC}/{HYP}/{PROB}/{NUM}/{ANGL}/{ESYM}/{FMEM}/{LOGIC} u u u u u Option menu during formula input in the GRAPH, DYNA, TABLE, RECUR and EQUA modes • {List}/{CALC}/{HYP}/{PROB}/{NUM}/{FMEM}/{LOGIC} The following shows the function menus that appear under other conditions.

  • Page 53: Variable Data (vars) Menu

    1-5 Variable Data (VARS) Menu To recall variable data, press J to display the variable data menu. See “8-7 PRGM Mode Command List” for details on the variable data (VARS) menu. u V-WIN — Recalling V-Window values {X}/{Y}/{T, } • ...

  • Page 54

    u STAT — Recalling statistical data • … {single-variable, paired-variable x-data} o o o o o • { …{number of data}/{mean}/{sum}/{sum of squares}/{population standard deviation}/{sample standard deviation}/{minimum value}/{maximum value} • {Y} ... {paired-variable y-data} p p p p p • { …{mean}/{sum}/{sum of squares}/{sum of products of x-data and y-data}/ {population standard deviation}/{sample standard deviation}/{minimum value}/ {maximum value}...

  • Page 55

    u GRPH — Recalling Graph Functions • {Y}/{ } ... {rectangular coordinate or inequality function}/{polar coordinate function} • {Xt}/{Yt} ... parametric graph function {Xt}/{Yt} • {X} ... {X=constant graph function} (Press these keys before inputting a value to specify a storage memory.) u DYNA —...

  • Page 56

    RECR — Recalling Recursion Formula* • {FORM} ... {recursion formula data menu} • { ... { • {RANG} ... {table range data menu} • {Strt}/{End} ... table range {start value}/{end value} • { ... { • { St}/{ St}/{ ... origin of { graph) •...

  • Page 57: Program (prgm) Menu

    1-6 Program (PRGM) Menu To display the program (PRGM) menu, first enter the RUN Main Menu and then press !J(PRGM). The following are the selections available in the program (PRGM) menu. • {COM} ... {program command menu} • {CTL} ... {program control command menu} •...

  • Page 58: Using The Setup Screen

    1-7 Using the Setup Screen The mode’s Setup screen shows the current status of mode settings and lets you make any changes you want. The following procedure shows how to change a setup. u To change a mode setup 1. Select the icon you want and press w to enter a mode and display its initial screen. Here we will enter the RUN 2.

  • Page 59

    u Mode (calculation/binary, octal, decimal, hexadecimal mode) • {Comp} ... {arithmetic calculation mode} • {Dec}/{Hex}/{Bin}/{Oct} ... {decimal}/{hexadecimal}/{binary}/{octal} u Frac Result (fraction result display format) • {d/c}/{ab/c}... {improper}/{mixed} fraction u Func Type (graph function type) Pressing one of the following function keys also switches the function of the v key. •...

  • Page 60

    u Axes (graph axis display) • {On}/{Off} ... {display on}/{display off} u Label (graph axis label display) • {On}/{Off} ... {display on}/{display off} u Display (display format) • {Fix}/{Sci}/{Norm}/{Eng} ... {fixed number of decimal places specification}/{number of significant digits specification}/{normal display setting}/{engineering mode} u Stat Wind (statistical graph V-Window setting method) •...

  • Page 61

    u Background (graph display background) • {None}/{PICT} ... {no background}/{graph background picture specification} u Sketch Line (overlaid line type) • { ... {normal}/{thick}/{broken}/{dot} u Dynamic Type (dynamic graph type) • {Cnt}/{Stop} ... {non-stop (continuous)}/{automatic stop after 10 draws} u Locus (dynamic graph locus mode) •...

  • Page 62

    u Date Mode (number of days per year setting) • {365}/{360} ... interest calculations using {365}* u Auto Calc (spreadsheet auto calc) • {On}/{Off} ... {execute}/{not execute} the formulas automatically u Show Cell (spreadsheet cell display mode) • {Form}/{Val} ... {formula}* /{value} u Move (spreadsheet cell cursor direction) •...

  • Page 63: Using Screen Capture

    1-8 Using Screen Capture Any time while operating the calculator, you can capture an image of the current screen and save it in capture memory. u To capture a screen image 1. Operate the calculator and display the screen you want to capture.

  • Page 64: When You Keep Having Problems

    • Should the unit hang up and stop responding to input from the keyboard, press the P button on the back of the calculator to reset the calculator to its initial defaults (see page -5-1). Note, however, that this may clear all the data in calculator memory.

  • Page 65

    Low Battery Message If either of the following messages appears on the display, immediately turn off the calculator and replace main batteries as instructed. If you continue using the calculator without replacing main batteries, power will automatically turn off to protect memory contents.

  • Page 66: Chapter 2 Manual Calculations

    Manual Calculations Basic Calculations Special Functions Specifying the Angle Unit and Display Format Function Calculations Numerical Calculations Complex Number Calculations Binary, Octal, Decimal, and Hexadecimal Calculations with Integers Matrix Calculations Linear/Math input mode (page 1-3-8) • Unless specifically noted otherwise, all of the operations in this chapter are explained using the Linear input mode.

  • Page 67: Basic Calculations

    2-1 Basic Calculations k k k k k Arithmetic Calculations • Enter arithmetic calculations as they are written, from left to right. • Use the - key to input the minus sign before a negative value. • Calculations are performed internally with a 15-digit mantissa. The result is rounded to a 10-digit mantissa before it is displayed.

  • Page 68

    k k k k k Number of Decimal Places, Number of Significant Digits, Normal Display Range • Even after you specify the number of decimal places or the number of significant digits, internal calculations are still performed using a 15-digit mantissa, and displayed values are stored with a 10-digit mantissa.

  • Page 69

    (Example: To specify rounding to two decimal places) k k k k k Calculation Priority Sequence This calculator employs true algebraic logic to calculate the parts of a formula in the following order: 1 Type A functions Coordinate transformation Pol ( Derivatives, second derivatives, integrations, Σ...

  • Page 70

    2 Type B functions With these functions, the value is entered and then the function key is pressed. !, ° ’ ”, ENG symbols, angle unit –1 3 Power/root ^( 4 Fractions 5 Abbreviated multiplication format in front of π, memory name, or variable name. 2π, 5A, etc.

  • Page 71: Multiplication Operations Without A Multiplication Sign

    Exceeding a specified input or calculation range, or attempting an illegal input causes an error message to appear on the display. Further operation of the calculator is impossible while an error message is displayed. The following events cause an error message to appear on the display.

  • Page 72: Memory Capacity

    • When you try to perform a calculation that causes memory capacity to be exceeded (Memory ERROR). • When you use a command that requires an argument, without providing a valid argument (Argument ERROR). • When an attempt is made to use an illegal dimension during matrix calculations (Dimension ERROR).

  • Page 73: Special Functions

    Memory Variables (Alpha Memory) This calculator comes with 28 variables as standard. You can use variables to store values you want to use inside of calculations. Variables are identified by single-letter names, which are made up of the 26 letters of the alphabet, plus you can assign to variables is 15 digits for the mantissa and 2 digits for the exponent.

  • Page 74

    u To display the contents of a variable ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example To display the contents of variable A Aav(A)w u To clear a variable ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example To clear variable A Aaaav(A)w u To assign the same value to more than one variable [value]a [first variable name* ○...

  • Page 75

    u To store a function ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example To store the function (A+B) (A–B) as function memory number 1 (av(A)+al(B)) (av(A)-al(B)) K6(g)6(g)3(FMEM) 1(STO)bw u To recall a function ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example To recall the contents of function memory number 1 K6(g)6(g)3(FMEM) 2(RCL)bw u To recall a function as a variable...

  • Page 76

    u To delete a function ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example To delete the contents of function memory number 1 AK6(g)6(g)3(FMEM) 1(STO)bw • Executing the store operation while the display is blank deletes the function in the function memory you specify. u To use stored functions ○...

  • Page 77

    k k k k k Answer Function The Answer Function automatically stores the last result you calculated by pressing w(unless the w key operation results in an error). The result is stored in the answer memory. u To use the contents of the answer memory in a calculation ○...

  • Page 78

    k k k k k History Function The history function maintains a history of calculation expressions and results in the Math input mode. Up to 30 sets of calculation expressions and results are maintained. b+cw You can also edit the calculation expressions that are maintained by the history function and recalculate.

  • Page 79

    k Stacks The unit employs memory blocks, called stacks , for storage of low priority values and commands. There is a 10-level numeric value stack , a 26-level command stack , and a 10- level program subroutine stack . An error occurs if you perform a calculation so complex that it exceeds the capacity of available numeric value stack or command stack space, or if execution of a program subroutine exceeds the capacity of the subroutine stack.

  • Page 80: Using Multistatements

    k Using Multistatements Multistatements are formed by connecting a number of individual statements for sequential execution. You can use multistatements in manual calculations and in programmed calculations. There are two different ways that you can use to connect statements to form multistatements.

  • Page 81: Specifying The Angle Unit And Display Format

    Specifying the Angle Unit and Display Format 2-3 Specifying the Angle Unit and Display Format Before performing a calculation for the first time, you should use the Setup screen to specify the angle unit and display format. k k k k k Setting the Angle Unit 1.

  • Page 82

    (micro) n (nano) p (pico) f (femto) # The engineering symbol that makes the mantissa a value from 1 to 1000 is automatically selected by the calculator when engineering notation is in effect. 20050401 (Norm 1) (Norm 2) –3 –6 –9...

  • Page 83: Function Calculations

    2-4 Function Calculations k Function Menus This calculator includes five function menus that give you access to scientific functions not printed on the key panel. • The contents of the function menu differ according to the mode you entered from the Main Menu before you pressed the K key.

  • Page 84

    u u u u u Angle Units, Coordinate Conversion, Sexagesimal Operations (ANGL) • { }/{r}/{g} ... {degrees}/{radians}/{grads} for a specific input value • { ’ ”} ... {specifies degrees (hours), minutes, seconds when inputting a degrees/minutes/ seconds value} • { ’ ” } ... {converts decimal value to degrees/minutes/seconds value}* •...

  • Page 85

    k k k k k Angle Units To change the angle unit of an input value, first press K6(g)5(ANGL). On the function key menu that appears, select “ ”, “r”, or “g”. • Be sure to specify Comp for Mode in the Setup screen. Example To convert 4.25 rad to degrees: 243.5070629...

  • Page 86

    k k k k k Trigonometric and Inverse Trigonometric Functions • Be sure to set the angle unit before performing trigonometric function and inverse trigonometric function calculations. (90 = ––– radians = 100 grads) • Be sure to specify Comp for Mode in the Setup screen. Example sin 63 = 0.8910065242 cos (––...

  • Page 87: Logarithmic And Exponential Functions

    k Logarithmic and Exponential Functions • Be sure to specify Comp for Mode in the Setup screen. Example log 1.23 (log 1.23) = 0.08990511144 8 = 3 In 90 (log 90) = 4.49980967 1.23 = 16.98243652 (To obtain the antilogarithm of common logarithm 1.23) = 90.0171313 (To obtain the antilogarithm of natural...

  • Page 88: Hyperbolic And Inverse Hyperbolic Functions

    k Hyperbolic and Inverse Hyperbolic Functions • Be sure to specify Comp for Mode in the Setup screen. Example sinh 3.6 = 18.28545536 cosh 1.5 – sinh 1.5 = 0.2231301601 –1.5 (Display: –1.5) (Proof of cosh sinh –1 cosh = 0.7953654612 Determine the value of when tanh = 0.88...

  • Page 89: Other Functions

    k Other Functions • Be sure to specify Comp for Mode in the Setup screen. Example = 3.65028154 (3 + i) = 1.755317302 +0.2848487846 (–3) = (–3) (–3) = 9 –3 = –(3 3) = –9 –––––– = 12 –– – –– 8! (= 1 2 3 ...

  • Page 90

    k Random Number Generation (Ran#) This function generates a 10-digit truly random or sequentially random number that is greater than zero and less than 1. • A truly random number is generated if you do not specify anything for the argument. Example Ran# (Generates a random number.) (Each press of w generates a new random...

  • Page 91: Coordinate Conversion

    k Coordinate Conversion u u u u u Rectangular Coordinates • With polar coordinates, < 180 (radians and grads have same range). –180 < • Be sure to specify Comp for Mode in the Setup screen. Example Calculate r and when x = 14 and y = 20.7 24.989 55.928...

  • Page 92: Permutation And Combination

    k Permutation and Combination u u u u u Permutation nPr = ––––– (n – r)! • Be sure to specify Comp for Mode in the Setup screen. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example To calculate the possible number of different arrangements using 4 items selected from among 10 items Formula = 5040...

  • Page 93

    • Be sure to specify Comp for Mode in the Setup screen. Example –– + 3 –– = ––– ––––– + ––––– 4572 = 6.066202547 2578 –– 0.5 = 0.25* Display: 1.5 + 2.3i = –– + –– i +23{10i ––––––...

  • Page 94: K Engineering Notation Calculations

    Switching between improper fraction and mixed fraction format Pressing the !M( < improper fraction format. Switching between fraction and decimal format • If the calculation result includes a fraction, the display format (improper fraction or mixed fraction) is in accordance with the “Frac Result” setting of the Setup screen. For details, see “1-7 Using the Setup Screen”.

  • Page 95: Numerical Calculations

    2-5 Numerical Calculations The following describes the items that are available in the menus you use when performing differential/quadratic differential, integration, Σ, maximum/minimum value, and Solve calculations. When the option menu is on the display, press 4(CALC) to display the function analysis menu.

  • Page 96: Differential Calculations

    k Differential Calculations To perform differential calculations, first display the function analysis menu, and then input the values using the syntax below. K4(CALC)2( d/dx ( f (x), a) ––– f (a) The differentiation for this type of calculation is defined as: f (a + Ax) –...

  • Page 97

    # Input of the tolerance (tol) value and the closing parenthesis can be omitted. If you omit tolerance (tol) value, the calculator automati- cally uses a value for tol as 1 -10. # Specify a tolerance (tol) value of 1 greater.

  • Page 98

    u Applications of Differential Calculations • Differentials can be added, subtracted, multiplied or divided with each other. ––– f (a) = f '(a), ––– g (a) = g'(a) Therefore: f '(a) + g'(a), f '(a) g'(a), etc. • Differential results can be used in addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, and in functions.

  • Page 99

    k k k k k Quadratic Differential Calculations After displaying the function analysis menu, you can input quadratic differentials using the following syntax. K4(CALC)3( ––– (f (x), a) ⇒ ––– f (a) Quadratic differential calculations produce an approximate differential value using the following second order differential formula, which is based on Newton’s polynomial interpretation.

  • Page 100

    <Math> A4(MATH)5( +evx+v-gedw u Quadratic Differential Applications • Arithmetic operations can be performed using two quadratic differentials. ––– f (a) = f ''(a), ––– g (a) = g''(a) Therefore: f ''(a) + g''(a), f ''(a) × g''(a), etc. • The result of a quadratic differential calculation can be used in a subsequent arithmetic or function calculation.

  • Page 101

    k k k k k Integration Calculations To perform integration calculations, first display the function analysis menu and then input the values using the syntax below. K4(CALC)4 ( dx) f(x) , f(x), a, tol) f(x)dx As shown in the illustration above, integration calculations are performed by calculating integral values from through in effect calculates the surface area of the shaded area in the illustration.

  • Page 102

    # Input of “tol” and closing parenthesis can be omitted. If you omit “tol,” the calculator automatically uses a default value of 1 2-5-8 Numerical Calculations )cvx+ f(x) dx), etc.

  • Page 103

    Note the following points to ensure correct integration values. (1) When cyclical functions for integration values become positive or negative for different divisions, perform the calculation for single cycles, or divide between negative and positive, and then add the results together. (2) When minute fluctuations in integration divisions produce large fluctuations in integration values, calculate the integration divisions separately (divide the large fluctuation areas into smaller divisions), and then add the results together.

  • Page 104

    If you omit cally uses = 1. # In the Math input mode, the distance between partitions ( ) is fixed at 1 and cannot be changed. 20050401 20060601 [OPTN]-[CALC]-[ ] and last term ( ) of sequence , the calculator automati-...

  • Page 105

    Calculation Applications • Arithmetic operations using Expressions: Possible operations: • Arithmetic and function operations using , log (S ), etc. • Function operations using (sink, k, 1, 5), etc. # You cannot use a differential, quadratic differential, integration, , maximum/minimum value, Solve, RndFix or log ab calculation expression inside of a calculation term.

  • Page 106

    k k k k k Maximum/Minimum Value Calculations After displaying the function analysis menu, you can input maximum/minimum calculations using the formats below, and solve for the maximum and minimum of a function within < < interval u u u u u Minimum Value K4(CALC)6(g)1(FMin) f(x) , start point of interval, u u u u u Maximum Value...

  • Page 107

    ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example 2 To determine the maximum value for the interval defined by start point 0 and end point y = –x function f(x) Input AK4(CALC)6(g)2(FMax) -vx+cv+c, , b = Input the interval a,d, Input the precision # In the function , only X can be used as a variable in expressions.

  • Page 108: Complex Number Calculations

    Complex Number Calculations 2-6 Complex Number Calculations You can perform addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, parentheses calculations, function calculations, and memory calculations with complex numbers just as you do with the manual calculations described on pages 2-1-1 and 2-4-7. You can select the complex number calculation mode by changing the Complex Mode item on the Setup screen to one of the following settings.

  • Page 109

    k k k k k Arithmetic Operations Arithmetic operations are the same as those you use for manual calculations. You can even use parentheses and memory. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ (1 + 2i) + (2 + 3i) Example 1 AK3(CPLX) (b+c1( +(c+d1(...

  • Page 110

    k k k k k Absolute Value and Argument The unit regards a complex number in the form and calculates absolute value Z and argument (arg). ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example To calculate absolute value ( number 3 + 4 AK3(CPLX)2(Abs) (d+e1( (Calculation of absolute value)

  • Page 111

    k k k k k Extraction of Real and Imaginary Parts Use the following procedure to extract the real part complex number of the form ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example To extract the real and imaginary parts of the complex number 2 + 5 AK3(CPLX)6(g)1(ReP) (c+f6(g)1( (Real part extraction)

  • Page 112

    k k k k k Polar and Rectangular Form Transformation Use the following procedure to transform a complex number displayed in rectangular form to polar form, and vice versa. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example To transform the rectangular form of complex number 1 + 3 polar form !m(SET UP)cccccc 1(Deg)c2(...

  • Page 113: Binary, Octal, Decimal, And Hexadecimal Calculations With Integers

    • If you attempt to enter a value that is invalid for the number system (binary, octal, decimal, hexadecimal) you are using, the calculator displays an error message. The following shows the numerals that can be used in each number system.

  • Page 114

    Binary, Octal, Decimal, and Hexadecimal Calculations with Integers • The following are the calculation ranges for each of the number systems. Binary Values Positive: 0 < < 111111111111111 Negative: 1000000000000000 < Octal Values Positive: 0 < < 17777777777 Negative: 20000000000 < Decimal Values Positive: 0 <...

  • Page 115

    Binary, Octal, Decimal, and Hexadecimal Calculations with Integers k k k k k Selecting a Number System You can specify decimal, hexadecimal, binary, or octal as the default number system using the Setup screen. u u u u u To specify a number system for an input value You can specify a number system for each individual value you input.

  • Page 116: Negative Values

    Binary, Octal, Decimal, and Hexadecimal Calculations with Integers ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example 2 To input and execute 123 decimal or hexadecimal !m(SET UP)c2(Dec)J A1(d~o)4(o)bcd* 2(h)ABC* J3(DISP)2( k k k k k Negative Values and Bitwise Operations Press 2(LOG) to display a menu of negation and bitwise operators. •...

  • Page 117

    Binary, Octal, Decimal, and Hexadecimal Calculations with Integers ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example 2 To display the result of “36 !m(SET UP)c5(Oct)J Adg2(LOG) 4(or)J1(d~o)3(b) bbbaw ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example 3 To negate 2FFFED !m(SET UP)c3(Hex)J A2(LOG)2(Not) cFFFED* Number System Transformation Press 3(DISP) to display a menu of number system transformation functions.

  • Page 118: Matrix Calculations

    The maximum number of rows that can be specified for a matrix is 255, and the maximum number of columns is 255. # About Matrix Answer Memory (MatAns) The calculator automatically stores matrix calculation results in Matrix Answer Memory. Note the following points about Matrix Answer Memory.

  • Page 119

    k Inputting and Editing Matrices Pressing 1('MAT) displays the Matrix Editor screen. Use the Matrix Editor to input and edit matrices. n … m (row) n (column) matrix None… no matrix preset • {DEL}/{DEL·A} ... deletes {a specific matrix}/{all matrices} •...

  • Page 120

    u To input cell values ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example To input the following data into Matrix B : The following operation is a continuation of the example calculation on the previous page. bwcwdw ewfwgw (Data is input into the highlighted cell. Each time you press w, the highlighting moves to the next cell to the right.) To exit the Matrix input screen, press J.

  • Page 121

    Deleting Matrices You can delete either a specific matrix or all matrices in memory. u To delete a specific matrix 1. While the Matrix Editor is on the display, use f and c to highlight the matrix you want to delete. 2.

  • Page 122: Matrix Cell Operations

    k Matrix Cell Operations Use the following procedure to prepare a matrix for cell operations. 1. While the Matrix Editor is on the display, use f and c to highlight the name of the matrix you want to use. You can jump to a specific matrix by inputting the letter that corresponds to the matrix name.

  • Page 123

    u u u u u To calculate the scalar multiplication of a row ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example To calculate the product of row 2 of the following matrix and the scalar Matrix A = 1(R-OP)2( Rw) Input multiplier value. Specify row number.

  • Page 124

    u To add two rows together ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example To add row 2 to row 3 of the following matrix : Matrix A = 1(R-OP)4(Rw+) Specify number of row to be added. Specify number of row to be added to. 6(EXE) (or w) Row Operations •...

  • Page 125

    u To insert a row ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example To insert a new row between rows one and two of the following matrix : Matrix A = 2(ROW)2(INS) u To add a row ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example To add a new row below row 3 of the following matrix : Matrix A =...

  • Page 126

    Column Operations • {DEL} ... {delete column} • {INS} ... {insert column} • {ADD} ... {add column} u To delete a column ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example To delete column 2 of the following matrix : Matrix A = 3(COL)1(DEL) u To insert a column ○...

  • Page 127

    u To add a column ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example To add a new column to the right of column 2 of the following matrix : Matrix A = 3(COL)3(ADD) k Modifying Matrices Using Matrix Commands u To display the matrix commands 1.

  • Page 128

    Matrix Data Input Format The following shows the format you should use when inputting data to create a matrix using the Mat command. = [ [a Mat [letter A through Z] ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example 1 To input the following data as Matrix A : !+( [ )!+( [ )b,d,f !-( ] )!+( [ )c,e,g !-( ] )!-( ] )aK2(MAT)

  • Page 129

    u To input an identity matrix Use the Identity command to create an identity matrix. To create a 3 × 3 identity matrix as Matrix A Example 2 K2(MAT)6(g)1(Iden) da6(g)1(Mat)av(A)w Number of rows/columns u To check the dimensions of a matrix Use the Dim command to check the dimensions of an existing matrix.

  • Page 130

    Modifying Matrices Using Matrix Commands You can also use matrix commands to assign values to and recall values from an existing matrix, to fill in all cells of an existing matrix with the same value, to combine two matrices into a single matrix, and to assign the contents of a matrix column to a list file. u To assign values to and recall values from an existing matrix Use the following format with the Mat command to specify a cell for value assignment and recall.

  • Page 131

    u u u u u To fill a matrix with identical values and to combine two matrices into a single matrix Use the Fill command to fill all the cells of an existing matrix with an identical value and the Augment command to combine two existing matrices into a single matrix.

  • Page 132

    u u u u u To assign the contents of a matrix column to a list Use the following format with the Mat List command to specify a column and a list. List (Mat X, List X = matrix name (A through Z, or Ans) = column number = list number ○...

  • Page 133

    k Matrix Calculations Use the matrix command menu to perform matrix calculation operations. u To display the matrix commands 1. From the Main Menu, enter the RUN 2. Press K to display the option menu. 3. Press 2(MAT) to display the matrix command menu. The following describes only the matrix commands that are used for matrix arithmetic operations.

  • Page 134

    Matrix Arithmetic Operations ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example 1 To add the following two matrices (Matrix A + Matrix B) : AK2(MAT)1(Mat)av(A)+ 1(Mat)al(B)w ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example 2 Calculate the product to the following matrix using a multiplier value of 5 : Matrix A = AfK2(MAT)1(Mat)

  • Page 135

    Determinant ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example Obtain the determinant for the following matrix : Matrix A = K2(MAT)3(Det)1(Mat) av(A)w Matrix Transposition A matrix is transposed when its rows become columns and its columns become rows. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example To transpose the following matrix : Matrix A =...

  • Page 136

    Matrix Inversion ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example To invert the following matrix : Matrix A = K2(MAT)1(Mat) av(A)!) ( Squaring a Matrix ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example To square the following matrix : Matrix A = K2(MAT)1(Mat)av(A)xw # Only square matrices (same number of rows and columns) can be inverted.

  • Page 137

    Raising a Matrix to a Power Example To raise the following matrix to the third power : Matrix A = K2(MAT)1(Mat)av(A) Determining the Absolute Value, Integer Part, Fraction Part, and Maximum Integer of a Matrix Example To determine the absolute value of the following matrix : Matrix A = K6(g)4(NUM)1(Abs) K2(MAT)1(Mat)av(A)w...

  • Page 138

    k Performing Matrix Calculations Using Natural Input u To specify the dimensions (size) of a matrix MAT mode, press !m(SET UP)1(Math)J. 1. In the RUN • 2. Press 4(MATH) to display the MATH menu. 3. Press 1(MAT) to display the following menu. •...

  • Page 139

    u To input cell values ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example To perform the calculation shown below The following operation is a continuation of the example calculation on the previous page. be$bcceedde $bdceee!x( eege*iw u To assign a matrix created using natural input to a MAT mode matrix ○...

  • Page 140: Chapter 3 List Function

    List Function A list is a storage place for multiple data items. This calculator lets you store up to 26 lists in a single file, and you can store up to six files in memory. Stored lists can be used in arithmetic and statistical calculations, and for graphing.

  • Page 141: Inputting And Editing A List

    3-1 Inputting and Editing a List When you enter the STAT mode, the “List Editor” will appear first. You can use the List Editor to input data into a list and to perform a variety of other list data operations. u u u u u To input values one-by-one Use the cursor keys to move the highlighting to the list name, sub name or cell you want to select.

  • Page 142

    Inputting and Editing a List u u u u u To batch input a series of values 1. Use the cursor keys to move the highlighting to another list. 2. Press !*( { ), and then input the values you want, pressing , between each one.

  • Page 143

    k k k k k Editing List Values u u u u u To change a cell value Use the cursor keys to move the highlighting to the cell whose value you want to change. Input the new value and press w to replace the old data with the new one. u u u u u To edit the contents of a cell 1.

  • Page 144

    Inputting and Editing a List u u u u u To delete all cells in a list Use the following procedure to delete all the data in a list. 1. Use the cursor key to move the highlighting to any cell of the list whose data you want to delete.

  • Page 145

    k k k k k Naming a List You can assign List 1 through List 26 “sub names” of up to eight bytes each. u u u u u To name a list 1. On the Setup screen, highlight “Sub Name” and then press 1(On)J. 2.

  • Page 146

    k k k k k Sorting List Values You can sort lists into either ascending or descending order. The highlighting can be located in any cell of the list. u u u u u To sort a single list Ascending order 1.

  • Page 147

    Inputting and Editing a List u u u u u To sort multiple lists You can link multiple lists together for a sort so that all of their cells are rearranged in accordance with the sorting of a base list. The base list is sorted into either ascending order or descending order, while the cells of the linked lists are arranged so that the relative relationship of all the rows is maintained.

  • Page 148

    Inputting and Editing a List Descending order Use the same procedure as that for the ascending order sort. The only difference is that you should press 2(SRT D) in place of 1(SRT • # You can specify a value from 1 to 6 as the number of lists for sorting.

  • Page 149: Manipulating List Data

    3-2 Manipulating List Data List data can be used in arithmetic and function calculations. In addition, various list data manipulation functions make manipulation of list data quick and easy. You can use list data manipulation functions in the RUN PRGM modes. k k k k k Accessing the List Data Manipulation Function Menu All of the following examples are performed after entering the RUN Press K and then 1(LIST) to display the list data manipulation menu, which contains the...

  • Page 150

    u To count the number of data items in a list K1(LIST)3(Dim)1(List) <list number 1-26> w • The number of cells a list contains is its “dimension.” Example To count the number of values in List 1 (36, 16, 58, 46, 56) AK1(LIST)3(Dim) 1(List)bw u To create a list or matrix by specifying the number of data items...

  • Page 151

    To create a 2-row × 3-column matrix (each cell of which Example contains 0) in Matrix A A!*( { )c,d!/( } )a K1(LIST)3(Dim) K2(MAT)1(Mat)av(A)w The following shows the new contents of Mat A. u To replace all data items with the same value K1(LIST)4(Fill) <value>,1(List) <list number 1-26>)w Example To replace all data items in List 1 with the number 3...

  • Page 152

    u To find the minimum value in a list K1(LIST)6(g)1(Min)6(g)6(g)1(List) <list number 1-26> )w Example To find the minimum value in List 1 (36, 16, 58, 46, 56) AK1(LIST)6(g)1(Min) 6(g)6(g)1(List)b)w u To find the maximum value in a list Use the same procedure as when finding the minimum value (Min), except press 6(g)2(Max) in place of 6(g)1(Min).

  • Page 153

    u To calculate the mean of data items K1(LIST)6(g)3(Mean)6(g)6(g)1(List) <list number 1-26>)w Example To calculate the mean of data items in List 1 (36, 16, 58, 46, 56) AK1(LIST)6(g)3(Mean) 6(g)6(g)1(List)b)w u To calculate the mean of data items of specified frequency This procedure uses two lists: one that contains values and one that indicates the frequency (number of occurrences) of each value.

  • Page 154

    u To calculate the median of data items of specified frequency This procedure uses two lists: one that contains values and one that indicates the frequency (number of occurrences) of each value. The frequency of the data in Cell 1 of the first list is indicated by the value in Cell 1 of the second list, etc.

  • Page 155

    u To calculate the product of values in a list K1(LIST)6(g)6(g)2(Prod)6(g)1(List)<list number 1-26>w Example To calculate the product of values in List 1 (2, 3, 6, 5, 4) AK1(LIST)6(g)6(g)2(Prod) 6(g)1(List)bw u To calculate the cumulative frequency of each data item K1(LIST)6(g)6(g)3(Cuml)6(g)1(List) <list number 1-26>w •...

  • Page 156

    Example To calculate the percentage represented by each data item in List 1 (2, 3, 6, 5, 4) AK1(LIST)6(g)6(g)4(%) 6(g)1(List)bw u To calculate the differences between neighboring data inside a list K1(LIST)6(g)6(g)5(A)<list number 1-26>w • The result of this operation is stored in ListAns memory. Example To calculate the difference between the data items in List 1 (1, 3, 8, 5, 4)

  • Page 157: Arithmetic Calculations Using Lists

    3-3 Arithmetic Calculations Using Lists You can perform arithmetic calculations using two lists or one list and a numeric value. List Numeric Value k Error Messages • A calculation involving two lists performs the operation between corresponding cells. Because of this, an error occurs if the two lists do not have the same number of values (which means they have different “dimensions”).

  • Page 158

    Arithmetic Calculations Using Lists u To directly input a list of values You can also directly input a list of values using {, }, and ,. Example 1 To input the list: 56, 82, 64 !*( { )fg,ic, ge!/( } ) Example 2 To multiply List 3 K1(LIST)1(List)d*!*( { )g,a,e!/( } )w The resulting list...

  • Page 159: Recalling List Contents

    u To recall the value in a specific list cell You can recall the value in a specific list cell and use it in a calculation. Specify the cell number by enclosing it inside square brackets. Example To calculate the sine of the value stored in Cell 3 of List 2 sK1(LIST)1(List)c!+( [ )d!-( ] )w u To input a value into a specific list cell You can input a value into a specific list cell inside a list.

  • Page 160: Graphing A Function Using A List

    Graphing a Function Using a List When using the graphing functions of this calculator, you can input a function such as Y1 = List 1 X. If List 1 contains the values 1, 2, 3, this function will produces three graphs: Y = X, Y = 2X, Y = 3X.

  • Page 161: Performing Scientific Function Calculations Using A List

    5. Press bw. 6. Enter the STAT mode to confirm that TABLE mode column Y1 has been copied to List 1. k Performing Scientific Function Calculations Using a List Lists can be used just as numeric values are in scientific function calculations. When the calculation produces a list as a result, the list is stored in ListAns Memory.

  • Page 162: Switching Between List Files

    3-4 Switching Between List Files You can store up to 26 lists (List 1 to List 26) in each file (File 1 to File 6). A simple operation lets you switch between list files. u To switch between list files 1.

  • Page 163: Chapter 4 Equation Calculations

    Equation Calculations Your graphic calculator can perform the following three types of calculations: • Simultaneous linear equations • Quadratic and cubic equations • Solve calculations From the Main Menu, enter the EQUA mode. • {SIML} ... {linear equation with 2 to 6 unknowns} •...

  • Page 164: Simultaneous Linear Equations

    4-1 Simultaneous Linear Equations Description You can solve simultaneous linear equations with two to six unknowns. • Simultaneous Linear Equation with Two Unknowns: • Simultaneous Linear Equation with Three Unknowns: Set Up 1. From the Main Menu, enter the EQUA mode. Execution 2.

  • Page 165

    Also, simultaneous equations with three or more unknowns may take a very long time to solve. # An error occurs if the calculator is unable to find a solution. # After calculation is complete, you can press 1 (REPT), change coefficient values, and then re-calculate.

  • Page 166: Quadratic And Cubic Equations

    4-2 Quadratic and Cubic Equations Description You can use this calculator to solve quadratic equations and cubic equations. • Quadratic Equation: (a ≠ + bx + c = • Cubic Equation: + bx + cx + d = Set Up 1.

  • Page 167

    Quadratic and Cubic Equations Example To solve the cubic equation (Angle unit = Rad) – 2 – + 2 = 0 Procedure 1 m EQUA 2 2(POLY) 2(3) 3 bw-cw-bwcw 4 1(SOLV) Result Screen Multiple Solutions (Example: Complex Number Solution (Example: Complex Mode: Real (page 1-7-2) Complex Mode: Complex Mode: r∠...

  • Page 168: Solve Calculations

    2. Select the Solve Calculation mode, and input the equation as it is written. If you do not input an equals sign, the calculator assumes that the expression is to the left of the equals sign, and there is a zero to the right. * 3.

  • Page 169

    Example An object thrown into the air at initial velocity V takes time T to reach height H. Use the following formula to solve for initial velocity V when H = 14 (meters), T = 2 (seconds) and gravitational acceleration is G = 9.8 (m/s H = VT –...

  • Page 170: What To Do When An Error Occurs

    4-4 What to Do When an Error Occurs u Error during coefficient value input Press the J key to clear the error and return to the value that was registered for the coefficient before you input the value that generated the error. Try inputting a new value again.

  • Page 171: Chapter 5 Graphing

    Graphing Sections 5-1 and 5-2 of this chapter provide basic information you need to know in order to draw a graph. The remaining sections describe more advanced graphing features and functions. Select the icon in the Main Menu that suits the type of graph you want to draw or the type of table you want to generate.

  • Page 172: Sample Graphs

    5-1 Sample Graphs k k k k k How to draw a simple graph (1) Description To draw a graph, simply input the applicable function. Set Up 1. From the Main Menu, enter the GRAPH mode. Execution 2. Input the function you want to graph. Here you would use the V-Window to specify the range and other parameters of the graph.

  • Page 173

    ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example To graph Procedure 1 m GRAPH 2 dvxw 3 6(DRAW) (or w) Result Screen # Pressing A while a graph is on the display will return to the screen in step 2. 5-1-2 Sample Graphs 20050401...

  • Page 174

    k k k k k How to draw a simple graph (2) Description You can store up to 20 functions in memory and then select the one you want for graphing. Set Up 1. From the Main Menu, enter the GRAPH mode. Execution 2.

  • Page 175

    ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example Input the functions shown below and draw their graphs Y1 = 2 – 3, Procedure 1 m GRAPH 2 3(TYPE)1(Y=)cvx-dw 3(TYPE)2(r=)dscvw 3 6(DRAW) Result Screen (Parametric) 5-1-4 Sample Graphs 2 = 3sin2 θ (Inequality) 20050401...

  • Page 176

    k k k k k How to draw a simple graph (3) Description Use the following procedure to graph the function of a parabola, circle, ellipse, or hyperbola. Set Up 1. From the Main Menu, enter the CONICS mode. Execution 2.

  • Page 177

    ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example Graph the circle (X–1) Procedure 1 m CONICS 2 ccccw 3 bwbwcw 4 6(DRAW) Result Screen (Parabola) 5-1-6 Sample Graphs + (Y–1) (Ellipse) 20050401 (Hyperbola)

  • Page 178

    k k k k k How to draw a simple graph (4) Description You can specify the graph line style, if you want. Set Up 1. From the Main Menu, enter the GRAPH mode. Execution 2. Input the function you want to graph. Here you would use the V-Window to specify the range and other parameters of the graph.

  • Page 179

    ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example To graph Procedure 1 m GRAPH 2 3(TYPE)1(Y=)dvxw 3 f4(STYL)3( 4 6(DRAW) (or w) Result Screen (Normal) 5-1-8 Sample Graphs (Thick) 20050401 (Dotted)

  • Page 180: Controlling What Appears On A Graph Screen

    Controlling What Appears on a Graph Screen 5-2 Controlling What Appears on a Graph Screen k k k k k V-Window (View Window) Settings Use the View Window to specify the range of the between the increments on each axis. You should always set the V-Window parameters you want to use before graphing.

  • Page 181

    Controlling What Appears on a Graph Screen u V-Window Setting Precautions • Inputting zero for T θ ptch causes an error. • Any illegal input (out of range value, negative sign without a value, etc.) causes an error. • When T θ max is less than T θ min, T θ ptch becomes negative. •...

  • Page 182

    V-Window in accordance with an angle unit. Xmin = – 3π (rad), Ymin = –1.6, u To standardize the V-Window The following are the standard V-Window settings of this calculator. Xmin = –10, Xmax = 10, Ymin = –10, Ymax = 10, T θ...

  • Page 183

    Controlling What Appears on a Graph Screen k k k k k V-Window Memory You can store up to six sets of V-Window settings in V-Window memory for recall when you need them. u To store V-Window settings 1. From the Main Menu, enter the GRAPH mode. 2.

  • Page 184

    Controlling What Appears on a Graph Screen k k k k k Specifying the Graph Range Description You can define a range (start point, end point) for a function before graphing it. Set Up 1. From the Main Menu, enter the GRAPH mode. 2.

  • Page 185

    Controlling What Appears on a Graph Screen ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example Graph Use the following V-Window settings. Xmin = –3, Ymin = –10, Procedure 1 m GRAPH 2 !3(V-WIN) -dwfwbwc -bawdawfwJ 3 3(TYPE)1(Y=)vx+dv-c, !+( [ )-c,e!-( ] )w 4 6(DRAW) Result Screen # You can specify a range when graphing...

  • Page 186

    Controlling What Appears on a Graph Screen k k k k k Zoom Description This function lets you enlarge and reduce the graph on the screen. Set Up 1. Draw the graph. Execution 2. Specify the zoom type. !2(ZOOM)1(BOX) ... Box zoom 2(FACT) 3(IN)/4(OUT) ...

  • Page 187

    Controlling What Appears on a Graph Screen ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example Graph + 5)( Use the following V-Window settings. Xmin = –8, Ymin = – 4, Procedure 1 m GRAPH !3(V-WIN) -iwiwcwc -ewcwbwJ 3(TYPE)1(Y=) (v+f)(v+e) (v+d)w 6(DRAW) 2 !2(ZOOM)1(BOX) 3 d~dw 4 d~d,f~fw Result Screen...

  • Page 188

    Controlling What Appears on a Graph Screen k k k k k Factor Zoom Description With factor zoom, you can zoom in or out, centered on the current cursor position. Set Up 1. Draw the graph. Execution 2. Press !2(ZOOM)2(FACT) to open a pop-up window for specifying the -axis zoom factor.

  • Page 189

    Controlling What Appears on a Graph Screen ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example Enlarge the graphs of the two expressions shown below five times on both the - and Y1 = ( + 4)( Use the following V-Window settings. Xmin = –8, Ymin = –30, Procedure 1 m GRAPH...

  • Page 190: Drawing A Graph

    5-3 Drawing a Graph You can store up to 20 functions in memory. Functions in memory can be edited, recalled, and graphed. k k k k k Specifying the Graph Type Before you can store a graph function in memory, you must first specify its graph type. 1.

  • Page 191

    u To store a polar coordinate function ( ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example To store the following expression in memory area 3(TYPE)2( fsdv(Inputs expression.) w(Stores expression.) u To store a parametric function * ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example To store the following functions in memory areas Xt3 and Yt3 : = 3 sin T = 3 cos T...

  • Page 192

    u To store an X = constant expression * Example To store the following expression in memory area X4 : X = 3 3(TYPE)4(X=c) (Specifies X = constant expression.) d(Inputs expression.) w(Stores expression.) , or θ for the constant in the above procedures causes an error. •...

  • Page 193

    u To assign values to the coefficients and variables of a graph function Example To assign the values –1, 0, and 1 to variable A in Y = AX graph for each value 3(TYPE)1(Y=) av(A)vx-bw J4(GRPH)1(Y)b(av(A) !.(=)-b)w J4(GRPH)1(Y)b(av(A) !.(=)a)w J4(GRPH)1(Y)b(av(A) !.(=)b)w ffff1(SEL) 6(DRAW)

  • Page 194

    • If you do not specify a variable name (variable A in the above key operation), the calculator automatically uses one of the default variables listed below. Note that the default variable used depends on the memory area type where you are storing the graph function.

  • Page 195

    k k k k k Editing and Deleting Functions u To edit a function in memory ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example To change the expression in memory area Y1 from – 3 e (Displays cursor.) eeeeeDd(Changes contents.) w(Stores new graph function.) u To change the line style of a graph function 1.

  • Page 196

    u To change the type of a function* 1. While the Graph relation list is on the display, press f or c to move the highlighting to the area that contains the function whose type you want to change. 2. Press 3(TYPE)5(CONV). 3.

  • Page 197

    k k k k k Selecting Functions for Graphing u To specify the draw/non-draw status of a graph 1. On the graph relation list, use f and c to highlight the relation you do not want to graph. 2. Press 1(SEL). •...

  • Page 198

    (G-Mem1). # Storing a function in a memory area that already contains a function replaces the existing function with the new one. # If the data exceeds the calculator’s remaining memory capacity, an error occurs. 5-3-9 Drawing a Graph # Recalling data from graph memory causes any data currently on the Graph relation list to be deleted.

  • Page 199: Storing A Graph In Picture Memory

    5-4 Storing a Graph in Picture Memory You can save up to 20 graphic images in picture memory for later recall. You can overdraw the graph on the screen with another graph stored in picture memory. u To store a graph in picture memory 1.

  • Page 200: Drawing Two Graphs On The Same Screen

    Drawing Two Graphs on the Same Screen 5-5 Drawing Two Graphs on the Same Screen k k k k k Copying the Graph to the Sub-screen Description Dual Graph lets you split the screen into two parts. Then you can graph two different functions in each for comparison, or draw a normal size graph on one side and its enlarged version on the other side.

  • Page 201

    Drawing Two Graphs on the Same Screen ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example Graph Use the following V-Window settings. (Main Screen) Xmin = –2, Ymin = –2, (Sub-screen) Xmin = –4, Ymin = –3, Procedure 1 m GRAPH 2 !m(SET UP)cc1(G+G)J 3 !3(V-WIN) -cwcwa.fwc -cwcwbw 6(RIGHT) -ewewbwc...

  • Page 202

    Drawing Two Graphs on the Same Screen k k k k k Graphing Two Different Functions Description Use the following procedure to graph different functions in the main screen and sub-screen. Set Up 1. From the Main Menu, enter the GRAPH mode. 2.

  • Page 203

    Drawing Two Graphs on the Same Screen ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example Graph screen. Use the following V-Window settings. (Main Screen) Xmin = –4, Ymin = –5, (Sub-screen) Xmin = –2, Ymin = –2, Procedure 1 m GRAPH 2 !m(SET UP)cc1(G+G)J 3 !3(V-WIN) -ewewbwc -fwfwbw 6(RIGHT) -cwcwa.fwc...

  • Page 204

    Drawing Two Graphs on the Same Screen k k k k k Using Zoom to Enlarge the Sub-screen Description Use the following procedure to enlarge the main screen graph and then move it to the sub- screen. Set Up 1. From the Main Menu, enter the GRAPH mode. 2.

  • Page 205

    Drawing Two Graphs on the Same Screen ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example Draw the graph Box Zoom to enlarge it. Use the following V-Window settings. (Main Screen) Xmin = –2, Ymin = –2, Procedure 1 m GRAPH 2 !m(SET UP)cc1(G+G)J 3 !3(V-WIN) -cwcwa.fwc -cwcwbwJ 4 3(TYPE)1(Y=)v(v+b)(v-b)w...

  • Page 206: Manual Graphing

    5-6 Manual Graphing k k k k k Rectangular Coordinate Graph Description Inputting the Graph command in the RUN coordinate graphs. Set Up 1. From the Main Menu, enter the RUN 2. Make V-Window settings. Execution 3. Input the commands for drawing the rectangular coordinate graph. 4.

  • Page 207

    ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example Graph Use the following V-Window settings. Xmin = –5, Ymin = –10, Procedure 1 m RUN • 2 !3(V-WIN) -fwfwcwc -bawbawfwJ 3 !4(SKTCH)1(Cls)w 5(GRPH)1(Y=) 4 cvx+dv-ew Result Screen 5-6-2 Manual Graphing – 4 Xmax = 5, Xscale = 2 Ymax = 10, Yscale = 5...

  • Page 208

    k k k k k Integration Graph Description Inputting the Graph command in the RUN produced by an integration calculation. The calculation result is shown in the lower left corner of the display, and the calculation range is cross plot type. Set Up 1.

  • Page 209

    ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example Graph the integration Use the following V-Window settings. Xmin = –4, Ymin = –8, Procedure 1 m RUN • 2 !3(V-WIN) -ewewbwc -iwbcwfwJ 3 !4(SKTCH)1(Cls)w ∫ dx) 5(GRPH)5(G • 4 (v+c)(v-b)(v-d), -c,bw Result Screen 5-6-4 Manual Graphing ∫...

  • Page 210

    k k k k k Drawing Multiple Graphs on the Same Screen Description Use the following procedure to assign various values to a variable contained in an expres- sion and overwrite the resulting graphs on the screen. Set Up 1. From the Main Menu, enter the GRAPH mode. 2.

  • Page 211

    ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example To graph –1. Use the following V-Window settings. Xmin = –5, Ymin = –10, Procedure 1 m GRAPH 2 !m(SET UP)cc3(Off)J 3 !3(V-WIN) -fwfwbwc -bawbawcwJ 4 3(TYPE)1(Y=)av(A)vx-d, !+( [ )av(A)!.(=)d,b,-b!-( ] )w 5 6(DRAW) Result Screen # The value of only one of the variables in the expression can change.

  • Page 212

    k k k k k Using Copy and Paste to Graph a Function Description You can graph a function by copying it to the clipboard, and then pasting it into the graph screen. There are two types of functions you can paste into the graph screen. Type 1 (Y= expression) A function with the Y variable to the left of the equal sign is graphed as Y= expression.

  • Page 213

    ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example While the graph of previously copied function Y=X from the clipboard Use the following V-Window settings. Xmin = –5, Ymin = –10, Procedure 1 m RUN • a-(Y)!.(=)v !i(CLIP)ddd1(COPY) 2 mGRAPH 3 !m(SET UP)cc3(Off)J 4 !3(V-WIN) -fwfwcwc -bawbawfwJ 5 3(TYPE)1(Y=)cvx+dv-ew...

  • Page 214: Using Tables

    5-7 Using Tables To enter the TABLE mode, select the TABLE icon on the Main Menu. k Storing a Function and Generating a Number Table u To store a function ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example To store the function Use f and c to move the highlighting in the Table relation list to the memory area where you want to store the function.

  • Page 215

    u To generate a table using a list 1. While the Table relation list is on the screen, display the Setup screen. 2. Highlight Variable and then press 2(LIST) to display the pop-up window. 3. Select the list whose values you want to assign for the x-variable. •...

  • Page 216: Specifying The Function Type

    You can use cursor keys to move the highlighting around the table for the following purposes. • To display the selected cell’s value at the bottom of the screen, using the calculator’s current number of decimal place, number of significant digit, and exponential display range settings •...

  • Page 217

    k k k k k Editing and Deleting Functions u To edit a function ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example To change the function in memory area Y1 from – 5 Use f and c to move the highlighting to the function you want to edit. Use e to move the cursor to the beginning of the expression.

  • Page 218

    k k k k k Editing Tables You can use the table menu to perform any of the following operations once you generate a table. • Change the values of variable • Edit (delete, insert, and append) rows • Delete a table •...

  • Page 219

    Row Operations u To delete a row ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example To delete Row 2 of the table generated on page 5-7-2 u To insert a row ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example To insert a new row between Rows 1 and 2 in the table generated on page 5-7-2 5-7-6 Using Tables...

  • Page 220

    u To add a row ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example To add a new row below Row 7 in the table generated on page 5-7-2 cccccc Deleting a Table 1. Display the table and then press 2(DEL). 2. Press 1(Yes) to delete the table or 6(No) to abort the operation without deleting anything.

  • Page 221

    k k k k k Copying a Table Column to a List A simple operation lets you copy the contents of a numeric table column into a list. Use d and e to move the cursor to the column you want to copy. The cursor can be in any row.

  • Page 222

    k k k k k Drawing a Graph from a Number Table Description Use the following procedure to generate a number table and then draw a graph based on the values in the table. Set Up 1. From the Main Menu, enter the TABLE mode. 2.

  • Page 223

    ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example Store the two functions below, generate a number table, and then draw a line graph. Specify a range of –3 to 3, and an increment of 1. Y1 = 3 – 2, Y2 = Use the following V-Window settings.

  • Page 224

    k k k k k Specifying a Range for Number Table Generation Description Use the following procedure to specify a number table range when calculating scatter data from a function. Set Up 1. From the Main Menu, enter the TABLE mode. Execution 2.

  • Page 225

    ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example Store the three functions shown below, and then generate a table for functions Y1 and Y3. Specify a range of –3 to 3, and an increment of 1. Y1 = 3 – 2, Y2 = Procedure 1 m TABLE 2 3(TYPE)1(Y=)dvx-cw...

  • Page 226

    k k k k k Simultaneously Displaying a Number Table and Graph Description Specifying T+G for Dual Screen on the Setup screen makes it possible to display a number table and graph at the same time. Set Up 1. From the Main Menu, enter the TABLE mode. 2.

  • Page 227

    ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example Store the function Y1 = 3 table and line graph. Use a table range of –3 to 3 with an increment of 1. Use the following V-Window settings. Xmin = 0, Ymin = –2, Procedure 1 m TABLE 2 !3(V-WIN) awgwbwc...

  • Page 228

    k k k k k Using Graph-Table Linking Description With Dual Graph, you can use the following procedure to link the graph and table screens so the pointer on the graph screen jumps to the location of the currently selected table value. Set Up 1.

  • Page 229

    ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example Store the function Y1 = 3log table and plot-type graph. Use a table range of 2 through 9, with an increment of 1. Use the following V-Window settings. Xmin = –1, Ymin = –1, Procedure 1 m TABLE 2 !3(V-WIN) -bwbawbwc...

  • Page 230: Dynamic Graphing

    5-8 Dynamic Graphing k k k k k Using Dynamic Graph Description Dynamic Graph lets you define a range of values for the coefficients in a function, and then observe how a graph is affected by changes in the value of a coefficient. It helps to see how the coefficients and terms that make up a function influence the shape and position of a graph.

  • Page 231

    ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example Use Dynamic Graph to graph coefficient A changes from 2 through 5 in increments of 1. The Graph is drawn 10 times. Use the following V-Window settings. Xmin = –6.3, Xmax = 6.3, Xscale = 1 Ymin = –3.1, Ymax = 3.1, Yscale = 1 (initial defaults) Procedure 1 m DYNA...

  • Page 232

    k k k k k Drawing a Dynamic Graph Locus Description Turning on the Dynamic Graph locus setting on the Setup screen lets you overlay a graph drawn by changing the coefficient values. Set Up 1. From the Main Menu, enter the DYNA mode. 2.

  • Page 233

    ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example Use Dynamic Graph to graph A changes from 1 through 4 in increments of 1. The Graph is drawn 10 times. Use the following V-Window settings. Xmin = –6.3, Xmax = 6.3, Xscale = 1 Ymin = –3.1, Ymax = 3.1, Yscale = 1 (initial defaults) Procedure 1 m DYNA...

  • Page 234

    k k k k k Dynamic Graph Application Examples Description You can also use Dynamic Graph to simulate simple physical phenomena. Set Up 1. From the Main Menu, enter the DYNA mode. 2. Make V-Window settings. Execution 3. On the Setup screen, specify Stop for Dynamic Type and Deg for Angle. 4.

  • Page 235

    ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example The path over time T of a ball thrown in the air at initial velocity V and an angle of θ degrees from horizontal can be calculated as follows. X = (Vcos θ ) T, Y = (Vsin θ ) T – (1/2)gT Use Dynamic Graph to plot the path of a ball thrown at an initial velocity of 20 meters per second, at horizontal angles of 30, 45, and 60 degrees (Angle: Deg).

  • Page 236

    k Adjusting the Dynamic Graph Speed You can use the following procedure to adjust the Dynamic Graph speed while the draw operation is taking place. 1. While a Dynamic Graph draw operation is being performed, press A to change to the speed adjustment menu.

  • Page 237

    Graph memory, the data save operation replaces it with the new data. 5-8-8 Dynamic Graphing # Data recalled from Dynamic Graph memory replaces the calculator’s current graph functions, draw conditions, and screen data. The previous data is lost when it is replaced. 20050401...

  • Page 238: Graphing A Recursion Formula

    5-9 Graphing a Recursion Formula k k k k k Generating a Number Table from a Recursion Formula Description You can input up to three of the following types of recursion formulas and generate a number table. • General term of sequence { •...

  • Page 239

    Graphing a Recursion Formula ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example Generate a number table from recursion between three terms as expressed by (Fibonacci sequence), as Procedure 1 m RECUR 2 3(TYPE)3( 3 4( )+2( n ·· 4 5(SET)2( )bwgwbwbwJ 5 6(TABL) Result Screen * The first two values correspond to # Pressing 1(FORM) will return to the screen...

  • Page 240

    k k k k k Graphing a Recursion Formula (1) Description After generating a number table from a recursion formula, you can graph the values on a line graph or plot type graph. Set Up 1. From the Main Menu, enter the RECUR mode. 2.

  • Page 241

    Graphing a Recursion Formula ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example Generate a number table from recursion between two terms as expressed by in value from 1 to 6. Use the table values to draw a line graph. Use the following V-Window settings. Xmin = 0, Ymin = –15, Procedure...

  • Page 242

    k k k k k Graphing a Recursion Formula (2) Description The following describes how to generate a number table from a recursion formula and graph the values while Σ Display is On. Set Up 1. From the Main Menu, enter the RECUR mode. 2.

  • Page 243

    Graphing a Recursion Formula ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example Generate a number table from recursion between two terms as expressed by in value from 1 to 6. Use the table values to draw a plot line graph with ordinate Σ , abscissa Use the following V-Window settings.

  • Page 244

    k k k k k WEB Graph (Convergence, Divergence) Description ) is graphed by presuming composed of . Next, it can be determined whether the function is convergent or divergent. Set Up 1. From the Main Menu, enter the RECUR mode. 2.

  • Page 245

    Graphing a Recursion Formula ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example To draw the WEB graph for the recursion formula + 0.2, and check for divergence or convergence. Use the following table range and V-Window Settings. Table Range Start = 0, End = 6, V-Window Settings Xmin = 0, Ymin = 0,...

  • Page 246

    k k k k k Graphing a Recursion Formula on Dual Screen Description When “T+G” is specified for the Dual Screen setting, you can view the number table and graph at the same time. Set Up 1. From the Main Menu, enter the RECUR mode. 2.

  • Page 247

    Graphing a Recursion Formula ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example Generate a number table from recursion between two terms as expressed by in value from 1 to 6. Use the table values to draw a line graph. Use the following V-Window settings. Xmin = 0, Ymin = –15, Procedure...

  • Page 248: Changing The Appearance Of A Graph

    Changing the Appearance of a Graph 5-10 Changing the Appearance of a Graph k k k k k Drawing a Line Description The sketch function lets you draw points and lines inside of graphs. You can select one of four different line styles for drawing with the sketch function. Set Up 1.

  • Page 249

    Changing the Appearance of a Graph ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example Draw a line that is tangent to point (2, 0) on the graph for + 2)( Use the following V-Window settings. Xmin = –6.3, Xmax = 6.3, Xscale = 1 Ymin = –3.1, Ymax = 3.1, Yscale = 1 (initial defaults) Procedure 1 m GRAPH...

  • Page 250

    Changing the Appearance of a Graph k k k k k Inserting Comments Description You can insert comments anywhere you want in a graph. Set Up 1. Draw the graph. Execution 2. Press !4(SKTCH)6(g)6(g)2(Text), and a pointer appears in the center of the display.

  • Page 251

    Changing the Appearance of a Graph ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example Insert text into the graph Use the following V-Window settings. Xmin = –5, Ymin = –5, Procedure 1 m GRAPH !3(V-WIN) -fwfwbwc -fwfwbwJ 3(TYPE)1(Y=)v(v+c)(v-c)w 6(DRAW) 2 !4(SKTCH)6(g)6(g)2(Text) 3 f~f d~d a-(Y)!.(=)v(v+c)(v-c) Result Screen 5-10-4...

  • Page 252

    Changing the Appearance of a Graph k k k k k Freehand Drawing Description You can use the pen option for freehand drawing in a graph. Set Up 1. Draw the graph. Execution 2. Press !4(SKTCH)6(g)6(g)1(PEN), and a pointer appears in the center of the screen.

  • Page 253

    Changing the Appearance of a Graph ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example Use the pen to draw on the graph Use the following V-Window settings. Xmin = –5, Ymin = –5, Procedure 1 m GRAPH !3(V-WIN) -fwfwbwc -fwfwbwJ 3(TYPE)1(Y=)v(v+c)(v-c)w 6(DRAW) 2 !4(SKTCH)6(g)6(g)1(PEN) 3 f~f d~dw 4 cd …...

  • Page 254

    Changing the Appearance of a Graph k k k k k Changing the Graph Background You can use the Setup screen to specify the memory contents of any picture memory area (Pict 1 through Pict 20) as the Background item. When you do, the contents of the corresponding memory area is used as the background of the graph screen.

  • Page 255

    Changing the Appearance of a Graph Draw the dynamic graph. (Y = X – 1) (Y = X (Y = X + 1) • See “5-8 Dynamic Graphing” for details on using the Dynamic Graph feature. 5-10-8 20050401 ↓↑ ↓↑...

  • Page 256: Function Analysis

    5-11 Function Analysis k k k k k Reading Coordinates on a Graph Line Description Trace lets you move a pointer along a graph and read out coordinates on the display. Set Up 1. From the Main Menu, enter the GRAPH mode. 2.

  • Page 257

    ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example Read coordinates along the graph of the function shown below. Y1 = – 3 Use the following V-Window settings. Xmin = –5, Ymin = –10, Procedure 1 m GRAPH 2 !3(V-WIN) -fwfwbwc -bawbawcwJ 3(TYPE)1(Y=)vx-dw 6(DRAW) 3 !1(TRCE) 4 d~d...

  • Page 258

    k k k k k Displaying the Derivative Description In addition to using Trace to display coordinates, you can also display the derivative at the current pointer location. Set Up 1. From the Main Menu, enter the GRAPH mode. 2. On the Setup screen, specify On for Derivative. 3.

  • Page 259

    ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example Read coordinates and derivatives along the graph of the function shown below. Y1 = – 3 Use the following V-Window settings. Xmin = –5, Ymin = –10, Procedure 1 m GRAPH 2 !m(SET UP)cccc1(On)J 3 !3(V-WIN) -fwfwbwc -bawbawcwJ 3(TYPE)1(Y=)vx-dw...

  • Page 260

    k k k k k Graph to Table Description You can use trace to read the coordinates of a graph and store them in a number table. You can also use Dual Graph to simultaneously store the graph and number table, making this an important graph analysis tool.

  • Page 261

    ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example Save, in a table, the coordinates in the vicinity of the points of intersection at X = 0 for the two graphs shown below, and store the table contents in List 1. Y1 = –...

  • Page 262

    k k k k k Coordinate Rounding Description This function rounds off coordinate values displayed by Trace. Set Up 1. From the Main Menu, enter the GRAPH mode. 2. Draw the graph. Execution 3. Press !2(ZOOM)6(g)3(RND). This causes the V-Window settings to be changed automatically in accordance with the Rnd value.

  • Page 263

    ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example Use coordinate rounding and display the coordinates in the vicinity of the points of intersection for the two graphs produced by the functions shown below. Y1 = – 3, Y2 = – Use the following V-Window settings. Xmin = –5, Ymin = –10, Procedure...

  • Page 264

    k k k k k Calculating the Root Description This feature provides a number of different methods for analyzing graphs. Set Up 1. From the Main Menu, enter the GRAPH mode. 2. Draw the graphs. Execution 3. Select the analysis function. !5(G-SLV)1(ROOT) ...

  • Page 265

    ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example Draw the graph shown below and calculate the root for Y1. Y1 = + 2)( Use the following V-Window settings. Xmin = –6.3, Xmax = 6.3, Xscale = 1 Ymin = –3.1, Ymax = 3.1, Yscale = 1 (initial defaults) Procedure 1 m GRAPH 2 !3(V-WIN)1(INIT)J...

  • Page 266

    k k k k k Calculating the Point of Intersection of Two Graphs Description Use the following procedure to calculate the point of intersection of two graphs. Set Up 1. Draw the graphs. Execution 2. Press !5(G-SLV)5(ISCT). When there are three or more graphs, the selection cursor (k) appears at the lowest numbered graph.

  • Page 267

    ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example Graph the two functions shown below, and determine the point of intersection between Y1 and Y2. Y1 = + 1, Y2 = Use the following V-Window settings. Xmin = –5, Ymin = –5, Procedure 1 m GRAPH !3(V-WIN) -fwfwbwc -fwfwbwJ...

  • Page 268

    k Determining the Coordinates for Given Points Description The following procedure describes how to determine the -coordinate for a given Set Up 1. Draw the graph. Execution 2. Select the function you want to perform. When there are multiple graphs, the selection cursor (k) appears at the lowest numbered graph.

  • Page 269

    ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example Graph the two functions shown below and then determine the coordinate for Y1 = + 1, Y2 = Use the following V-Window settings. Xmin = –6.3, Xmax = 6.3, Xscale = 1 Ymin = –3.1, Ymax = 3.1, Yscale = 1 (initial defaults) Procedure 1 m GRAPH !3(V-WIN)1(INIT)J...

  • Page 270

    k k k k k Calculating the lntegral Value for a Given Range Description Use the following procedure to obtain integration values for a given range. Set Up 1. Draw the graph. Execution 2. Press !5(G-SLV)6(g)3( selection cursor (k) to appear at the lowest numbered graph. 3.

  • Page 271

    ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example Graph the function shown below, and then determine the integral value at (–2, 0). Y1 = + 2)( Use the following V-Window settings. Xmin = –6.3, Xmax = 6.3, Xscale = 1 Ymin = –4, Procedure 1 m GRAPH !3(V-WIN) -g.dwg.dwbwc...

  • Page 272

    k k k k k Conic Section Graph Analysis You can determine approximations of the following analytical results using conic section graphs. • Focus/vertex/eccentricity • Length of latus rectum • Center/radius • -intercept • Directrix/axis of symmetry drawing and analysis •...

  • Page 273

    u To calculate the focus, vertex and length of latus rectum ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example To determine the focus, vertex and length of latus rectum for the parabola X = (Y – 2) Use the following V-Window settings. Xmin = –1, Ymin = –5, m CONICS...

  • Page 274

    5-11-19 Function Analysis u To calculate the center and radius [G-SLV]-[CNTR]/[RADS] ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example To determine the center and radius for the circle (X + 2) + (Y + 1) Use the following V-Window settings. Xmin = –6.3, Xmax = 6.3, Xscale = 1 Ymin = –3.1, Ymax = 3.1, Yscale = 1 (initial defaults) m CONICS ccccw...

  • Page 275

    u To calculate the - and ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example To determine the (X – 3) –––––––– – –––––––– = 1 Use the following V-Window settings. Xmin = –4, Ymin = –5, m CONICS cccccccw cwcwdwbw6(DRAW) !5(G-SLV) 2(X-IN) (Calculates the !5(G-SLV) 3(Y-IN)

  • Page 276

    5-11-21 Function Analysis u To draw and analyze the axis of symmetry and directrix [G-SLV]-[SYM]/[DIR] ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example To draw the axis of symmetry and directrix for the parabola X = 2(Y – 1) Use the following V-Window settings. Xmin = –6.3, Xmax = 6.3, Xscale = 1 Ymin = –3.1, Ymax = 3.1, Yscale = 1 (initial defaults) mCONICS...

  • Page 277

    To draw and analyze the asymptotes ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example To draw the asymptotes for the hyperbola (X – 1) –––––––– – –––––––– = 1 Use the following V-Window settings. Xmin = –6.3, Xmax = 6.3, Xscale = 1 Ymin = –5, m CONICS cccccccw...

  • Page 278: Chapter 6 Statistical Graphs And Calculations

    Statistical Graphs and Calculations This chapter describes how to input statistical data into lists, how to calculate the mean, maximum and other statistical values, how to perform various statistical tests, how to determine the confidence interval, and how to produce a distribution of statistical data. It also tells you how to perform regression calculations.

  • Page 279: Before Performing Statistical Calculations

    Before Performing Statistical Calculations 6-1 Before Performing Statistical Calculations Entering the STAT mode from the Main Menu displays the List Editor screen. You can use the List Editor screen to input statistical data and perform statistical calculations. Once you input data, you can use it to produce a graph and check for tendencies. You can also use a variety of different regression calculations to analyze the data.

  • Page 280: Changing Graph Parameters

    Before Performing Statistical Calculations k Changing Graph Parameters Use the following procedures to specify the graph draw/non-draw status, the graph type, and other general settings for each of the graphs in the graph menu (GPH1, GPH2, GPH3). While the statistical data list is on the display, press 1(GRPH) to display the graph menu, which contains the following items.

  • Page 281

    Before Performing Statistical Calculations • Mark Type This setting lets you specify the shape of the plot points on the graph. u To display the general graph settings screen Pressing 1(GRPH)6(SET) displays the general graph settings screen. • The settings shown here are examples only. The settings on your general graph settings screen may differ.

  • Page 282

    Before Performing Statistical Calculations 2. Graph draw/non-draw status The following procedure can be used to specify the draw (On)/non-draw (Off) status of each of the graphs in the graph menu. u To specify the draw/non-draw status of a graph 1. Pressing 1(GRPH) 4(SEL) displays the graph On/Off screen. •...

  • Page 283: Calculating And Graphing Single-variable Statistical Data

    Calculating and Graphing Single-Variable Statistical Data 6-2 Calculating and Graphing Single-Variable Statistical Data Single-variable data is data with only a single variable. If you are calculating the average height of the members of a class for example, there is only one variable (height). Single-variable statistics include distribution and sum.

  • Page 284

    6-2-2 Calculating and Graphing Single-Variable Statistical Data k Med-box Graph (MedBox) This type of graph lets you see how a large number of data items are grouped within specific ranges. A box encloses all the data in an area from the first quartile (Q1) to the third quartile (Q3), with a line drawn at the median (Med).

  • Page 285

    Calculating and Graphing Single-Variable Statistical Data k Normal Distribution Curve (N The normal distribution curve is graphed using the following normal distribution function. XList specifies the list where the data is input, while Freq specifies the list where the data frequency is input.

  • Page 286

    Calculating and Graphing Single-Variable Statistical Data k Displaying the Calculation Results of a Drawn Single-Variable Graph Single-variable statistics can be expressed as both graphs and parameter values. When these graphs are displayed, the single-variable calculation results appear as shown below when you press 1(1VAR).

  • Page 287: Calculating And Graphing Paired-variable Statistical Data

    Calculating and Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data 6-3 Calculating and Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data k Drawing a Scatter Diagram and Description The following procedure plots a scatter diagram and connects the dots to produce an graph. Set Up 1. From the Main Menu, enter the STAT mode. Execution 2.

  • Page 288

    Calculating and Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example Input the two sets of data shown below. Next, plot the data on a scatter diagram and connect the dots to produce an 0.5, 1.2, 2.4, 4.0, 5.2 ( –2.1, 0.3, 1.5, 2.0, 2.4 ( Procedure 1 m STAT...

  • Page 289: Drawing A Regression Graph

    Calculating and Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data k Drawing a Regression Graph Description Use the following procedure to input paired-variable statistical data, perform a regression calculation using the data, and then graph the results. Set Up 1. From the Main Menu, enter the STAT mode. Execution 2.

  • Page 290

    Calculating and Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example Input the two sets of data shown below and plot the data on a scatter diagram. Next, perform logarithmic regression on the data to display the regression parameters, and then draw the corresponding regression graph.

  • Page 291

    Calculating and Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data k k k k k Selecting the Regression Type After you graph paired-variable statistical data, press 1(CALC). Then you can use the function menu at the bottom of the display to select from a variety of different types of regression.

  • Page 292

    Calculating and Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data k k k k k Linear Regression Graph Linear regression uses the method of least squares to plot a straight line that passes close to as many data points as possible, and returns values for the slope and y-intercept (y-coordinate when x = 0) of the line.

  • Page 293

    Calculating and Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data k k k k k Quadratic/Cubic/Quartic Regression Graph A quadratic/cubic/quartic regression graph represents connection of the data points of a scatter diagram. It uses the method of least squares to draw a curve that passes close to as many data points as possible.

  • Page 294: Logarithmic Regression Graph

    Calculating and Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data k Logarithmic Regression Graph Logarithmic regression expresses regression formula is linear regression formula 1(CALC)6(g)2(Log) 6(DRAW) The following is the logarithmic regression model formula. • a ... regression constant term b ... regression coefficient r ... correlation coefficient ...

  • Page 295

    1(CALC)6(g)5(Sin) 6(DRAW) Make sure that the angle unit setting of the calculator is Rad (radians) when drawing a sinusoidal regression graph. The sinusoidal regression calculation is performed using radians, so the graph will cannot be drawn correctly if the angle unit setting is something else.

  • Page 296

    Calculating and Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data k k k k k Logistic Regression Graph Logistic regression is best applied for time-based phenomena in which there is a continual increase until a saturation point is reached. The following is the logistic regression model formula. 1 + ae –bx 1(CALC)6(g)6(g)1(Lgst)

  • Page 297

    Calculating and Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data k k k k k Displaying the Calculation Results of a Drawn Paired-Variable Graph Paired-variable statistics can be expressed as both graphs and parameter values. When these graphs are displayed, the paired-variable calculation results appear as shown below when you press 1(CALC)1(2VAR).

  • Page 298

    Calculating and Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data k k k k k Multiple Graphs You can draw more than one graph on the same display by using the procedure under “Changing Graph Parameters” to set the graph draw (On)/non-draw (Off) status of two or all three of the graphs to draw On, and then pressing 6(DRAW)(see page 6-1-4).

  • Page 299: Overlaying A Function Graph On A Statistical Graph

    Calculating and Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data k Overlaying a Function Graph on a Statistical Graph Description You can overlay a paired-variable statistical graph with any type of function graph you want. Set Up 1. From the Main Menu, enter the STAT mode. Execution 2.

  • Page 300

    Calculating and Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example Input the two sets of data shown below. Next, plot the data on a scatter diagram and overlay a function graph 0.5, 1.2, 2.4, 4.0, 5.2 –2.1, 0.3, 1.5, 2.0, 2.4 Procedure 1 m STAT 2 a.fwb.cw...

  • Page 301: Performing Statistical Calculations

    6-4 Performing Statistical Calculations All of the statistical calculations up to this point were performed after displaying a graph. The following procedures can be used to perform statistical calculations alone. u u u u u To specify statistical calculation data lists You have to input the statistical data for the calculation you want to perform and specify where it is located before you start a calculation.

  • Page 302

    k k k k k Single-Variable Statistical Calculations In the previous example under “Displaying the Calculation Results of a Drawn Single- Variable Graph”, statistical calculation results were displayed after the graph was drawn. These were numeric expressions of the characteristics of variables used in the graphic display.

  • Page 303: Regression Calculation

    k Regression Calculation In the explanations from “Linear Regression Graph” to “Logistic Regression Graph,” regression calculation results were displayed after the graph was drawn. Here, each coefficient value of the regression line or regression curve is expressed as a number. You can directly determine the same expression from the data input screen.

  • Page 304

    Performing Statistical Calculations • Linear Regression ... • Quadratic Regression ... • Cubic Regression ... • Quartic Regression ... • Logarithmic Regression ... • Exponential Repression ... • Power Regression ... • Sin Regression ... • Logistic Regression ... u u u u u Estimated Value Calculation for Regression Graphs The STAT mode also includes a Y-CAL function that uses regression to calculate the estimated -value for a particular...

  • Page 305

    Performing Statistical Calculations 2. Input the value you want for • This causes the coordinates for moves the pointer to the corresponding point on the graph. 3. Pressing v or a number key at this time causes the reappear so you can perform another estimated value calculation if you want. 4.

  • Page 306

    k Estimated Value Calculation ( , ) After drawing a regression graph with the STAT mode, you can use the RUN calculate estimated values for the regression graph’s ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example To perform a linear regression using the nearby data and estimate the values of = 1000 1.

  • Page 307

    k Normal Probability Distribution Calculation You can calculate normal probability distributions for single-variable statistics with the MAT mode. • Press K6(g)3(PROB)6(g) to display a function menu, which contains the following items. • {P(}/{Q(}/{R(} ... obtains normal probability {P( • { (} ...

  • Page 308

    Performing Statistical Calculations 1. From the Main Menu, enter the STAT mode. 2. Input the height data into List 1 and the frequency data into List 2. 3. Perform the single-variable statistical calculations.* 2(CALC)6(SET) 1(LIST)bw c2(LIST)cw!J(QUIT) 2(CALC)1(1VAR) 4. Press m, select the RUN probability calculation (PROB) menu.

  • Page 309

    k Drawing a Normal Probability Distribution Graph Description You can draw a normal probability distribution graph using manual graphing with the MAT mode. • Set Up 1. From the Main Menu, enter the RUN Execution 2. Input the commands to draw a rectangular coordinate graph. 3.

  • Page 310

    Performing Statistical Calculations ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example To draw a normal probability P (0.5) graph. Procedure 1 m RUN • 2 !4(SKTCH)1(Cls)w 5(GRPH)1(Y=) 3 K6(g)3(PROB)6(g)1(P()a.fw Result Screen 6-4-10 20050401...

  • Page 311: Tests

    6-5 Tests Test provides a variety of different standardization-based tests. They make it possible to test whether or not a sample accurately represents the population when the standard deviation of a population (such as the entire population of a country) is known from previous tests.

  • Page 312

    The following pages explain various statistical calculation methods based on the principles described above. Details concerning statistical principles and terminology can be found in any standard statistics textbook. On the initial STAT mode screen, press 3(TEST) to display the test menu, which contains the following items.

  • Page 313

    Perform the following key operations from the statistical data list. 3(TEST) 1(Z) 1(1-S) The following shows the meaning of each item in the case of list data specification. Data ... data type µ ... population mean value test conditions (“G µ µ...

  • Page 314

    Calculation Result Output Example µ G11.4 ... direction of test ... p-value ... mean of sample σ ... sample standard deviation ... size of sample • For details about graph screen function keys 1(Z) and 2(P), see “Z Test Common Functions” on page 6-5-2. # [Save Res] does not save the µ...

  • Page 315

    u u u u u 2-Sample Test This test is used when the standard deviations for two populations are known to test the hypothesis. The 2-Sample Test is applied to the normal distribution. – o σ σ Perform the following key operations from the statistical data list. 3(TEST) 1(Z) 2(2-S)

  • Page 316

    The following shows the meaning of parameter data specification items that are different from list data specification..mean of sample 1 ... size (positive integer) of sample 1 ... mean of sample 2 ... size (positive integer) of sample 2 After setting all the parameters, use c to move the highlighting to “Execute”...

  • Page 317

    u u u u u 1-Prop Test This test is used to test for an unknown proportion of successes. The 1-Prop applied to the normal distribution. – p (1– p Perform the following key operations from the statistical data list. 3(TEST) 1(Z) 3(1-P)

  • Page 318

    u u u u u 2-Prop Z Test This test is used to compare the proportion of successes. The 2-Prop the normal distribution. – p(1 – p ) Perform the following key operation from the statistical data list. 3(TEST) 1(Z) 4(2-P) ...

  • Page 319

    Calculation Result Output Example > ... direction of test ... p-value ˆ p ... estimated proportion of sample 1 ˆ p ... estimated proportion of sample 2 ˆ p ... estimated sample proportion ... size of sample 1 ... size of sample 2 •...

  • Page 320

    k k k k k t Tests u u u u u t Test Common Functions You can use the following graph analysis functions after drawing a • 1(T) ... Displays Pressing 1(T) displays the corresponding location in the graph (unless the location is off the graph screen). Two points are displayed in the case of a two-tail test.

  • Page 321

    u u u u u 1-Sample t Test This test uses the hypothesis test for a single unknown population mean when the popula- tion standard deviation is unknown. The 1-Sample µ o – σ x n–1 Perform the following key operations from the statistical data list. 3(TEST) 2(t) 1(1-S)

  • Page 322

    Calculation Result Output Example µ G 11.3 ... direction of test ... p-value ... mean of sample σ ... sample standard deviation ... size of sample • For details about graph screen function keys 1(T) and 2(P), see “ Common Functions” on page 6-5-10. # [Save Res] does not save the µ...

  • Page 323

    u u u u u 2-Sample t Test 2-Sample Test compares the population means when the population standard deviations are unknown. The 2-Sample Test is applied to The following applies when pooling is in effect. – o σ n–1 σ –1)x σ...

  • Page 324

    The following shows the meaning of each item in the case of list data specification. Data ... data type µ ... sample mean value test conditions (“G µ List(1) ... list whose contents you want to use as data of sample 1 List(2) ...

  • Page 325

    Calculation Result Output Example µ G µ ... direction of test ... p-value ... degrees of freedom ... mean of sample 1 ... mean of sample 2 σ ... standard deviation of sample 1 σ ... standard deviation of sample 2 σ...

  • Page 326

    u u u u u LinearReg Test LinearReg Test treats paired-variable data sets as ( least squares to determine the most appropriate regression formula . It also determines the correlation coefficient and calculates the extent of the relationship between Σ ( x –...

  • Page 327

    Calculation Result Output Example β G 0 & ρ G 0 ... direction of test ... p-value ... degrees of freedom ... constant term ... coefficient ... standard error ... correlation coefficient ... coefficient of determination Pressing 6 (COPY) while a calculation result is on the display copies the regression formula to the graph relation list.

  • Page 328

    k k k k k χ Test χ Test sets up a number of independent groups and tests hypothesis related to the proportion of the sample included in each group. The χ variables (variable with two possible values, such as yes/no). Expected counts Perform the following key operations from the statistical data list.

  • Page 329

    After setting all the parameters, use c to move the highlighting to “Execute” and then press one of the function keys shown below to perform the calculation or draw the graph. • 1(CALC) ... Performs the calculation. • 6(DRAW) ... Draws the graph. Calculation Result Output Example χ...

  • Page 330

    k k k k k 2-Sample F Test 2-Sample Test tests the hypothesis for the ratio of sample variances. The applied to the distribution. σ 1 n–1 σ 2 n–1 Perform the following key operations from the statistical data list. 3(TEST) 4(F) The following is the meaning of each item in the case of list data specification.

  • Page 331

    After setting all the parameters, use c to move the highlighting to “Execute” and then press one of the function keys shown below to perform the calculation or draw the graph. • 1(CALC) ... Performs the calculation. • 6(DRAW) ... Draws the graph. Calculation Result Output Example σ...

  • Page 332

    k k k k k ANOVA ANOVA tests the hypothesis that the population means of the samples are equal when there are multiple samples. One-Way ANOVA is used when there is one independent variable and one dependent variable. Two-Way ANOVA is used when there are two independent variables and one dependent variable.

  • Page 333

    Calculation Result Output Example One-Way ANOVA Line 1 (A) ... Factor A Line 2 (ERR) ... Error Two-Way ANOVA Line 1 (A) ... Factor A Line 2 (B) ... Factor B Line 3 (AB) ... Factor A × Factor B Line 4 (ERR) ...

  • Page 334

    k k k k k ANOVA (Two-Way) u u u u u Description The nearby table shows measurement results for a metal product produced by a heat treatment process based on two treatment levels: time (A) and temperature (B). The experiments were repeated twice each under identical conditions.

  • Page 335

    6-5-25 Tests u u u u u Input Example u u u u u Results 20050401...

  • Page 336: Confidence Interval

    6-6 Confidence Interval A confidence interval is a range (interval) that includes a statistical value, usually the population mean. A confidence interval that is too broad makes it difficult to get an idea of where the population value (true value) is located. A narrow confidence interval, on the other hand, limits the population value and makes it difficult to obtain reliable results.

  • Page 337

    6-6-2 Confidence Interval u u u u u General Confidence Interval Precautions Inputting a value in the range of 0 < C-Level < 1 for the C-Level setting sets you value you input. Inputting a value in the range of 1 < C-Level < 100 sets a value equivalent to your input divided by 100.

  • Page 338

    k k k k k Z Interval u u u u u 1-Sample Z Interval 1-Sample Interval calculates the confidence interval for an unknown population mean when the population standard deviation is known. The following is the confidence interval. Left = o – Z Right = o + Z However, is the level of significance.

  • Page 339

    After setting all the parameters, use c to move the highlighting to “Execute” and then press the function key shown below to perform the calculation. • 1(CALC) ... Performs the calculation. Calculation Result Output Example Left ... confidence interval lower limit (left edge) Right ...

  • Page 340

    The following shows the meaning of each item in the case of list data specification. Data ... data type C-Level ... confidence level (0 < C-Level < 1) ... population standard deviation of sample 1 ( ... population standard deviation of sample 2 ( List(1) ...

  • Page 341

    u u u u u 1-Prop Z Interval 1-Prop Interval uses the number of data to calculate the confidence interval for an unknown proportion of successes. The following is the confidence interval. is the confidence level. Left = – Z Right = Perform the following key operations from the statistical data list.

  • Page 342

    u u u u u 2-Prop Interval 2-Prop Z Interval uses the number of data items to calculate the confidence interval for the defference between the proportion of successes in two populations. The following is the confidence interval. % is the confidence level. Left = –...

  • Page 343

    Left ... confidence interval lower limit (left edge) Right ... confidence interval upper limit (right edge) ˆ p ... estimated sample propotion for sample 1 ˆ p ... estimated sample propotion for sample 2 ... size of sample 1 ... size of sample 2 k k k k k t Interval u u u u u 1-Sample t Interval 1-Sample...

  • Page 344

    ... mean of sample ... sample standard deviation ( ... size of sample (positive integer) After setting all the parameters, use c to move the highlighting to “Execute” and then press the function key shown below to perform the calculation. •...

  • Page 345

    The following confidence interval applies when pooling is not in effect. significance. The value 100 (1 – ) % is the confidence level. Left = (o – o )– t – o Right = (o )+ t df = (1–C ) –1 n–1 n–1...

  • Page 346

    ... mean of sample 1 ... standard deviation ( ... size (positive integer) of sample 1 ... mean of sample 2 ... standard deviation ( ... size (positive integer) of sample 2 After setting all the parameters, use c to move the highlighting to “Execute” and then press the function key shown below to perform the calculation.

  • Page 347: Distribution

    6-7 Distribution There is a variety of different types of distribution, but the most well-known is “normal distribution,” which is essential for performing statistical calculations. Normal distribution is a symmetrical distribution centered on the greatest occurrences of mean data (highest frequency), with the frequency decreasing as you move away from the center.

  • Page 348

    u u u u u Common Distribution Functions After drawing a graph, you can use the P-CAL function to calculate an estimated p-value for a particular x value. The following is the general procedure for using the P-CAL function. 1. After drawing a distribution graph, press !5(G-SLV) 1(P-CAL) to display the x value input dialog box.

  • Page 349

    k k k k k Normal Distribution u u u u u Normal Probability Density Normal probability density calculates the probability density of nomal distribution from a specified value. Normal probability density is applied to standard normal distribution. f(x) = Perform the following key operations from the statistical data list.

  • Page 350

    u u u u u Normal Distribution Probability Normal distribution probability calculates the probability of normal distribution data falling between two specific values. (x – ) – Perform the following key operations from the statistical data list. 5(DIST) 1(NORM) 2(Ncd) Data is specified using parameter specification.

  • Page 351

    Calculation Result Output Example p ... normal distribution probability z:Low ... z:Low value (converted to standardize z score for lower z:Up ... z:Up value (converted to standardize z score for upper value) u u u u u Inverse Cumulative Normal Distribution Inverse cumulative normal distribution calculates a value that represents the location within a normal distribution for a specific cumulative probability.

  • Page 352

    After setting all the parameters, use c to move the highlighting to “Execute” and then press the function key shown below to perform the calculation. • 1(CALC) ... Performs the calculation. Calculation Result Output Examples x ... inverse cumulative normal distribution # There is no graphing for inverse cumulative normal distribution.

  • Page 353

    k k k k k Student-t Distribution u u u u u Student-t Probability Density Student- probability density calculates df + 1 f (x) = Perform the following key operations from the statistical data list. 5(DIST) 2(t) 1(tpd) Data is specified using parameter specification. The following shows the meaning of each item.

  • Page 354

    u u u u u Student-t Distribution Probability Student- distribution probability calculates the probability of between two specific values. df + 1 Perform the following key operations from the statistical data list. 5(DIST) 2(t) 2(tcd) Data is specified using parameter specification. The following shows the meaning of each item.

  • Page 355

    Calculation Result Output Example p ... Student- t:Low ... t:Low value (input lower value) t:Up ... t:Up value (input upper value) k k k k k Distribution u u u u u Probability Density probability density calculates the probability density function for the specified value.

  • Page 356

    Calculation Result Output Example p ... # Current V-Window settings are used for graph drawing when the Setup screen's [Stat Wind] setting is [Manual]. The V-Window settings below are set automatically 6-7-10 Distribution probability density when the [Stat Wind] setting is [Auto]. Xmin = 0, Xmax = 11.5, Xscale = 2, Ymin = -0.1, Ymax = 0.5, Yscale = 0.1 20050401...

  • Page 357

    u u u u u Distribution Probability distribution probability calculates the probability of specific values. Perform the following key operations from the statistical data list. 5(DIST) 3(CHI) 2(Ccd) Data is specified using parameter specification. The following shows the meaning of each item.

  • Page 358

    Calculation Result Output Example p ... k k k k k F Distribution u u u u u F Probability Density probability density calculates the probability density function for the F distribution at a specified value. n + d f (x) = Perform the following key operations from the statistical data list.

  • Page 359

    Calculation Result Output Example p ... F probability density # V-Window settings for graph drawing are set automatically when the Setup screen's [Stat Wind] setting is [Auto]. Current V-Window 6-7-13 Distribution settings are used for graph drawing when the [Stat Wind] setting is [Manual]. 20050401...

  • Page 360

    u u u u u F Distribution Probability distribution probability calculates the probability of specific values. n + d Perform the following key operations from the statistical data list. 5(DIST) 4(F) 2(Fcd) Data is specified using parameter specification. The following shows the meaning of each item.

  • Page 361

    6-7-15 Distribution Calculation Result Output Example p ... F distribution probability 20050401...

  • Page 362

    k k k k k Binomial Distribution u u u u u Binomial Probability Binomial probability calculates a probability at a specified value for the discrete binomial distribution with the specified number of trials and probability of success on each trial. f (x) = Perform the following key operations from the statistical data list.

  • Page 363

    Calculation Result Output Example p ... binomial probability u u u u u Binomial Cumulative Density Binomial cumulative density calculates a cumulative probability at a specified value for the discrete binomial distribution with the specified number of trials and probability of success on each trial.

  • Page 364

    6-7-18 Distribution After setting all the parameters, use c to move the highlighting to “Execute” and then press the function key shown below to perform the calculation. • 1(CALC) ... Performs the calculation. Calculation Result Output Example p ... probability of success 20050401...

  • Page 365

    k k k k k Poisson Distribution u u u u u Poisson Probability Poisson probability calculates a probability at a specified value for the discrete Poisson distribution with the specified mean. – f (x) = Perform the following key operations from the statistical data list. 5(DIST) 6(g)1(POISN) 1(Ppd)

  • Page 366

    u u u u u Poisson Cumulative Density Poisson cumulative density calculates a cumulative probability at specified value for the discrete Poisson distribution with the specified mean. Perform the following key operations from the statistical data list. 5(DIST) 6(g)1(POISN) 2(Pcd) The following shows the meaning of each item when data is specified using list specification.

  • Page 367

    k k k k k Geometric Distribution u u u u u Geometric Probability Geometric probability calculates the probability at a specified value, and the number of the trial on which the first success occurs, for the geometric distribution with a specified probability of success.

  • Page 368

    u u u u u Geometric Cumulative Density Geometric cumulative density calculates a cumulative probability at specified value, the number of the trial on which the first success occurs, for the discrete geometric distribution with the specified probability of success. Perform the following key operations from the statistical data list.

  • Page 369: Chapter 7 Financial Calculation (tvm)

    Financial Calculation (TVM) The TVM mode provides you with the tools to perform the following types of financial calculations. • Simple interest • Compound interest • Cash Flow (Investment appraisal) • Amortization • Interest rate conversion (annual percentage rate and effective interest rate) •...

  • Page 370: Before Performing Financial Calculations

    Before Performing Financial Calculations 7-1 Before Performing Financial Calculations From the Main Menu, enter the TVM mode and display the Financial screen like the one shown below. • {SMPL} … {simple interest} • {CMPD} … {compound interest} • {CASH} … {cash flow (investment appraisal)} •...

  • Page 371

    • Note that calculation results produced in this mode should be regarded as reference values only. • Whenever performing an actual financial transaction, be sure to check any calculation results obtained using this calculator with against the figures calculated by your financial institution. 7-1-2 , and .

  • Page 372: Simple Interest

    7-2 Simple Interest This calculator uses the following formulas to calculate simple interest. u u u u u Formula SI' = n 365-day Mode SI' = n 360-day Mode SI = –SI' SFV = –(PV + SI') Press 1(SMPL) from the Financial 1 screen to display the following input screen for simple interest.

  • Page 373

    Use the following function menus to maneuver between calculation result screens. • {REPT} … {parameter input screen} • {GRPH} … {draws graph} After drawing a graph, you can press !1(TRCE) to turn on trace and read calculation results along the graph. Each press of e while trace is turned on cycles the displayed value in the sequence: present value ( simple interest (...

  • Page 374: Compound Interest

    7-3 Compound Interest This calculator uses the following standard formulas to calculate compound interest. u u u u u Formula I PV+PMT Here: PV= –(PMT FV= – PV + FV PMT= – (1 + i S ) PMT–FVi (1 + i S ) PMT+PVi...

  • Page 375

    FV = – (PMT n + PV ) PV + FV PMT = – PV + FV n = – • A deposit is indicated by a plus sign (+), while a withdrawal is indicated by a minus sign (–). u u u u u Converting between the nominal interest rate and effective interest rate The nominal interest rate ( % value input by user) is converted to an effective interest rate...

  • Page 376

    This calculator performs interest calculations using Newton’s Method, which produces approximate values whose precision can be affected by various calculation conditions. Because of this, interest calculation results produced by this calculator should be used keeping the above limitation in mind or the results should be verified.

  • Page 377

    After configuring the parameters, use one of the function menus noted below to perform the corresponding calculation. • {n} … {number of compound periods} • {I } … {annual interest rate} • {PV} … {present value} (Loan: loan amount; Savings: balance) •...

  • Page 378: Cash Flow (investment Appraisal)

    7-4 Cash Flow (Investment Appraisal) This calculator uses the discounted cash flow (DCF) method to perform investment appraisal by totalling cash flow for a fixed period. This calculator can perform the following four types of investment appraisal. • Net present value ( •...

  • Page 379

    Cash Flow (Investment Appraisal) u u u u u PBP 0 ... ( PBP = n – Σ : Smallest positive integer that satisfies the conditions • Press 3(CASH) from the Financial 1 screen to display the following input screen for Cash Flow.

  • Page 380

    Cash Flow (Investment Appraisal) Use the following function menus to maneuver between calculation result screens. • {REPT} … {parameter input screen} • {GRPH} … {draws graph} After drawing a graph, you can press !1(TRCE) to turn on trace and read calculation results along the graph.

  • Page 381: Amortization

    7-5 Amortization This calculator can be used to calculate the principal and interest portion of a monthly installment, the remaining principal, and amount of principal and interest repaid up to any point. u u u u u Formula 1 payment...

  • Page 382

    a : INT = I BAL b : PRN = PMT + BAL c : BAL = BAL Σ PRN = PRN Σ INT = INT = 0 and u u u u u Converting between the nominal interest rate and effective interest rate The nominal interest rate ( % value input by user) is converted to an effective interest rate %') for installment loans where the number of installments per year is different from the...

  • Page 383

    After configuring the parameters, use one of the function menus noted below to perform the corresponding calculation. • {BAL} … {balance of principal after installment PM2} • {INT} … {interest portion of installment PM1} • {PRN} … {principal portion of installment PM1} •...

  • Page 384: Interest Rate Conversion

    7-6 Interest Rate Conversion The procedures in this section describe how to convert between the annual percentage rate and effective interest rate. u u u u u Formula EFF = APR = Press 5(CNVT) from the Financial 1 screen to display the following input screen for interest rate conversion.

  • Page 385: Cost, Selling Price, Margin

    7-7 Cost, Selling Price, Margin Cost, selling price, or margin can be calculated by inputting the other two values. u u u u u Formula CST = SEL SEL = 1– MRG(%) = Press 1(COST) from the Financial 2 screen to display the following input screen. 6(g)1(COST) Cst ...

  • Page 386: Day/date Calculations

    7-8 Day/Date Calculations You can calculate the number of days between two dates, or you can determine what date comes a specific number of days before or after another date. Press 2(DAYS) from the Financial 2 screen to display the following input screen for day/ date calculation.

  • Page 387

    Input the month, day, and year, pressing w after each. After configuring the parameters, use one of the function menus noted below to perform the corresponding calculation. • {PRD} … {number of days from d1 to d2 (d2 – d1)} •...

  • Page 388: Chapter 8 Programming

    PRGM Mode Function Keys Editing Program Contents File Management Command Reference Using Calculator Functions in Programs PRGM Mode Command List Program Library This unit comes with approximately 64 Kbytes of memory. • You can check how much memory has been used and how much remains by entering the MEMORY mode from the Main Menu, and then pressing 1(MAIN).

  • Page 389: Basic Programming Steps

    8-1 Basic Programming Steps Description Commands and calculations are executed sequentially, just like manual calculation multistatements. Set Up 1. From the Main Menu, enter the PRGM mode. When you do, a program list appears on the display. Files are listed in the alphabetic sequence of their names.

  • Page 390

    Basic Programming Steps Example 1 To calculate the surface area (cm octahedrons when the length of one side is 7, 10, and 15 cm, respectively Store the calculation formula under the file name OCTA. The following are the formulas used for calculating surface area S and volume V of a regular octahedron for which the length of one side A is known.

  • Page 391: Prgm Mode Function Keys

    8-2 PRGM Mode Function Keys • {NEW} ... {new program} u When you are registering a file name • {RUN}/{BASE} ... {general calculation}/{number base} program input Q } ... {password registration} • {Q • {SYBL} ... {symbol menu} u When you are inputting a program —— 1(RUN) •...

  • Page 392

    u When you are inputting a program —— 2(BASE) • {TOP}/{BTM}/{SRC} • {MENU} • {d~o} ... {decimal}/{hexadecimal}/{binary}/{octal} value input • {LOG} ... {logical operators} • {DISP} ... conversion of displayed value to {decimal}/{hexadecimal}/{binary}/{octal} • { }/{CHAR} • Pressing !J(PRGM) displays the following PRGM (PROGRAM) menu. •...

  • Page 393: Editing Program Contents

    8-3 Editing Program Contents k Debugging a Program A problem in a program that keeps the program from running correctly is called a “bug,” and the process of eliminating such problems is called “debugging.” Either of the following symptoms indicates that your program contains bugs that require debugging. •...

  • Page 394

    k Using an Existing Program to Create a New Program Sometimes you can input a new program by using a program already in memory as a base. Simply recall the existing program, make the changes you need, and then execute it. Example 2 To use the OCTA program (page 8-1-2) to create a program that calculates the surface area (cm...

  • Page 395

    Editing Program Contents Now edit OCTA to produce the TETRA program. 1. Edit the program name. 6(g)2(REN)ATETRAw 2. Edit the program contents. 2(EDIT) eeeeeeDD cDbc 3. Try running the program. 1(EXE) or w hw(Value of A) wbaw wbfw 8-3-3 20050401...

  • Page 396: Searching For Data Inside A Program

    k Searching for Data Inside a Program ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example To search for the letter “A” inside the program named OCTA 1. Recall the program. 2. Press 3(SRC) and input the data you want to find. 3(SRC) av(A) 3.

  • Page 397: File Management

    8-4 File Management k Searching for a File u To find a file using initial character search Example To use initial character search to recall the program named OCTA 1. While the program list is on the display, press 6(g)1(SRC) and input the initial characters of the file you want to find.

  • Page 398

    k k k k k Editing a file name Example To change the name of a file from TRIANGLE to ANGLE 1. While the program list is on the display, use f and c to move the highlighting to the file whose name you want to edit and then press 6(g)2(REN).

  • Page 399

    • You do not need to input the password to run a program. Example To create a program file under the name AREA and protect it with the password CASIO 1. While the program list is on the display, press 3(NEW) and input the file name of the new program file.

  • Page 400

    Recalling a Password Protected Program Example To recall the file named AREA which is protected by the password CASIO 1. In the program list, use f and c to move the highlighting to the name of the program you want to recall.

  • Page 401: Command Reference

    8-5 Command Reference k Command Index Break ... 8-5-6 ClrGraph ... 8-5-12 ClrList ... 8-5-12 ClrMat ... 8-5-12 ClrText ... 8-5-12 DispF-Tbl, DispR-Tbl ... 8-5-13 Do~LpWhile ... 8-5-5 DrawDyna ... 8-5-13 DrawFTG-Con, DrawFTG-Plt ... 8-5-13 DrawGraph ... 8-5-13 DrawR-Con, DrawR-Plt ... 8-5-13 DrawRΣ-Con, DrawRΣ-Plt ...

  • Page 402

    If you do not specify a prompt, execution of this command causes “?” to appear indicating the calculator is standing by for input. If a prompt is specified, “<prompt>?” appears to prompt input. Up to 255 bytes of text can be used for a prompt.

  • Page 403

    ^ ^ (Output Command) Function: Displays an intermediate result during program execution. Description: • This command momentarily interrupts program execution and displays alpha character text or the result of the calculation immediately before the command. • The output command should be used at locations where you would normally press the w key during a manual calculation.

  • Page 404

    k Program Commands (COM) If~Then~(Else~)IfEnd Function: The Then-statement is executed only when the If-condition is true (non-zero). The Else-statement is executed when the If-condition is false (0). The IfEnd- statement is always executed following either the Then-statement or Else-statement. Syntax: <condition>...

  • Page 405

    Description: • The default step value is 1. • Making the starting value less than the ending value and specifying a positive step value causes the control variable to be incremented with each execution. Making the starting value greater than the ending value and specifying a negative step value causes the control variable to be decremented with each execution.

  • Page 406

    While~WhileEnd Function: This command repeats specific commands as long as its condition is true (non- zero). Syntax: While <condition> numeric expression Parameters: expression Description: • This command repeats the commands contained in the loop as long as its condition is true (non-zero).

  • Page 407

    Prog Function: This command specifies execution of another program as a subroutine. In the MAT mode, this command executes a new program. • Syntax: Prog ”file name” Example: Prog ”ABC” Description: • Even when this command is located inside of a loop, its execution immediately breaks the loop and launches the subroutine.

  • Page 408

    Return Function: This command returns from a subroutine. Syntax: Return Description: Execution of the Return command inside a main routine causes execution of the program to stop. Execution of the Return command within a subroutine terminates the subroutine and returns to the program from which the subroutine was jumped to. Stop Function: This command terminates execution of a program.

  • Page 409

    k Jump Commands (JUMP) Function: This command is a count jump that decrements the value of a control variable by 1, and then jumps if the current value of the variable is zero. Syntax: Variable Value ≠ 0 Dsz <variable name> : <statement> Variable Value = 0 Parameters: variable name: A to Z, [Example] Dsz B : Decrements the value assigned to variable B by 1.

  • Page 410

    Goto~Lbl Function: This command performs an unconditional jump to a specified location. Syntax: Goto <label name> ~ Lbl <label name> Parameters: label name: value (0 to 9), variable (A to Z, Description: • This command consists of two parts: Goto n (where n is a parameter as described above) and Lbl n (where n is the parameter referenced by Goto n).

  • Page 411

    Function: This command is a count jump that increments the value of a control variable by 1, and then jumps if the current value of the variable is zero. Syntax: Variable Value ≠ 0 Isz <variable name> : <statement> Variable Value = 0 Parameters: variable name: A to Z, [Example] Isz A : Increments the value assigned to variable A by 1.

  • Page 412

    k k k k k Clear Commands (CLR) ClrGraph Function: This command clears the graph screen and returns View Window settings to their INIT values. Syntax: ClrGraph Description: This command clears the graph screen during program execution. ClrList Function: This command deletes list data. Syntax: ClrList <list name>...

  • Page 413

    k k k k k Display Commands (DISP) DispF-Tbl, DispR-Tbl Function: These commands display numeric tables. Description: • These commands generate numeric tables during program execution in accordance with conditions defined within the program. • DispF-Tbl generates a function table, while DispR-Tbl generates a recursion table. DrawDyna Function: This command executes a Dynamic Graph draw operation.

  • Page 414

    DrawRΣ-Con, DrawRΣ-Plt Function: These commands use values in a generated table to graph a recursion expression with Σ or Σ (Σ ) as the vertical axis and Description: • These commands graph recursion expressions in accordance with current conditions, with Σ...

  • Page 415

    k Input/Output Commands (I/O) Getkey Function: This command returns the code that corresponds to the last key pressed. Syntax: Getkey Description: • This command returns the code that corresponds to the last key pressed. • A value of zero is returned if no key was pressed previous to executing this command. •...

  • Page 416

    (1, 7) → Example: Cls_ Locate 7, 1, ”CASIO FX” This program displays the text “CASIO FX” in the center of the screen. • In some cases, the ClrText command should be executed before running the above program. 8-5-16 Command Reference ←...

  • Page 417

    Receive ( / Send ( Function: This command receives data from and sends data to a connected device. Syntax: Receive (<data>) / Send (<data>) Description: • This command receives data from and sends data to a connected device. • The following types of data can be received (sent) by this command. •...

  • Page 418

    k Conditional Jump Relational Operators (REL) =, ≠, >, <, ≥, ≤ Function: These relational operators are used in combination with the conditional jump command. Syntax: <left side> <relational operator> <right side> Parameters: left side/right side: variable (A to Z, relational operator: =, ≠, >, <, ≥, ≤...

  • Page 419: Using Calculator Functions In Programs

    Using Calculator Functions in Programs 8-6 Using Calculator Functions in Programs k Text Display You can include text in a program by simply enclosing it between double quotation marks. Such text appears on the display during program execution, which means you can add labels to input prompts and results.

  • Page 420

    Using Calculator Functions in Programs u To calculate a scalar multiplication (` Example 2 To calculate the product of Row 2 of the matrix in Example 1 and the scalar 4 The following is the syntax to use for this program.

  • Page 421

    Using Calculator Functions in Programs u To add two rows (Row+) Example 4 To add Row 2 to Row 3 of the matrix in Example 1 The following is the syntax to use for this program. Row+ A, 2, 3_ Mat A Executing this program produces the following result.

  • Page 422

    Using Calculator Functions in Programs u Syntax of other graphing functions • V-Window View Window <Xmin>, <Xmax>, <Xscale>, <Ymin>, <Ymax>, <Yscale>, <T θ min>, <T θ max>, <T θ pitch> StoV-Win <area of V-Win> ... area: 1 to 6 RclV-Win <area of V-Win> ... area: 1 to 6 •...

  • Page 423

    Using Calculator Functions in Programs k k k k k Using Dynamic Graph Functions in a Program Using Dynamic Graph functions in a program makes it possible to perform repeated Dynamic Graph operations. The following shows how to specify the Dynamic Graph range inside a program.

  • Page 424

    Using Calculator Functions in Programs k k k k k Using Table & Graph Functions in a Program Table & Graph functions in a program can generate numeric tables and perform graphing operations. The following shows various types of syntax you need to use when programming with Table &...

  • Page 425

    Using Calculator Functions in Programs k k k k k Using Recursion Table & Graph Functions in a Program Incorporating Recursion Table & Graph functions in a program lets you generate numeric tables and perform graphing operations. The following shows various types of syntax you need to use when programming with Recursion Table &...

  • Page 426

    Using Calculator Functions in Programs Example Program View Window 0, 1, 1, –0.2, 1, 1_ Type_ ” → ”–3 0 → R Start_ 6 → R End_ 0.01 → 0.01 → Start_ DispR-Tbl^ DrawWeb , 30 Executing this program produces the results shown here.

  • Page 427

    Using Calculator Functions in Programs k k k k k Using Solve Calculation Function in a Program The following is the syntax for using the Solve function in a program. Solve( f(x), n, a, b) Example Program Solve( 2X + 7X – 9, 1, 0, 1) f(x) •...

  • Page 428

    Using Calculator Functions in Programs The graph conditions that are required depends on the graph type. See “Changing Graph Parameters” (page 6-1-2). • The following is a typical graph condition specification for a scatter diagram or graph. S-Gph1 DrawOn, Scatter, List 1, List 2, 1, Square _ In the case of an line graph, replace “Scatter”...

  • Page 429

    Using Calculator Functions in Programs • The following is a typical graph condition specification for a sinusoidal regression graph. S-Gph1 DrawOn, Sinusoidal, List 1, List 2 _ • The following is a typical graph condition specification for a logistic regression graph.

  • Page 430

    Using Calculator Functions in Programs • Paired-variable statistical calculation 2-Variable List 1, List 2, List 3 4162 • Regression statistical calculation LinearReg List 1, List 2, List 3 Calculation type* 41661 * Any one of the following can be specified as the calculation type.

  • Page 431: Prgm Mode Command List

    8-7 PRGM Mode Command List RUN Program [ F4 ]( MENU ) key Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Command STAT DRAW DrawOn DrawOff GRPH GPH1 S-Gph1_ GPH2 S-Gph2_ STYL GPH3 S-Gph3_ Scat Scatter xyLine Hist Hist GMEM MedBox N-Dist N-Dis DYNA Brkn...

  • Page 432

    [ VARS ] key Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Command V-WIN Xmin Xmax scal Xscl Xdot Ymin GRPH Ymax scal Yscl θ θ T min θ T max θ ptch T ptch DYNA Strt RightXmin RightXmax Pitch scal RightXscl TABL Strt RightXdot...

  • Page 433

    BASE Program [ SHIFT ] key [ F4 ]( MENU ) key Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Command Level 1 Level 2 ZOOM Fact Factor_ Auto ZoomAuto V-WIN V-Win ViewWindow_ StoV-Win_ RclV-Win_ SKTCH Tang Tangent_ Norm Normal_ Inverse_ GRPH Graph_Y= xnor Graph_r=...

  • Page 434: Program Library

    8-8 Program Library • Be sure to check how many bytes of unused memory are remaining before attempting to perform any programming. Program Name Description This program continually divides a natural number by factors until all its prime factors are produced.

  • Page 435

    8-8-2 Program Library egcw 20050401...

  • Page 436

    Program Name Arithmetic-Geometric Sequence Differentiation Description After inputting sequence terms 1, 2, and 3, this program determines whether it is an arithmetic sequence or geometric sequence based on the differences and ratios of the terms. Purpose This program determines whether a specific sequence is an arithmetic sequence or geometric sequence.

  • Page 437

    8-8-4 Program Library Example 1 Example 2 20050401...

  • Page 438

    Program Name Description This program displays a number table of the following values based on input of the foci of an ellipse, the sum of the distance between the loci and foci, and the pitch (step size) of X. Y1: Coordinate values of upper half of ellipse Y2: Coordinate values of lower half of ellipse Y3: Distances between right focus and loci Y4: Distances between left focus and loci...

  • Page 439

    8-8-6 Program Library 20050401...

  • Page 440

    8-8-7 Program Library Program Name Rotation Description This program draws an angle at the coordinate defined by an input vertex, and then rotates it to a specified angle around the vertex. Purpose This program demonstrates coordinate transformation using a matrix. Important! Deg must be set as the angle unit for this program.

  • Page 441

    8-8-8 Program Library fcde... fcde... wfcde... wfcde... 20050401 20070101...

  • Page 442

    8-8-9 Program Library Program Name Interior Angles and Surface Area of a Triangle Description This program calculates the interior angles and surface area of a triangle defined by input coordinates for angles A, B, and C. Purpose This program calculates the interior angles and surface area of a triangle defined by coordinates for angles A, B, and C.

  • Page 443

    8-8-10 Program Library awaw bwaw aw!x( 20050401...

  • Page 444: Chapter 9 Spreadsheet

    Spreadsheet The Spreadsheet application provides you with powerful, take- along-anywhere spreadsheet capabilities. Spreadsheet Overview File Operations and Re-calculation Basic Spreadsheet Screen Operations Inputting and Editing Cell Data SHT Mode Commands • Statistical Graphs Using the CALC Function Using Memory in the S Chapter SHT Mode •...

  • Page 445: Spreadsheet Overview

    “A1”. 9-1-1 Spreadsheet Overview SHT icon. • SHT mode, the calculator will automatically create a file • 20050401 Column letters (A to Z) Cell cursor Function menu...

  • Page 446

    k k k k k S SHT Mode Function Menu • {FILE} • … {displays the FILE submenu} • {NEW} … {creates a new spreadsheet file} • {OPEN} … {displays a list of previously saved spreadsheet files} You can select a file on this list and open it or delete it. •...

  • Page 447

    • {SEQ} … {generates a numeric sequence the same way as the “Seq(” command (page 3-2-3)} The sequence starts from a specified cell, and can be configured to proceed in a line-wise or column-wise direction. The direction is the one specified by the “Move”...

  • Page 448

    {STO} • … {displays the STO submenu} • {VAR} … {assigns the contents of a cell to a variable} • {LIST} … {saves the contents of a range of cells as a list} • {FILE} … {saves the contents of a range of cells as a file} •...

  • Page 449: File Operations And Re-calculation

    • This will display a blank spreadsheet. # If the file name you enter in step 2 is the name of a spreadsheet file already stored in memory, the calculator will open that file instead of creating a new one. 9-2-1...

  • Page 450

    6(No) to cancel the delete operation without doing anything. 5. To return to the spreadsheet from the file list, press J. # If you delete the currently open file, the calculator will automatically close its screen 9-2-2 and then automatically generate a new file named “SHEET”, and display its blank spreadsheet.

  • Page 451

    u To save a file under a new name (Save As) SHT mode, press 1(FILE)3(SV 1. In the S • • This will display a dialog box for entering a file name. 2. Enter up to eight characters for the file name, and then press w. k k k k k About Auto Save The S SHT mode has an Auto Save feature that automatically saves any changes to make...

  • Page 452: Basic Spreadsheet Screen Operations

    Basic Spreadsheet Screen Operations 9-3 Basic Spreadsheet Screen Operations This section explains basic procedures for selecting cells and moving the cell cursor on a spreadsheet. k k k k k Cell Cursor The cell cursor is the highlighting showing the cell or cells that are currently selected on a spreadsheet.

  • Page 453

    Basic Spreadsheet Screen Operations u To move the cell cursor using the JUMP command To move the cell cursor to here: A particular cell Line 1 of current column Column A of current line Bottom line of current column Press 2(EDIT)4(JUMP)4(BOT↓). Column Z of current line u Specifying Cell Cursor Movement when Inputting Cell Data Under the initial default setup, the cell cursor moves down to the next line when you press...

  • Page 454

    Basic Spreadsheet Screen Operations u To select an entire line While the cell cursor is located in any cell of Column A, press the d key. This will select the entire line where the cell cursor is located. If the cell cursor is located at cell A1, for example, pressing d will select all of line 1 (A1 to Z1).

  • Page 455

    Basic Spreadsheet Screen Operations u To select a range of cells 1. Move the cell cursor to the start cell of the range you want to select. 2. Press !i(CLIP). • This will cause the cell cursor to change from highlighting to a thick-line boundary.

  • Page 456: Inputting And Editing Cell Data

    9-4 Inputting and Editing Cell Data This section explains how to input and edit formulas, text, and other spreadsheet cell data. It covers how to copy, insert, and delete cells. Note that the S SHT mode does not support complex number data. •...

  • Page 457

    Use the calculator’s keys to input values, math expressions, or text, and the function menus to input commands. • The calculator enters the edit mode as soon as you start input, so your input appears flush left in the edit box.

  • Page 458

    A formula always starts with an equal sign (=), and can contain any one of the following. • Values • Mathematical expressions • Cell references • Calculator built-in function commands (page 2-4-1) • S SHT mode commands (page 9-5-1) •...

  • Page 459

    A1, so sin ( Note • This example assumes that the calculator is configured as follows. The “Move” setting on the Setup screen (page 1-7-5) is “Low” (initial default). The “Angle” setting on the Setup screen is “Deg”.

  • Page 460

    k k k k k Using Cell References A cell reference is a symbol that references the value of one cell for use by another cell. If you input “=A1+B1” into cell C2, for example, the Spreadsheet will add the current value of cell A1 to the current value of cell B1, and display the result in cell C2.

  • Page 461

    k k k k k Referencing a Particular Cell The following procedure shows how to reference A1 (which contains the value 3) and perform the calculation A1 × 2. u To reference a particular cell 1. Move the cell cursor to cell A2, and then input !.(=).

  • Page 462

    5. Next, input *c. 6. Press w to store the formula. k k k k k Referencing a Range of Cells You can reference a range of cells to obtain their sum, mean, etc. The following procedure input a formula to determine the sum of cells A6 through B7, and inputs the result in cell A4.

  • Page 463

    Inputting and Editing Cell Data 5. Press !i(CLIP). • This will cause the cell cursor to change from highlighting to a thick-line boundary. 6. Use the cursor keys to move the cell cursor to the last cell of the range you want to select (B7 in this example).

  • Page 464

    k k k k k Inputting the Absolute Reference Symbol ($) You can input the absolute reference symbol at the current cursor position by pressing the 2($) key of the edit mode function menu. See “Absolute Cell References” (page 9-4-5) for more information.

  • Page 465

    k k k k k Inputting a Constant An expression or value that you input without an equal (=) in front of it is called a “constant”, because the value is not affected by anything outside of the cell where it is located. If you input a math expression as a constant, the cell shows its result.

  • Page 466

    k k k k k Inputting Text A text string starting with a quote mark (") is treated as text, and displayed as-is. The quote mark (") is not displayed as part of the text. Up to six characters can be displayed by the cell.

  • Page 467

    Inputting and Editing Cell Data 3. Enter the required items to generate the sequence. • The following describes the required input items. Item Expr Function ) for generating the sequence Name of the variable in the function Even if a function has only one variable, its name must be defined here. The starting value (Start), ending value (End) and pitch (Incre) of the Start values assigned to the variable specified by Var...

  • Page 468

    k k k k k Filling a Range of Cells with the Same Content You can use the following procedure to fill a range of cells with the same formula, expression, value, or text. u To fill a range of cells with the same content ○...

  • Page 469

    Inputting and Editing Cell Data 4. Press w. 5. Press 6(EXE) or the w key. • This executes the “FILL” command and fills the specified content into the specified range of cells. The A1 cell reference is a relative reference. The following shows the formulas that are actually input into each cell.

  • Page 470

    k k k k k Cut and Paste You can use the procedures in this section to cut the data in one location of a spreadsheet and paste in another location. You can cut the contents of a single cell or a range of cells. u How cut and paste affects cell references The cut and paste operation has special rules that govern how cell references (page 9-4-5) within the cells being cut and pasted are handled.

  • Page 471

    Inputting and Editing Cell Data • When a cell within the cut area is referencing a cell that also is within the cut area In this case all cell references are treated as relative cell references, no matter what type they actually are (absolute or relative).

  • Page 472

    3. Use the cursor keys to move the cell cursor to the cell from which you want to paste the data. • If you selected a range of cells in step 1, the cell you select with the cell cursor will be the upper left cell of the paste range.

  • Page 473

    • This will paste the data in the cells you selected in step 1 at the location you selected in step 3. 5. The calculator will remain in the paste mode, so you could repeat steps 3 and 4 to paste the same data at other locations, if you want.

  • Page 474

    k k k k k Sorting Spreadsheet Data Spreadsheet data can be sorted column-wise or line-wise. You can select either ascending sort or descending sort. Important! • Sorting can be performed only when the selected range of cells contains all constants. u To sort spreadsheet data 1.

  • Page 475

    Inputting and Editing Cell Data 3. Use the DEL submenu to perform the operation you want. When you want to do this: Delete the entire row(s) of the currently selected cell(s), and shift anything below upwards. Delete the entire column(s) of the currently selected cell(s), and shift anything to the right leftwards.

  • Page 476

    u To insert lines or columns of blank cells 1. Select one or more cells to specify how many lines or columns you want to insert. • Selection rules are the same as those for line and column deletion. See step 1 under “To delete an entire line or column of cells”...

  • Page 477: Sht Mode Commands

    9-5 S SHT Mode Commands • This section explains how to use the S u To input a S SHT mode command • 1. Select the cells where you want to input the formula that contains the S command. 2. Press 2(EDIT)3(CELL) or !.(=) to enter the edit mode. •...

  • Page 478

    k k k k k S SHT Mode Command Reference • This section provides details about the function and syntax of each command, as well as practical examples of how to use them. Note that you can omit anything enclosed in brackets ([ ]) in the Syntax of each command.

  • Page 479

    u u u u u CellMax( Function: Returns the greatest value contained in the range of specified cells. Syntax: CellMax( start cell : end cell [ ) ] Example: To determine the greatest value in the block whose upper left corner is located at A3 and whose lower right corner is located at C5, and input the result in cell u u u u u CellMean( Function: Returns the mean of the values contained in the range of specified cells.

  • Page 480

    u u u u u CellSum( Function: Returns the sum of the values contained in the range of specified cells. Syntax: CellSum( start cell : end cell [ ) ] Example: To determine the sum of the values in the block whose upper left corner is located at A3 and whose lower right corner is located at C5, and input the result in cell A1: u u u u u CellProd(...

  • Page 481: Statistical Graphs

    9-6 Statistical Graphs This section explains how to graph the data in a spreadsheet. k k k k k Overview Except for selection of the data to be graphed, the graph operations you can use in the SHT mode are basically the same as those in the STAT mode. This section explains the •...

  • Page 482

    k k k k k Configuring Graph Parameter Settings Pressing 6(SET) on the GRPH submenu displays a graph settings screen like the one shown below. In the STAT mode, you can graph data input with the List Editor. In the S can graph the data input into the spreadsheet cells.

  • Page 483

    k k k k k Graphing Statistical Data The following shows an actual example of how to graph statistical data in the S It also explains various methods you can use to specify the range of cells that contains the graph data.

  • Page 484

    5. Configure the graph setup settings. • For information about configuring the Graph Type and Mark Type settings, see “1. General graph settings” on page 6-1-2, “6-2 Calculating and Graphing Single-Variable Statistical Data”, and “6-3 Calculating and Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data”. •...

  • Page 485

    k k k k k Configuring Range Settings for Graph Data Cells The XCellRange and YCellRange settings on the graph settings screen are configured automatically in accordance with the cells you select on the spreadsheet. You can use the procedure below to change these settings manually, if you want. Note that the automatic XCellRange and YCellRange settings always specify a series of lines in a specific column.

  • Page 486

    k k k k k Configuring the Frequency Setting The frequency is a value that specifies how many times each of the statistical data items is repeated. A value of 1 is the initial default for this setting. With this setting, each data item ( or data pair ( ) is represented as one point on the graph.

  • Page 487: Using The Calc Function

    9-7 Using the CALC Function This section explains how to use the CALC function to perform statistical calculations on spreadsheet data. k k k k k Overview Except for selection of the data, the statistical calculation operations you can use in the SHT mode are basically the same as those in the STAT mode.

  • Page 488

    k k k k k Configuring Statistical Calculation Data Settings To execute a statistical calculation in the S spreadsheet and define the range of cells where the data is located as statistical calculation cells. To define statistical calculation cells, press 6(SET) on the CALC submenu and settings screen shown below.

  • Page 489

    k k k k k Executing a Statistical Calculation The following shows an actual example of how to perform a statistical calculation in the SHT mode. • u To execute a statistical calculation ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example To input the data shown below into a spreadsheet, and then to perform paired-variable statistical calculations and regression calculations Height 1.

  • Page 490

    Using the CALC Function 9. Press J2(2VAR). • This will display the paired-variable statistical calculation result list. You can use the up and down cursor keys to scroll the result screen. • For information about the meaning of each of the values on the result screen, see “Displaying the Calculation Results of a Drawn Paired-Variable Graph”...

  • Page 491

    9-8 Using Memory in the S This section explains how to save spreadsheet data to memory, and how to import memory data into a spreadsheet. k k k k k Saving Spreadsheet Data You can assign spreadsheet data to a variable, or save it to List Memory, File Memory, or Mat Memory.

  • Page 492: Using Memory In The Ssht Mode

    k k k k k Saving Spreadsheet Data to List Memory You can use the following procedure to select a series of cells in a particular column or row and save their data to List Memory (List 1 through List 26). u To save the contents of a range of cells to List Memory 1.

  • Page 493

    u To save the contents of a range of cells to File Memory 1. Select the range of cells whose data you want to save in File Memory. 2. Press 6(g)3(STO)3(FILE). • The “Cell Range” setting will show the range of cells you selected in step 1.

  • Page 494

    k k k k k Recalling Data from Memory The procedures in this section explain how to recall data from List Memory, File Memory, and Mat Memory, and input it into a spreadsheet starting from a specific cell. It also explains how to use variables in spreadsheet constants and formulas.

  • Page 495

    Using Memory in the S u To recall data from a File Memory to a spreadsheet 1. On the spreadsheet, select the upper left cell of the range where you want the recalled data to be input. 2. Press 6(g)4(RCL)2(FILE) to display a data recall screen like the one shown below.

  • Page 496

    Chapter eActivity An eActivity is both a documentation tool and a student notebook. As a documentation tool, a teacher can create electronic examples and practice problems with accompanying text, mathematical expressions, graphs, and tables. eActivities also provide the student the means to explore problems, document their learning and problem solving by entering notes, and share their learning by saving their work to a file.

  • Page 497: Eactivity Overview

    10-1 eActivity Overview eActivity lets you input and edit text, mathematical expressions, and application data, and save your input in a file called an “eActivity”. k k k k k Using the e ACT Mode • On the Main Menu, select the e •...

  • Page 498

    k k k k k Workspace Screen Function Menu Opening an eActivity file displays a workspace screen that shows the current contents of the eActivity. The sample below shows the parts that make up the eActivity workspace. Note that not all of the eActivity can be displayed in a single screen.

  • Page 499

    k k k k k Text Line Function Menu {FILE} • … {displays the FILE submenu} • {SAVE} … {saves the file you are editing, overwriting the previous (unedited) version} • {SV • AS} … {saves the file you are editing under a new name (Save As)} •...

  • Page 500

    k k k k k Math Line and Stop Line Function Menu {FILE} • … Same as {FILE} under “Text Line Function Menu” (page 10-1-3). {STRP} • … Same as {STRP} under “Text Line Function Menu” (page 10-1-3). {CALC} • …...

  • Page 501

    k k k k k Strip Function Menu {FILE} • … Same as {FILE} under “Text Line Function Menu” (page 10-1-3) except for {SIZE}. • {SIZE} … {displays the size of the strip that is currently selected or where the cursor is currently located} {STRP} •...

  • Page 502

    1. From the main menu, enter the e 2. Create a new eActivity file. 1. Press 2(NEW). 2. On the dialog box that appears, enter up to eight characters for the eActivity file name, and then press w. • This will display a blank workspace screen with a text line cursor (for text line input). 3.

  • Page 503

    2. Specify the Solve calculation, and then enter the function. AK4(CALC)1(Solve) cvx+v-d, 3. Input the initial estimate value, the lower limit, and the upper limit. a,a,ba) 4. Press w to solve for • This will display the solution ( cursor to the beginning of the next line. 5.

  • Page 504

    6. Graph the expression using the Graph strip. 1. While the “Graph draw” Graph strip you created in step 5 is selected, press w. • This will display a graph screen. 2. Press !6(G↔T) to display the Graph Editor screen. 3.

  • Page 505: Eactivity File Operations

    10-2 Working with eActivity Files This section explains the different file operations you can perform from the eActivity file list screen. k eActivity File Operations u To create a new file 1. If you want to create the file in a specific folder, use f and c to highlight the folder you want, and then press 1(OPEN) or w.

  • Page 506

    Working with eActivity Files u To open a file 1. If the file you want to open is in a folder, use f and c to highlight the folder, and then press 1(OPEN) or w. 2. Use f and c to highlight the file you want to open, and then press 1(OPEN) or •...

  • Page 507

    Working with eActivity Files u To search for a file 1. While the file list screen is displayed, press 4(SRC). • This displays a file search dialog box. 2. Enter part or all of the name of the file you want to find. •...

  • Page 508: Inputting And Editing Eactivity File Data

    Inputting and Editing eActivity File Data 10-3 Inputting and Editing eActivity File Data The following shows the type of eActivity file data you can input and edit. Text lines Math lines Text line A text line can be used to input characters, numbers, and expressions as non-executable text.

  • Page 509

    Inputting and Editing eActivity File Data k k k k k Navigating around the eActivity Workspace Screen u To scroll the eActivity workspace screen vertically The workspace screen can be scrolled line-by-line, or screen-by-screen. • Pressing f while the cursor is in the top line of the workspace screen will scroll one line upwards.

  • Page 510

    Inputting and Editing eActivity File Data u To change the current line into a text line 1. On the eActivity workspace screen, check the menu of the 3 function key. • If the 3 key menu is “TEXT”, it means that the current line is already a text line. In this case, you can input text in the line without performing step 2, below.

  • Page 511

    RUN • When you input a mathematical expression into an eActivity, the Input Mode (page 1-3-8) always changes to “Math”, regardless of the calculator’s current input mode setting. • You can input stop lines in an eActivity.

  • Page 512

    Inputting and Editing eActivity File Data u To input a calculation formula into an eActivity 1. On the eActivity workspace screen, change the line where the cursor is currently located into a math line, or insert a new math line. •...

  • Page 513

    To avoid having to wait for all the expressions to be recalculated each time you make a change, you can insert a stop line below the math line(s) you are editing. Then when you press w the calculator will re-calculate the math lines up to the stop line and then stop automatically.

  • Page 514

    If we wanted to test various values for θ without recalculating all of the math lines underneath it, we could insert a stop line at the location shown above. Then, each time we change the value of θ and press w, the calculator will re-calculate (sin θ ) and then stop.

  • Page 515

    Inputting and Editing eActivity File Data k Inserting a Strip A strip can be used to embed data from Graph, Conics Graph, Spreadsheet, and other applications into an eActivity. Note that only one application screen (either the Graph screen or Graph Editor screen in the case of GRAPH mode data, for example) can be used in each strip.

  • Page 516

    Inputting and Editing eActivity File Data u To insert a strip 1. Move the cursor to the location where you want to insert the strip. 2. Press 2(STRP). • This will display a dialog box with a list of insertable strips. 3.

  • Page 517

    Inputting and Editing eActivity File Data When you want to embed this type of data: DYNA mode Dynamic Graph screen TVM mode Financial screen SHT mode Spreadsheet screen • 4. Press w. • The strip is inserted above the line or the strip where the cursor is currently located.

  • Page 518

    Inputting and Editing eActivity File Data u To change the title of a strip 1. Use f and c to highlight the strip whose title you want to change. 2. Input the new title. • Press d or e to display the text input cursor, and then edit the current title. •...

  • Page 519

    Inputting and Editing eActivity File Data u To call up an application from a strip 1. Use the f and c cursor keys to move the highlighting to the strip whose associated application you want to call up. 2. Press w. •...

  • Page 520

    Inputting and Editing eActivity File Data u To switch from an application screen called up from a strip to another application screen Press !,(,). • On the application list that appears, use f and c to highlight the name of the screen to which you want to switch, and then press w.

  • Page 521

    Inputting and Editing eActivity File Data 3. Press w to call up the graph screen. • Since you have not input any data yet, the graph screen that appears will be blank. 4. Press !6(G↔T) to display the Graph Editor screen. •...

  • Page 522

    Inputting and Editing eActivity File Data u Table Editor Strip Example In this example, we use a Table Editor strip to input the function of the List Editor for the -variable range to generate a number table. Things to remember... •...

  • Page 523

    Inputting and Editing eActivity File Data 8. Call up the List Editor screen (page 6-1-1). • Press !,(,) to display the application list, select List Editor, and then press w. 9. Input the values into List 1. 10. Return to the Table Editor screen. •...

  • Page 524

    Inputting and Editing eActivity File Data u To use copy and paste to draw a graph 1. Perform steps 1 through 7 under “To create a Graph strip” (page 10-3-13) to create a Graph strip with the title “Graph draw”. •...

  • Page 525: Using Notes

    Inputting and Editing eActivity File Data k Using Notes Notes is a text editor that can be used only in eActivity. You can call up the Notes screen from a Notes strip on the eActivity workspace screen. You can perform the following operations on a Notes screen. u Input and edit text Text is input at the current cursor position on the Notes screen.

  • Page 526

    Inputting and Editing eActivity File Data k Deleting an eActivity Line or Strip Use the following procedure to delete a line or strip from the eActivity workspace screen. Remember that deleting a math line deletes both the expression line and the result line. u To delete a line or strip 1.

  • Page 527

    Inputting and Editing eActivity File Data k Saving an eActivity File After inputting or editing data on the eActivity workspace screen, you can save it to a file under a new name (Save As) or you can replace the previously saved version of the file you are working on (Save).

  • Page 528: Using Matrix Editor And List Editor

    10-4 Using Matrix Editor and List Editor In addition to the strip operation for calling up application screens within eActivity (page 10-3-12), you can also use the eActivity function menu to call up Matrix Editor and List Editor. k k k k k Calling Up Matrix Editor You can call up Matrix Editor to input a matrix into a math line on the eActivity workspace screen.

  • Page 529

    k Calling Up List Editor You can call up List Editor to input a list into a math line on the eActivity workspace screen. Note The data you create by calling up the List Editor using the procedure below can be used in the calculation line on the eActivity workspace screen only.

  • Page 530: Eactivity File Memory Usage Screen

    eActivity File Memory Usage Screen 10-5 eActivity File Memory Usage Screen The size of an eActivity file is limited. You can use the eActivity file memory usage screen to check the current size and how much more memory is available for the eActivity file you are working on.

  • Page 531: System Settings Menu

    The system settings menu lets you do the following. • Make contrast settings • Make Auto Power Off settings • Specify the system language • View the operating system and application versions • Reset the calculator 11-1 Using the System Settings Menu 11-2 System Settings 11-3...

  • Page 532: Using The System Settings Menu

    11-1 Using the System Settings Menu From the Main Menu, enter the SYSTEM mode and display the following menu items. • 1( ) ... {display contrast adjustment} • 2(APO) ... {Auto Power Off time setting} • 3(LANG) ... {system language} •...

  • Page 533: System Settings

    11-2 System Settings k k k k k Contrast Adjustment Use the (Contrast) item to adjust display contrast. While the initial SYSTEM mode screen is displayed, press 1( Adjustment screen. • The e cursor key makes display contrast darker. • The d cursor key makes display contrast lighter. •...

  • Page 534

    k k k k k System Language Setting Use LANG to specify the display language for built-in applications. You can also use add-ins to install various other languages. u u u u u To select the Message Language 1. From the initial SYSTEM mode screen, press 3(LANG) to display the Message Language selection screen.

  • Page 535: Version List

    Menu languages and versions User name Press J or !J(QUIT) to return to the initial SYSTEM mode screen. Only installed add-ins are displayed. 11-3-1 Version List # The operating system version that actually appears depends on the calculator model. 20050401 20060601...

  • Page 536

    u u u u u To register a user name 1. While the Version list is displayed, press 1(NAME) to display the user name input screen. 2. Input up to eight characters for the user name you want. 3. After inputting the name, press w to register it, and return to the Version list. •...

  • Page 537: Reset

    11-4 Reset 1. While the initial SYSTEM mode screen is displayed, press 5(RSET) to display the Reset Screen 1. • 1(STUP) ... {setup initialization} • 2(MAIN) ... {main memory data clear} • 3(ADD) ... {add-in application clear} • 4(SMEM) ... {storage memory data clear} •...

  • Page 538

    6(No) to cancel. 4. A message appears to let you know when the reset operation is complete. • For all memory clear: Press J to restart the calculator and return to the Main Menu. • Other: Press J to clear the message.

  • Page 539: Data Communications

    Chapter Data Communications This chapter tells you everything you need to know to transfer programs between two CASIO Power Graphic calculators connected using the cable that is equipped as a standard accessory. You can use the USB cable that comes with the calculator to connect it to a computer to exchange images and other data.

  • Page 540: Connecting Two Units

    (1) From the Main Menu, enter the LINK mode. (2) Press 4(CABL). This displays the cable type selection screen. (3) Press 2(3PIN). # Models that are supported for this configura- tion are shown below. fx-9860G AU fx-9860G SD fx-9860G 12-1-1 Connecting Two Units...

  • Page 541: Connecting The Unit To A Personal Computer

    12-2 Connecting the Unit to a Personal Computer You can use the USB cable that comes with the calculator to connect it to a computer to exchange images and other data. For details on operation, the types of computer that can be connected, and hardware limitations, see the user’s documentation for the FA-124 software that comes with the...

  • Page 542: Performing A Data Communication Operation

    • {CAPT} ... {displays the image transfer setting screen} Communication parameters are fixed at the following settings. • 3-pin serial port • Speed (BPS): 9600 bps max. (Connected with CFX-9850 series) 115200 bps max. (Connected with another fx-9860G AU/fx-9860G SD/ fx-9860G) • Parity (PARITY): NONE • USB port •...

  • Page 543

    To set up the calculator to receive data, press 2(RECV) while the data communication main menu is displayed. The calculator enters a data receive standby mode and waits for data to arrive. Actual data receive starts as soon as data is sent from the sending unit.

  • Page 544

    Performing a Data Communication Operation Pressing 1(MAIN) or 2(SMEM) displays a screen for specifying the data selection method. When 1(MAIN) is pressed • {SEL} ... {selects new data} • {CRNT} ... {automatically selects previously selected data* u To send selected data items Press 1(SEL) or 2(CRNT) to display a data item selection screen.

  • Page 545

    Performing a Data Communication Operation uTo execute a send operation After selecting the data items to send, press 6(TRAN). A message appears to confirm that you want to execute the send operation. • 1(Yes) ... sends data • 6(No) ... returns to data selection screen Press 1(Yes) to send the data.

  • Page 546

    When communication is with a computer (USB selected as the cable type), connecting the USB cable to a computer and then to the calculator (while the calculator is turned off) will cause the calculator to turn on and enter the receive mode.

  • Page 547: Data Communications Precautions

    12-4 Data Communications Precautions The following are the types of data items that can be sent. Data Item <PROGRAM> Program group Program names Program contents (All programs are listed.) <MATRIX> Matrix group Matrix memory (A to Z, and Ans) contents <LISTFILE>...

  • Page 548

    Data Communications Precautions Data Item <CAPTURE> Capture memory group CAPT Capture memory (1 to 20) data SETUP Setup data OS and data shared by applications (clipboard, SYSTEM replay, history, etc.), which is not included in the above Add-in application Add-in application data names (All add-in applications are listed.) No overwrite check: If the receiving unit already contains the same type of data, the...

  • Page 549

    Exchanging Data with another Model Calculator • The graph line style data of this calculator is interchangeable with the line color data of the CFX-9850. • Sending the following type of data to a CFX-9850 will cause an error.

  • Page 550: Image Transfer

    12-5 Image Transfer k Transferring Images to a Computer Use the following procedure to capture calculator screen images to a computer. Perform this procedure using FA-124 software running on the computer. 1. Use the USB cable to connect the calculator to the computer.

  • Page 551

    Auto Image Transfer to an OHP Unit The following procedure sends the screen of this calculator to an OHP unit at fixed intervals. 1. Use the USB cable to connect the calculator to the OHP unit. 2. On the calculator’s data communication main menu, press 6(CAPT).

  • Page 552: Precautions When Connecting

    Connecting to a Projector You can connect the calculator to a CASIO projector and project calculator screen contents onto a screen. u Connectable Projectors (As of January 2007) XJ-S35 • You can also connect the calculator to a YP-100 Multifunctional Presentation Kit and project from the projectors other than the model shown above.

  • Page 553: Add-ins

    Built-in Application Upgrades These are upgrades for the applications that are pre-programmed in the calculator’s ROM. u u u u u On-screen Message Language Data This data is required to display on-screen messages in other languages. Installing this data causes all on-screen messages to appear in the corresponding language.

  • Page 554: Memory Mode

    12-7 MEMORY Mode This calculator has two separate memory areas: a “main memory” and a “storage memory.” The main memory is a work area where you can perform input data, perform calculations and run programs. Data in the main memory is relatively safe, but it can be deleted when batteries go dead or when you perform a full reset.

  • Page 555

    • Line 7 shows how many bytes of memory are currently unused in the currently selected memory (main or storage). • The first time you store data to the storage memory, the calculator will reserve a management memory area automatically, which will reduce the “Free” value by 65535 bytes.

  • Page 556

    Moving the highlighting to a data group or folder and pressing w will display the data group or folder contents. Pressing J will return to the previous screen. When the contents of a storage memory folder are displayed, the first line of the screen shows the name of the folder.

  • Page 557

    Data Name <CAPTURE> CAPT = 1 to 20) CONICS <PROGRAM> Each program name <S-SHEET> Each spreadsheet name Each add-in application name Application-specific data <F-MEM> F-MEM = 1 to 20) SETUP SYSTEM Storage Memory* Data Name *.g1m file names eActivity data names Add-in software names (Applications, languages, menus)

  • Page 558

    k Creating a Folder in Storage Memory Use the following procedure to create and rename folders in storage memory. u To create a new folder 1. While storage memory data is on the display, press 4(MK name input screen. 2. Input up to eight characters for the name you want to give to the folder.

  • Page 559

    u To rename a folder 1. On the storage memory information screen, select the folder you want to rename. 2. Press 5(RN F) to display the rename folder screen. • 3. Input up to eight characters for the name you want to give to the folder.

  • Page 560

    • You can select multiple files, if you want. • Selecting a group or folder also selects everything inside of it. Deselecting a group or folder deselects all of its contents. • If you select one or more individual items inside of a data group or folder, the black selection pointer (') appears next to each item, while a white selection pointer (g) appears next to the group or folder name.

  • Page 561

    k Copying Data You can copy data between main memory and storage memory. u To copy from main memory to storage memory Note • The following procedure saves the selected data into a single file. You assign a name to the file, which is stored in storage memory.

  • Page 562

    If a “Fragmentation ERROR” occurs, perform the optimization procedure (page 12-7-17). Overwrite check The calculator checks to see if there is any existing data at the copy destination with the same name as the data being copied. An overwrite confirmation message appears if there is data with the same name.

  • Page 563

    Overwrite check is performed for the following types of data only. All other types of data are copied, without checking for data files with the same name. • Programs • Matrices • List files • Graph memories • Dynamic Graph memories •...

  • Page 564

    k k k k k Deleting Files Use the procedures in this section to delete main memory and storage memory data. u To delete a main memory file 1. On the initial MEMORY mode screen press 1(MAIN). • This displays a list of files that are in the main memory. 2.

  • Page 565

    k k k k k Searching for a File Use the following procedures to search for a specific file in the main memory or storage memory. u To search for a file in the main memory * ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example To search for all files in the main memory whose names begin with the letter “R”...

  • Page 566

    u To search for a file in the storage memory ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Example To search for all files in the storage memory whose names begin with the letter “S” 1. On the initial MEMORY mode screen press 2(SMEM). •...

  • Page 567

    k Backing Up Main Memory Data You can back up all the data in the main memory and store it in the storage memory. Later you can restore the backed up data to the main memory when necessary. u To back up main memory data 1.

  • Page 568

    The message “Complete!” appears when the backup operation is finished. Press J to return to the screen displayed in step 1. The following message appears if there is already backup data in the storage memory. Press 1(Yes) to back up the data, or 6(No) to cancel the backup operation. A “Memory Full”...

  • Page 569

    4. Press w.* • A message appears to confirm whether or not you really want to restore the backed up data. Press 1(Yes) to restore the data and delete any data currently in the area. Press 6(No) to cancel the data backup operation. The message “Complete!”...

  • Page 570

    Press J to return to the initial MEMORY mode screen. # In some cases, the amount of free memory capacity may be unchanged when you check it after performing the optimization procedure. This does not indicate any problem with the calculator. 12-7-17 MEMORY Mode 20050401...

  • Page 571: Error Message Table

    Appendix 1 Error Message Table 2 Input Ranges 3 Specifications 4 Key Index 5 P Button (In case of hang up) 6 Power Supply 20050401...

  • Page 572: Error Message Table

    1 Error Message Table Message Syntax ERROR • Illegal syntax • Attempt to input an illegal command Ma ERROR • Calculation result exceeds the display range. • Calculation is outside the input range of a function. • Mathematical error (division by zero, etc.) •...

  • Page 573

    Message Memory • Operation or memory storage ERROR operation exceeds remaining memory capacity. Argument • Incorrect argument specification ERROR for a command that requires an argument. Dimension • Illegal dimension used during ERROR matrix or list calculations. 1 Input of an improper V-Window Range ERROR value.

  • Page 574

    Message • No variable specified within a No Variable graph function being used for Dynamic Graph. • No variable within a Solve equation. Com ERROR • Problem with cable connection or parameter setting during program data communications. • Problem with cable connection Transmit or parameter setting during data ERROR...

  • Page 575

    Message • An illegal data type is specified. Invalid Type Storage • The storage memory is full. Memory Full • A data error occurred. Data ERROR -1-4 Error Message Table Meaning • Specify valid data. • Delete unneeded data. • Check to make sure you are writing correct type of data and try again.

  • Page 576: Input Ranges

    2 Input Ranges Input range for real Function number solutions (DEG) | | < 9 (RAD) | | < 5 (GRA) | | < 1 –1 | < 1 –1 –1 | < 1 sinh | < 230.9516564 cosh tanh | <...

  • Page 577

    Input range for real Function number solutions Pol ( < 1 | < 1 (DEG) | | < 9 (RAD) | | < 5 (GRA) | | < 1 < 1 ’ ” 0 < | < 1 Sexagesimal display: ’...

  • Page 578

    Function Binary, Values fall within following ranges after conversion: DEC: –2147483648 < octal, BIN: 1000000000000000 < decimal, hexadecimal 0 < < 111111111111111 (0, positive) OCT: 20000000000 < calculation 0 < < 17777777777 (0, positive) HEX: 80000000 < 0 < < 7FFFFFFF (0, positive) -2-3 Input Ranges Input range...

  • Page 579: Specifications

    3 Specifications Variables: 28 Calculation range: –99 to 9.999999999 Exponential display range: Norm 1: 10 Program capacity: 63000 bytes (max.) Storage memory capacity: 800 Kbytes (max.) Power supply: Main: Four AAA-size batteries (LR03 (AM4)) Back-up: One CR2032 lithium battery Power consumption: 0.7 W Approximate battery life Main: LR03 (AM4): 300 hours (continuous display of main menu)

  • Page 580

    Data Communications 3-pin serial port Method: Start-stop (asynchronous), half-duplex Transmission speed (BPS): 115200 bits/second (normal) 9600 bits/second (When connected to CFX-9850/fx-7400 series; Send/Receive commands) 38400 bits/second (Send38k/Receive38k commands) < > 115200 bits/second Parity: EVEN Bit length: 8 bits Stop bit: Send: 1 bit Receive: 1 bit Includes parity (None) 1-bit...

  • Page 581: Key Index

    4 Key Index Primary Function Trace Selects 1st function menu item. Zoom Selects 2nd function menu item. V-Window Selects 3rd function menu item. Sketch Selects 4th function menu item. G-Solv Selects 5th function menu item. Selects 6th function menu item. Primary Function Activates shift functions of other keys and function menus.

  • Page 582

    Primary Function Moves cursor downward. Scrolls screen. Switches to next function in trace mode. Moves cursor to left. Scrolls screen. Press after calculation from end. Moves cursor to right. Scrolls screen. Press after calculation from beginning. Allows input of variable X, , and Press before entering value to calculate common logalithm.

  • Page 583

    Primary Function CLIP Enters number 8. PASTE Enters number 9. Insert mode: Backspace function. Overwrite mode: Deletes the character at the cursor position. Turns power on. Clears the display. CATALOG Enters number 4. Enters number 5. Enters number 6. Multiplication function. Division function.

  • Page 584: P Button (in Case Of Hang Up)

    P button Warning! Never perform this operation unless you want to totally clear the memory of the calculator. If you need the data currently stored in memory, be sure to write it down somewhere before performing the P button operation.

  • Page 585: Power Supply

    If the following message appears on the display, immediately turn off the calculator and replace main batteries as instructed. If you try to continue using the calculator, it will automatically turn off in order to protect memory contents. You will not be able to turn power back on until you replace batteries.

  • Page 586: Replacing Batteries

    • Never remove the main power supply and the memory back up batteries from the calcula- tor at the same time. • Never turn on the calculator while the main power supply batteries are removed or not loaded correctly. Doing so can cause memory data to be deleted and malfunction of the calculator.

  • Page 587

    1. Press !o(OFF) to turn off the calculator. Warning! • Be sure to turn the calculator off before replacing batteries. Replacing batteries with power on will cause data in memory to be deleted. 2. Making sure that you do not accidently press the o key, slide the case onto the calculator and then turn it over.

  • Page 588

    • Be sure to replace the back up power supply battery at least once 5 years, regardless of how much you use the calculator during that time. Failure to do so can cause data in memory to be deleted.

  • Page 589: About The Auto Power Off Function

    Next, press o to turn on power. k About the Auto Power Off Function Calculator power turns off automatically if you do not perform any operation within the Auto Power Off trigger time you specify. You can specify either six minutes or 60 minutes as the trigger time (see “APO Settings”...

  • Page 590

    CASIO COMPUTER CO., LTD. 6-2, Hon-machi 1-chome Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 151-8543, Japan SA0701-E...

This manual also for:

Fx-9860gii-l-ih, Fx-9860g sd

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