The AMD processor roadmap for industry- standard servers technology brief, 6th Edition Abstract.............................. 2 Introduction............................2 X86 architecture ..........................2 32-bit operations..........................2 AMD64 technology.......................... 3 Instruction set and registers ......................3 Operating modes ......................... 4 Memory addressability........................4 Naming conventions ..........................4 Direct Connect I/O Architecture ......................
Abstract Since 1996, HP and AMD have collaborated to provide high-performance, energy efficient solutions that deliver quality, variety, and value in industry-standard servers. This collaboration includes the adoption of the latest multi-core AMD Opteron™ processors. This technology brief discusses current and near future AMD Opteron processors and the evolving AMD Opteron processor microarchitecture.
Table 1. 32-bit x86 instructions common to AMD processors Instruction Description Register Size of Number of name type registers registers Standard Instructions for logical and arithmetic operations, address 32-bit calculations, and has 16-bit index registers for memory pointers 64-bit Multimedia instructions that allow the processor to do 64-bit SIMD operations Instructions for floating point calculations 80-bit*...
Operating modes AMD Opteron processors use three different operating modes: 64-bit long mode, 64-bit compatibility mode, and 32-bit legacy mode. The 64-bit long mode requires a 64-bit OS and an application recompiled to use the 64-bit registers. In other words, the full capabilities of the expanded register set are available only when both the OS and the application support 64 bits.
The last two digits, ZZ, indicate the relative performance within the series. Higher numbers indicate higher performance. In addition, the model number can include a suffix designator to indicate a non-standard power level. HE designates a lower power version, and SE a higher power version. For example, Model 2220, Model 2220 HE, and Model 2220 SE all offer equivalent performance, but differ in power consumption.
HyperTransport Technology HyperTransport is a point-to-point interconnect with two unidirectional links (see Figure 1) that directly connect the processors to each other and connect each processor to its dedicated memory banks, as well as to other I/O chipsets. Compared to a shared, parallel front-side bus, HyperTransport has the advantages of no overhead for bus arbitration and easier signal integrity maintenance, resulting in a scalable, high-bandwidth architecture.
Multi-core technologies In the past, the most common way to improve processor performance was to increase core frequency and/or cache size. However, both of these solutions increase power consumption (and heat generation) and have other limitations. Alternatively, higher performance can be achieved by using multiple execution cores per processor.
other links can connect to I/O (non-coherent links); thus, 2000 series AMD Opteron processors can be used in dual-processor systems. With the 8000 series AMD Opteron processors, all three HyperTransport links can connect to other AMD Opteron processors or to I/O. For more information about multi-core processors, see the AMD whitepaper titled “Multi-Core Processors—The Next Evolution in Computing.”...
Quad-Core AMD Opteron processors AMD introduced the quad-core AMD Opteron (see Figure 3) in September of 2007. It included several innovations: • A new core microarchitecture – K8L (true quad-core on a single die) • Extensions to AMD64 instruction set – bit manipulation and SSE, SSE2, SSE3, and SSE4 •...
AMD Smart Fetch Technology Smart Fetch Technology allows cores to enter a "halt" state during idle processing times, causing them to draw less power. Before entering the halt state, data from the L1 and L2 caches are transferred to the shared L3 cache so that the contents of the idle cores can be retrieved. Enhanced AMD PowerNow! Technology Native quad-core technology enables enhancements to AMD PowerNow! Technology across all four cores.
Rapid Virtualization Indexing is the AMD implementation of nested page tables technology which allows virtual machines to manage memory more directly. Rapid Virtualization Indexing eliminates the time the hypervisor spends managing shadow pages in software, and accelerates this task with much faster hardware-based page management.
Table 3. Thermal Design Power versus Average CPU Power Thermal Design Power (watts) Average CPU Power (watts) Independent and combined memory channel modes The Quad-Core AMD Opteron processor includes two DRAM controllers that support DDR2 DIMMs. Each DRAM controller controls one 64-bit DDR DIMM channel that connects to a series of DIMMs. The DRAM controllers can be configured to behave as a single channel (called ganged, or combined, mode) or as two channels (called unganged, or independent, mode).
Figure 6. The Six-Core AMD Opteron processor operates in the same power and thermal envelope as the Quad-Core Opteron processor while improving performance by up to 50%. HT Assist HT Assist helps increase performance of six-core AMD Opteron processor-based systems with four or eight sockets.
Future AMD Opteron processors A new generation of processor socket (called G34) is planned for the first half of 2010. It will feature DDR3 memory, the AMD RD890 chipset, and an additional HT link. New 8- and 12-core AMD Opteron processors, codenamed Magny-Cours, are planned for socket G34. AMD is expected to continue improving the AMD Opteron processor family with faster memory and HyperTransport speeds.
Send comments about this paper to TechCom@HP.com. © 2009 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. The only warranties for HP products and services are set forth in the express warranty statements accompanying such products and services.