Yamaha CS-80 Instruction Manual page 29

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h
Flute
The
sawtooth
is
still
an appropriate
waveform,
but
fewer harmonics
are desired, so
the
LPF
slider
[28]
should
be lowered.
As
harmonics
are
cut
out by
lower-
ing
the
LPF
filter
cutoff, the
waveform
actually begins
to
resemble
a
sine
wave.
It is
necessary to turn
up
the
overall
Volume
[2]
because
much
of the
sound
is
being
filtered
out.
VGA
envelope
is
used
exclusively, so the
IL [30]
andAL[31]
sliders
are
lowered
all
the
way
to "turn off" the
filter
envelope
(A,
D
&
R
then have
no
effect,
and
may
be
left in
position
for
other
patches).
The
major
distinction
between
the
trumpet and
flute.
other than
filter
cutoff frequency,
is
the
change
in
Sub
Oscillator
modulation
[11]
;
VCO
modulation
should
be greatly
reduced
or
turned
off
altogether,
and
instead
replaced
by
VCF
modulation.
Another
way
to
program
a
flute
is
to
completely
ignore the
VCO
and
VCF
Sections,
lower the
VCF
slider
[35]
and
use
sine
wave
[36]
instead.
VCA
envelope then
defines the
note
exclusively.
However,
no
instrument
is
quite
as
perfect
as
the
sine
wave,
and
this
patch tends
to
sound
artificial.
The
quasi-sine
wave
generated with
a
heavily
filtered
sawtooth
wave
tends to be
more
realistic.
Solo
Violin
This patch
is
almost
identical
to the
flute
patch,
with
the addition of
VCO
modulation.
Overall
tone
may
be
changed
somewhat
with
the Brightness
lever
[7]
.
The
sub
oscillator
with
sine
wave
VCF
modula-
tion,
plus
Touch
Response
VCO,
give
realistic
vibrato
only
on
those notes
when
it
is
needed.
NOTE:
Consider
the foregoing patches
and
what
changes occurred
in
the
sound
as
relatively
few
changes
were
made
on
the
programming
panel.
Observe
that
a
different
waveform
or
IL-AL
setting
account
for
the
most
dramatic
changes.
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Oboe
Turn
off
the
sawtooth
wave and
switch to the
square
wave
[23]
.
Use
90%
pulse
width
[22]
which
eliminates
specific
harmonics,
as
would
be the
case
with
a
double-reed instrument.
The LPF
slider
[28]
is
raised slightly
to
allow
higher
harmonics
to be heard,
and
HPF
[26]
is
also raised
to obtain
a
thinner
sound
by
attenuating
some
of
the
fundamental frequency
(this
creates
a
narrow
bandpass).
I
L and
AL
[30
&
31
]
are raised to
introduce
some
filter
envelope
which
simulates
tonal
changes
that
occur due
to
changing
embouchure.
Some
low
pass
resonance
[29]
may
be
added
if
desired,
but
AL
[31
]
should then
be
lowered
to avoid
a
"wah"
sound.
Multiple
Strings
Temporarily
turn
off the
Sub
Oscillator
VCF
modu-
lation [11]
and
Touch
Response
VCO
[12]
so that the
rate
of pulse
width modulation can
be
easily
heard. Re-
duce
the pulse
width
[22] to
about 70%, and
set
pulse
width modulation
[21
]
at
maximum
so that the
speed
[20]
can be determined.
Once
the
speed
is
set,
reduce
the
amount
of
PWM
to
taste.
Now
vibrato
can be
re-
introduced by
means
of
the
sub
oscillator
VCO
lever
[11],
The
mixture
of these
two
types
of
modulation,
PWM
and
sub
oscillator
VCO,
give
the
effect of
more
than one instrument
playing.
For even
richer
strings,
repeat
this
same
patch
on
the
second
panel, setting
one
panel's
Feet
slider [5] at
16'
and
the other
at
8',
and
detuning channel
II
slightly
[6j
.
On
the channel
set at
16',
the
amount
of
PWM
[21]
and
its
speed
[20]
should
be
lowered because lower pitched
strings
do
not have
as
much
modulation
as
shorter
strings.
The
VCF
and
VCA
attack times [32
&
37]
and
release
times [34
&
40]
are
lengthened to simulate the
bowing
of
strings
as
opposed
to
the quicker
initiation
of
sound
in
an oboe.'

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