Yamaha CS-80 Instruction Manual page 28

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HOW
TO
USE
PROGRAlVllVlfNG
.
TO GET A
SOUND
|
24
If
you've
read the previous section
and experimented
with
the
PANEL
controls,
you
probably understand
what
they
do,
but
how
do you
go
about programnning
a
specific
sound you want
to
hear?
There
are
many
approaches
to getting
a
sound,
and
the
one
we
suggest here
is
no
better or
worse
than
others;
if
another technique
works
for
you,
use
it.
Before
you
attempt
to
program
a
given
sound,
turn
off
all
effects
not
on
the
Programmable
panel
.
.
.
that
is,
begin
with
the
nominal
settings
pictured
in
the cover
illustration.
General
Approach
First,
think of
a
sound
... get
it
in
your mind.
Once
you
"hear"
it
in
your
head,
you
can begin to analyze
what
basic
musical
elements
make
up
that
sound,
and
therefore
how
to
set
up
the
same
basics
with
the
synthesizer.
Three
basic
elements
make
up any
musical sound:
pitch,
timbre
and volume. These correspond
to the
VCO,
VCF
and
VGA
sections.
If
you want
to get
a
sound
resembling an
acoustic instrument, consider
how
that
instrument
generates sound.
What
is
the basic
pitch,
the playing
range? Use the
FEET
selector
[5]
to
set
the
keyboard
to
an appro-
priate pitch range.
What
is
the
basic
waveform
or
tone?
You
set this
with
the
VCO,
If
the
sound
resembles
woodwinds
(reed
instruments), use the
SQUARE
WAVE
[23]
and
try
different
PULSE
WIDTH
[22]
settings.
For
strings,
add
PULSE
WIDTH
MODULATION
[20
&
21]
or
use
SAWTOOTH
[24]
.
SAWTOOTH
is
also useful
for
brassy
sounds,
NOISE
[25]
alone
is
good
for
wind,
thunder,
sizzle
and
other
special effects.
It
can be
mixed
sparingly
with other
VCO
sounds
to
add
breath.
Use
SINE
WAVE
[36]
for colorless or
"pure"
sounds.
What
is
the timbre, the
tone
color? This
is
set
with
the
VCF.
An
"open" sound
with
lots
of
harmonics.
f
like
clarinet,
suggests the
HPF
[26]
is
LOW
and
the
LPF
[28]
is
HIGH.
A
sound
with
body
but
less
brilliance, like
piano, suggests the
HPF
is
still
LOW,
but
LPF
is
closed
down
partially.
A
very
rich,
but
muted
sound,
like
a
string bass,
suggests the
HPF
is
still
LOW,
but
LPF
is
closed
down
quite
a
ways
toward
LOW.
Step-by-Step
Examples
of
Programming
We
have presented
a
handful
of
patches
for
you
to
try,
along with very
brief
explanations
of
why
the con-
trols are set as
they
are.
Because everyone conceives
of
and
plays
sounds
differently,
and
because
normal
component
tolerances
make
it
impossible to
give
"absolute"
control
settings, you'll
want
to vary
the
settings
to "fine
tune"
the
sound
to
your
taste.
Become
aware
of
what
each control does
to the patch,
and
you
will
soon
find that
you
don't
need
to write
down
patches
.
.
.
you'll instinctively
know how
to
set
all
the controls.
Remember
that the
overall
BRIL-
LIANCE
control
[7]
and
RESONANCE
control
[8]
may
be
used
to
further
change
a
patch once
it
has
been
set.
NOTE:
The
patches
shown
for Strings,
Harpsichord,
Flute,
and
other
sounds which
also
appear
as
Preset
Patches
are
non-identical to the
presets.
There
are
many
different
ways
to "get
a
sound," and
the pro-
gramming
examples
shown
here
were chosen because
they
fail
\n
a logical
progression with
a
minimum
change
of
control
settings.
Orchestral
instruments
are
used
only because they provide
a
good frame
of
reference;
the
CS-80
can
be
used
to
make
an
infinite
variety of
unique sounds once
the
basic principles are
understood.
NOTE: AM
panel
settings
remain unchanged
from one
patch
to the next, unless
otherwise noted.
Those
settings
which do change from
the previous
patch
are
marked
in
color
on
the patch diagrams.
Clarinet
A
square
wave
[23]
with
50%
pulse
width
[22]
is
used because
it
simulates
a
single
reed
instrument by
generating
odd-order
harmonics
(3rd, 5th,
etc.).
The
LPF
slider
[28]
should
be
set
so the
sound
is
clarinet-
like;
wide open
would
be
too
bright,
and
mid way up
is
about
right.
VCF
envelope
[30-34]
is
used because
VCA
envelope aione
[37-40]
would sound
too
much
like a
calliope or
a
keyboard
instrument.
Moderate
VCA
envelope Attack
[37]
and
Release [40] times
simulate
the gradual build
up and
collapse
of
the
air
column
in
a
true
clarinet.
Vibrato
is
provided by
modulating
the
VCO
with
a
sine
wave
in
the
Sub
Oscillator [11].
The
VCO
lever
should
first
be
fully
engaged
so the
maximum
effect
can be heard while
the
speed
is
set.
After the
desired vibrato
speed
is
achieved, the
VCO
modulation should
be
reduced
for
a
more
realistic
effect (excess
vibrato often
leads to
a
synthetic sound).
You may
wish
to
advance
the
Touch
Response
Section [42-45]
Initial
or
After
Brilliance
and
Level
sliders, in
which
case
it
is
probably
a
good
idea to
lower
the
LPF
slider slightly.
Trumpet
Change from
square
wave
to
sawtooth wave
[24]
to include
even-order
harmonics
for
a
richer
sound.
The
rest
of the
patch
is
almost
identical to
the
clarinet,
except
the
VCF
envelope's
IL [30]
and
AL
[31]
sliders
are
moved
all
the
way
up;
this starts
the
filter
cutoff
at
a
lower frequency
and moves
it
to
a
higher
frequency
than
before.
The
result
is
a
wider change
in
harmonic
content which
is
more
trumpet
like.
For
brass
sounds
that
are
"darker" than
this
trumpet,
use
slightly
longer attack
[32
8t
37]
and
release
times [34
&
40]
and
lower
the
LPF
slider
[28]
somewhat.
For
more
of
a
coronet
or
"wah"
sound,
raise
the
R
ESi_
control [29]
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