While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this book, Epson America, Inc. and the author assume no responsibility for errors or omissions. Neither is any liability assumed for damages resulting from the use of the information contained herein.
ASCII numerical order, while C provides a list of the same codes organized by usage groups. Appendix D provides a chart of control codes as they are implemented on three Epson printers, the MX III, the FX, and the RX; a discussion of the differences follows the chart.
ASCII Codes and Character Fonts This appendix provides information about the way the ASCII codes are employed on the FX printers and about the character fonts associated with those codes. The first section summarizes the codes. The second section displays, in ASCII order, the decimal number, the hexadecimal number, a printout, and an enlarged dot matrix for each character in the two fonts that you can access directly: the Roman font for the USA character set (decimal...
International characters summary ASCII locations 0 to 31 and 128 to 159 store the international char- acters that are needed for sets other than the one for the USA. These characters are printable only with the CHR$(27) “6”, CHR$(27) “I”, or CHR$(27) “R”...
ASCII Character Matrixes As in the summaries above, this section follows the ASCII code arrangement, but this time we show the codes only as they are asso- ciated with characters—0 through 255. The characters for the Roman and Italic USA fonts, which together make up the USA character set, occupy ASCII positions 32 through 126 and 160 through 254, respec- tively.
Character Dec Hex Character Width Width...
Dec Hex Character Width Dec Hex Character Width...
Character Width Dec Hex Character Width...
Dec Hex Character Dec Hex Width Width Character...
Dec Hex Character 102 66 103 67 104 68 105 69 106 6A 107 6B 108 6C 109 6D 110 6E Width Dec Hex Character Width...
Character Dec Hex 120 78 121 79 122 7A 123 7B 124 7C 125 7D 126 7E 127 7F 128 80 Dec Hex Width Width Character...
Dec Hex Character Width 143 8F 144 90 Dec Hex Character Width 1 4 7 150 96 153 99...
Dec Hex Character Dec Hex Width Width Character...
Hex Character Width Dec Hex Character Width...
Dec Hex Character Width Width Character...
Dec Hex Character 228 E4 229 E5 230 E6 231 E7 232 E8 233 E9 234 EA 235 EB 236 EC Width Dec Hex Width Character...
Dec Hex Character Width Dec Hex Character Width 255 FF...
Control Codes in Numeric Order You activate an FX control code by using LPRINT CHR$(n), where n is the number in the decimal column below. When the ESC column contains a dash, you use only CHR$(n) but when ESC is written in this ESC column, you must precede the CHR$(n) with CHR$(27).
ESC Dec Hex Symbol Function Vertical tab. Empties the printer buffer, then advances the paper to the next vertical tab stop. Form feed. Empties the printer buffer, then advances the paper to the next logical top of form. Carriage return. Prints the contents of the buffer and resets the buffer character count to 0.
ESC Dec Hex Symbol Function ESC 33 21 ! ESC 35 23 # ESC 37 25 ESC 38 26 & ESC 42 2A * Master Print Mode Select (Master Select). Selects 16 unique print mode combinations. Format: CHR$(27)” ! “CHR$(n) where n = 0 - 255.
ESC Dec Hex Symbol Function E S C 4 7 2 F / ESC 49 ESC 50 32 2 ESC 51 ESC 52 ESC 53 ESC 54 ESC 55 37 7 ESC 56 ESC 57 ESC 58 ESC 60 3C < Selects a vertical tab channel.
ESC Dec Hex Symbol Function 61 3D = ESC 62 3E > ESC 63 3F ? ESC 64 ESC 65 ESC 66 ESC 67 43 C ESC 67 43 C Sets the eighth bit to 0 (limits the range to 0 - 127).
ESC Dec Hex Symbol Function ESC 68 44 D ESC 69 45 E ESC 70 ESC 71 ESC 72 ESC 73 ESC 74 4A J Resets the current tabs and sets up to 32 horizontal tabs in the current pitch. Tabs may range up to the maximum width for the character and printer size.
ESC Dec Hex Symbol Function ESC 75 4B K ESC 76 4C L ESC 77 4D M ESC 78 4E N E S C 7 9 4 F O ESC 80 50 P Turns Single-Density Graphics Mode ON. Prints 480 dots per 8-inch line. Format: CHR$(27)“K”CHR$(n followed by n data numbers, where n = n...
ESC Dec Hex Symbol Function ESC 81 51 Q ESC 82 52 R ESC 83 53 S ESC 84 54 T ESC 85 55 U ESC 87 57 W Sets the right margin. Also cancels all text that is in the print buffer. Format: CHR$(27)“Q”CHR$(n) where n = 1 - maximum number of characters per line in the current pitch:...
ESC Dec Hex Symbol Function ESC 89 59 Y ESC 90 5A Z ESC 94 5E ˆ ESC 98 62 b ESC 105 69 i Turns High-Speed Double-Density Graphics Mode ON; gives the same density as CHR$(27)” L”, but cannot print two adjacent dots in the same row.
ESC Dec Hex Symbol Function ESC 106 6A j ESC 108 6C I ESC 112 70 p ESC 115 73 s 127 7F DEL On the FX-80 only, causes an immediate reverse line feed in an increment of 1/216- inch without a carriage return. Similar to CHR$(27)“J”.
The printer’s high-order control codes from 128 to 155 and 255 mir- ror their low-order counterparts (0 - 27 and 127). For ready reference, both sets are listed here: High High Function Symbol Terminates horizontal and vertical tab setting. Sounds beeper. Backspace.
Control Codes by Function This Appendix shows the same control codes as Appendix B, but this time arranged by categories before ASCII order. If your computer cannot generate lowercase letters, use the equivalent decimal ASCII values. See Appendix B or refer to the pages suggested by the Index for usage instructions.
Control Code Comparison The first part of this appendix consists of a chart of the commands used on Epson printers. It shows similarities and differences between the MX III, the FX, and the RX. Unless otherwise specified, the FX column applies to both the FX-80 and the FX-100, and the RX column...
Epson Model Differences In this discussion of software and hardware differences between the MX III, the FX and the RX, the command name (backspace, vertical tab, etc.) is that of the most recent model which carries it. CHR$(8) - Backspacing On the MX III in Expanded Mode, moves the print head to the left one Pica position.
CHR$(15) - Compressed Mode selection On the MX III, prints 132 characters per 8-inch line. On the FX-80 and RX-80, prints 132 characters per 8-inch line, but can print 137 characters if the right margin is changed. On the FX-100 and RX-100 prints 233 characters per 13.6-inch line.
Escape”/” , “B”, and “b” - Vertical tabbing On the FX and RX-100 only lets you set up to 16 vertical tabs and store up to eight vertical tab channels in memory. ESCape “3" - Special line spacing On all three models, you can set and reset the line feed function by changing hardware (DIP switch and/or cable wiring).
Escape ” G” - Double-Strike Mode selection On the MX III, FX-100, and RX, moving in and out of Double- Strike Mode on one line produces a descent of one-third dot per change. ESCape ”H” - Double-Strike Mode selection On the MX III, this code also cancels Script Mode. ESCape ”...
ESCape ”Y" - High-Speed Double-Density Graphics Mode selection On the FX and RX, prints ESCape”L” graphics at twice the usual speed. There is one limitation: it will not print adjacent dots in the same row. ESCape “Z” - Quadruple-Density Graphics Mode selection On the FX and RX, prints 1920 dots per B-inch line;...
On the FX, prints at half the normal speed, which results in 80 char- acters per second. On the RX, prints at half the normal speed, which results in 50 characters per second. Dumping programs in hexadecimal On the FX and RX, you can use the hex dumping facility to aid you in debugging.
Defaults and DIP Switches In this Appendix we list the default settings for your printer, show- ing which settings you can change and the way you can change them. Some of the defaults can be changed by using DIP switches; the sec- ond section illustrates and discusses those defaults.
2K buffer available for user-defined characters Paper-out sensor on Non-slashed zero (although there’s no code for “turning on” slashed zero, you can slash one zero at a time with backspace) Carriage return issued at the end of a line without an automatic line feed Bidirectional movement of the print head Skip-over-perforation feature off...
E-2. Table See Chapter 6 for a discussion of the international sets. 1-5: selects a default print weight. When it is ON, Emphasized Switch is the default. When it is OFF, Single-Strike is the default. 7-4: controls the RAM memory. When it is ON, makes a 2K Switch buffer available.
2-2: controls the beeper. When it is ON, the beeper sounds Switch when it receives a CHR$(7) or to indicate the paper has run out. When it is OFF, CHR$(7) or paper-out doesn’t sound beeper. For printer detected error other than paper-out sensing (for which switch must also be set), the beeper will sound regardless of the setting of switch 2-2.
This appendix approaches troubleshooting from several directions. The first section uses a columnar format to match solutions with prob- lems. Other sections cover beeper error warnings, hexadecimal code dumping, coding and seven-bit solutions, and specific solutions for several popular personal computer systems. Problem/Solution Summary The left column below will help you in identifying the source of your problem and start you on the way to finding a solution.
Changing form measurements The ESCape”C” command is not working properly. The ESCape“N” skip-over-per- foration doesn’t work. Tabbing Vertical tabs don’t work cor- rectly. Horizontal tabs don’t work cor- rectly. Horizontal tabs are incorrect when changing pitch. Graphics Strange things print. Don’t set, form lengths of 0 or 128.
Printer “freezes” in Graphics Mode. Can’t get a full page in width. Having trouble getting into Graphics Mode. User-Defined Characters The last character is swallowed by the printer . . . nothing gets printed. Characters are one dot too high or low.
Loading paper Paper goes crooked as it rolls down. Paper crunches up. Top edge of paper sticks under the roller. Paper-out sensor Can’t deactivate paper-out sensor with DIP switch 1-3 or ESCape "8". Beeper Error Warnings The FX will warn you of certain error conditions by sounding the internal beeper.
1. A short circuit between the collector and the emitter of a head tran- sistor along with a shorted dot driver winding produces: PI, PI, PI . . . PI, PI, PI on power-up or self-test, and PI, PI, PI, PI when on-line and printing.
Figure F-1. Best-case hex dump Most BASIC , however, are not quite that straightforward. For exam- ple, the TRS-80 Model III prints Figure F-2: Figure F-2. TRS-80 Model III hex dump Notice that the FX is receiving decimal code 10 as hex 0D, which is decimal 13.
printing, either by trial and error or by using the hex dumping capabil- ity of the FX, you can start overcoming them. Because each computer system deals with ASCII codes differently, it is impossible to provide solutions for all potential problems in one appendix.
These codes can be sent directly to the printer by POKEing them to a special memory location where they are immediately forwarded to the printer. The format is: POKE 14312, N where N is the decimal value of the code you wish to send to the printer.
50 IF B>9 THEN B=B - 7 60 T=ASC(MID$(B$,P + 1, l)) - 48 70 IF T>9 THEN T=T-7 80 POKE A,B*l6 + T 90 A=A+1 100 NEXT P 110 POKE 16422, 187 120 POKE 16423, 64 This driver will also work on the TRS-80 Model III-with one change in line change 32E837 to D3FB.
User-defined characters can’t be printed with the top 8 pins (the standard position for most characters). Eight pins can’t be used in defining characters. Here we suggest some ways to work around these types of problems. High-order bit control If you own a seven-bit system, the FX can help you. It gives you three instructions to let you control the high-order (eighth) bit: ESCape ”>”...
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ Setting the eighth bit on in line line 20; thus it prints Italic characters. The ESCape ”=” in line 30 effectively subtracts second line prints as the characters from 65 throught 90. Line 50 returns your system to its usual state. Seven-bit graphics The 7-bit limitation affects graphics in two ways.
Solutions for Specific Systems The next four sections illustrate dealing with interface puzzles on four types of computers: the Apple II, the TRS-80, the IBM-PC, and the QX-10. Apple II solutions There are two types of problems that you who own Apple II com- puters will need to address.
code and the program will not work properly. The programs in this manual do not use CHR$(9), but some do use its high-order version - CHR$(137) - which your system will change to CHR$(9). In these cases use the following method to change your printer initialization code to a number that is not used in the program.
QX-10 solutions There are two types of computer-printer interface problems that you owners of Epson QX-10s may need to address. The first is making a width statement when a line is to be more than 80 characters wide. The second is changing any occurrence of the number nine to some other number.
Sometimes it may be easier to use another low-order value. For example: FOR X=1 TO 10 IF X=9 THEN X=10 When DATA numbers include each of them or change each 9 to 8 or tute for 9 in pin patterns is usually you can sometimes simply double The best number to substi-...
Mixing Print Modes One of the most pleasing aspects of your FX printer is its wide vari- ety of print modes. By mixing modes as shown in Table G-1, you can print characters in 5; a short summary is provided here. Table G-1, Arriving at Methods for Mixing The Master Select code can be used to select 16 popular print...
By using the character form of some of the numbers, you can shorten the command string. Table G-2 shows some convenient char- acters to be used for the various combinations. You can find the Mas- ter Select code for any valid combination of pitch and weight by reading across in the row for the pitch you have selected and down in the column for the weight you want.
it stays on until turned off. When two modes that conflict are turned on at the same time, the printer must choose which one to use. For example, suppose you turn on both Elite and Compressed Pitches. Since the printer can only print one pitch at a time, it must make a choice;...
Customizing the FX You can adapt your FX to fit a variety of needs. You can alter the print capability both by hardware switches that change default condi- tions and by software codes that activate or deactivate different print modes. In this Appendix we show you a few typical applications and a few adjustments that you may want to make to your printer.
Keep in mind that this puts extra wear on your ribbon and slows your printing speed. A few word processing programs support the FX’s Proportional Mode. Since there is no DIP switch for this mode, consult your pro- gram’s manual for instructions on activating Proportional printing. If you wish to use right-justification with Proportional, be sure that your program can do so.
The ribbon cartridge prints about 3 million characters. See your Epson dealer for replacements. Rarely Once in a great while your printer should be lubricated. Epson rec- ommends two lubricants: (Epson Part No. B70020001). Every 6 months or one million lines, use Appendix I (Epson Part No.
Next, remove the protective lid and ribbon cartridge. Flip the head lock lever shown in Figure the back of the printer. Figure I-1. Print head replacement 100,000,000 dots per character). See your Epson charac- minutes toward...
Now pull the cable from the connector block. Hold the block firmly because it has to stay put. Pull the print head straight up and off. To install the new print head: Place the new print head onto the head mount and flip the locking lever back toward the front of the printer.
Storage 2 G (less than 1 millisecond) Storage 0.50 G, 55Hz (maximum) and chassis 50 or 60 Hz is applied for more than 1 minute between AC power line and chassis (compatible with Epson MX series) signals are compatible with the TTL level FX-100 10.5 (R.M.S.)
The Parallel Interface The FX printer uses a parallel interface to communicate with the computer; this appendix describes it. Connector pin assignments and a description of respective interface signals are shown in Table Signal Return STROBE DATA 1 DATA 2 DATA 3 DATA 4 DATA 5...
Table K-1, continued Signal Return Signal — — AUTO FEED — — — CHASSIS — — — 19 - 30 — INIT — ERROR — — — — — SLCT IN Notes: 1. The column heading “Direction” refers to the direction of signal flow as viewed from the printer.
4. Data transfer must be carried out by observing the ACKNLG or BUSY signal. (Data transfer to this printer can be carried out only after receipt of the ACKNLG signal or when the level of the BUSY signal is LOW.) Under normal conditions, printer cable pins activated when the paper-out condition is detected.
SLCT IN DC1/DC3 On-Line HIGH/LOW DC1/DC3 HIGH DC1//DC3 *Data entry will be acknowledged, but the input data will be lost until DC1is input. Note: ERROR status is assumed to result only in Off-Line state, and the ERROR status does not always mean SLCT IN. Table K-2.
Note: Refer to Table of Contents and List of Figures for specific programs. Also, the chapter summaries are not indexed. Accessories, 16 American Standard Code for Information Interchange. See ASCII Apostrophe. See REMarks Apple II computers, 38, 40, 312-313 See also Seven-bit systems Arrays, 173-176,189-193 DIMensioning,...
Cable, 16, 35 CANcel, 46 Caret symbol. See Exponent character Carriage return, 23, 41 CHR$(13) produces it. See also Line feed Centronics. See Interface Channels. See Tabs, vertical Character fonts, shown, 253-270 See also User-defined characters Character size, 256-270, 327 See also specific pitches by name Character string function.
Dumping, hex. See Hex dumping Elite Mode, 52-53 ESCape "M" turns it on; ESCape “P”’ turns it off. Emphasized Mode, 62-64 ESCape “E” turns it on; ESCape “F” turns it off. END, v Environment, specifications for, 329 Epson computers. See HX-20; QX-10...
ESCape = CHR$(27), 42-43 format for commands, iv-v, 46-47, 57-58 listed by function, 283-286 listed by number, 271-281 See also specific modes or functions ESCape “!”. Master Select. See Master Select ESCape "#". Accepts eighth bit as is from computer. See Bit, high order ESCape “%“...
ESCape “I1”. Enables printing of control codes 0-31. See User-defined characters. ESCape “J” CHR$(n). Produces an immediate one-time line feed of n/216-inch without a carriage return. See Line feed ESCape “K” CHR$(n )CHRS(n See Graphics Mode ESCape “L” CHR$(n )CHR$(n Graphics Mode on.
Firing of pins. See pins FF. See Form feed Foreign language characters. See International character set Form feed, 103-105 CHR$(12) produces one. button, 35 See also Top of form Forms length of, 103-107 ESCape “C” CHR$(0)CHR$(n) sets length to n inches; ESCape “C”...
Nine-Pin, 152-154 “^“ CHR$(d)CHR$(n Escape Mode. reassigning code, 150-152 Escape "?s" CHR$(n) Mode n. summary table, 151 Grid. See dot matrix Half-Speed Mode, 89, 322 ESCape turns it on; ESCape “s0” returns it to normal. "s1" Head. See Print head Hex dumping, 305-306 Humidity, 329...
Line feed, 98-101 CHR$(10) produces it. button, 35-36 computer interface and. See Interface DIP switch for, 23 one-time immediate, 99-100 ESCape “J”CHR$(n) produces it. reverse, 99, 101 ESCape “j”CHR$(n) produces it. Line spacing, 93-98 ESCape “A”CHR$(n) sets to n/72”; ESCape “0” sets at ESCape “1”...
NEC, 151 Nine-pin graphics. See Graphics Mode Noise reduction. See Half-Speed Mode Off sets, 82-83 ON LINE light and button, 35 Overstrikes, 81-82 Page, top of. See Top of form Paper bail, 15, 24, 26, 29 loading, 24-32, 304 length. See Forms separator, 17-18 thickness adjustment, 32, 34 types of, 16, 24, 328...
Print head and dot graphics, 132-133 and dot matrix printing, 50 life of, 16, 324, 328 replacement, 324-325 Print modes. See Modes Print pitch summary table, 60 See also specific pitches by name Print quality, 61-66 Print speed. See Half-Speed Mode Print type chart, 78 Print width.
Schematic, 331 Script Mode, 71-72 ESCape “S0” turns Superscript Mode on. ESCape “S1” turns Subscript Mode on. ESCape “T” turns either Script Mode off. Self test for printer. See Test Semicolons, iv, 45 Sensor. See Paper-out sensor Separator, paper. See paper Serial board.
Temperature, 329 Test automatic, 35-36 for seven-bit system, 309 Top of form, 31-33, 103-104 CHR$(12) sends the paper to top of form. ESCape “C” resets it to current paper position. ESCape “@” resets form length to default and sets top of form to current line. with skip-over-perforation, 109 See also Reset Code Tractor...
Width of characters, 256-270 statements, 313-314 Word processing, 36, 321-322 Zero, slashed, 23...
Control Codes by Function Print Width Commands Turns Elite Mode ON. CHR$(27)"M" CHR$(27)“P” Turns Elite Mode OFF. Turns Compressed Mode ON. CHR$(15) [^O] Turns Compressed Mode OFF. CHR$(18) [^R] Turns One-Line Expanded Mode ON. CHR$(14) [^N] Turns One-Line Expanded Mode OFF. CHR$(20) [^T] Turns Continuous Expanded Mode ON.
Forms Control Commands Produces a form feed. CHR$(12) [“L] Produces a carriage return. CHR$(13) CHR$(27)“8” Turns the paper-out CHR$(27)“9” Turns the paper-out sensor ON. CHR$(27)“C”CHR$(n) Sets the form length in lines: n = 0 - 127. CHR$(27)“C”CHR$(0)CHR$(n) Sets the form length in inches: n = 0 - 22. CHR$(27)“N”CHR$(n) Produces a variable skip-over-perforation.
CHR$(27)”%“CHR$(n )CHR$(n Selects a character set: n CHR$(27)“&”CHR$(n)CHR$(c Defines characters c requires an attribute byte (A), followed by 11 data numbers CHR$(27)“:“CHR$(n )CHR$(n Copies ROM characters to the user RAM area. All numbers must be 0. Enables printing of the symbols that are stored in locations 0 - CHR$(27)“I1”...
ASCII Codes Character or Function none none none none none none none none none none none none none none none none none (space) " & Character D e c or Function < > — Character or Function D e c H e x none none none...
Character or Function < > The DIP Switches No. ON 1-7 ON 1-6 ON 1-5 Emphasized 1-4 2K buffer 1-3 Inactive (slashed Compressed No. O N CR + LF 2-3 O N 2-2 Sounds Active Note: The shaded boxes show the factory settings. Character or Function —...