hp 9g
Graphing Calculator
General Operations
Power Supply
Turning on or off
To turn the calculator on, press [ ON ].
To turn the calculator off, press [ 2nd ] [ OFF ].
Battery replacement
The calculator is powered by two alkaline button batteries (GP76A or
LR44). When battery power becomes low, LOW BATTERY appears
on the display. Replace the batteries as soon as possible.
To replace the batteries:
1.
Remove the battery compartment cover by sliding it in the
direction of the arrow.
2.
Remove the old batteries.
3.
Install new batteries, each with positive polarity facing outward.
4.
Replace the battery compartment cover.
5.
Press [ ON ] to turn the power on.
Auto power-off function
The calculator automatically turns off if it has not been used for 9–15
minutes. It can be reactivated by pressing [ ON ]. The display,
memory, and settings are retained while the calculator is off.
Reset operation
If the calculator is on but you get unexpected results, press [ MODE ]
CL
or [
/
]. If problems persist, press [ 2nd ] [ RESET ]. A message
ESC
appears asking you to confirm that you want to reset the calculator.
RESET : N Y
Press [
] to move the cursor to Y and then press [
]. The
calculator is reset. All variables, programs, pending operations,
statistical data, answers, previous entries, and memory are cleared.
To cancel the reset operation, move the cursor to N and press [
If the calculator becomes locked and pressing keys has no effect,
press [ EXP
] [ MODE ] at the same time. This unlocks the
calculator and returns all settings to their default values.
Contrast Adjustment
Press [ MODE ] and then [
] or [
] to make the screen lighter or
darker.
Display Features
Graph display
Calculation display
Entry line
Displays an entry of up to 76 digits. Entries with more
than 11 digits will scroll to the left. When you input the
69th digit of a single entry, the cursor changes from
to
to let you know that you are approaching the
entry limit. If you need to input more than 76 digits, you
should divide your calculation into two or more parts.
Result line
Displays the result of a calculation. 10 digits can be
displayed, together with a decimal point, a negative sign,
the x10 indicator, and a 2-digit positive or negative
exponent. Results that exceed this limit are displayed in
scientific notation.
Indicators
The following indicators appear on the display to
indicate the status of the calculator.
Indicator
Meaning
Values are stored in running memory
M
–
Result is negative
Invalid action
2nd
The next action will be a 2nd function
X = Y =
The x- and y-coordinates of the trace function pointer
Alphabetic keys are active
STAT
Statistics mode is active
PROG
Program mode is active
Angle mode: Degrees, Rads, or Grads
SCIENG
SCIentific or ENGineering display format
FIX
Number of decimal places displayed is fixed
Hyperbolic trig function will be calculated
HYP
The displayed value is an intermediate result
There are digits to the left or right of the display
There are earlier or later results that can be displayed.
These indicators blink while an operation or program is
executing.
Before Starting a Calculation
Changing Modes
Press [ MODE ] to display the modes menu. You can choose one of
four modes: 0 MAIN, 1 STAT, 2 BaseN, 3 PROG.
For example, to select BaseN mode:
Method 1:
Press [ MODE ] and then press [
], [
] or
[ MODE ] until 2 BaseN is underlined; then press
[
].
Method 2:
Press [ MODE ] and enter the number of the mode, [ 2 ].
Selecting an Item from a Menu
Many functions and settings are available from menus. A menu is a
list of options displayed on the screen.
For example, pressing [ MATH ] displays a menu of mathematical
functions. To select one of these functions:
1.
Press [ MATH ] to display the menu.
2.
Press [
] [
] [
] [
] to move the cursor to the function
you want to select.
3.
Press [
] while the item is underlined.
With numbered menu items, you can either press [
] while the
item is underlined, or just enter the number of the item.
To close a menu and return to the previous display, press [
Key Labels
Many of the keys can perform more than one function. The labels
associated with a key indicate the available functions, and the color of
a label indicates how that function is selected.
Label color
Meaning
White
Just press the key
Yellow
Press [ 2nd ] and then the key
Green
In Base-N mode, just press the key
Blue
Press [ ALPHA ] and then the key
Using the 2nd and ALPHA keys
To execute a function with a yellow label, press [ 2nd ] and then the
corresponding key. When you press [ 2nd ], the 2nd indicator appears
to indicate that you will be selecting the second function of the next
key you press. If you press [ 2nd ] by mistake, press [ 2nd ] again to
remove the 2nd indicator
Pressing [ ALPHA ] [ 2nd ] locks the calculator in 2nd function mode.
This allows consecutive input of 2nd function keys. To cancel this,
press [ 2nd ] again.
To execute a function with a blue label, press [ ALPHA ] and then the
corresponding key. When you press [ ALPHA ], the
appears to indicate that you will be selecting the alphabetic function of
the next key you press. If you press [ ALPHA ] by mistake, press
[ ALPHA ] again to remove the
indicator.
Pressing [ 2nd ] [ ALPHA ] locks the calculator in alphabetic mode.
This allows consecutive input of alphabetic function keys. To cancel
this, press [ ALPHA ] again.
Cursor
Press [
] or [
] to move the cursor to the left or the right. Hold
down a cursor key to move the cursor quickly.
If there are entries or results not visible on the display, press [
[
] to scroll the display up or down. You can reuse or edit a
previous entry when it is on the entry line.
Press [ ALPHA ] [
] or [ ALPHA ] [
beginning or the end of the entry line. Press [ ALPHA ] [
[ ALPHA ] [
] to move the cursor to the top or bottom of all entries.
The blinking cursor
indicates that the calculator is in insert mode.
Inserting and Deleting Characters
To insert a character, move the cursor to the appropriate position and
enter the character. The character is inserted to the immediate left of
the cursor.
To delete a character, press [
] or [
character and then press [ DEL ]. (When the cursor is on a character,
the character is underlined.) To undo the deletion, immediately press
[ 2nd ] [
].
CL
To clear all characters, press [
/
]. See Example 1.
ESC
Recalling Previous Inputs and Results
Press [ ] or [ ] to display up to 252 characters of previous input,
values and commands, which can be modified and re-executed. See
Example 2.
Note: Previous input is not cleared when you press [
power is turned off` but it is cleared when you change modes.
Memory
].
Running memory
Press [ M+ ] to add a result to running memory. Press [ 2nd ] [ M– ] to
subtract the value from running memory. To recall the value in
running memory, press [ MRC ]. To clear running memory, press
[ MRC ] twice. See Example 4.
Standard memory variables
The calculator has 26 standard memory variables—A, B, C, D, ...,
Z—which you can use to assign a value to. See Example 5.
Operations with variables include:
•
[ SAVE ] + Variable assigns the current answer to the specified
variable (A, B, C, ... or Z).
•
[ 2nd ] [ RCL ] displays a menu of variables; select a variable to
recall its value.
•
[ ALPHA ] + Variable recalls the value assigned to the specified
variable.
•
[ 2nd ] [ CL-VAR ] clears all variables.
Note: You can assign the same value to more than one variable in
one step. For example, to assign 98 to variables A, B, C and D,
press 98 [ SAVE ] [ A ] [ ALPHA ] [ ~ ] [ ALPHA ] [ D ].
Storing an equation
Press [ SAVE ] [ PROG ] to store the current equation in memory.
Press [ PROG ] to recall the equation. See Example 6.
Array Variables
In addition to the 26 standard memory variables (see above), you can
increase memory storage by converting program steps to memory
variables. You can convert 12 program steps to one memory. A
maximum of 33 memories can be added in this way, giving you a
maximum of 59 memories (26 + 33).
Note: To restore the default memory configuration—26
memories—specify Defm 0.
Expanded memories are named A [ 1 ] , A [ 2 ] etc and can be used in
the same way as standard memory variables. See Example 7.
Note: When using array variables, be careful to avoid overlap of
memories. The relation between memories is as follows:
Order of Operations
Each calculation is performed in the following order of precedence:
1.
Functions inside parentheses, coordinate transformations, and
Type B functions, that is, those where you must press the
function key before entering the argument, for example, sin, cos,
-1
-1
-1
tan, sin
, cos
, tan
, sinh, cosh, tanh, sinh
X
X
ln, 10
, e
,
,
, NEG, NOT, X'( ), Y '( ), MAX, MIN, SUM,
SGN, AVG, ABS, INT, Frac, Plot.
2.
Type A functions, that is, those where you enter the argument
before pressing the function key, for example, x
g, %, º΄ ΄΄ , ENGSYM.
3.
Exponentiation ( ),
4.
Fractions
5.
Abbreviated multiplication format involving variables, π, RAND,
RANDI.
6.
( – )
7.
Abbreviated multiplication format in front of Type B functions,
, Alog2, etc.
8.
nPr, nCr
9.
× ,
10. +, –
11. Relational operators: = =, < , >, ≠, ≤ , ≥
CL
/
].
ESC
12. AND, NAND (BaseN calculations only)
13. OR, XOR, XNOR (BaseN calculations only)
14. Conversion (A b/c
d/e, F
D,
When functions with the same priority are used in series, execution is
performed from right to left. For example:
X
X
e
ln120 → e
{ ln (120 ) }
Otherwise, execution is from left to right.
Compound functions are executed from right to left.
Accuracy and Capacity
Output digits: Up to 10 digits
Calculating digits: Up to 24 digits
Where possible, every calculation is displayed in up to 10 digits, or as
a 10-digit mantissa together with a 2-digit exponent up to 10
The arguments you input must be within the range of the associated
function. The following table sets out the allowable input ranges.
Functions
sin x, cos x,
tan x
indicator
–1
–1
sin
x, cos
x
–1
tan
x
] or
sinh x, cosh x
tanh x
] to move the cursor to the
–1
sinh
x
] or
–1
cosh
x
–1
tanh
x
log x, ln x
x
10
x
e
x
] to move the cursor to that
2
x
-1
x
X !
P ( x, y )
R (r, θ )
CL
/
] or the
ESC
DMS
nPr, nCr
STAT
BaseN
Error Conditions
When an illegal calculation is attempted or a program you enter
causes an error, an error message briefly appears and then the
cursor moves to the location of the error. See Example 3.
The following conditions will result in an error:
Message
Meaning
1. You have specified an argument that is outside
DOMAIN Er
the allowable range.
2. FREQ ( in 1-VAR stats) < 0 or not an integer.
3. USL < LSL
DIVIDE BY O
You attempted to divide by 0.
OVERFLOW Er The result of a calculation exceeds the limits of the
calculator.
SYNTAX Er
1. Input error.
2. An improper argument was used in a command
or function.
3. An END statement is missing from a program.
An entry exceeds 84 digits after implied
LENGTH Er
multiplication with auto-correction.
OUT OF SPEC
You input a negative C
C
PU
NEST Er
Subroutine nesting exceeds 3 levels.
GOTO Er
There is no corresponding Lbl n for a GOTO n .
1. There is no corresponding PROG n for a GOSUB
GOSUB Er
PROG n .
2. Attempt to jump to a program area in which there
-1
-1
-1
, cosh
, tanh
, log,
is no program stored.
EQN SAVE Er
Attempt to save an equation to a program area that
already has a stored program.
2
3
-1
EMPTY Er
Attempt to run a program from an area without an
, x
, x
, x!, º , r,
equation or program.
1. Memory expansion exceeds the steps remaining
MEMORY Er
in the program.
2. Attempt to use a memory when no memory has
been expanded.
DUPLICATE
The label name is already in use.
LABEL
CL
Press [
/
] to clear an error message.
ESC
Basic Calculations
Arithmetic Calculation
•
For mixed arithmetic operations, multiplication and division have
priority over addition and subtraction. See Example 8.
DMS)
•
For negative values, press [ (–) ] before entering the value. See
Example 9.
•
Results greater than 10
exponential form. See Example 10.
Display Format
•
A decimal format is selected by pressing [ 2nd ] [ FIX ] and
selecting a value from the menu ( F0123456789 ). To set the
displayed decimal places to n , enter a value for n directly, or
press the cursor keys until the value is underlined and then press
[
]. (The default setting is floating point notation ( F ) and its n
value is •). See Example 11.
±99
.
•
Number display formats are selected by pressing [ 2nd ]
[ SCI/ENG ] and choosing a format from the menu. The items on
the menu are FLO (for floating point), SCI (for scientific), and
ENG (for engineering). Press [
format is underlined, and then press [
Allowable Input range
•
10
Deg :
x
＜ 4.5 × 10
deg
8
•
Rad :
x
＜ 2.5 × 10
π rad
10
Grad :
x
＜ 5 × 10
grad
however, for tan x
Deg :
x
≠ 90 (2n+1)
π (2n+1)
Rad :
x
≠
2
Parentheses Calculations
Grad :
x
≠ 100 (2n+1)
•
(n is an integer)
x
≦ 1
100
x
＜ 1 × 10
•
x
≦ 230.2585092
Percentage Calculations
100
x
＜ 1 × 10
[ 2nd ] [ % ] divides the number in the display by 100. You can use
this function to calculate percentages, mark-ups, discounts, and
99
x
＜ 5 × 10
percentage ratios. See Example 17.
99
1 ≦ x ＜ 5 × 10
Repeat Calculations
x
＜ 1
You can repeat the last operation you executed by pressing [
Even if a calculation concluded with the [
–99
100
1 × 10
≦ x < 1 × 10
obtained can be used in a further calculation. See Example 18.
100
–1 × 10
＜ x ＜ 100
Answer Function
100
–1 × 10
＜ x ≦ 230.2585092
When you enter a numeric value or numeric expression and press
[
100
0 ≦ x ＜ 1 × 10
quickly recall. See Example 19.
x ＜ 1 × 10
50
Note: The result is retained even if the power is turned off. It is also
x ＜ 1 × 10
100
, x ≠ 0
0 ≦ x ≦ 69, x is an integer.
2
2
100
x
+
y
＜ 1 × 10
100
0 ≦ r ＜ 1 × 10
Logarithm and Antilogarithm
10
Deg ：│θ│＜ 4.5 × 10
deg
You can calculate common and natural logarithms and antilogarithms
8
Rad ：│θ│＜ 2.5 × 10
π rad
using [ log ], [ ln ], [ 2nd ] [ 10
10
Grad ：│θ│＜ 5 × 10
grad
Fraction Calculation
however, for tan x
Deg ：│θ│≠ 90 (2n+1)
Fractions are displayed as follows:
π (2n+1)
Rad ：│θ│≠
2
Grad ：│θ│≠ 100 (2n+1)
(n is an integer)
100
│ D │ , M, S ＜ 1 × 10
,
•
100
0 ≦ M, S, x ＜ 10
100
＜
log y ＜
y > 0 : x ≠ 0, -1 × 10
100
•
y = 0: x > 0
y ＜ 0 : x = 2n+1, I/n, n is an integer.
(n ≠ 0)
100
but -1 × 10
＜
log | y | ＜ 100
•
100
0 ≦ r ≦ n, n < 10
, n, r are integers.
100
100
| x | < 1 × 10
,| y | < 1 × 10
•
1 -VAR : n ≦ 30, 2 -VAR : n ≦ 30
100
FREQ. = n, 0 ≦ n < 10
: n is an integer
Converting Angular Units
in 1-VAR mode
σ x, σ y, x, y, a, b, r : n ≠ 0
You can specify an angular unit of degrees (DEG), radians (RAD), or
Sx, Sy :n ≠ 0,1
grads (GRAD). You can also convert a value expressed in one
angular unit to its corresponding value in another angular unit.
DEC : - 2147483648 ≦ x ≦ 2147483647
BIN :
The relation between the anglular units is :
10000000000000000000000000000000 ≦ x
≦ 11111111111111111111111111111111
To change the angular unit setting to another setting, press
( for negative )
[ DRG ] repeatedly until the angular unit you want is indicated on the
0 ≦ x ≦ 01111111111111111111111111111111
display.
(for zero, positive)
The conversion procedure follows (also see Example 25):
OCT : 20000000000 ≦ x ≦ 37777777777
1.
(for negative)
2.
0 ≦ x ≦ 17777777777 (for zero or positive)
3.
HEX : 80000000 ≦ x ≦ FFFFFFFF
(for negative)
0 ≦ x ≦ 7FFFFFFF (for zero or positive)
4.
5.
To convert an angle to DMS notation, select
DMS notation is 1° 30' 0" (= 1 degrees, 30 minutes, 0 seconds). See
Example 26.
To convert from DMS notation to decimal notation, select
° (degrees), ' (minutes), " (seconds). See Example 27.
Trigonometric and Inverse Trigonometric functions
The calculator provides standard trigonometric functions and inverse
trigonometric functions: sin, cos, tan, sin
Example 28.
Note: Before undertaking a trigonometric or inverse trigonometric
Hyperbolic and Inverse Hyperbolic functions
The [ 2nd ] [ HYP ] keys are used to initiate hyperbolic and inverse
hyperbolic calculations using sinh, cosh, tanh, sinh
See Example 29.
Note: Before undertaking a hyperbolic or inverse hyperbolic
or C
value, where
PU
PL
USL
–
x
x
–
LSL
and
Coordinate Transformations
=
C
=
3
σ
PL
3
σ
Press [ 2nd ] [ R
coordinates to polar coordinates or vice versa. See Example 30.
Note: Before undertaking a coordinate transformation, make sure that
Mathematical Functions
Press [ MATH ] repeatedly to is display a list of mathematical
functions and their associated arguments. See Example 31. The
functions available are:
10
-9
or less than 10
are displayed in
Other Functions ( x
The calculator also provides reciprocal ( [ x
cube root ( [
( [ x
] or [
] until the desired
Unit Conversion
]. See Example 12.
You can enter a number in mantissa and exponent format using
the [ EXP ] key. See Example 13.
This calculator also provides 11 symbols for input of values using
engineering notation. Press [ 2nd ] [ ENG SYM ] to display the
symbols. See Example 14. The symbols are listed below:
Operations inside parentheses are always executed first. Up to
13 levels of consecutive parentheses are allowed in a single
calculation. See Example 15.
Closing parentheses that would ordinarily be entered immediately
prior to pressing [
] may be omitted. See Example 16.
] key, the result
], the result is stored in the Answer function, which you can then
retained if a subsequent calculation results in an error.
Common Math Calculations
x
x
], and [ 2nd ] [ e
]. See Example 20.
5 ┘ 12
=
56 U 5 ┘ 12
=
To enter a mixed number, enter the integer part, press [ A b/c ],
enter the numerator, press [ A b/c ], and enter the denominator.
To enter an improper fraction, enter the numerator, press [ A b/c ],
and enter the denominator. See Example 21.
During a calculation involving fractions, a fraction is reduced to its
lowest terms where possible. This occurs when you press [ + ],
[ – ], [ × ], [
] ) or [
]. Pressing [ 2nd ] [ A b/c
d/e ]
converts a mixed number to an improper fraction and vice versa.
See Example 22.
To convert a decimal to a fraction or vice versa, press [ 2nd ]
[ F
D ] and [
]. See Example 23.
Calculations containing both fractions and decimals are
calculated in decimal format. See Example 24.
180° = π radians = 200 grads
Change the angle units to the units you want to convert to.
Enter the value of the unit to convert.
Press [ 2nd ] [ DMS ] to display the menu. The units you can
select are ° (degrees), ' (minutes), " (seconds), r (radians), g
(gradians) or
DMS (Degrees-Minutes-Seconds).
Select the units you are converting from.
Press [
] twice.
DMS . An example of
-1
-1
-1
, cos
and tan
. See
calculation, make sure that the appropriate angular unit is set.
-1
-1
, cosh
and tanh
calculation, make sure that the appropriate angular unit is set.
P ] to display a menu to convert rectangular
the appropriate angular unit is set.
!
Calculate the factorial of a specified positive integer n ,
where n ≦ 69.
Generate a random number between 0 and 1.
RAND
RANDI Generate a random integer between two specified
integers, A and B, where A ≦ random value ≦ B.
RND
Round off the result.
MAX
Determine the maximum of given numbers. (Up to 10
numbers can be specified.)
MIN
Determine the minimum of given numbers. (Up to 10
numbers can be specified.)
Determine the sum of given numbers. (Up to 10
SUM
numbers can be specified.)
AVG
Determine the average of given numbers. (Up to 10
numbers can be specified.)
Frac
Determine the fractional part of a given number.
INT
Determine the integer part of a given number.
SGN
Indicate the sign of a given number: if the number is
negative, –1 is displayed; if zero, 0 is displayed; if
positive, 1 is displayed.
Display the absolute value of a given number.
ABS
nPr
Calculate the number of possible permutations of n
items taken r at a time.
nCr
Calculate the number of possible combinations of n
items taken r at a time.
Defm
Memory expansion.
-1
2
3
,
,
,
,x
, x
, ^ )
-1
] ), square root ( [
2
] ), square ( [ x
] ), universal root ( [
] ), cubic
3
] ) and exponentiation ( [ ^ ] ) functions. See Example 32.
].
-1
.
] ),
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