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Dell 3-DNS Administrator's Manual

Dell 3-dns administrator guide version 4.5
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3-DNS
Administrator Guide
version 4.5
MAN-0046-02

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  • Page 1 ® 3-DNS Administrator Guide version 4.5 MAN-0046-02...
  • Page 3: Legal Notices

    Information in this document is subject to change without notice. © 2002 Dell Computer Corporation. All rights reserved. Reproduction in any manner whatsoever without the written permission of Dell Computer Corporation is strictly forbidden. Trademarks used in this text: Dell and PowerEdge are trademarks of Dell Computer Corporation.
  • Page 4 Standards Compliance The product conforms to ANSI/UL Std 1950 and Certified to CAN/CSA Std. C22.2 No. 950. Acknowledgments This product includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors. This product includes software developed by the Computer Systems Engineering Group at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory.
  • Page 5 Canada (© 2000). This product includes software developed by Object Oriented Concepts, Inc., Billerica, MA, USA (© 2000). This product includes RRDtool software developed by Tobi Oetiker (http://www.rrdtool.com/index.html) and licensed under the GNU General Public License. ® 3-DNS Administrator Guide...
  • Page 7 Table of Contents...
  • Page 9: Table Of Contents

    Choosing the 3-DNS mode ... 2-10 Running a 3-DNS Controller in node mode ... 2-10 Running a 3-DNS Controller in bridge mode or router mode ... 2-11 Planning issues for the load balancing configuration ... 2-12 Using advanced traffic control features ... 2-12 Using the Setup Utility Creating the initial software configuration with the Setup utility ...
  • Page 10 Setting up servers ... 5-5 Defining 3-DNS Controllers ... 5-5 Defining BIG-IP systems ... 5-6 Defining a BIG-IP system with the 3-DNS module ... 5-7 Defining a router ... 5-8 Defining EDGE-FX systems ... 5-9 Defining host servers ... 5-10 Configuring host SNMP settings ...
  • Page 11 Adding a 3-DNS Controller to an Existing Network Working with multiple 3-DNS Controllers ... 10-1 Preparing to add a second 3-DNS Controller to your network ... 10-2 Installing the hardware and running the Setup utility ... 10-2 Making the existing 3-DNS Controller aware of the additional controller ...
  • Page 12 Table of Contents Running the 3dns_add script ... 10-4 Verifying the configuration ... 10-4 Glossary Index...
  • Page 13 Introduction • IMPORTANT HARDWARE INFORMATION • Getting started • Using the Administrator Kit • What is the 3-DNS Controller? • What’s new in version 4.5 • Finding help and technical support resources...
  • Page 15: Introduction

    Switch, such as the spanning tree protocol and port mirroring, are not supported on Dell™ PowerEdge™ hardware. Getting started The 3-DNS Administrator Guide is designed to help you quickly install and configure the 3-DNS and DNS. The Administrator Guide contains the following chapters: Planning the 3-DNS Configuration ◆...
  • Page 16: Choosing A Configuration Tool

    DNS zone files associated with domains handled by the 3-DNS Controller. You can use NameSurfer to configure and maintain additional DNS zone files on a 3-DNS Controller that runs as a primary DNS server. The Configuration utility provides direct access to the NameSurfer application, as well as the corresponding documentation for the application.
  • Page 17: Browser Support

    3-DNS Maintenance menu The 3-DNS Maintenance menu is a command line utility that runs scripts which assist you in configuration and administrative tasks, such as installing the latest version of the big3d agent on all your systems, or setting up encrypted communications in the network.
  • Page 18: Stylistic Conventions

    Identifying references to products We refer to all products in the BIG-IP product family as the BIG-IP system. We refer to the 3-DNS Controller and the 3-DNS module as the 3-DNS Controller. If specific configuration information relates to a specific platform, we note the platform.
  • Page 19: What Is The 3-Dns Controller

    The 3-DNS Controller provides a variety of features that meet special needs. For example, with this product you can: • Configure a content delivery network with a CDN provider •...
  • Page 20: Internet Protocol And Network Management Support

    SNMP agent provides detailed data such as current connections being handled by each virtual server. Security features The 3-DNS Controller offers a variety of security features that can help prevent hostile attacks on your site or equipment. ◆ Secure administrative connections...
  • Page 21: System Synchronization Options

    For example, you can set the 3-DNS Controller to synchronize a specific configuration file set, and you can also set which 3-DNS Controllers in the network receive the synchronized information and which ones do not.
  • Page 22 In a network-based fail-over configuration, the standby 3-DNS unit immediately takes over if the active unit fails. If a client has queried the failed 3-DNS unit, and not received an answer, it automatically re-issues the request (after 5 seconds) and the standby unit, functioning as the active unit, responds.
  • Page 23: What's New In Version 4.5

    Once the 3-DNS Controller returns a DNS answer to an LDNS, the conversation between the LDNS and the 3-DNS Controller ends, and the client connects to the IP address returned by the 3-DNS Controller. Unlike the 3-DNS Controller, the BIG-IP system sits between the client and the content servers.
  • Page 24: Expanded Statistics

    With this feature, you no longer need to directly edit configuration files to set up your LDAP or RADIUS authentication server. This release of the 3-DNS Controller also expands the number of user roles that you can assign to user accounts for the purpose of user authorization. In...
  • Page 25: Finding Help And Technical Support Resources

    Controller in the following locations: ◆ Release notes Release notes for the 3-DNS Controller are available from the home screen of the Configuration utility. The release note contains the latest information for the current version, including a list of new features and enhancements, a list of fixes, and a list of known issues.
  • Page 26 Chapter 1 1 - 12...
  • Page 27: Planning The 3-Dns Configuration

    Planning the 3-DNS Configuration • Managing traffic on a global network • Planning issues for the network setup • Choosing the 3-DNS mode • Planning issues for the load balancing configuration • Using advanced traffic control features...
  • Page 29: Managing Traffic On A Global Network

    The 3-DNS Controllers in your network sit in specific data centers, and work in conjunction with the BIG-IP systems, EDGE-FX systems, and host servers that also sit in your network data centers. All 3-DNS Controllers in the network can receive and respond to DNS resolution requests from the LDNS servers that clients use to connect to the domain.
  • Page 30: Synchronizing Configurations And Broadcasting Performance Metrics

    To distribute metrics data among the systems in a sync group, the principal 3-DNS Controller sends requests to the big3d agents in the network, asking them to collect specific performance and path data. Once...
  • Page 31: Using A 3-Dns Controller As A Standard Dns Server

    Using a 3-DNS Controller as a standard DNS server When a client requests a DNS resolution for a domain name, an LDNS sends the request to one of the 3-DNS Controllers that is authoritative for the zone. The 3-DNS Controller first chooses the best available virtual server out of a pool to respond to the request, and then returns a DNS resource record to the requesting local DNS server.
  • Page 32: Load Balancing Connections Across The Network

    3-DNS Controller. 3. The LDNS then connects to one of the 3-DNS Controllers to resolve the www.siterequest.com name. The 3-DNS Controller uses a load balancing mode to choose an appropriate virtual server to receive the connection, and then returns the virtual server’s IP address to the...
  • Page 33 Other load balancing hosts ◆ Other load balancing hosts map virtual servers to a series of content hosts. Figure 2.3 illustrates the hierarchy of how the 3-DNS Controller manages virtual servers. Figure 2.3 Load balancing management on a 3-DNS Controller ®...
  • Page 34: Planning Issues For The Network Setup

    Controllers from the command line. If you are configuring additional 3-DNS Controllers in a network that already has a 3-DNS Controller in it, please review Chapter 10, Adding a 3-DNS Controller to an Existing Network. During the network setup phase, you define four basic aspects of the network layout, in the following order: •...
  • Page 35: Defining Data Centers And Servers

    Tasks. Defining data centers and servers In the 3-DNS configuration, it is important that you define all of your data centers before you begin defining the data center servers. This is because when you define a server, you specify the data center where the server runs.
  • Page 36: Setting Up Communications On A 3-Dns Controller

    3-DNS Controllers. If the time stamp on a specific file differs between 3-DNS Controllers, the 3-DNS Controller with the latest file broadcasts the file to all of the other 3-DNS Controllers in the group.
  • Page 37 ◆ 3-DNS Controllers communicating with other 3-DNS Controllers To allow 3-DNS Controllers to communicate with each other, you must set up ssh and scp utilities. 3-DNS Controllers communicating with BIG-IP systems and ◆ EDGE-FX systems To allow the 3-DNS Controller to communicate with BIG-IP systems and EDGE-FX systems, you address the same ssh issues.
  • Page 38: Choosing The 3-Dns Mode

    3-DNS Reference Guide. Choosing the 3-DNS mode The 3-DNS Controller can run in one of three modes: node, bridge, or router. The base network configuration changes depending on which mode you choose. The following sections describe the three modes and provide basic configuration examples.
  • Page 39: Running A 3-Dns Controller In Bridge Mode Or Router Mode

    This type of configuration offers the following advantages: • You can change zone files on any one of the 3-DNS Controllers in the network and have those changes automatically broadcast to all of the other systems in the network.
  • Page 40: Planning Issues For The Load Balancing Configuration

    Chapter 2 Planning issues for the load balancing configuration The final phase of installing a 3-DNS Controller is setting up the load balancing configuration. Load balancing configurations are based on pools of virtual servers in a wide IP. When the 3-DNS Controller receives a connection request, it uses a load balancing mode to determine which virtual server in a given pool should receive the connection.
  • Page 41: Using The Setup Utility

    Using the Setup Utility • Creating the initial software configuration with the • Connecting to the 3-DNS Controller for the first • Using the Setup utility for the first time • Running the Setup utility after creating the initial Setup utility...
  • Page 43: Creating The Initial Software Configuration With The Setup Utility

    The license file installed on the system must be compatible with the latest version of the 3-DNS software before you run the Setup utility. If it is not, you must update the license using the registration key provided to you by your vendor.
  • Page 44: Connecting To The 3-Dns Controller For The First Time

    3-DNS software uses an alternate IP address, 192.168.245.245. However, if you define an IP alias on an administrative workstation in the same IP network as the 3-DNS Controller, the unit detects the network of the alias and uses the corresponding default IP address.
  • Page 45 Determining which default IP address is in use After you configure an IP alias on the administrative workstation in the same IP network as the 3-DNS Controller and you turn the system on, the 3-DNS software sends ARPs on the internal VLAN to see if the preferred 192.168.1.245 IP address is in use.
  • Page 46 Controller reboots and uses the new settings you defined. 1. At the login prompt, type root for the user name, and default for the password. 2. At the 3-DNS prompt, type the following command to start the command-line based Setup utility. setup 3.
  • Page 47: Using The Setup Utility For The First Time

    The following sections provide detailed information about the settings that you define in the Setup utility. Keyboard type Select the type of keyboard you want to use with the 3-DNS Controller. The following options are available: • Belgian • Bulgarian MIK •...
  • Page 48: Host Name

    Chapter 3 Host name The host name identifies the 3-DNS Controller itself. Host names must be fully qualified domain names (FQDNs). The host portion of the name must start with a letter, and must be at least two characters. The FQDN must be less than or equal to 256 characters, but not less than 1 character.
  • Page 49: Setting The Interface Media Type

    LED indicators on the network adapters to ensure that they are working and are connected. Configuring VLANs and IP addresses You can create a new VLAN or use the default VLANs to create the 3-DNS Controller configuration. Determine whether you want to have security enabled for a VLAN, or disabled for the VLAN.
  • Page 50: Configuring A Default Gateway Pool

    IP network as the 3-DNS Controller. Configuring remote web server access The 3-DNS web server provides the ability to set up remote web access on each VLAN. When you set up web access on a VLAN, you can connect to the web-based configuration utility through the VLAN.
  • Page 51: Configuring Remote Administrative Access

    If you ever change the IP addresses or host names on the 3-DNS interfaces, you must reconfigure the 3-DNS web server and the portal to reflect your new settings.
  • Page 52: Setting Support Access

    Next, the Setup utility prompts you to set up a support access account. If you would like to activate a support access account to allow your vendor access to the 3-DNS unit, type a password for the support account. Next, select the access type you want for the support account.
  • Page 53: Configuring The 3-Dns Mode

    ◆ The node mode is the traditional installation of the 3-DNS Controller. The 3-DNS Controller replaces a DNS server in a network and uses the DNS server’s IP address. All DNS traffic is directed at the 3-DNS Controller because it is registered with InterNIC as authoritative for the domain.
  • Page 54 LDAP database. In this case, the local LDAP database manages not only authorization for your 3-DNS users, but also authentication. All users subsequently attempting to log on to a 3-DNS Controller must enter a user name and password, which are checked against user data stored in the local database.
  • Page 55: Configuring Namesurfer For Zone File Management

    Controller.) In the final series of the Setup utility screens, you choose whether to have NameSurfer handle DNS zone file management on the 3-DNS Controller. If you configure the 3-DNS Controller in node mode, we strongly recommend that you configure NameSurfer to handle zone file management. If you...
  • Page 56: Running The Setup Utility After Creating The Initial Software Configuration

    Chapter 3 Note Remember that if you run the 3-DNS Controller in bridge or router mode, the system is not authoritative for any domains, so the NameSurfer application is not available to manage any zone files. Running the Setup utility after creating the initial...
  • Page 57: Options Available Only Through The Setup Utility Menu

    Select this option to configure the CORBA ports (IIOP and FSSL). This option prompts you for a list of IP addresses or host names you ® 3-DNS Administrator Guide M E N U qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqk (R) Steps for redundant systems (V) Configure VLANs &...
  • Page 58: Configuring Rsh

    3-DNS unit in the redundant system. This option prompts you to set the portal to use IP addresses instead of DNS names. If the portal is set to use IP addresses, the 3-DNS Controller does not have to do a DNS lookup.
  • Page 59 If the service port for FTP is closed, this utility opens the service port to permit FTP connections to the 3-DNS Controller. Although you can configure FTP and Telnet on a 3-DNS Controller, we recommend that you leave these services disabled, for security reasons.
  • Page 60 Chapter 3 3 - 18...
  • Page 61: Post-Setup Tasks

    Post-Setup Tasks • Introduction • Configuring the interfaces • Working with VLANs • Configuring a self IP address...
  • Page 63: Introduction

    Introduction Setting up the base network for the 3-DNS Controller means configuring elements such as the 3-DNS Controller host name, a default gateway pool, interface media settings, and VLANs and self IP addresses. Configuration tasks for the BIG-IP base network are performed using the Setup utility. For information on using the Setup utility, see Chapter 3, Using the Setup Utility.
  • Page 64: Configuring The Interfaces

    Configuring the interfaces Typically, a 3-DNS Controller has two network interfaces. The following sections describe the naming convention, displaying the status, setting the media type, and setting the duplex mode for the interfaces in the 3-DNS Controller. Understanding the interface naming convention By convention, the Ethernet interfaces on a 3-DNS Controller take the name <s>.<p>...
  • Page 65: Setting The Media Type

    (Default media type is auto.) Note If the 3-DNS Controller is inter-operating with an external switch, the media setting should match that of the switch. To accomplish this, it is best to specify the setting explicitly, and not rely on automatic detection using auto.
  • Page 66: Working With Vlans

    You can use the MAC masquerade to set up a media access control (MAC) address that is shared by a redundant system. Configure VLAN mirroring You can configure the 3-DNS Controller to replicate packets received by a VLAN and send them to another VLAN or set of VLANs. Table 4.1 Configuration options for VLANs...
  • Page 67: Creating, Renaming, And Deleting Vlans

    VLAN flexibility is such that separate IP networks can belong to a single VLAN, while a single IP network can be split among multiple VLANs. (The latter case allows the 3-DNS Controller to be inserted into an existing LAN without renaming the nodes.) The VLANs named external and internal are separate networks, and in the configuration shown they behave like separate networks.
  • Page 68 Chapter 4 To rename or delete a VLAN using the Configuration utility To create, rename, or delete a VLAN from the command line To create a VLAN from the command line, use the following syntax: b vlan <vlan name> interfaces add <if name> <if name> For example, if you want to create a VLAN named myvlan that contains the interfaces 1.1 and 1.2, type the following command: b vlan myvlan interfaces add 1.1 1.2...
  • Page 69: Configuring Packet Access To Vlans

    VLAN of which the interface is a member. When you add an interface to a VLAN as a tagged interface, the 3-DNS Controller associates the interface with the VLAN identification number, or tag, which becomes embedded in a header of a packet.
  • Page 70: Configuration Procedures

    If the tag in the packet does not match any of the tags associated with the interface, the interface rejects the packet. Important You should use VLAN tagging only if you are running the 3-DNS Controller in bridge mode. Configuration procedures You configure tag-based access to VLANs using either the Configuration utility or the bigpipe vlan command.
  • Page 71: Setting Up Security For Vlans

    4.1 Setting up security for VLANs You can lock down a VLAN to prevent direct connection to the 3-DNS Controller through that VLAN. You can override this lockdown for specific services by enabling the corresponding global variable for that service. For...
  • Page 72: Setting Fail-Safe Timeouts For Vlans

    <vlan_name> port_lockdown disable Setting fail-safe timeouts for VLANs For redundant 3-DNS units, you can enable a failsafe mechanism that will fail over when loss of traffic is detected on a VLAN, and traffic is not restored during the fail-over timeout period for that VLAN. You can enable a fail-safe mechanism to attempt to generate traffic when half the timeout has elapsed.
  • Page 73: Setting The Mac Masquerade Address

    <vlan_name> failsafe disarm Setting the MAC masquerade address You can share the media access control (MAC) masquerade address between 3-DNS units in a redundant system. This option has the following advantages: • Increased reliability and failover speed, especially in lossy networks •...
  • Page 74: Configuring A Self Ip Address

    (The 0x40 byte indicates the logical operator OR.) In this example, either 40:0:0:ac:4c:a2 or 40:0:0:ad:4d:f3 would be a suitable shared MAC address to use on both 3-DNS units in the redundant system. The shared MAC address is used only when the 3-DNS Controller is in active mode.
  • Page 75 VLAN of which it is a member. Assigning a self IP address to an interface not mapped to an untagged VLAN produces an error message. ® 3-DNS Administrator Guide 3. Click the Add button. 4. In the IP Address box, type the self IP address to be assigned.
  • Page 76 Chapter 4 4 - 14...
  • Page 77: Essential Configuration Tasks

    Essential Configuration Tasks • Reviewing the configuration tasks • Setting up a basic configuration • Setting up a data center • Setting up servers • Working with sync groups • Overview of auto-configuration • Configuring global variables...
  • Page 79: Reviewing The Configuration Tasks

    Reviewing the configuration tasks Once you have completed the Setup utility, you set up the network and load balancing aspects of the 3-DNS Controller. The 3-DNS Controller has three essential configuration tasks that all users must complete, regardless of the chosen load balancing solution.
  • Page 80: Setting Up A Basic Configuration

    A basic network setup includes data centers, servers, and one sync group. Once you have the basic network components configured on your 3-DNS Controller, you can set up the wide IPs you need for managing your load balancing. We recommend that you review the load balancing solutions in the remaining chapters of this guide before you configure the wide IPs.
  • Page 81: Setting Up A Data Center

    The advantage of grouping all systems from a single physical location into one data center in the configuration is to allow path information collected by one server to be shared with all other servers in the data center. The 3-DNS Controller uses the big3d agent to collect path and metrics information about the other servers, and their virtual servers, in the data center.
  • Page 82 To configure a data center using the Configuration utility Note To configure a data center from the command line, refer to Appendix A, 3-DNS Configuration File, in the 3-DNS Reference Guide. 5 - 4 1. In the navigation pane, click Data Centers.
  • Page 83: Setting Up Servers

    Setting up servers There are five types of servers you can configure on a 3-DNS Controller: 3-DNS Controllers, BIG-IP systems, EDGE-FX systems, hosts, and routers. At the minimum, your network includes one 3-DNS Controller, and at least one server (BIG-IP system, EDGE-FX system, or host) that it manages.
  • Page 84: Defining Big-Ip Systems

    Chapter 5 Note For details on how to configure a 3-DNS Controller from the command line, refer to Appendix A, 3-DNS Configuration File, in the 3-DNS Reference Guide. Defining BIG-IP systems A BIG-IP system can be any of the following: an IP Application Switch, a Controller, a Cache Controller, a FireGuard Load Balancer, an e-Commerce Controller, or a Link Controller.
  • Page 85: Defining A Big-Ip System With The 3-Dns Module

    Guide. Defining a BIG-IP system with the 3-DNS module In the 3-DNS configuration, you treat the BIG-IP system and the 3-DNS Controller module as if they were separate devices. You can add the two server types either by using the Configuration utility or by editing the wideip.conf file.
  • Page 86: Defining A Router

    10. Add the rest of the settings as needed. Note For details on how to configure a BIG-IP system with the 3-DNS Controller module from the command line, refer to Appendix A, 3-DNS Configuration File, in the 3-DNS Reference Guide.
  • Page 87: Defining Edge-Fx Systems

    Note For details on how to configure a router from the command line, refer to Appendix A, 3-DNS Configuration File, in the 3-DNS Reference Guide. Defining EDGE-FX systems An EDGE-FX system can be either an EDGE-FX Cache, or a GLOBAL-SITE Controller. Before you define any EDGE-FX systems, you should have the following information: •...
  • Page 88: Defining Host Servers

    GLOBAL-SITE Controllers do not manage virtual servers. Note For details on how to configure an EDGE-FX system from the command line, refer to Appendix A, 3-DNS Configuration File, in the 3-DNS Reference Guide. Defining host servers A host is an individual network server or server array controller other than a 3-DNS Controller, BIG-IP system, EDGE-FX Cache, GLOBAL-SITE Controller, or router.
  • Page 89 2. On the toolbar, click Add Host. The Add New Host screen opens 3. Add the new host settings. Note that if you want the 3-DNS Controller to discover the host’s virtual servers, select ON for the Discovery setting. (For help on defining hosts, click Help on the toolbar.)
  • Page 90: Configuring Host Snmp Settings

    • Current connections The 3-DNS Controller uses this performance information for dynamic load balancing modes, such as Packet Rate, Quality of Service, and Kilobytes/Second. Table 5.1 shows the host SNMP agents supported by the 3-DNS Controller. SNMP Agent Description Generic A generic SNMP agent is an SNMP agent that collects metrics provided by object identifiers (OIDs) as specified in the RFC 1213 document.
  • Page 91: Working With Sync Groups

    You configure a sync group from the principal 3-DNS Controller. First list the IP address of the principal itself. Then list the receiver 3-DNS Controllers in the order that they should become principals if previously listed 3-DNS Controllers fail.
  • Page 92: Setting The Time Tolerance Value

    3. From the list of 3-DNS Controllers, first select the 3-DNS Controller that you want to be the principal system. Then check the box next to each 3-DNS Controller that you want to add to the sync group. 4. Click Add.
  • Page 93: Overview Of Auto-Configuration

    Configuration utility. Auto-configuration has three settings: ◆ When the Discovery setting is set to ON, the 3-DNS Controller polls the BIG-IP systems and host systems in the network every 30 seconds to update the configuration information for those systems. Any changes, additions, or deletions are then made to the controller's configuration.
  • Page 94 Configuration utility To modify the auto-configuration setting for a host using the Configuration utility To modify the auto-configuration setting for a 3-DNS Controller using the Configuration utility 5 - 16 1. In the navigation pane, expand the Servers item, and then click BIG-IP.
  • Page 95: Configuring Global Variables

    To configure global parameters using the Configuration utility ® 3-DNS Administrator Guide 3. In the Discovery box, select one of the following settings: ON, ON/NO DELETE, or OFF.
  • Page 96 Chapter 5 5 - 18...
  • Page 97: Configuring A Globally-Distributed Network

    Configuring a Globally-Distributed Network • Understanding a globally-distributed network • Using Topology load balancing • Setting up a globally-distributed network • Additional configuration settings and tools configuration...
  • Page 99: Understanding A Globally-Distributed Network

    Understanding a globally-distributed network When you are familiar with your traffic patterns and are expanding into a global marketplace, you can use the 3-DNS Controller to distribute requests in an efficient and seamless manner using Topology load balancing. When you use Topology load balancing, the 3-DNS Controller compares the location information derived from the DNS query message to the topology records in the topology statement.
  • Page 100: Using Topology Load Balancing

    Topology load balancing between wide IP pools. Setting up a globally-distributed network configuration By going through the following setup tasks, you can configure the 3-DNS Controller to process requests, using Topology, in a globally-distributed network. This configuration is based on the following assumptions: •...
  • Page 101: Adding Data Centers To The Globally-Distributed Network Configuration

    Adding data centers to the globally-distributed network configuration The first task you perform is to add your data centers to the 3-DNS configuration. To add data centers using the Configuration utility Adding 3-DNS Controllers to the globally-distributed network configuration Once you have added all of your data centers to the 3-DNS configuration,...
  • Page 102: Adding Big-Ip Systems To The Globally-Distributed Network Configuration

    Adding BIG-IP systems to the globally-distributed network configuration Now you are ready to let the 3-DNS Controller know about any BIG-IP systems, or other servers, that you have in your network. Remember that the 3-DNS Controller load balances requests to the virtual servers managed by the BIG-IP systems, EDGE-FX systems, or host servers in your network.
  • Page 103: Adding Wide Ips To The Globally-Distributed Network Configuration

    Configuration utility, click Help on the toolbar. Adding wide IPs to the globally-distributed network configuration Once you have added all the physical elements to your 3-DNS configuration, you can begin configuring wide IPs and pools for load balancing. Before you start adding wide IPs, verify that you have configured all the virtual servers you need for load balancing.
  • Page 104: Configuring Topology Records For The Globally-Distributed Network Configuration

    Chapter 6 Configuring topology records for the globally-distributed network configuration You must configure topology records before the 3-DNS Controller can use the Topology load balancing mode. The Topology load balancing mode distributes connections after evaluating and scoring the topology records in the topology statement.
  • Page 105: Additional Configuration Settings And Tools

    Setting limits thresholds When you set limits thresholds for availability, the 3-DNS Controller can detect when a managed server or virtual server is low on system resources, and can redirect the traffic to another virtual server. Setting limits helps...
  • Page 106: Other Resources

    Chapter 6 Other resources In addition to setting limits, the 3-DNS Controller provides the following resources to help you maintain your configuration and monitor system performance. Monitoring system performance The Statistics screens in the Configuration utility provide a great deal of information about the 3-DNS Controller.
  • Page 107: Configuring A Content Delivery Network

    Configuring a Content Delivery Network • Introducing the content delivery network • Deciding to use a CDN provider • Setting up a CDN provider configuration • Ensuring resource availability • Monitoring the configuration...
  • Page 109: Introducing The Content Delivery Network

    The 3-DNS Controller uses the Topology load balancing mode to redirect DNS requests based on location information derived from the DNS query message. You can set up wide IPs so that the 3-DNS Controller delegates DNS queries either to a data center, by responding with A records, or to a CDN provider, by responding with a CNAME record.
  • Page 110: Reviewing A Sample Cdn Configuration

    San Jose, California (see Figure 7.1), and one in Washington, DC (see Figure 7.2 on page 7-3). The 3-DNS Controllers (in the two data centers) use the Topology load balancing mode to direct the DNS queries to the geographically closest virtual servers.
  • Page 111 (2D). The CDN provider’s cache servers resolve to the origin site virtual servers for cache refreshes using a different domain name (origin.download.siterequest.com). Figure 7.2 DNS query resolution to content delivery network provider ® 3-DNS Administrator Guide Configuring a Content Delivery Network 7 - 3...
  • Page 112: Deciding To Use A Cdn Provider

    Chapter 7 Deciding to use a CDN provider The 3-DNS Controller is well-suited to serve as the wide-area traffic manager (WATM) for CDNs that have many of the following attributes: ◆ The CDN provider has a global presence around the edge of the Internet.
  • Page 113: Setting Up A Cdn Provider Configuration

    To add data centers using the Configuration utility Adding 3-DNS Controllers Once you have added all of your data centers to the 3-DNS configuration, you are ready to advise the 3-DNS Controller you are configuring about other 3-DNS Controllers in your network.
  • Page 114: Adding Load Balancing Servers

    Chapter 7 Adding load balancing servers Now you are ready to let the 3-DNS Controller know about any BIG-IP systems, EDGE-FX systems, or hosts that you have in your data centers. The servers and virtual servers that you add to this configuration are the servers that load balance your origin site content.
  • Page 115 3-DNS Controller to load balance DNS requests, and click Finish. The 3-DNS Controller adds the wide IP and settings to the configuration. For our example, you would check the virtual servers that map to the download site content in the North American data center.
  • Page 116: Adding A Topology Statement

    Note For more detailed information on working with topology on the 3-DNS Controller, see Chapter 3, Topology, in the 3-DNS Reference Guide. For information on setting up globally-distributed network with Topology load balancing, see Chapter 6, Configuring a Globally-Distributed Network, in this guide.
  • Page 117: Ensuring Resource Availability

    Now you have created a topology statement for your CDN, and the 3-DNS Controller can successfully load balance DNS queries based on the location information derived from the DNS query message. For our example, using the topology statement you just created, the 3-DNS Controller would direct queries for www.download.siterequest.com that originated in North...
  • Page 118: Monitoring The Configuration

    Network Map. Click Help on the toolbar if you have questions on how to use the Network Map. ◆ You can review detailed information on the specific features of the 3-DNS Controller in the 3-DNS Reference Guide. 7 - 10...
  • Page 119: Working With Quality Of Service

    Working with Quality of Service • Overview of Quality of Service • Understanding QOS coefficients • Customizing the QOS equation • Using the Dynamic Ratio option...
  • Page 121: Overview Of Quality Of Service

    Capacity, and Kilobytes/Second (KBPS) modes. The Quality of Service mode is based on an equation that takes each of these performance factors into account. When the 3-DNS Controller selects a virtual server, it chooses the server with the best overall score.
  • Page 122: Understanding Qos Coefficients

    Normalization ◆ The 3-DNS Controller normalizes the raw metrics to values in the range of 0 to10. As the QOS value is calculated, a high measurement for completion rate is good, because a high percentage of completed...
  • Page 123: Customizing The Qos Equation

    IPs that use the Quality of Service mode. You can also customize individual wide IPs, in which case the global QOS equation settings are overwritten. To modify global QOS coefficients using the Configuration utility ® 3-DNS Administrator Guide qos_coeff_rtt 50 qos_coeff_completion_rate 100 qos_coeff_packet_rate 1...
  • Page 124 Chapter 8 To modify QOS coefficients for a specific wide IP using the Configuration utility To assign global QOS coefficients from the command line globals { Figure 8.2 Sample global QOS equation 8 - 4 1. In the navigation pane, click Wide IPs. 2.
  • Page 125 { Figure 8.3 QOS coefficient settings that override the global QOS settings ® 3-DNS Administrator Guide 1. Type the following command to ensure that the configuration files contain the same information as the memory cache. 3ndc dumpdb 2.
  • Page 126: Using The Dynamic Ratio Option

    QOS scores as ratios, and it uses each server in proportion to the ratio determined by the QOS calculation. When the Dynamic Ratio option is turned off (the default), the 3-DNS Controller uses only the server with the highest QOS score for load balancing, (in which case it is a winner-takes-all situation) until the metrics information is refreshed.
  • Page 127 | vs_capacity | null > ] address <vs_addr>[:<port>] [ratio <weight>] Figure 8.4 Enabling dynamic ratio in a pool configuration ® 3-DNS Administrator Guide 6. Commit the changes to the configuration by typing: 3ndc reload Working with Quality of Service...
  • Page 128 Chapter 8 8 - 8...
  • Page 129: Working With Global Availability Load Balancing

    Working with Global Availability Load Balancing • Overview of the Global Availability load balancing • Configuring the Global Availability mode mode...
  • Page 131: Overview Of The Global Availability Load Balancing Mode

    When you use the Global Availability mode to load balance virtual servers within a pool, the load balancing works in much the same way. The 3-DNS Controller repeatedly selects the first available virtual server in the wide IP pool to respond to requests.
  • Page 132 Chapter 9 Figure 9.1 shows the 3-DNS Controller using the Global Availability load balancing mode. Figure 9.1 Global Availability mode 9 - 2...
  • Page 133: Configuring The Global Availability Mode

    To configure the Global Availability load balancing mode within a pool using the Configuration utility ® 3-DNS Administrator Guide Working with Global Availability Load Balancing 1. In the navigation pane, click Wide IPs. 2. In the Wide IP column, click a wide IP name.
  • Page 134 Chapter 9 To configure the Global Availability load balancing mode within a pool from the command line See Figure 9.2, on page 9-5, for an example of the syntax. 9 - 4 3. On the toolbar, click Modify Pool. The Modify Wide IP Pools screen opens. 4.
  • Page 135: A Global Availability Configuration Example

    The first listed virtual server (192.168.101.60 in this example) receives all resolution requests unless it becomes unavailable. If the first listed virtual server does become unavailable, then the 3-DNS Controller sends resolution requests to the second listed virtual server until the first listed virtual server becomes available again.
  • Page 136 Chapter 9 9 - 6...
  • Page 137: Adding A 3-Dns Controller To An Existing Network

    Adding a 3-DNS Controller to an Existing Network • Working with multiple 3-DNS Controllers • Preparing to add a second 3-DNS Controller to your • Running the 3dns_add script • Verifying the configuration network...
  • Page 139: Working With Multiple 3-Dns Controllers

    Working with sync groups, on page 5-14.) The following sections of this chapter describe the procedures you follow to add a 3-DNS Controller into a network that already has at least one 3-DNS Controller configured and working properly. If you are adding the first 3-DNS Controller to your network, refer to Chapter 5, Essential Configuration Tasks.
  • Page 140: Preparing To Add A Second 3-Dns Controller To Your Network

    3-DNS Controller. (See Making the existing 3-DNS Controller aware of the additional controller, on page 10-3.) Add the new 3-DNS Controller to the sync group of the existing 3-DNS ◆ Controller.
  • Page 141: Making The Existing 3-Dns Controller Aware Of The Additional Controller

    To add the new controller to the existing controller’s configuration using the Configuration utility You have now successfully added the new 3-DNS Controller to the existing system’s configuration and sync group. The following sections describe how to run the 3dns_add script and verify the configuration.
  • Page 142: Verifying The Configuration

    Chapter 10 Running the 3dns_add script You can run the 3dns_add script on the new 3-DNS Controller either by using a remote secure shell session, or by using a monitor and keyboard connected directly to the controller. To run the 3dns_add script...
  • Page 143 To verify that the wide IPs are load balancing properly At the command prompt, type the following command, where <IP_address> is the IP address of one of your 3-DNS Controllers, and <wideip> is the name of a wide IP in the configuration, and press Enter.
  • Page 144 If the virtual servers belonging to the wide IP appear in a pattern that reflects the load balancing mode you selected, you have successfully configured your 3-DNS Controllers. Note that you can repeat the previous procedure for each wide IP you configured, and each controller in the sync group.
  • Page 145 Glossary...
  • Page 147 The 3-DNS Distributed Traffic Controller is also most often referred to as the 3-DNS Controller. 3-DNS Maintenance menu The 3-DNS Maintenance menu is a command line utility that you use to configure the 3-DNS Controller. 3-DNS web server The 3-DNS web server is a standard web server that hosts the Configuration utility on the 3-DNS Controller.
  • Page 148 CDN switching is the functionality of the 3-DNS Controller that allows a user to redirect traffic to a third-party network, or transparently switch traffic to a CDN. The two features of the 3-DNS Controller that make CDN switching possible are geographic redirection and the pool type CDN.
  • Page 149 ECV (Extended Content Verification) On the 3-DNS Controller, ECV is a service monitor that checks the availability of actual content, (such as a file or an image) on a server, rather than just checking the availability of a port or service, such as HTTP on port 80.
  • Page 150 Load balancing methods are the settings that specify the hierarchical order in which the 3-DNS Controller uses three load balancing modes. The preferred method specifies the first load balancing mode that the 3-DNS Controller tries, the alternate method specifies the next load balancing mode...
  • Page 151 A load balancing mode is the way in which the 3-DNS Controller determines how to distribute connections across an array. local DNS A local DNS is a server that makes name resolution requests on behalf of a client.
  • Page 152 On a 3-DNS Controller, persistence is a series of related requests received from the same local DNS server for the same wide IP name. When persistence is turned on, a 3-DNS Controller sends all requests from a particular local DNS server for a specific wide IP to the same virtual server, instead of load balancing the requests.
  • Page 153 A pool ratio is a ratio weight applied to pools in a wide IP. If the Pool LB mode is set to Ratio, the 3-DNS Controller uses each pool for load balancing in proportion to the weight defined for the pool.
  • Page 154 3-DNS A receiver 3-DNS is a system, in a sync group, that receives metrics data that are broadcast from big3d agents, but does not initiate metrics collection. See also principal 3-DNS.
  • Page 155 RTT is the calculation of the time (in microseconds) that a local DNS server takes to respond to a ping issued by the big3d agent running on a data center server. The 3-DNS Controller takes RTT values into account when it uses dynamic load balancing modes.
  • Page 156 Quality of Service load balancing. sync group A sync group is a group of 3-DNS Controllers that share system configurations and path metrics for data center servers and virtual servers. Sync groups have one principal 3-DNS, and may contain one or more receiver systems.
  • Page 157 The unknown status is used for data center servers and virtual servers. When a data center server or virtual server is new to the 3-DNS Controller and does not yet have metrics information, the 3-DNS Controller marks its status as unknown. The 3-DNS Controller can use unknown servers for...
  • Page 158 Glossary watchdog timer card The watchdog timer card is a hardware device that monitors the 3-DNS Controller for hardware failure. wide IP A wide IP is a collection of one or more domain names that maps to one or more groups of virtual servers managed either by BIG-IP systems, EDGE-FX Caches, or by host servers.
  • Page 159 Index...
  • Page 161 7-1 resolving DNS queries 7-3 CDN switching 7-1 centralized authentication 1-10 certificates configuration information 3-8 command line utility. See 3-DNS Maintenance menu command syntax, conventions 1-5 configuration adding to 5-5 configuration planning 2-6 configuration tasks using a remote workstation 2-6...
  • Page 162 5-17 and global variables 5-17 enabling 5-17 fail-over hardware-based 1-8 network-based 1-8 fail-over IP addresses, setting 3-6 features of 3-DNS 1-5 firewalls 1-10 FQDNs enabling web access 3-8 geographic redirection 7-1 Global Availability mode about 9-1 configuring 9-3...
  • Page 163 1-9 passwords 3-2 default configuration 3-2 PDF versions, Administrator Kit 1-11 pools 2-4 portal 3-15 principal 3-DNS about 2-2, 5-13 adding a system to sync group 10-3 planning sync groups 2-7 probers and hosts 5-10, 5-12...
  • Page 164 3-7 server performance monitoring 6-8 server types 5-5 servers defining 2-7 defining a 3-DNS Controller 5-5 defining a BIG-IP system 5-6 defining additional 3-DNS Controllers 10-1 defining in the configuration 5-5 See also data center servers setup command 3-2...
  • Page 165 1-9 user authorization 1-10 user authorization roles 1-10 utilities 3-DNS Maintenance menu 1-3 Configuration 1-2 Setup 1-2 virtual servers and host names 4-1 availability settings 6-7 defining 2-7 VLAN access methods 4-7 VLAN groups 4-9 VLAN IDs 4-7 vlangroup command 4-9 ®...