Limiters (03: St.Limiter–04: Mltband Limit) limit
the level of the input signal to a maximum level
that you specify.
Exciters (11: St.Exct/Enhcr) give the sound greater
clarity and deﬁnition. Enhancers sharpen the out-
line of the sound, bringing it to the front of the
mix. By using these appropriately, you can bring
out sounds that were unclear or easily lost in the
Distortion (06: OD/HiGain Wah) distorts the
sound. This simulates the distorted sound that is
typically created on a guitar by making the ampli-
ﬁer distort the sound. It is often used not only on
guitar sounds, but also on rock organ sounds.
Pitch/phase modulation effects
Chorus effects (16: St.Chorus–19: St.Ensemble, 26:
St.BiphaseMod) are an effective way to add spa-
ciousness and thickness to any type of sound.
These are ideally suited for use with electric
pianos, strings, guitars, and so on. In an ensemble,
pitch variations between instruments create a rich,
slightly warbling sound. Essentially, this gives the
impression that a number of musicians are playing
together. The chorus effect simulates this. In stereo
performance, the stereo image is widened, thus
creating a magniﬁcent spatial ambience.
Flanger effects (20: St.Flanger–22: St.Env.Flanger)
add unique characteristics to a sound. Although
similar to chorus, a ﬂanger uses a shorter delay
time and feeds some of the output signal back into
the effect, creating a strong swell. Flangers work
very well on sounds that contain a lot of harmon-
ics, as well as on distorted guitar sounds.
Phasers (23: St.Phaser–25: St.Env.Phaser) cyclically
modulate the phase of the sound. They are similar
to the chorus and ﬂanger effects in that both use
modulation, but the manner in which the tonal
quality changes is different. They are effective
with electric piano, guitars, and synth sounds with
a reasonable sustain.
Other modulation and pitch shift
Rotary speaker effect (40: Rotary SP) simulates the
rotating speaker effect used in organs. It is ideal
for use with organ sounds, but it will also create a
unique effect with other sounds.
Pitch shifters (38: Pitch Shifter, 39: PitchShift Mod)
shift the pitch of the input signal. You can mix the
pitch-shifted sound with the original sound to cre-
ate a chorus effect, or create special effects in
which the pitch continues to rise (or fall).
Early reﬂection and delay effects
Early reﬂection effect (41: Early Reﬂect) produces
only the early reﬂections of a reverb effect. Using
just these early reﬂections, you can add weight or
spatial effects to a sound, such as reverberation.
Without the reverberation, you can achieve a clean
Delays (43: LCR Delay–51: Sequence Dly) create
an echo effect by delaying the sound for a ﬁxed
length of time. You can also make the delayed
sound repeat (feed back).
Reverb (52: Rev Hall–57: Rev Brt. Room) is an effect
that creates the spacious reverberation of sounds
played in a hall or room. Reverb simulates the
sounds that are reﬂected from the ceiling and wall.
When you hear music in a concert hall, the sound
from the instruments and voices reaches your ear
directly, but also reaches your ear after being
reﬂected off the ceiling and walls (and being
delayed by a corresponding length of time). In this
way, the direct sound (the "dry" sound) is joined
by numerous reﬂections that create the impression
of a large acoustical space. The way in which the
sound is reﬂected will depend on the materials of
the ceiling and walls, and also on the size and
shape of the hall. These factors also affect the way
in which the reverberation decays. Different effect
types let you simulate a broad range of reverbera-
tion, and you can also edit the parameters to make
detailed changes to the character of the sound.
Effects that combine two mono
effects connected in series
These connect two mono effects in series. They
include a four-band parametric equalizer con-
nected in series with some other effect (e.g.,
exciter, chorus, delay), or a compressor connected
with another effect (of the types listed above).