Acronym for read-only memory. Your computer contains
some programs essential to its operation in ROM code.
Unlike RAM, a ROM chip retains its contents even after
you turn off your computer. Examples of code in ROM
include the program that initiates your computer's boot
routine and the POST.
Abbreviation for revolutions per minute.
Abbreviation for real-time clock. Battery-powered clock
circuitry inside the computer that keeps the date and time
after you turn off the computer.
Acronym for small computer system interface. An I/O bus
interface with faster data transmission rates than standard
ports. You can connect up to seven devices to one SCSI
Abbreviation for SCSI device management system.
Abbreviation for single-edge connector cartridge.
Abbreviation for second(s).
An I/O port used most often to connect a modem or a mouse
to your computer. You can usually identify a serial port on
your computer by its 9-pin connector.
A computer's system and video BIOS code is usually
stored on ROM chips. Shadowing refers to the perfor-
mance-enhancement technique that copies BIOS code to
faster RAM chips in the upper memory area (above
640 KB) during the boot routine.
Abbreviation for static random-access memory. Because
SRAM chips do not require continual refreshing, they are
substantially faster than DRAM chips. SRAM is used
mostly for external cache memory.
Abbreviation for super video graphics array. See also
Sync negotiation is a SCSI feature that allows the host
adapter and its attached SCSI devices to transfer data in
synchronous mode. Synchronous data transfer is faster
than asynchronous data transfer.
The rules that dictate how you must type a command or
instruction so that the computer will understand it.
As the main circuit board, the system board usually con-
tains most of your computer's integral components, such
as the following:
Controllers for standard peripheral devices, such as
Various ROM chips
Frequently used synonyms for system board are mother-
board and logic board.
System diskette is a synonym for bootable diskette.
System memory is a synonym for RAM.
System Setup program
System Setup program options allow you to configure your
computer's hardware. Some options in the System Setup
program require that you reboot the computer in order to
make a hardware-configuration change. Because the Sys-
tem Setup program is stored in NVRAM, any options that
you set remain in effect until you change them again.
When you start Windows, it consults the system.ini file to
determine a variety of options for the Windows operating