Misidentification of Heart Rates
FHR detection by the monitor may not always indicate that the fetus is alive. Confirm fetal life before
monitoring, and continue to confirm that the fetus is the signal source for the recorded fetal heart rate
(see "Confirm Fetal Life Before Using the Monitor" on page 10).
To reduce the possibility of mistaking the maternal HR or pulse for FHR, or FHR1 for FHR2 or
FHR3, it is recommended that you monitor both maternal HR/pulse and the heart rates of all fetuses
(see "Monitoring FHR and FMP Using Ultrasound" on page 141, "Monitoring Twin FHRs" on
page 159, "Monitoring Triple FHRs" on page 167, and "Monitoring Maternal Heart / Pulse Rate" on
Here are some examples where the MHR can be misidentified as the FHR, or one FHR for another
When using an ultrasound transducer:
When an ultrasound transducer is connected to the monitor, but not applied to the patient, the
measurement may generate unexpected intermittent FHR readings.
When Fetal Movement Profile (FMP) is enabled:
The FMP annotations on a fetal trace alone may not always indicate that the fetus is alive. For
example, FMP annotations in the absence of fetal life may be a result of:
Movement of the deceased fetus during or following maternal movement.
Movement of the deceased fetus during or following manual palpation of fetal position (especially
if the pressure applied is too forceful).
Movement of the ultrasound transducer.
When using a scalp electrode (DECG):
Electrical impulses from the maternal heart can be transmitted to the fetal monitor through a
recently deceased fetus via the spiral scalp electrode, appearing to be a fetal signal source.
It is possible to pick up maternal signal sources, such as the maternal heart, aorta, or other
large vessels. Especially if the recorded MHR, and any other artifact is over 100 bpm.
It is possible to pick up the same fetal heart rate simultaneously with multiple transducers.