GE Fanuc Automation Computer Numerical Control Products Series 16i / 18i / 21i / 20i – Model A Descriptions Manual GFZ-63002EN/02 August 1999...
Features may be described herein which are not present in all hardware and software systems. GE Fanuc Automation assumes no obligation of notice to holders of this document with respect to changes subsequently made.
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS This section describes the safety precautions related to the use of CNC units. It is essential that these precautions be observed by users to ensure the safe operation of machines equipped with a CNC unit (all descriptions in this section assume this configuration).
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS B–63002EN/02 DEFINITION OF WARNING, CAUTION, AND NOTE This manual includes safety precautions for protecting the user and preventing damage to the machine. Precautions are classified into Warning and Caution according to their bearing on safety. Also, supplementary information is described as a Note. Read the Warning, Caution, and Note thoroughly before attempting to use the machine.
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS B–63002EN/02 GENERAL WARNINGS AND CAUTIONS WARNING 1. Never attempt to machine a workpiece without first checking the operation of the machine. Before starting a production run, ensure that the machine is operating correctly by performing a trial run using, for example, the single block, feedrate override, or machine lock function or by operating the machine with neither a tool nor workpiece mounted.
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS B–63002EN/02 WARNING 8. Some functions may have been implemented at the request of the machine–tool builder. When using such functions, refer to the manual supplied by the machine–tool builder for details of their use and any related cautions. NOTE Programs, parameters, and macro variables are stored in nonvolatile memory in the CNC unit.
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS B–63002EN/02 WARNINGS AND CAUTIONS RELATED TO PROGRAMMING This section covers the major safety precautions related to programming. Before attempting to perform programming, read the supplied operator’s manual and programming manual carefully such that you are fully familiar with their contents. WARNING 1.
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS B–63002EN/02 WARNING 6. Stroke check After switching on the power, perform a manual reference position return as required. Stroke check is not possible before manual reference position return is performed. Note that when stroke check is disabled, an alarm is not issued even if a stroke limit is exceeded, possibly damaging the tool, the machine itself, the workpiece, or causing injury to the user.
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS B–63002EN/02 WARNINGS AND CAUTIONS RELATED TO HANDLING This section presents safety precautions related to the handling of machine tools. Before attempting to operate your machine, read the supplied operator’s manual and programming manual carefully, such that you are fully familiar with their contents. WARNING 1.
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS B–63002EN/02 WARNING 7. Workpiece coordinate system shift Manual intervention, machine lock, or mirror imaging may shift the workpiece coordinate system. Before attempting to operate the machine under the control of a program, confirm the coordinate system carefully. If the machine is operated under the control of a program without making allowances for any shift in the workpiece coordinate system, the machine may behave unexpectedly, possibly damaging the tool, the machine itself, the workpiece, or causing injury to the operator.
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS B–63002EN/02 WARNINGS RELATED TO DAILY MAINTENANCE WARNING 1. Memory backup battery replacement When replacing the memory backup batteries, keep the power to the machine (CNC) turned on, and apply an emergency stop to the machine. Because this work is performed with the power on and the cabinet open, only those personnel who have received approved safety and maintenance training may perform this work.
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS B–63002EN/02 WARNING 2. Absolute pulse coder battery replacement When replacing the memory backup batteries, keep the power to the machine (CNC) turned on, and apply an emergency stop to the machine. Because this work is performed with the power on and the cabinet open, only those personnel who have received approved safety and maintenance training may perform this work.
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS B–63002EN/02 WARNING 3. Fuse replacement For some units, the chapter covering daily maintenance in the operator’s manual or programming manual describes the fuse replacement procedure. Before replacing a blown fuse, however, it is necessary to locate and remove the cause of the blown fuse.
GENERAL B–63002EN/02 GENERAL The FANUC Series 16i, 160i, 18i, 180i, 21i, and 210i are super–compact ultra–thin CNC models with built–in liquid crystal displays. Each CNC unit is a mere 60 mm deep and features, immediately behind the liquid crystal display, a small CNC printed circuit board developed by utilizing state–of–the–art LSI and surface–mount technologies.
F series: 20i–FA (Refer to M series) Related manuals The following table lists the manuals related to the FANUC Series 16i, 160i, 18i, and 180i. This manual is indicated by an asterisk(*). Table 1(a) Manuals Related to the Series 16i, 160i, 18i, and 180i...
1. GENERAL GENERAL B–63002EN/02 The following table lists the manuals related to the FANUC Series 21i and 210i. This manual is indicated by an asterisk (*). Table 1(b) Manuals Related to the Series 21i and 210i Specification Manual name number Descriptions B–63002EN Connection Manual (Hardware)
For details on Series 20i specifications, see Chapter IV. Standard F Standard option l Option Function included in another option Note) The use of some combinations of options is restricted. Series 16i Series 18i Series 21i Series 160i Series 180i Series 210i...
2. LIST OF SPECIFICATIONS GENERAL B–63002EN/02 Series 16i Series 18i Series 21i Series 160i Series 180i Series 210i Item Item Specifications Specifications Up to 6 axes — — — — Simultaneously controlled axis Simultaneously controlled axis expansion (total) Up to 4 axes —...
Jog feed Manual reference position return Reference position return setting without dog Butt–type reference position return setting Reference position shift — — Note) *1 For the Series 16i, 18i, and 21i only *2 For the Series 160i, 180i, and 210i only...
— — — Circular threading — — — — Polygon turning — — — Polygon turning between spindles — — — Note) *1 For the Series 16i, 18i, and 21i only *2 For the Series 160i, 180i, and 210i only...
0 to 254% — — Feed by F with one digit — — — Inverse time feed — — — — Note) *1 For the Series 16i, 18i, and 21i only *2 For the Series 160i, 180i, and 210i only...
Addition of workpiece coordinate Addition of work iece coordinate systems 300 sets — — — — Direct input of measured offset from workpiece origin Note) *1 For the Series 16i, 18i, and 21i only *2 For the Series 160i, 180i, and 210i only...
— — — — Macro executor Macro executor Up to 4MB — — C macro executor Up to 4MB — — Note) *1 For the Series 16i, 18i, and 21i only *2 For the Series 160i, 180i, and 210i only...
— — guage expansion Sub–memory addition — — — — File name storage on Floppy Cas- — — — — sette Note) *1 For the Series 16i, 18i, and 21i only *2 For the Series 160i, 180i, and 210i only...
Spindle positioning — — — Rigid tapping Three–dimensional rigid tapping — — Rigid tapping by manual handle — — — — Note) *1 For the Series 16i, 18i, and 21i only *2 For the Series 160i, 180i, and 210i only...
— — pensation value B Grinding–wheel wear compensation — — — — Automatic modification of tool offset — — — — Note) *1 For the Series 16i, 18i, and 21i only *2 For the Series 160i, 180i, and 210i only...
2. LIST OF SPECIFICATIONS GENERAL B–63002EN/02 Series 16i Series 18i Series 21i Series 160i Series 180i Series 210i Item Item Specifications Specifications Editing — — — — — — 160m Part program storage length Part program storage length 320m 640m...
DNC2 control loading, CNC data read/write, PMC data transfer, memory operation control, etc. Modem card control External tool compensation External message Note) *1 For the Series 16i, 18i, and 21i only *2 For the Series 160i, 180i, and 210i only...
(MDI for 10.4 LCD, for the Series 160i, 180i, and 210i) Separate–type MDI for 10.4 LCD (PC key, vertical type) Touch pad (10.4 LCD) — — Note) *1 For the Series 16i, 18i, and 21i only *2 For the Series 160i, 180i, and 210i only...
FANUC servo amplifier a se- ries Applicable spindle amplifier licable s indle am lifier Analog interface Control unit supply voltage 24 VDC 10% Note) *1 For the Series 16i, 18i, and 21i only *2 For the Series 160i, 180i, and 210i only...
1. CONTROLLED AXES NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 The number of all controlled axes is the sum of the number of machine controlled axes and the number of loader controlled axes. The machine NUMBER OF THE ALL controlled axes include Cs axis. CONTROLLED AXES 16i–MA/16i–TA/160i–MA/160i–TA (1–path) : 12 axes (8 machine axes + 4 loader axes)
1. CONTROLLED AXES NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 MACHINE CONTROLLED AXES 1.2.1 Two–path control is available in 16i–MA, 16i–TA, and 18i–TA, 160i–MA, 160i–TA, 180i–TA Number of Controlled In 18i–MA, 180i–MA, 21i–MA, 21i–TA, 210i–MA, 210i–TA, 20i–FA, Paths 20i–TA number of controlled paths is one. 1.2.2 16i–MA/18i–MA/160i–MA/180i–MA/21i–MA/210i–MA/20i–FA (each path) :...
1. CONTROLLED AXES NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 Number of controlled paths : 1–path Number of controlled axes : Max. 4 axes LOADER Number of simultaneously controlled axes : Max. 4 axes CONTROLLED AXES Number of controlled axes by PMA : Max. 4 axes T series : AXIS NAMES The two basic axes are always set to X and Z.
1. CONTROLLED AXES NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 There are two increment systems as shown in the tables below. One of the increment systems can be selected using a parameter. INCREMENT SYSTEM NOTE If IS-C is selected, option ”increment system 1/10” is required.
1. CONTROLLED AXES NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 The least command increment is in millimeters or inches, depending on the machine tool. One of them must be selected using a parameter beforehand. The least input increment can be switched between metric input and inch input by using a G code (G20 or G21) or a setting parameter.
2. PREPARATORY FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 The following G codes are provided. The G codes are classified into three: A, B, and C. One of the G code types can be selected using a T SERIES parameter. In this manual, G code system B is assumed. G code list for T series (1/3) G code Gro p...
2. PREPARATORY FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 G code list for T series (2/3) G code Gro p Group F nction Function Automatic tool compensation X Automatic tool compensation Z Corner circular interpolation Tool nose radius compensation cancel Tool nose radius compensation left Tool nose radius compensation right Coordinate system setting or max.
2. PREPARATORY FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 G code list for T series (3/3) G code Gro p Group F nction Function Traverse grinding cycle (for grinding machine) Traverse direct constant–dimension grinding cycle (for grinding machine) Oscilation grinding cycle (for grinding machine) Oscilation direct constant–dimension grinding cycle (for grinding machine) Canned cycle for drilling cancel...
2. PREPARATORY FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 The following G codes are provided : M SERIES G code list for M series (1/4) G code Group Function Positioning Linear interpolation Circular interpolation/Helical interpolation CW Circular interpolation/Helical interpolation CCW G02.2, G03.2 Involute interpolation G02.3, G03.3 Exponential function interpolation Dwell, Exact stop...
2. PREPARATORY FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 G code list for M series (2/4) G code Group Function Reference position return check Return to reference position Return from reference position 2nd, 3rd and 4th reference position return G30.1 Floating reference point return Skip function Thread cutting Automatic tool length measurment...
2. PREPARATORY FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 G code list for M series (3/4) G code Group Function Single direction positioning Exact stop mode Automatic corner override Tapping mode Cutting mode Macro call Macro modal call Macro modal call cancel Coordinate rotation Coordinate rotation cancel G72.1 Rotational copy...
2. PREPARATORY FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 G code list for M series (4/4) G code Group Function Constant surface speed control Constant surface speed control cancel Return to initial point in canned cycle Return to R point in canned cycle G160 In–feed control function cancel(for grinding machine) G161...
3. INTERPOLATION FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 Positioning is done with each axis separately (Non linear interpolation type positioning). POSITIONING (G00) Either of the following tool paths can be selected accroding to bit 1 of parameter No. 1401. D Non linear interpolation positioning The tool is positioned with the rapid traverse rate for each axis separately.
3. INTERPOLATION FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 It is always controlled to perform positioning to the end point from a M series single direction, for better precision in positioning. If direction from start SINGLE DIRECTION point to end point is different from the predecided direction, it once POSITIONING (G60) positions to a point past the end point, and the positioning is reperformed (M series)
3. INTERPOLATION FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 Linear interpolation is done with tangential direction feed rate specified by the F code. LINEAR INTERPOLATION X axis (G01) End point (200, 150) (Program example) G01 G90 X200. Z150. F200 ; Start point Z axis Format _ F_ ;...
3. INTERPOLATION FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 Circular interpolation of optional angle from 0 to 360 can be specified. G02: Clockwise (CW) circular interpolation CIRCULAR G03: Counterclockwise (CCW) circular interpolation INTERPOLATION (G02, G03) Feed rate of the tangential direction takes the speed specified by the F code.
3. INTERPOLATION FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 When the option for specifying arc radius R with nine digits is selected for the T series, the valid radius range for circular interpolation is expanded as follows: Without the option for specifying arc radius R with nine digits Input increments Metric input Inch input...
3. INTERPOLATION FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 Helical interpolation performs circular interpolation of a maximum of two axes, synchronizing with other optional two axes circular HELICAL interpolation. Thread cutting of large radius threads or machining of solid INTERPOLATION cams are possible by moving a tool in a spiral. (G02, G03) The commanded speed is the speed of the tangential direction of the arc.
3. INTERPOLATION FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 Helical interpolation B moves the tool in a helical manner. This M series interpolation can be executed by specifying the circular interpolation HELICAL command together with up to four additional axes in simple INTERPOLATION B high–precision contour control mode.
3. INTERPOLATION FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 The function in which contour control is done in converting the command programmed in a cartesian coordinate system to the movement of a linear POLAR COORDINATE axis (movement of a tool) and the movement of a rotary axis (rotation of INTERPOLATION a workpiece) is the polar coordinate interpolation.
3. INTERPOLATION FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 Examples D Polar coordinate interpolation by X axis (Linear axis) and C axis (Rotary axis) C (Virtual axis) C axis Path after cutter compensation Programmed path N204 N203 N205 X axis N200 N202 N201 Tool N208 N206...
3. INTERPOLATION FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 When the form on the expanded side view of a cylinder (from on the cylinder coordinate system) is commanded by a program command, the CYLINDRICAL NC converts the form into a linear axis movement and a rotary axis INTERPOLATION movement then performs a contour control.
3. INTERPOLATION FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 Examples An example of a program O0001 (CYLINDRICAL INTERPOLATION); N1 G00 G00 Z100.0 C0; N2 G01 G18 Z0 C0; N3 G7.1 C57299; N4 G01 G42 Z120.0 D10 F250; N5 G40.0; N6 G02 Z90.0 C60.0 R30.0 ; N7 G01 Z70.0;...
3. INTERPOLATION FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 With the following command, the involute curve machining can be M series performed. Approximate involute curve with a minute straight line or arc INVOLUTE is not needed. Therefore, the programming becomes simple and reduces INTERPOLATION the tape length.
3. INTERPOLATION FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 3.10 In synchronization with the travel of the rotary axis, the linear axis (X M series axis) performes the exponential function interpolation. With the other EXPONENTIAL axes, the linear interpolation the X axis is performed. FUNCTION This function is effective for the tapered constant helix machining in the INTERPOLATION...
3. INTERPOLATION FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 Format Positive rotation (ω=0) G02.3 X_Y_ Z_ I_ J_ K_ R_ F_ Q_ ; Negative rotation (ω=1) G03.3 X_Y_ Z_ I_ J_ K_ R_ F_ Q_ ; X_ : Command terminal point by Absolute or incremental Y_ : Command terminal point by Absolute or incremental Z_ : Command terminal point by Absolute or incremental : Command of angle I (The command unit is 0.001 deg.
3. INTERPOLATION FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 3.11 Either of two types of machining can be selected, depending on the M series program command. SMOOTH D For those portions where the accuracy of the figure is critical, such as INTERPOLATION at corners, machining is performed exactly as specified by the program (G05.1) (M series) command.
3. INTERPOLATION FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 3.12 In helical interpolation, when pulses are distributed with one of the circular interpolation axes set to a hypothetical axis, sine interpolation is HYPOTHETICAL AXIS enable. INTERPOLATION When one of the circular interpolation axes is set to a hypothetical axis, (G07) pulse distribution causes the speed of movement along the remaining axis to change sinusoidally.
3. INTERPOLATION FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 3.13 Spiral interpolation is enabled by specifying the circular interpolation M series command together with a desired number of revolutions or a desired SPIRAL increment (decrement) for the radius per revolution. INTERPOLATION, Conical interpolation is enabled by specifying the spiral interpolation CONICAL command together with one or two additional axes of movement, as well as a desired increment (decrement) for the position along the additional...
3. INTERPOLATION FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 Format D Spiral interpolation Xp–Yp plane X_ Y_ I_ J_ Q_ L_ F_ ; Zp–Xp plane Z_ X_ K_ I_ Q_ L_ F_ ; Yp–Zp plane Y_ Z_ J_ K_ Q_ L_ F_ ; X,Y,Z : Coordinates of the end point : Number of revolutions (positive value without a decimal point) : Radius increment or decrement per spiral revolution...
3. INTERPOLATION FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 3.14 Many computer–aided design (CAD) systems used to design metal dies for automobiles and airplanes utilize non–uniform rational B–spline NURBS (NURBS) to express a sculptured surface or curve for the metal dies. INTERPOLATION This function enables NURBS curve expression to be directly specified (G06.2) to the CNC.
3. INTERPOLATION FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 NURBS interpolation must be specified in high–precision contour control mode (between G05 P10000 and G05 P0). The CNC executes NURBS interpolation while smoothly accelerating or decelerating the movement so that the acceleration on each axis will not exceed the allowable maximum acceleration of the machine.
4. THREAD CUTTING NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 By feeding the tool synchronizing with the spindle rotation, thread cutting of the specified lead is performed. In addition to straight threads, EQUAL LEAD taper threads and scroll threads can be cut with equal leads. THREAD CUTTING (G33) (WITH G CODE SYSTEM A: G32)
4. THREAD CUTTING NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 T series MULTIPLE–THREAD CUTTING (G33) (T series) Multiple–thread screws Format Constant–lead threading _ F_ Q_ ; _ Q_ ; : End point : Lead in longitudinal direction : Threading start angle Variable lead thread cutting can be done by commanding long axis T series direction lead and lead increase/decrease per spindle rotation.
4. THREAD CUTTING NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 Continuous thread cutting in which thread cutting command block is T series continuously commanded is available. As it is controlled so that the CONTINUOUS spindle synchronism shift (occurred when shifting from one block to THREAD CUTTING another) is kept to a minimum, special threads like threads which leads (T series)
5. FEED FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 Positioning of each axis is done in rapid motion by the positioning command (G00). RAPID TRAVERSE There is no need to program rapid traverse rate, because the rates are set in the parameter (per axis). Least command increment Rapid traverse rate range 0.001mm, deg...
5. FEED FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 Feed rates of linear interpolation (G01), and circular interpolation (G02, G03) are commanded with numbers after the F code. CUTTING FEED RATE 5.2.1 In cutting feed, it is controlled so that speed of the tangential direction is always the same commanded speed.
5. FEED FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 5.2.4 With the per revolution feed mode G95, tool feed rate per revolution of the spindle is directly commanded by numeral after F. A position coder Per Revolution Feed must be mounted on the spindle. (G95) For the T series, however, the feed–per–revolution command can be enabled by setting the corresponding parameter accordingly, even when...
5. FEED FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 OVERRIDE 5.3.1 The per minute feed (G94) and per rotation feed (G95) can be overrided Feed Rate Override 0 to 254% (per every 1%). In inverse time, feed rate converted to per minute feed is overridden. Feed rate override cannot be performed to F1-digit feed.
5. FEED FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 Acceleration and deceleration is performed when starting and ending movement, resulting in smooth start and stop. AUTOMATIC Automatic acceleration/deceleration is also performed when feed rate ACCELERATION/ changes, so change in speed is also smoothly done. DECELERATION Rapid traverse : Linear acceleration/deceleration (time constant is parameter set per axis)
5. FEED FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 The function for rapid traverse bell–shaped acceleration/deceleration increases or decreases the rapid traverse feedrate smoothly. RAPID TRAVERSE This reduces the shock to the machine system due to changing BELL–SHAPED acceleration when the feedrate is changed. ACCELERATION/ As compared with linear acceleration/deceleration, bell–shaped acceleration/deceleration allows smaller time constants to be set,...
5. FEED FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 LINEAR Speed ACCELERATION/ DECELERATION AFTER CUTTING FEED INTERPOLATION Time In the linear acceleration/deceleration, the delay for the command caused by the acceleration/ deceleration becomes 1/2 compared with that in exponential acceleration/deceleration, substantially reducing the time required for acceleration and deceleration.
5. FEED FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 BELL–SHAPED Feedrate ACCELERATION/ DECELERATION AFTER CUTTING FEED INTERPOLATION Time As shown above in the quadratic curve, it is possible to accelerate and decelerate the cutting feedrate. When the acceleration and deceleration section are connected, the composed curve shapes just like a hanging bell.
5. FEED FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 In response to the cutting feed command , the feedrate before interpolation, the command feedrate can be directly accelerated/ LINEAR decelerated. This enables a machined shape error caused by the delay of ACCELERATION/ acceleration/deceleration to be eliminated. DECELERATION BEFORE CUTTING FEED...
5. FEED FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 Generally, the CNC does not zero the feedrate at the interface of two T series blocks during cutting feed. ERROR DETECTION Because of this, a corner of a tool path may be rounded. (T series) This part causes the corner of the tool path to be rounded.
5. FEED FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 5.10 Move command in blocks commanded with G09 decelerates at the end M series point, and in–position check is performed. G09 command is not EXACT STOP (G09) necessary for deceleration at the end point for positioning (G00) and (M series) in–position check is also done automatically.
5. FEED FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 5.15 With the G04 command, shifting to the next block can be delayed. When commanded with a per minute feed mode (G94), shifting to the next DWELL (G04) block can be delayed for the commanded minutes. When commanded with a per rotation feed mode (G95), shifting to the next block can be delayed till the spindle rotates for the commanded times.
6. REFERENCE POSITION NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 Positioning to the reference position can be done by manual operation. With jogging mode (JOG), manual reference position return (ZRN) MANUAL signals, and signal for selecting manual reference position return axis ( J1 REFERENCE to J8) on, the tool the machine is turned on, it decelerates, and when it POSITION RETURN is turned off again, it stops at the first grid point, and reference position...
6. REFERENCE POSITION NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 AUTOMATIC REFERENCE POSITION RETURN (G28, G29(ONLY FOR M SERIES )) D Return to reference With the G28 command, the commanded axis is positioned to the position (G28) reference position via the commanded point. After positioning, the reference position return end lamp lights.
6. REFERENCE POSITION NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 This function is used to check whether the reference position return command was performed correctly. REFERENCE When G27 is commanded, the commanded axis is positioned to the POSITION RETURN specified position, reference position return end signal is output if CHECK (G27) reference position return is performed to the correct position, and alarm arises it is not positioned correctly to the reference point.
6. REFERENCE POSITION NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 It is possible to return the tool to the floating reference position by commanding the G30.1. FLOATING The floating reference position is located on the machine and can be a REFERENCE reference position of some sort of machine operation. It is not always a POSITION RETURN fixed position but may vary in some cases.
6. REFERENCE POSITION NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 For reference position return using the grid method, you can shift the reference position without having to move the deceleration dog, simply REFERENCE by setting the amount of shift in a parameter. POSITION SHIFT The time required to adjust the reference position is thus greatly reduced because the deceleration dog need not be adjusted.
6. REFERENCE POSITION NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 The linear scale with absolute addressing reference marks has reference marks (one–rotation signals) at intervals that change at a constant rate. LINEAR SCALE WITH By determining the reference mark interval, the corresponding absolute ABSOLUTE position can be deduced.
7. COORDINATE SYSTEMS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 COORDINATE SYSTEMS By teaching the CNC the position the tool is to arrive, the CNC moves the tool to that position. The position is specified using coordinates on a certain coordinate system. There are three types of coordinate systems. D Machine coordinate system D Workpiece coordinate system D Local coordinate system...
7. COORDINATE SYSTEMS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 Machine coordinate system is a coordinate system set with a zero point proper to the machine system. MACHINE A coordinate system in which the reference point becomes the COORDINATE parameter-preset coordinate value when manual reference point return is SYSTEM (G53) performed, is set.
7. COORDINATE SYSTEMS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 A coordinate system in which the zero point is set to a fixed point on the workpiece, to make programming simple. WORKPIECE A workpiece coordinate system may be set by using one of the following COORDINATE methods: SYSTEM...
7. COORDINATE SYSTEMS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 D Example 2 Set the reference point on the tool holder or turret as shown in the figure below, then specify G92 at the beginning of the program. By specifying an absolute command in this condition, the reference point is moved to a specified position.
7. COORDINATE SYSTEMS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 Examples 10.2 Å Å Å 30.56 Å Å Å Å Å Å When tool A is switched to tool B, G91 G92 X20.4 Z30.56 (diameter programming) is specified. 7.2.2 When manual reference position return is performed, a workpiece coordinate system can be set automatically so that the current tool Automatic Coordinate position at the reference position becomes a desired position which is set...
7. COORDINATE SYSTEMS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 7.2.3 Setting a Workpiece Coordinate System (Using G54 to G59) Explanations D Setting a workpiece Set six coordinate systems specific to the machine in advance. Then, coordinate system select one of the six coordinate systems by using G54 to G59. Format G54 Workpiece coordinate system 1 G55 Workpiece coordinate system 2...
7. COORDINATE SYSTEMS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 With G52 commanded, the local coordinate system with the commanded position as zero point can be set. Once the local coordinate system is set, LOCAL COORDINATE values specified in subsequent move commands are regarded as SYSTEM (G52) coordinate values on that coordinate system.
7. COORDINATE SYSTEMS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 G10 command is used to change workpiece origin offsets. When G10 is commanded in absolute command (G90), the commanded WORKPIECE ORIGIN workpiece origin offsets becomes the new workpiece origin offsets, and OFFSET VALUE when G10 is commanded in incremental command (G91), the currently CHANGE set workpiece origin offsets plus the commanded workpiece origin offsets becomes the new workpiece offsets.
7. COORDINATE SYSTEMS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 Forty-eight workpiece coordinate systems can be added when existing M series six workpiece coordinate systems (G54 - G59) are not enough for the ADDITIONAL operation. Make a command as follows for selection of workpiece WORKPIECE coordinate system.
7. COORDINATE SYSTEMS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 The workpiece coordinate system with its zero position away by the workpiece zero offset amount from the machine coordinate system zero WORKPIECE position is set by returning the tool to the reference point by a manual COORDINATE operation.
7. COORDINATE SYSTEMS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 When the coordinate system actually set by the G50 command or the T series automatic system settingdeviates from the programmed work system,the WORKPIECE set coordinate system can be shifted. COORDINATE Set the desired shift amount in the work coordinates system shift memory. SYSTEM SHIFT (T series) X–Z : Coordinate system in programming...
7. COORDINATE SYSTEMS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 A plane subject to circular interpolation, cutter compensation, coordinate system rotation, or drilling can be selected by specifying a G code. PLANE SELECTION (G17, G18, G19) G code Selected plane Xp–Yp plane X axis or an X axis or an Y axis or an Y axis or an...
8. COORDINATE VALUE AND NC FUNCTION DIMENSION B–63002EN/02 There are two ways to command travels to the axes; the absolute command, and the incremental command. In the absolute command, ABSOLUTE AND coordinate value of the end point is programmed; in the incremental INCREMENTAL command, move distance of the axis itself is programmed.
8. COORDINATE VALUE AND DIMENSION NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 The end point coordinate value can be input in polar coordinates (radius M series and angle). Use G15, G16 for polar coordinates command. POLAR COORDINATE COMMAND (G15, G16) G15 : Polar coordinate system command cancel (M series) G16 : Polar coordinate system command Plane selection of the polar coordinates is done same as plane selection...
8. COORDINATE VALUE AND NC FUNCTION DIMENSION B–63002EN/02 Conversion of inch and metric input can be commanded by the G code command. INCH/METRIC G20 : Inch input CONVERSION G21 : Metric input (G20, G21) Whether the output is in inch system or metric system is parameter-set when the machine is installed.
8. COORDINATE VALUE AND DIMENSION NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 A linear axis refers to an axis moving linearly, and for it values are specified in mm or inches. LINEAR AXIS AND A rotation axis refers to a rotating axis, and for it values are specified in ROTATION AXIS degrees.
9. SPINDLE FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 Specify the spindle speed with up to five digits immediately after address S. The 5-digit numeric value is output to the PMC as a 32-bit binary code. S CODE OUTPUT The code is maintained until another S is specified. The maximum number of input digits for S can be specified using a parameter.
9. SPINDLE FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 Whether to perform constant surface speed control is specified using G96 or G97. CONSTANT SURFACE G96 : Constant surface speed control mode SPEED CONTROL G97 : Constant surface speed control cancel mode If the surface speed is specified with an S code (S followed by a numeric value) in the constant surface speed control mode, the spindle speed is controlled so that a constant surface speed can be maintained while the tool position is changing.
9. SPINDLE FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 In turning operation, the spindle connected to the spindle motor rotates T series at a certain speed, and the workpiece attached to the spindle is then turned. SPINDLE The spindle positioning function moves the spindle connected to the POSITIONING spindle motor by a given angle so that the workpiece attached to the (T series)
9. SPINDLE FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 This function monitor spindle speed, detects a higher level of fluctuation than the commanded speed and signals an abnormality, if any, to the SPINDLE SPEED machine side, using an alarm, thereby preventing the spindle from FLUCTUATION seizure, for example.
9. SPINDLE FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 D When an alarm is generated after the spindle speed becomes Spindle the commanded speed. speed Specified speed Actual speed CHECK CHECK CHECK Time Specify Check Alarm different start speed Commanded speed : (Speed commanded by S) x (Spindle override) Actual speed : Speed detected by position coder q : (Allowable rate for starting checkup) x (Commanded speed)
9. SPINDLE FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 9.10 The serial interface spindle permits positioning and linear interpolation with another servo axis. Thus, linear interpolation between the spindle CS CONTOUR and a servo axis can be specified. CONTROL Explanations D Control mode The serial interface spindle has two modes.
9. SPINDLE FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 9.11 Up to three spindles can be controlled. The three spindles are called the first, second, and third spindles. The first and second spindles are made MULTI–SPINDLE up of serial interface spindles, and the third spindle is of an analog CONTROL interface spindle.
9. SPINDLE FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 9.12 In machine tools having two spindles (such as a lathe), the speeds of the two spindles sometimes have to match. This requires when a workpiece SPINDLE held on the first spindle is transferred to the second spindle while the SYNCHRONIZATION spindles are rotating, and when acceleration/deceleration is performed CONTROL...
10. TOOL FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 10.1 T CODE OUTPUT M series A tool can be selected by specifying a tool number of up to eight digits immediately after address T. The tool number is output to the PMC in a 32-bit binary code.
10. TOOL FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 10.2 TOOL LIFE MANAGEMENT 10.2.1 Tool Life Management Tools are classified into groups, and tool life (hours and times of use) is set for each group. When use of the tool exceeds the preset hours or times of use, another tool in the same group which has not yet exceeded the preset life time is selected.
10. TOOL FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 10.2.2 The number of groups that can be registered in the tool life management function and the allowable number of tools per group can be selected from Addition of Tool Pairs the following four combinations. One of the combinations is selected for Tool Life using a parameter.
11. MISCELLANEOUS FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 11.1 When up to eight digits immediately after address M are specified, a 32–bit binary code is output. The maximum number of input digits can MISCELLANEOUS be specified with a parameter. This binary code is used for on/off control FUNCTIONS of the machine.
11. MISCELLANEOUS FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 11.4 The communication of execution command signal (strobe signal) and completion signal is the M/S/T/B function were simplified to realize a HIGH-SPEED M/S/T/B high-speed execution of M/S/T/B function. INTERFACE The time required for cutting can be minimized by speeding up the execution time of M/S/T/B function.
11. MISCELLANEOUS FUNCTIONS NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 NOTE 1 Either the conventional system or the high-speed system can be selected for communication of strobe signal and completion signal. 2 In the conventional system, only one completion signal is available for all functions of M/S/T/B. However, in the high- speed system, one completion signal is available for each of M/S/T/B functions.
12. PROGRAM CONFIGURATION NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 12.1 A program number is given to each program to distinguish a program from other programs. The program number is given at the head of each PROGRAM NUMBER program, with a 4-digit number (when the 8–digit program number option is used, however, eight digits following address O ) after the address O.
12. PROGRAM CONFIGURATION NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 12.4 When there are fixed sequences or frequently repeated patterns in a program, programming can be simplified by entering these pattern as sub SUB PROGRAM programs to the memory. Sub program is called by M98, and M99 commands return from the sub program.
12. PROGRAM CONFIGURATION NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 12.5 When memory is used, a program cataloged in the floppy cassette can be called and executed as a sub program. EXTERNAL MEMORY A sub program is called from the floppy cassette when the program using AND SUB PROGRAM the memory executes the following block.
12. PROGRAM CONFIGURATION NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 12.8 The following table shows the basic addresses and the range of values to be specified. The range, however, is that of CNC. Note that the range of BASIC ADDRESSES the machine is different from this. AND COMMAND VALUE RANGE D Basic Addresses and...
12. PROGRAM CONFIGURATION NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 D Basic Addresses and Function Address Metric input Inch input Range of Values to Be Specified (T series) Program number 1–9999 1–9999 Sequence number 1–99999 1–99999 Preparatory 0–99 0–99 function 99999.999mm 9999.9999inch (Note2) IS–B 99999.999deg 99999.999deg Dimension...
12. PROGRAM CONFIGURATION NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 12.9 The variable block word address format with decimal point is adopted as tape format. See List of Tape Format in Appendix C for details on tape TAPE FORMAT formats. 12.10 Label skip function is valid in the following cases, and “LSK” is displayed on the screen.
13. FUNCTIONS TO SIMPLIFY PROGRAMMING NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 13.1 Canned cycle is a function to simplify commands for machining (boring, M series drilling, or tapping, etc. The canned cycle has the positioning plane and CANNED CYCLES the drilling axis. The positioning plane is specified with the plane (G73, G74, G76, selection of G17, G18, and G19.
13. FUNCTIONS TO SIMPLIFY NC FUNCTION PROGRAMMING B–63002EN/02 13 types of canned cycles (1/4) Operation G code Function G98 mode G99 mode Initial level R point level R point R point High–speed peck drilling cycle (Note 1) Z point Z point Initial level Spindle Spindle...
13. FUNCTIONS TO SIMPLIFY PROGRAMMING NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 13 types of canned cycles (2/4) Operation G code Function G98 mode G99 mode Initial level Drilling cycle (Spot drilling) R point Positon R R point level Z point Z point Initial level Drilling cycle R point (Counter...
13. FUNCTIONS TO SIMPLIFY NC FUNCTION PROGRAMMING B–63002EN/02 13 types of canned cycles (3/4) Operation G code Function G98 mode G99 mode Initial level Spindle CW Spindle CW Tapping cycle Positon R Positon R R point level Z point Z point Spindle CCW Spindle CCW Initial level...
13. FUNCTIONS TO SIMPLIFY PROGRAMMING NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 13 types of canned cycles (4/4) Operation G code Function G98 mode G99 mode Spindle CW Initial level Spindle CW Boring cycle R point R point level Z point Z point Dwell Dwell Spindle stop Spindle stop...
13. FUNCTIONS TO SIMPLIFY NC FUNCTION PROGRAMMING B–63002EN/02 When the drilling axis is Z axis, machining data in the canned cycle is commanded as follows: Format Gff X_ Y_ Z_ R_ Q_ P_ K_ F_ ; Drilling mode Gff ; See previous table. Drilling position dataX, Y ;...
13. FUNCTIONS TO SIMPLIFY PROGRAMMING NC FUNCTION B–63002EN/02 13.2 In tapping, the feed amount of drilling axis for one rotation of spindle should be equal to the pitch of screw of tapper. Namely, the following RIGID TAP conditions must be satisfied in the best tapping: P= F/S, where P : Pitch of screw of tapper (mm) F : Feed rate of drilling axis (mm/min)
13. FUNCTIONS TO SIMPLIFY NC FUNCTION PROGRAMMING B–63002EN/02 Spindle control (voltage calculation of spindle speed rpm) Distrib- Error Spindle Spindle uted counter converter amplifier motor pulse Gear ratio n : m Position Gear ratio Spindle coder 1 : p The Control System of Spindle during Rigid Tapping Gear ratio of spindle to Least command increment position coder (1 : p)