KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide Bendix/King ® GPS Navigation System ORS 01, 02 and 03...
Copyright ©2000-2002 Honeywell International Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction of this publication or any portion thereof by any means without the express written permission of Honeywell International Inc. is prohibited. For fur- ther information contact the Manager, Technical Publications; Honeywell; One Technology Center;...
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide Operational Revision Status The ORS level is annunciated on the Turn-on page each time power is applied to the KLN 94 (see figure 3-3). Features limited to specific ORS levels are so designated in the text of this manual. The operational differ- ences between ORS levels are described below.
NOTE: A white border is used around data on some of the figures in this Pilot's Guide to indicate that the data inside the border is flashing. WARNING: The KLN 94 displays GPS-derived altitude on the AUX 1 page. Due to many factors, GPS altitude may typically be several hundred feet in error.
Revision History and Instructions Manual KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide Revision 2, July 2002 Part Number 006-18207-0000 This revision incorprates software changes for ORS 03.
Revision History and Instructions Manual KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide Revision 1, March 2001 Part Number 006-18207-0000 This revision incorprates software changes for ORS 02.
Revision History and Instructions Manual KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide Revision 0, September 2000 Part Number 006-18207-0000 This is the original version of this publication.
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KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide INTRODUCTION ...i KLN 94 SNEAK PREVIEW ...ii HOW-TO INDEX ...iv 1. KLN 94 System Components ...1-1 2. Database ...2-1 2.1. Functions of the Database ...2-1 2.2. Database Contents and Coverage Areas ...2-1 2.3. ICAO Identifiers ...2-4 2.4.
Table of Contents 3.8.2. Selecting Waypoints by Scanning ...3-23 3.8.3. Selecting Waypoints by Name or City ...3-24 3.9. “Nearest” Functions ...3-27 3.9.1. Viewing the Nearest Waypoints ...3-28 188.8.131.52 Nearest Airport Criteria ...3-28 184.108.40.206 Continuous Display of Nearest Airport ...3-29 3.9.2. Viewing the Nearest Special Use Airspaces ...3-30 3.9.3.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide 220.127.116.11. Changing the Map Range Scale ...3-47 18.104.22.168 Decluttering The Screen ...3-48 22.214.171.124. Waypoint Scan Feature ...3-48 126.96.36.199. Holding Patterns and Procedure Turns .3-50 3.12. Waypoint Pages ...3-51 3.12.1. Airport Pages ...3-51 188.8.131.52. The Airport 1 (APT 1) Page ...3-51 184.108.40.206.
Table of Contents 3.13. Special Use Airspace Alerting ...3-66 3.14. Remote Mounted Annunciators ...3-69 3.15 QuickTune™ Nav/Comm Frequency Selection ...3-70 3.15.1. Quicktune™ Operation with One Compatible NAV/COMM ...3-71 3.15.2. Quicktune™ Operation with More Than One Compatible NAV/COMM ...3-72 3.16. Using the Take-home Mode ...3-72 3.17 Sample Trip ...3-74 3.17.1 Pre-departure ...3-74 3.17.2 En route ...3-75...
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide 220.127.116.11 Direct To Operation From Any Page ...4-12 18.104.22.168 Direct To Operation From The FPL 0 Page 4-13 22.214.171.124 Cancelling Direct To Operation ...4-13 4.2.5. Viewing Distance, ETE, ETA, or Desired Track to Flight Plan Waypoints ...4-14 4.2.6 Changing The System Time Zone ...4-15 5.
Table of Contents 5.8. The Auxilary (AUX) Pages ...5-21 5.9. Determining the Status of the GPS Signals ...5-21 5.10. Calculator (AUX 4 – AUX 11) pages ...5-24 5.10.1. The Auxilary 4 (AUX 4) Trip Planning Page ...5-24 5.10.2. The Auxilary 5 (AUX5) Trip Planning Page ...5-26 5.10.3.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide 5.16. Manual Magnetic Variation Selection ...5-41 5.17. Setting the Units of Measure ...5-42 6. APPROACHES and DP/STARs ...6-1 6.1. Procedure (PROC) Pages ...6-1 6.2. Non-Precision Approach Operations ...6-2 6.2.1. Approach Mode Annunciations ...6-3 6.2.2. General Procedure for Non-Precision Approaches 6-4 6.2.3.
Table of Contents APPENDIX A - NAVIGATION TERMS ...A-1 APPENDIX B - MESSAGE PAGE MESSAGES ...B-1 APPENDIX C - SCRATCHPAD MESSAGES ...C-1 APPENDIX D - ABBREVIATIONS ...D-1 STATE ABBREVIATIONS ...D-1 CANADIAN PROVINCE ABBREVIATIONS ...D-2 COUNTRY ABBREVIATIONS ...D-2 ARTCC ABBREVIATIONS ...D-8 OTHER ABBREVIATIONS USED ON KLN 94 PAGES ...D-17 APPENDIX E - LAT/LON CONVERSIONS ...E-1 APPENDIX F - GPS PRIMER ...F-1...
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide Introduction INTRODUCTION Congratulations for choosing the Bendix/King KLN 94 GPS! Celestial navigation will now be a way of life for you. The phenomenal accuracy of GPS, along with the KLN 94’s user-friendly operation and color graphics display will make flying a delight.
Introduction KLN 94 SNEAK PREVIEW If you absolutely can’t wait to use your KLN 94 until you’ve read this Pilot’s Guide, this section is for you. This short section will teach you just enough to get going and then learn by doing. This operational preview assumes the KLN 94 has been properly installed, the unit was previously opera- tional in the same general geographical location, and that no peripheral equipment interfaced with the KLN 94 (such as external HSI’s, CDI’s,...
NAV 2 page if not already there. The NAV 2 page shows your present position relative to a nearby VOR. It may take a couple minutes for the GPS receiver to “wake-up” and determine a position. Verify that this position is correct before proceeding.
Introduction HOW-TO INDEX This index will help you quickly find important procedures at a glance. The list is alphabetized by action words. SEE Section: Activate one of the previously created numbered flight plans ... . .4.1.3 Add a waypoint to a flight plan .
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide Introduction SEE Section: Delete a waypoint remark from the AUX 13 page .....5.11.2 Delete an approach from FPL 0 ........6.2.5 Delete an individual waypoint in a DP or STAR procedure .
Chapter 1 System Components LEFT/RIGHT D-BAR SELECTED COURSE...
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide Chapter 1 System Components 1. KLN 94 SYSTEM COMPONENTS A basic KLN 94 system consists of a panel mounted KLN 94 GPS and a KA 92 GPS antenna. An altitude input is required to obtain full navigation and operational capabilities.
If an error is detected in the configuration data, a warning page stating Configuration Mem Error will be displayed during the KLN 94 start-up sequence, and the configuration memory will be set to arbitrary default values. See an authorized Honeywell Service center to correct the config- uration memory error.
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Chapter 2 Data Base Figure 2-1 KLN 94 Database Geographical Region...
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide Chapter 2 Data Base 2. DATABASE 2.1. FUNCTIONS OF THE DATABASE The database provides four primary functions. First, it makes pilot inter- face with the GPS sensor much easier. Rather than having to manually look up and then enter the latitude and longitude for a specific waypoint, it allows you to merely enter a simple waypoint identifier.
Chapter 2 Data Base The following is a listing of the KLN 94 database contents: AERONAUTICAL DATA AIRPORTS Identifier Name City, State or Country Use type (if heliports, military, or private) Latitude and Longitude Elevation Runway numbers, lengths, surfaces, and lighting Fuel availability Approach types available (precision, non-precision, or none) Radar approach/departure environment...
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide Chapter 2 Data Base NDBs (En Route and Terminal) Identifier Name Frequency Latitude and Longitude (Note - Outer Compass Locators may be stored as an NDB by their NDB identifier or as an intersection by their intersection name) DMEs associated with ILS/LOC type approaches –...
Chapter 2 Data Base 2.3. ICAO IDENTIFIERS Waypoints are stored in the KLN 94 database almost exclusively by their ICAO identifiers. ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) is an internationally accepted reference for the data. In almost all cases the proper ICAO identifiers may be taken directly from Jeppesen-Sanderson or NOS aeronautical charts.
IBM-compatible personal computer to update the internal memory directly via an interface cable that plugs into the data port on the front of the KLN 94. Method two utilizes Honeywell supplied 3.5- inch diskettes with the PC. The diskettes are not returned to Honeywell.
Chapter 2 Data Base 2.4.1. COMPUTER UPDATING OF THE DATABASE USING DISKETTES (ORS 02 AND HIGHER UNITS ONLY) Update information is sent to you on 3.5” disks. In order to use the update program you must have access to a computer having a disk drive capable utilizing 3.5-inch 1.44 megabyte high density diskettes.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide 4. Turn on the KLN 94. Press F as required to approve the Self Test, Initialization, and Database pages. Use the right outer knob to select the Setup (SET) type pages and the right inner knob to select the SET 3 page (figure 2- 5.
• There are other error messages that may be displayed. If you have a problem that you can’t resolve, write down any error messages to aid your Honeywell Service Center in identifying the problem. 2.4.2 COMPUTER UPDATING OF THE DATABASE USING THE...
Honeywell Service Center. 2.6. DATABASE UPDATE SERVICE OPTIONS The following tear-out page can be used for ordering Americas, Atlantic International, and Pacific International database update services from Honeywell. The forms may be mailed or FAXed for your convenience.
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STATES UNITED MAILED NECESSARY POSTAGE 66061 STREET SERVICES NAVIGATION INC. INTERNATIONAL ADDRESSEE PAID KANSAS OLATHE, PERMIT MAIL REPLY here Fold Tape here OLATHE, 23500 HONEYWELL WILL POSTAGE MAIL FIRST-CLASS BUSINESS...
KLN 94 Database Update Service Order Form Consult Pricing Sheet (006-08794-0007) for Service Prices Honeywell offers several update service options to suit your requirements. Please select the service desired, then fill out and mail this order form. Credit card orders may be faxed.
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Chapter 3 Basic GPS Operation KLN 94 TSO PROC CRSR PUSH ON NRST PULL SCAN ı Figure 3-1 KLN 94 Controls...
Chapter 3 Basic GPS Operation 1. On/Off/Brightness knob – Used to turn the unit on and off and adjust display brightness. 2. Right outer knob – When the cursor is off, used to select the page type (e.g. APT, NAV, FPL, etc.). When the cursor is on, used to move the cursor from one position to another on the display.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide BASIC GPS OPERATION This is the first of four chapters specifically dealing with operating the KLN 94. In this chapter you will learn the basic operation of the front panel controls and then how to perform Direct To navigation (navigating from your present position direct to your desired location).
Chapter 3 Basic GPS Operation output displayed on the unit’s internal course deviation indicator (CDI) and provided to an external horizontal situation indicator (HSI) or CDI is five nautical miles (full scale sensitivity) left and right in Leg mode. The other modes are described in section 5.5 and chapter 6.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide 2. Use the right inner knob to enter the current altimeter setting into the “Baro” field and then press the F button. (If the KLN 94 is inter- faced to a compatible airdata system you will not be able to enter data into this field.
Chapter 3 Basic GPS Operation The KLN 94 has an internal battery powered calendar/clock, so the date and time normally don’t require setting. The battery has a life of approximately 3 years. In addition, the KLN 94’s system date and time are automatically updated very precisely when at least one satellite is being received.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide The KLN 94 is capable of displaying the following time zones: Coordinated Universal Time (Zulu) Greenland Standard Time (UTC - 3) Greenland Daylight Time (UTC - 2) Atlantic Standard Time (UTC - 4) Atlantic Daylight Time (UTC - 3) Eastern Standard Time (UTC - 5) Eastern Daylight Time (UTC - 4) Central Standard Time (UTC - 6)
KLN 94 system time will auto- matically be corrected very precisely once a satellite is received. 7. To aid the GPS receiver in acquiring your position, it helps to have a reasonable idea of where you are, and the Initialization page is where you have the chance to set this initial position.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide 10. The Database page will now be displayed with the cursor over Acknowledge?. Line 1 indicates whether an Americas, Atlantic International, or Pacific International aeronautical database is being used. If the aeronautical database (airports, navaids, approaches, etc) is current, line 2 will show the date when the aeronautical database expires (figure 3-18).
Chapter 3 Basic GPS Operation set the amount of fuel on board (FOB) and initializes the Auxiliary (AUX) 15 and 16 fuel calculator pages. Possible units are gallons (GAL), pounds (LB), imperial gallons (IMP), liters (L), or kilograms (KG). If you wish to manually set the FOB, use the right outer knob to move the cursor to line 2 and use the right inner knob to select the desired value.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide 3.3. DISPLAY FORMAT The KLN 94 uses a color LCD. In normal operation, the display screen is divided into four segments (figure 3-24). When the map page (NAV 4) page is displayed the page bar is removed to maximize the height of the map.
Chapter 3 Basic GPS Operation Display segment 1 changes somewhat when the map page (NAV 4) is being displayed. See section 3.11.4. Display Segment 2 (Page) Aeronautical information is presented on the screen in the form of “pages”. Segment 2 is where these pages are displayed. A page is a presentation of specific data in an organized format.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide Display Segment 4 (Annunciations) Segment 4 displays annunciations associated with the operation of the KLN 94 (figures 3-30 and 3-31). Line one shows the WPT (waypoint alert) annunciation when approach- ing the active waypoint (see sections 3.10.3 and 4.2.2) or the SCAN annunciation when the scan function has been enabled.
Chapter 3 Basic GPS Operation 3.4. BASIC OPERATION OF PANEL CONTROLS Remember that figure 3-1 is a fold-out page that you may want to refer to as you read this chapter. The KLN 94 has three knobs and eleven buttons which are used to per- form all operations.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide Chapter Name/ Page # Range Page Type APT 1-8* Airport VOR 1-2 NDB 1 INT 1-2 Intersections USR 0-3 User Waypoint ACT ** Active Waypoints NAV 1-4 Navigation FPL 0-25 Flight Plan SET 1-14 Setup AUX 1-14*** Auxiliary KLN 94's which are not approved for IFR have 6 airport pages.
Chapter 3 Basic GPS Operation last viewed—we’ll say the NAV 2 page. Turning the right inner knob one click clockwise or three clicks counterclockwise will bring you to the NAV 3 page. Or, from the APT 2 page you could turn the right outer knob four clicks counter-clockwise to get to the NAV pages.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide 4. Turn the right outer knob one click clockwise to move the cur- sor to the second character position (figure 3-39). 5. Rotate the right inner knob to select the second character (fig- ure 3-40). 6. Use the right outer and inner knobs in this manner until the complete waypoint identifier is displayed (figure 3-41).
Chapter 3 Basic GPS Operation To change the default first waypoint identifier character: 1. Select the SET 11 page (figure 3-44) and turn on the cursor by pressing the B button (figure 3-45). 2. Use the right inner knob to select the desired character (figure 3- 46), such as a K in the U.S., a C in Canada, a P in Alaska, an E...
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide To see an example of a Duplicate Waypoint page, try entering the identifi- er “AC” as a Direct To waypoint: 1. Press D. 2. Select “AC” as the waypoint identifier (figure 3-48). AC is the full identifier of several waypoints in the KLN 94 database.
Chapter 3 Basic GPS Operation 3.5. MESSAGE PAGE Whenever the KLN 94 wants to get your attention, the message prompt (a large yellow “M” on the right side of the screen) begins flashing (figure 3- 52). If you have a remote message annunciator in your aircraft, it will also begin flashing at that time.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide 3.7. INITIALIZATION AND TIME TO FIRST FIX Since the KLN 94 stores its position and other required parameters in memory when power to the unit is removed, it is seldom necessary to aid the unit in reaching a NAV ready condition. The time required from power on until the KLN 94 determines its present position and is therefore ready to navigate is called “time to first fix.”...
Chapter 3 Basic GPS Operation To initialize the position from the SET 1 page: 1. If the cursor is not on the screen (figure 3-55), press the B but- ton to bring it on the page over the INIT POS field (figure 3-56). 2.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide NOTE: If the KLN 94 is in the Take-Home mode, you are allowed to enter the groundspeed (kt) and heading (°) fields in order to simulate flight (fig- ure 3-60). They are not used for actual initialization in an aircraft. However, entering a groundspeed will allow the KLN 94 to “fly”...
Chapter 3 Basic GPS Operation Airport pages but we’ll use the APT 1 since it displays the airport name and city). 2. Turn on the cursor (B) and make sure the right inner knob is pushed in. The cursor will appear over the first character of the airport identifier (figure 3-62).
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide 3. Change the first character to a “B” (figure 3-67). 4. Move the cursor to the second character and select “M” (figure 3-68). Eureka! entered the “M”, the KLN 94 searched its database for the first VOR identifier beginning with the letters “BM”...
Chapter 3 Basic GPS Operation To select a waypoint by scanning with the cursor on: 1. Select the page type for the waypoint you are looking for (APT, VOR, NDB, INT or USR). In this case, we want the APT 1 page. 2.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide To select a VOR or NDB by navaid name: 1. With the cursor off, use the right knobs to select the VOR 1 page (figure 3-73). The VOR waypoint in view is not important. 2. Press B and then make sure the right inner knob is pushed to the “in”...
Chapter 3 Basic GPS Operation 5. Move the cursor one place to the right, and select an “E” (figure 3- 79). 6. Enter the “W” and “P” in a similar manner (figure 3-80). 7. Now, move the cursor one place to the right of the “P”...
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide 2. Unless the first word is greater than eight characters, it is usually not abbreviated. 3. Delete most punctuation such as periods and apostrophes. 4. Abbreviations for International are INTL, INT, and IN. 5. Abbreviations for Regional are REGL and REG. 3.9.
Chapter 3 Basic GPS Operation 3.9.1. VIEWING THE NEAREST WAYPOINTS There are actually two waypoint scan lists for airports, VORs, NDBs, inter- sections and user-defined waypoints. These two lists are the “complete” list and the “nearest” list. The complete list contains all of the waypoints in the database for a waypoint type (all the airports, for example).
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide To specify the nearest airport criteria: 1. Select the SET 4 page and turn on the cursor (B). 2. Use the right inner knob to select the minimum length run- way desired for the airport to qualify for the nearest airport list (figure 3-86).
Chapter 3 Basic GPS Operation 3. Rotate the right outer knob clockwise to position the cursor over “1” (figure 3-87). As long as the cursor is left in this position, this page will update so that the nearest airport is always shown as the flight progresses.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide Line 3: The altitude limits of the SUA. Line 4: The proximity of the nearest point on the border of the SUA, in the form of the absolute bearing, relative bearing, and distance to the SUA border.
Chapter 3 Basic GPS Operation NOTE: In some areas of the world the KLN 94 provides the location of the nearest point of communication with a facility providing information (INF) or radio (RDO) services. Pressing the G button and selecting the FSS option will display two of the nearest points of communication with Flight Service Stations.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide The frequencies displayed on the nearest Center page are QuickTune frequencies. When the cursor is positioned over a frequency displayed on this page and the F button is pressed, the frequency is automatically inserted into the standby window of a Bendix/King KX 155A or KX 165A Nav/Comm.
Chapter 3 Basic GPS Operation 3.10.1. INITIATING A DIRECT TO Now that you know the ground rules, let’s go ahead and try some practical examples. First, let’s say we wanted to fly directly to Lovell Airport in Chattanooga, TN. Its ICAO identifier is KCHA. To fly Direct To a waypoint (procedure 1): 1.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide 7. Press F again to approve the displayed waypoint page. The screen will change to the NAV 1 page, and the selected waypoint will now be the active Direct To waypoint (figure 3-101). NOTE: In some cases during approach operations, the KLN 94 presents a page asking how a waypoint is used when the waypoint identifier is entered character by character.
Chapter 3 Basic GPS Operation NOTE: If the KLN 94 is in the approach mode and this method is used to center the D-bar when the missed approach point is the active waypoint, then the approach mode will be cancelled and the KLN 94B will revert to the approach arm mode.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide 3.11. NAVIGATION PAGES As you would expect, the NAV (navigation) pages contain information relating specifically to the KLN 94’s navigation capabilities. The KLN 94 has four NAV pages. The procedure for selecting specific pages, including the NAV pages, was described in section 3.4.1, “Page Selection”. 3.11.1.
Chapter 3 Basic GPS Operation active waypoint while a “down” trian- gle (figure 3-109) indicates “from” the active waypoint. The word FLAG is displayed over the CDI when the KLN 94 is not usable for navigation (figure 3-110). Line 3: Numeric crosstrack correc- tion –...
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide 72° KPHX 3.11.2. THE NAVIGATION 2 (NAV 2) PAGE The NAV 2 page in figure 3-113 dis- plays the aircraft’s present position in two formats: (1) the radial and dis- tance from a nearby VOR and (2) latitude and longitude.
Chapter 3 Basic GPS Operation 3.11.3. THE NAVIGATION 3 (NAV 3) PAGE The Navigation (NAV) 3 page shows you several important times pertain- ing to your flight (figure 3-116). Line 1: The current system time Figure 3-116 zone and the actual time. The time zone may be changed by turning the cursor (B) on over it and turning the right inner knob.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide 126.96.36.199 NAV 4 Page Format The NAV 4 page has a unique for- mat unlike any other KLN 94 page (figure 3-117). The page bar is removed on the NAV 4 page to uti- lize the maximum screen height for the map.
Chapter 3 Basic GPS Operation 188.8.131.52. Selecting What Is Shown On The Map The aircraft’s present position symbol and route of flight are always select- ed for display on the map. The map range scale will determine how much of the route is displayed. When operating Direct To a waypoint which is not in the active flight plan, the Direct To waypoint and its associated course line are shown on the map, and although the waypoints of...
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide • Nearest 20 user defined waypoints (USR) within 200 NM of the air- craft • Tower rings (TWR Rings). A tower ring is a 4 NM radius circle drawn around airports having a control tower that operates at least part time.
Chapter 3 Basic GPS Operation 4. Rotate the right inner knob to select the desired range (figure 3-126). Range scales greater than that selected will not display the selected item. Range scales equal to or less than that select- ed will display the item. 5.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide To configure land data for the map: 1. Press the button while view- ing the NAV 4 map page to bring up the map menu. 2. Turn the right outer knob clock- wise to position the cursor over “Setup Land Data?”...
Chapter 3 Basic GPS Operation 184.108.40.206. Symbols Used On The Map The following symbols are used on the Nav 4 map page: Aircraft symbol Active flight plan or direct to leg (magenta) Inactive flight plan leg (white) VFR airport (cyan)- ORS O1 only IFR airport (green)- ORS 01 only VFR airport (cyan) One or more hard surface runways VFR airport (cyan) No hard surface runway...
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide The heading up mode orients the map with the aircraft’s heading as up. The heading up orientation is not presented as a choice if heading is not provided to the KLN 94. If a heading input is available to the KLN 94 then heading up is usually the best map orientation to select.
Chapter 3 Basic GPS Operation scale. The scale may be changed from 1/2 NM to 1000 NM (or 1 km to 2000 km if km selected as distance unit on SET 12 page). In addition, an “AUTO” scale mode may be selected so that the map scale automatically changes to display the active waypoint and, if there is one, the next waypoint after the active waypoint (figure 3-136).The AUTO map scale may be selected in two ways: 1) by pressing either portion of the...
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide When the KLN 94 goes into the approach active mode all land data, except for bodies of water, is automatically decluttered from the map. A “-L” is then annunciated. In the approach active mode the first press of the E button restores land data and subsequent presses work as described in the previous paragraph.
Chapter 3 Basic GPS Operation 3. (ORS 02 and higher) If the waypoint displayed in the scan field is actually displayed on the map, its map icon is encircled on the map (figures 3-141 and 3-142). Waypoints that are located close together on the map are easy to uniquely identify using this feature.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide Chapter 3 Basic GPS Operation For example if an approach has three IAFs but only one of the IAFs uti- lizes a procedure turn, the procedure turn will only be displayed when the one IAF is selected. In addition it is necessary to select a maximum map range scale to display holding patterns and procedure turns on the SET 7 page (see section 220.127.116.11).
Chapter 3 Basic GPS Operation Appendix D. The right side of line 4 will read HELIPORT if applicable, MILITARY if it is a military airport (Figure 3-147), and PRIVATE if it is a private use airport. If the airport is being viewed as part of the nearest airports list (see sec- tion 3.9.1, “Viewing the Nearest Waypoints”), the APT 1 page format...
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide Line 2: The city where the airport is located. Line 3: The state if the airport is located in the U.S., the Province if locat- ed in Canada, or the country if outside the U.S. and Canada. A listing of the abbreviations used for States, Provinces, and countries is contained in Appendix D.
Chapter 3 Basic GPS Operation MLS approach ILS/MLS ILS and MLS approaches If the airport has a GPS approved non-precision approach included in the KLN 94 database, GPS will also be displayed on line 4. The lower right corner will display (R) if the airport has an approach/depar- ture radar environment.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide Runway Lighting Abbreviations: Sunset to sunrise Pilot controlled lighting Part-time or on-request lighting Lines 4-5: Runway information for the next shortest runway (if any), in the same format as lines 1 and 2. In the event that there is no runway information for an airport, the following message is displayed on the APT 4 page: No Runway Data 18.104.22.168.
Chapter 3 Basic GPS Operation CL C class C airspace (VFR frequency) clearance delivery control area (VFR frequency used outside the U.S.) CTAF common traffic advisory frequency center (when center is used for approach/departure control) departure director (approach control/radar) ground communications outlet GRND ground control MCOM...
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide and the 60° radial from KMCO (Orlando International Airport) for altitudes at and below 5500 feet. In a few cases, APR, DEP, CL B, CL C, CTA, and TMA frequencies are sectorized such that the restrictions cannot be displayed on a single page. When this occurs the following message is displayed on the APT 5 page: Text Of Freq Use Not Displayed...
Chapter 3 Basic GPS Operation 6. Use the right inner and outer knobs to complete line 4. The F button must be pressed to approve line 4 separately. 7. Turn the cursor off when you are finished creating the remark (fig- ure 3-159).
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide The APT 7 page is also used to load DPs and STARs into the active flight plan. This page may be accessed using the manual method of selecting pages using the right inner and outer knobs; however the preferred way of loading DPs and STARs is via the P (procedure) button.
Chapter 3 Basic GPS Operation The different types of IAPs and the abbreviations used on the APT 8 page are: Approach ILS & ILS DME LOC & LOC DME LOC BC & LOC DME BC LBC LDA & LDA DME RNAV TACAN VOR/DME...
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide Chapter 3 Basic GPS Operation If the VOR is being viewed as part of the nearest VORs list (see section 3.9.1), the VOR 1 page format will differ as follows (see figure 3-165). Line 1: After the VOR identifier, the Figure 3-165 number designating the VOR’s posi- tion in the nearest VOR list is displayed.
Chapter 3 Basic GPS Operation point. To the right of the identifier is the frequency of the NDB in kilohertz. If the NDB is being viewed as part of the nearest NDBs list (see section 3.9.1) the number designating the NDB’s position in the nearest NDB list is displayed after the NDB identifier.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide Chapter 3 Basic GPS Operation Lines 2-3: The latitude and longitude of the intersection. Line 4: The magnetic bearing to or the magnetic radial from the user- defined waypoint and the distance. Placing the cursor over the radial/bearing field and turning the right inner knob changes it between radial from and bearing to the station.
Chapter 3 Basic GPS Operation 22.214.171.124. The User 1 (USR 1) Page See figure 3-173. Line 1: The user-defined waypoint identifier, preceded by an arrow if it is the active waypoint. Lines 2-3: The latitude and longitude of the user-defined waypoint. Line 4: The magnetic bearing to or the magnetic radial from the user- defined waypoint and the distance.Placing the cursor over the radial/bearing field and turning the right inner knob changes it between...
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide lines of 16 characters each are available for the remarks. A combination of up to 200 user-defined waypoints and airports may include remarks. Letters, numbers, hyphens, and spaces may be used in the remark. If no remarks have been entered for the user-defined waypoint, line 2 will dis- play [Remarks].
Chapter 3 Basic GPS Operation 3.13. SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE ALERTING The KLN 94 database contains the location of areas of special use air- space (SUA). The types of SUA areas stored in the database and the abbreviations used to denote these areas are the following: Class B Class C Control Area (used outside USA)
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide 2. Press the B button to turn on the cursor. 3. Use the right outer knob to move the cursor over the desired SUA group (figure 3-180). 4. Use the right inner knob to select ON or OFF. 5.
Chapter 3 Basic GPS Operation If the altitude input to the KLN 94 is pressure altitude from an altitude encoder or air data computer, then you must manually update the KLN 94 with an altimeter setting (baro correction in order to receive accurate SUA alerting.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide If the SUA alert feature has been enabled, the KLN 94 allows you to select a vertical buffer on the SET 5 page in order to provide an additional layer of protection from inadvertently entering an SUA. To select a vertical buffer, make sure the SUA alert fea- ture has been enabled.
Chapter 3 Basic GPS Operation Waypoint Alert: The remote waypoint alert annunciator is on whenever waypoint alerting is occurring. See sections 3.10.3. “Waypoint Alerting for Direct To Operation” and 4.2.2. “Turn Anticipation and Waypoint Alerting.” Message: The remote message annunciator is on whenever the mes- sage prompt is on.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide 2. Note what the default number is next to “Comm” and “Nav”. In figure 3-190, the default number is 1 for both Comm and Nav. 3. Press the B button to turn on the cursor. 4. Rotate the right inner knob to view the comms configured for QuickTune™.
Chapter 3 Basic GPS Operation 3.15.2. QUICKTUNE™ OPERATION WITH MORE THAN ONE COM- PATIBLE NAV/COMM In order to use QuickTune™ when there is more than one Nav/Comm configured with the KLN 94 it is necessary to specify a default QuickTune™ receiver for both comm and nav. This action is accom- plished on the SET 14 page by turning on the cursor and selecting the desired default unit for both comm and nav.
The KLN 94 is automatically put into the take-home mode when it is used with a Commander 2000. In addition, an authorized Honeywell Service Center may also arrange for you to put the KLN 94 into the take-home mode by grounding the appropriate pin at the back of the unit while it is removed from the aircraft and is connected to an appropriate power sup- ply.
Chapter 3 Basic GPS Operation fier of the starting point of the trip (figure 3-197). 5. Press F once to view the way- point page and a second time to approve the waypoint page. 6. Rotate the right outer knob to position the cursor over the groundspeed field (figure 3-198) and then turn the right inner...
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide that the ATIS frequency is 125.65 MHz, the pre-taxi clearance delivery frequency is 118.95 MHz, and the ground control frequency is 121.90 MHz. After listening to ATIS, we contact clearance delivery for our clearance out of the Little Rock Class C airspace. Next, we give ground control a call and receive our taxi clearance.
Chapter 3 Basic GPS Operation pages for Hope Municipal. We learn, for example, that it is located in Hope, Arkansas, and has two hard surface runways that are each 5500 feet in length. By pulling the right inner knob to the “out” position, you may now scan clockwise through the remaining 19 airports in the nearest airport list.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide FLIGHT PLAN OPERATION If you are going to use your KLN 94 for more than just flying VFR, direct from one airport to the next, it will be well worth your while to learn its flight plan capabilities.
Chapter 4 Flight Plan Operation are: KNEW (Lakefront airport), GPT (Gulfport VOR), SJI (Semmes VOR), CEW (Crestview VOR), MAI (Marianna VOR), SZW (Seminole VOR), CTY (Cross City VOR), and KPIE (St. Petersburg/Clearwater International airport). To create a flight plan: 1. Select the flight plan (FPL) pages with the right outer knob. 2.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide again. If no mistake was made but the waypoint identifier just entered isn’t in the database, a page allowing creation of a user defined way- point will appear on the screen. Refer to section 5.4 for instructions on how to create a user-defined waypoint.
Chapter 4 Flight Plan Operation first three waypoints will then be displayed followed by the last way- point in the flight plan. Rotate the right outer knob to move the cursor and manually scroll to see the missing intermediate waypoints. 11.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide 2. Press B to turn on the cursor. It will appear over Use? (figure 4-11). If you haven’t left the numbered flight plan since creat- ing this flight plan, rotate the outer knob counterclockwise to position the cursor over Use?. 3.
Chapter 4 Flight Plan Operation position automatically jumps down to the next position. In this case, SJI automatically moves to waypoint 3 and KPIE changes to waypoint 8 (figure 4-15). 4. Complete the waypoint entry operation (figure 4-16). NOTE: If adding a waypoint or way- points (such as adding DP/STAR/ Approach procedures) would exceed the capacity of FPL 0, KLN 94 will...
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide 4. Press F and the waypoint will be deleted from the flight plan. The other waypoints in the flight plan will be correctly reposi- tioned (figure 4-21). 5. Turn off the cursor with the B button. 4.1.6.
Chapter 4 Flight Plan Operation 2. Turn on the cursor with the B button. It will appear over the blank first waypoint position (fig- ure 4-25). 3. Rotate the right outer knob coun- terclockwise to position the cursor over Copy FPL 0? (figure 4-26).
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide ing GPS signals suitable for navigation. (Note: If the unit is in the take-home mode, it has been “tricked” into thinking it is receiving signals and therefore the symbol can be displayed). Also, the sym- bol will not be displayed if Direct To navigation is occurring and the Direct To waypoint is not in FPL 0.
Chapter 4 Flight Plan Operation 4.2.2. TURN ANTICIPATION AND WAYPOINT ALERTING Prior to reaching a waypoint in the active flight plan, the KLN 94 will provide navigation along a curved path segment to ensure a smooth transition between two adjacent legs in the flight plan. That is, the CDI or HSI left/right deviation will be refer- enced to the dashed line in figure 4-33.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide Although normally not recommend- ed, turn anticipation may be disabled on the Setup 10 (SET 10) page by pressing the B button and then rotating the right inner knob to change back and forth between ENABLED (figure 4-36) and DIS- ABLED (figure 4-37).
Chapter 4 Flight Plan Operation 4.2.4. COMBINING DIRECT TO AND FLIGHT PLAN OPERATION It is very common when using flight plan operation to use the Direct To function to proceed directly to a waypoint which exists in the active flight plan.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide 126.96.36.199 Direct To Operation From The FPL 0 Page If you are presently viewing the active flight plan page there is an easy method of selecting the Direct To waypoint. To fly direct to a waypoint in the active flight plan while viewing the FPL 0 page: 1.
Chapter 4 Flight Plan Operation 4.2.5. VIEWING DISTANCE, ETE, ETA, OR DESIRED TRACK TO FLIGHT PLAN WAYPOINTS The right side of the active flight plan (FPL 0) page may be used to display (1) the cumulative distance (Dis) along the flight plan route from the pre- sent position to each flight plan waypoint, (2) the estimated time en route (ETE) to each waypoint, (3) the estimated time of arrival (ETA) at each waypoint, or (4) the magnetic desired track (DTK) for each waypoint.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide 4.2.6 CHANGING THE SYSTEM TIME ZONE The ETA shown on the FPL 0 page is the for the system time zone. The system time zone may be changed from either the NAV 3 or SET 2 page. Section 3.2 gives a list of available time zones.
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KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide Chapter 5 Intermediate Operation INTERMEDIATE OPERATION Many of the KLN 94’s advanced features and functions are covered in this section of the Pilot’s Guide. You may pick and choose which of these fea- tures are applicable to the type of flying you do. If you are a serious IFR pilot be sure to learn the information presented on the KLN 94’s navigation modes described in section 5.5.
Chapter 5 Intermediate Operation right outer knob; turn the right inner knob to select the desired unit of mea- sure; and turn the cursor off again. 2. Use the right inner knob to update the altimeter baro setting (figure 5-3). 3.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide (MSL) (MSL) 1° LONG. 5.2. ADVISORY VNAV OPERATION The KLN 94’s advisory vertical navigation (VNAV) feature allows you to program a descent or ascent path, and then provides you with an advisory altitude to fly that will provide guidance along the vertical path. For exam- ple, you can program the VNAV to provide descent guidance so that you arrive at your active waypoint or a waypoint in the active flight plan at an altitude that you specify.
Chapter 5 Intermediate Operation NOTE: There may be some difference (less than 100 feet) between the indicated altitude and the aircraft’s actual altitude if the altitude input to the KLN 94 is from an altitude encoder because these encoders only provide altitude in 100 foot increments.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide vertical speed, use the outer knob to position the cursor over the vertical speed field (figure 5-10). VNAV oper- ation is initiated by bringing the cursor over the vertical speed field. Or, by leaving the cursor off of this field, you may watch the required vertical speed increase as you fly toward your waypoint.
Chapter 5 Intermediate Operation NOTE: During your descent, check your actual groundspeed to verify that it is similar to the one you entered on the ALT 2 page. If it is different, you should enter your actual groundspeed so that the VNAV function will work properly.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide NOTE: The altitude alerting function of the KLN 94 does not meet FAR Part 91 for turbojet-powered civil airplanes. NOTE: Before you use the altitude alerting function, it is a good idea to make sure that the KLN 94 baro setting is current. To do this, press the A button and use the right inner knob to modify the baro setting.
Chapter 5 Intermediate Operation 6. Press the A button again to move on to the ALT 2 page (fig- ure 5-17). Only line 2 of the ALT 2 page is used for altitude alerting. The remainder of the ALT 2 page is used only for ver- tical navigation, or VNAV.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide Chapter 5 Intermediate Operation and headphones. Or the KLN 94 may be interfaced with an external tone generator installed in the aircraft. In order to use altitude alerting, the KLN 94 must have an altitude input. If the altitude input is from an altitude encoder or from an air data computer not having a baro altitude output, then it will be necessary for you to man- ually input the proper altimeter setting in order to get accurate alerting.
Chapter 5 Intermediate Operation 5.4.1. CREATING A WAYPOINT AT YOUR PRESENT POSITION Creating a waypoint at your present position is the simplest possible way to create a user-defined waypoint. This is nice for “remembering” a spot you are at. Let’s suppose you’re at a private strip that you want to name “VALLY”...
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide 5.4.2. CREATING A WAYPOINT AT A CERTAIN LATITUDE/LONGITUDE It is also possible to create a user-defined waypoint by manually entering a latitude and longitude. Let’s say you wanted to create a user waypoint over your hypothetical farm at N 42°56.32’, W 76°29.95’ To create a user-defined waypoint with latitude/longitude: 1.
Chapter 5 Intermediate Operation 7. Use the right outer knob to move the cursor, and the right inner knob to select the proper num- bers to complete the latitude entry (figure 5-31). 8. Press F. The cursor will move to the longitude field. 9.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide 5. Press F. The display will change to a format like figure 5- 36 with the cursor over the reference waypoint field. 6. Use the right inner and outer knobs to select the identifier of the desired reference waypoint (figure 5-37).
Chapter 5 Intermediate Operation 5.5. NAVIGATION MODES The KLN 94 allows you to choose how the course to the active waypoint is defined. This is done by selecting between the two course modes, LEG and OBS. The LEG mode means that the course to the active waypoint is selected by the KLN 94, and is the default mode when the KLN 94 starts up.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide distance between two points located on the earth’s surface. In the case of Direct To operation, the “from” waypoint is not displayed but it is the point where Direct To operation was initiated. The course to fly while in this mode is referred to as the desired track (DTK).
Chapter 5 Intermediate Operation When this is done, the pilot must verify that the proper course has been selected by confirming the digital selected course readout dis- played on the KLN 94. In the OBS mode the selected course is always displayed on line 3 of the left side of the KLN 94 screen (in place of DTK).
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide 5.5.4. SWITCHING FROM THE LEG MODE TO THE OBS MODE The following mode transition occurs if the KLN 94 is in the Leg mode and the mode is changed to the OBS mode: 1. The waypoint that was active in Leg mode prior to the mode change remains the active waypoint in OBS mode.
Chapter 5 Intermediate Operation 5.5.6. GOING DIRECT TO A WAYPOINT WHILE IN THE OBS MODE The direct-to function will select the OBS value that will take the aircraft from the present position direct to the active waypoint when the KLN 94 is not the displayed navigation source on the external indicator.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide 3. If the desired waypoint is not the one that was suggested by the KLN 94, enter the desired identifier. Press F. 4. Press F to approve the way- point page and activate the waypoint (figure 5-49). The selected course does not change, therefore this method does not center the D-Bar like a...
Appropriate alert voltage and alert delays will vary from aircraft to aircraft. If your KLN 94 is frequently giving you this alert message, it may become a nuisance, and you may desire to have your Honeywell Service Center adjust the voltage alert parameters.
GPS-derived altitude. The GPS receiver in the KLN 94 is capable of using signals from up to eight satellites to determine its position. A valid position may be deter- mined using as few as four satellites alone or three satellites with a valid electronic altitude input.
FAILR receiver failure In the initialization state the GPS receiver is in the process of initializing itself, collecting information such as the date, time, and last present posi- tion. Next, the receiver collects data from its own memory to determine which satellites should be visible.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide WARNING: Do not use the GPS-derived altitude for navigation. Due to many factors, the GPS altitude may be 300 feet or more in error, which is unacceptable for navigation. Lines 4 and 5 of the AUX 1 page display the KLN 94’s estimated position error.
Chapter 5 Intermediate Operation • The signal strength (Sg) for each satellite is displayed next and indi- cates the signal strength for each satellite in the range of 0 (zero) to 9 (nine). The higher the value the stronger the signal. •...
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide To calculate distance, bearing, time, and ESA from present position to another waypoint: 1. From the AUX 4 page (figure 5- 58), turn on the cursor (B). It will appear over a field that either displays Ppos, Fpl, or Wpts. 2.
Chapter 5 Intermediate Operation played on line 3, and the distance will be displayed on line 4. 5. Use the right outer knob to move the cursor over the groundspeed field on line 5. 6. Select your estimated ground- speed for the trip. As you change it, the estimated time en route (ETE) calculation will be updated (figure 5-64).
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide To calculate fuel requirements: 1. The waypoints entered on the AUX 4 page are automatically brought forward on the AUX 5 page. You may also change the trip planning type and the specific waypoints on the AUX 5 page in the same way they were selected on the AUX 4 page.
Chapter 5 Intermediate Operation NOTE: The altimeter baro set units may be changed between inches, mil- libars and hectopascals on the SET 12 page). 5.10.4. THE AUXILARY 7 (AUX 7) DENSITY ALTITUDE PAGE The AUX 7 page is used to determine density altitude. To calculate the density altitude: 1.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide 5.10.5. THE AUXILARY 8 (AUX 8) TRUE AIRSPEED PAGE The AUX 8 page is used to determine the true airspeed (TAS) of the air- craft. To calculate the true airspeed (TAS): Turn on the cursor (B). 2.
Chapter 5 Intermediate Operation 5.10.6. THE AUXILARY 9 (AUX 9) WIND PAGE The AUX 9 page is used to determine the present wind direction and speed. In addition, the headwind or tailwind component of the wind is dis- played. To calculate the winds aloft: 1.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide To set the alarm: 1. Turn on the cursor (B). If necessary, change the system time zone to the desired one on line 2 of the AUX 10 page. 2. To set the alarm to activate at a certain time, move the cursor to the at: field on line 3.
Chapter 5 Intermediate Operation 2. Turn on the cursor (B). 3. If desired, select another way- point identifier using the right inner and outer knobs. Press F to view the waypoint page for the waypoint entered. Press F again to approve the way- point page (figure 5-82).
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide user-defined waypoints, you will have to scroll the cursor down the list. 2. Press E. The KLN 94 will ask if you wish to delete that user- waypoint (figure 5-87). If the waypoint is active or used in a flight plan, the deletion will not be allowed and you will receive a scratchpad message telling you...
(line 1), the software status of the KLN 94 host computer (line 2), graphics engine computer (line 3), the GPS receiver (line 4), aeronauti- Figure 5-93 cal database (line 5), and land – cartographic database (line 6).
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide 5.13.1. THE AUXILARY 15 (AUX 15) FUEL MANAGEMENT PAGE NOTE: The AUX 15 – AUX 19 pages are only displayed when the KLN 94 is interfaced with a compatible fuel management system. The AUX 15 page displays the following information (figures 5-94): •...
Chapter 5 Intermediate Operation • The fuel required to reach the destination waypoint at the current rate of fuel flow and the present groundspeed (Fuel Reqd). • The landing fuel on board (Ldg Fuel OB) is the fuel presently on board minus the fuel required to reach the destination.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide 5.13.4. THE AUXILARY (AUX 18) FUEL MANAGEMENT PAGE The AUX 18 page displays rate of fuel flow. It has two formats depend- ing on whether the aircraft is a twin engine (figure 5-98) or a single engine (figure 5-99).
Chapter 5 Intermediate Operation The Auxiliary 20 and Auxiliary 21 (AUX 20 and AUX 21) pages are used to display air data information if both a fuel management system and an air data system are interfaced to the KLN 94. If there is no fuel manage- ment system, air data information is displayed on the AUX 15 and AUX 16 pages.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide SAT Static air temperature (the actual temperature of the surrounding air mass). TAT Total air temperature (the air temperature including heat rise due to compressibility. This is the temperature measured directly by the outside air temperature (OAT) probe. Pressure altitude (to nearest 100 feet or 10 meters).
Chapter 5 Intermediate Operation 5. Move the flashing part of the cur- sor to the tens digit of the year field, and select the proper num- ber (figure 5-108). 6. Repeat step 5 for the ones digit of the year field. 7.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide 5.16. MANUAL MAGNETIC VARIATION SELECTION The KLN 94’s primary coverage area is from N 74° to S 60° as was shown in figure 3-1. Magnetic variation is automatically computed within this cov- erage area when Mag Var is in the default AUTO mode on the SET 2 page.
Chapter 5 Intermediate Operation To enter the local magnetic variation manually on the SET 2 page: 1. Turn on the cursor (B). 2. Move the cursor over the field on line 4 (figure 5-114). 3. Turn the right inner knob to change the magnetic variation field from Auto to Manual if required (figure 5-115).
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide 6. APPROACHES AND DP/STARS This is the last chapter on the operation of the KLN 94. In this chapter you will learn how to use the KLN 94 for non-precision approach procedures as well as departure (DP) and arrival (STAR) procedures. Note that only KLN 94s which are configured for IFR approaches are capable of perform- ing the procedures discussed in this chapter.
Chapter 6 Approaches and DP/STARs KLN 94 is configured for IFR en route only, pressing the P button allows access to DP and STAR pro- cedures but not approaches (figure 6-4). Figure 6-4 6.2. NON-PRECISION APPROACH OPERATIONS Flying non-precision approaches using the KLN 94 is not in itself very diffi- cult.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide 6.2.1. APPROACH MODE ANNUNCIATIONS In addition to the two course modes (Leg and OBS) described in section 5.5, there are also two approach related modes. At the time of the KLN 94 installation in the aircraft these two modes may be configured to be annunciated as one of the following two ways: APR ARM APR ACTV...
Chapter 6 Approaches and DP/STARs 6.2.2. GENERAL PROCEDURE FOR NON-PRECISION APPROACHES Non-precision approaches will all have the general flow of events as fol- lows. Refer to figure 6-5. Load approach into flight plan CDI Scale Factor changing from ±1.0 nm to ±0.3 nm CDI Scale Factor constant at ±0.3 nm 70°...
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide 2. Transition to the approach arm mode. This will occur automatically when the aircraft is within 30 NM of the airport and there is an approach loaded into the flight plan (position B in figure 6-5). The CDI scale factor will change to ±1.0 NM over the next 30 seconds and the annunciator will indicate APR ARM (or TERM - see first note in sec- tion 6.2.1).
Chapter 6 Approaches and DP/STARs situation. By default, the KLN 94 will nominate the first waypoint of the published missed approach procedure when you have flown past the MAP and the D button is pressed. Remember to always refer to the paper chart when conducting a missed approach.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide 3. The cursor will normally already be over the desired airport but if you wish to select another airport from the list use the right outer knob to move the cursor to the desired airport. Press F. NOTE: If the desired airport is not in the list, turn the right outer knob clockwise to move the cursor to the blank position at the end of the list.
Chapter 6 Approaches and DP/STARs pressing F when the cursor is over MIFEV (figure 6-12). NOTE: If there is only one IAF for a procedure, then the KLN 94 will skip this step and go on to the next step 6.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide After the approach has been entered into the flight plan the KLN 94 checks to make sure that the resulting flight plan “makes sense”. If the KLN 94 detects any waypoints that are in both the en route portion of the flight plan and the portion that makes up the approach, then the following message will be given: *Redundant Wpts in FPL...
Chapter 6 Approaches and DP/STARs Another item that you should notice in the flight plan is the line that has *NO WPT SEQ on it (figure 6-16). This is what is referred to as a fence and the purpose of this line is to tell you that the KLN 94 will not automat- ically sequence past the waypoint that precedes the fence.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide • b will be a letter corresponding to the distance from the reference VOR. For example, G is the seventh letter of the alphabet so D234G would be a point on the 234° radial 7 NM from the reference VOR. DME arcs greater than 26 NM will have waypoints where the first two char acters are the first two letters of the DME identifier.
Chapter 6 Approaches and DP/STARs To replace an existing approach: 1. Press the P button. If necessary move the cursor over Select Approach? and press F to bring up the PROC 2 page. 2. The cursor will already be over the airport associated with the approach loaded in FPL 0.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide procedure from the active flight plan. If the KLN 94 was in the approach arm or the approach active mode, then deleting the approach will cause the KLN 94 to change back to en route mode. This means that the CDI scale factor will change back to the default ±5.0 NM scale.
Chapter 6 Approaches and DP/STARs Figure 6-21 6-14...
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide plate for this approach (figure 6-21) to see what the procedure looks like. For this example it is assumed that you are on an active flight plan from Lakefront airport (KNEW) in New Orleans, LA with the final destination being the New Century Aircenter (KIXD) in Olathe, KS.
Chapter 6 Approaches and DP/STARs NOTE: When FPL 0 is modified in any way, the KLN 94 orients itself on the nearest leg of the modified flight plan. In this case the leg from KNEW to MIFEV has become active. Since we have not yet been cleared to MIFEV it is necessary to do a Direct To operation to KIXD.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide KLN 94 screen to verify that LEG sequencing is selected. If the KLN 94 shares an HSI or CDI with other NAV sources, it is also good to verify that the NAV/GPS switch is set to GPS. As you approach MIFEV, the KLN 94 will provide waypoint alerting as indicated by the flashing WPT annunciation on the right side of the screen and the flashing waypoint...
Chapter 6 Approaches and DP/STARs The following steps would need to be performed if a missed approach is required. 10. Upon reaching RW17 and not seeing the runway you decide to per- form a missed approach. Remember, the KLN 94 will not automatically sequence past the missed approach point.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide Chapter 6 Approaches and DP/STARs NOT FOR NOT FOR VIGA TION VIGA TION Figure 6-29 6-19...
Chapter 6 Approaches and DP/STARs 6.2.8. APPROACH EXAMPLE 2: RADAR VECTORS When airports have an approach control that is in a radar environment it is likely you will receive radar vectors from the approach controller to inter- cept the course inbound to the final approach fix (FAF). The KLN 94 makes it easy to conduct approaches where vectors are provided.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide find out that vectors will be provided you can still easily activate the Vectors feature of the KLN 94 with the waypoint IAF loaded in FPL 0. 5. Press F to display the list of waypoints for the approach (figure 6- 34).
Chapter 6 Approaches and DP/STARs 3. Press F to activate vectors. Activating vectors makes the FAF the active waypoint with the proper inbound course to the FAF (figure 6- 38). The VTF annunciation turns green when vectors has been activated. At this time the exter- nal Nav indicator should be set to 185°...
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide 10. After a second missed approach you may select another approach at Lincoln or some other airport by pressing the P button to display the PROC 1 page. Since you don’t want to activate vectors this time use the right outer knob to move the cursor over Select Approach? and load an approach in the normal manner.
Chapter 6 Approaches and DP/STARs 6.2.9. APPROACH EXAMPLE 3: COURSE REVERSAL WITH OFF- AIRPORT IAF In the previous two approach examples we were able to leave the KLN 94 in the Leg mode all the way to the missed approach point. However, when the approach procedure includes a course reversal in order to get estab- lished inbound to the FAF it is necessary to utilize the OBS mode.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide This message provides a reminder that to fly a course reversal the OBS mode needs to be selected. Note from the approach chart that there is a NoPT Arrival for this approach if arriving on airway radial 301. If you are approaching OCN along this airway radial there is no need to perform a course reversal and you need to ignore this message.
Chapter 6 Approaches and DP/STARs 7. When the aircraft is 2 NM from the FAF, the KLN 94 will verify that the proper integrity is available. If integrity monitoring is available for the approach, then the KLN 94 will change to the Approach Active mode. This will be annunciated on the right side of the KLN 94 by APR ACTV (or APR).
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide Chapter 6 Approaches and DP/STARs NOT FOR NOT FOR VIGA TION VIGA TION Figure 6-43 6-27...
Chapter 6 Approaches and DP/STARs For this example assume that the aircraft is approaching KMSA from the southwest. 1. Approximately 40 NM from the airport, load the approach using the procedure described in section 6.2.3. 2. When the distance from the present position to the destination airport reaches 30 NM, the KLN 94 will automatically arm the approach mode.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide NOTE: For ORS 02 and higher units the procedure turn will be displayed on the map (figure 6-44a) if config- ured to do so on the SET 7 page. See section 188.8.131.52 for information on displaying procedure turns on the map.
Chapter 6 Approaches and DP/STARs missed approach procedure. In this case the waypoint N35HP is dis- played. This is a point located on the outbound leg of the holding pattern. We will not use it in this example. Pull the right inner knob out and turn it to display MSAh, the missed approach holding point.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide Chapter 6 Approaches and DP/STARs NOT FOR NOT FOR VIGA TION VIGA TION Figure 6-45 6-31...
Chapter 6 Approaches and DP/STARs and press F to display the list of approaches for KRWI. Move the cursor over VOR/D 22 and press F to bring up the list of IAFs (figure 6-47). 2. There are four choices for the IAF including Vectors.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide 5. After the approach is loaded into the flight plan the KLN 94 may give the message: *Redundant Wpts In FPL Edit En Route Wpts As Necessary This message is given because very often it will be necessary to edit the active flight plan to ensure that proper waypoint sequencing occurs.
Chapter 6 Approaches and DP/STARs • If F was pressed, then the KLN 94 will calculate an arc inter- cept point based on the point where the aircraft’s present track over the ground intercepts the DME arc. If necessary, do a Direct To operation to the new arc intercept point.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide 13. Passing TYI the KLN 94 will sequence to CF22 which is depicted on the U.S. Government chart as 4 NM from TYI. The CF22 designation is shown on the Jeppesen chart. 14. After passing CF22 the KLN 94 will sequence to CRAKO the FAF. 15.
Chapter 6 Approaches and DP/STARs • When non-approved approach is selected, a page as shown in figure 6-52 is dis- played to remind you that the KLN 94 can only be used to provide situational awareness for monitoring the approach. You must acknowledge the page by pressing F.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide 6.2.14. APPROACH PROBLEMS Very rarely there will be a problem with the integrity of the GPS system while you are conducting non-precision approaches with the KLN 94. In some cases the KLN 94 will determine that there will not be sufficient integrity monitoring for the leg between the FAF and the MAP, or RAIM is not currently available.
Chapter 6 Approaches and DP/STARs To perform a RAIM prediction on the AUX 3 page three pieces of informa- tion are needed. The first is the location that the prediction will be for and the second is the time for the prediction. The destination waypoint will, by default, be the missed approach point of an approach loaded in the flight plan.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide 6. Turn the cursor off. 7. The RAIM calculation will usually take a few seconds before an answer is reached. During this time the AUX 3 page will be as shown in figure 6-55. 8. Once the RAIM calculation is complete, the AUX 3 page will indicate the results of the test graphically in a bar graph format.
Chapter 6 Approaches and DP/STARs procedures require pilot action to ensure that the proper path is flown over the ground. The main purpose of loading a DP or a STAR into the active flight plan is to provide you with a quick way of loading a potentially large number of waypoints.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide NOTE: Normally, the desired departure airport will already be displayed with the cursor on it. In case it is not, move the cursor over the desired airport or, if necessary, enter the airport identifier in the blank field on the page and press F once to bring up the waypoint page for the airport and a second time to approve it.
Chapter 6 Approaches and DP/STARs 6.3.2. SELECTING A STAR The steps required to select a STAR are very similar to those required to select a DP. The only difference is the order of the steps to define the STAR and where the STAR is loaded into the flight plan. The steps required to define the Glen Rose Five arrival (coded JEN5) with the Wink transition serve as an example of how to select a STAR.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide runway 17R so move the cursor over RW17R (figure 6-69). Press F. If the STAR does not require a specific runway the KLN 94 skips this step. 8. The KLN 94 now presents a list of waypoints that make up the STAR (figure 6-70).
Chapter 6 Approaches and DP/STARs 3. Use the right inner and outer knobs in the normal manner to define the desired waypoint. 4. Press F to display the waypoint page for this identifier. If the way- point is correct, then press F a second time to confirm the waypoint page.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide 3. When the list of DP or STAR waypoints is displayed, the bottom of the page will now show REPL FPL 0 DP? for a DP or REPL FPL 0 STAR? for a STAR. Press F to replace the DP or STAR in FPL 0. 6.3.4.
Chapter 6 Approaches and DP/STARs Figure 6-72 6-46...
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide 8. Before reaching WAGES change to the Leg mode. This will allow automatic waypoint sequencing upon reaching WAGES. 9. Once the aircraft reaches FLW, proceed on with the rest of the flight plan as required. 6.3.5. EXAMPLE OF A STAR PROCEDURE To illustrate the use of the KLN 94 with STAR procedures the steps required to fly the Glen Rose Five arrival to Dallas/Fort Worth International will be shown in this section.
Chapter 6 Approaches and DP/STARs Figure 6-73 6-48...
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide APPENDIX A - NAVIGATION TERMS ARC - Radial from reference VOR when executing an approach procedure with a DME arc. BRG - Bearing to waypoint (degrees) - Drift Angle (degrees)-not displayed on KLN 94 - Distance to waypoint (nm) DTK - Desired Track (degrees) ETE - Estimated Time Enroute (hrs:min) ETA - Estimated Time of Arrival...
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SET 2 page or Self-Test page or as a result of a pilot-entered date being over- ridden by a date from the GPS receiver. Airspace Alert...
Appendix B Message Page Messages Arm GPS Approach — If the approach ARM mode has been disarmed with the optional external GPS Approach switch, the KLN 94 will remind you to arm the approach mode when the aircraft is 3 nautical miles from the Final Approach Fix (FAF).
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide Appendix B Message Page Messages Database Error: AERO Data Not Useable - This message appears if the aeronautical database fails an internal test when the KLN 94 is turned on. Database Error: LAND Data Not Useable - This message appears if the land database fails an internal test when the KLN 94 is turned on Enable Turn Anticipation For GPS Approach - This message is dis- played if an approach has been loaded into FPL 0, the aircraft is within 30...
Appendix B Message Page Messages Internal Battery Low: Service Required to Prevent Data Loss— This message appears when the KLN 94’s internal battery is low and needs replacing at an authorized Bendix/King service center. The battery should be replaced within a week to prevent the loss of all user-defined data including waypoint, airport remarks, flight plans, etc.
RS-232 input (such as from a fuel management or air data system). No GPS Receiver Data - This message appears when the KLN 94 fails a specific internal test for the GPS receiver. This failure will prevent the unit from providing any navigation capability.
Appendix B Message Page Messages Press PROC Button Now For Navigation — This message appears after the NAV flag has been set due to a RAIM problem while the KLN 94 is in the approach mode. By pressing the Procedure (P) button, the KLN 94 may be able to restore navigation information so that you can con- duct a missed approach based on navigation information provided by the KLN 94.
Examine the active flight plan and remove those waypoints that occur both in the en route and the approach/DP/STAR sections of the flight plan. Search the Sky — The message appears when the GPS receiver is unable to locate satellites in the normal startup mode. It may take an extended period of time (15-20 minutes) to reach navigation capability.
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KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide Appendix C Scratchpad Messages APPENDIX C - SCRATCHPAD MESSAGES Active Wpt - (Active Waypoint) Appears when you attempt to delete a user- defined waypoint on the AUX 12 page if the waypoint is the active waypoint (the waypoint you are navigating to). Another waypoint must be made the active waypoint before this waypoint can be deleted from the user-defined waypoint list.
Appendix C Scratchpad Messages Invalid Del - (Invalid Delete) Appears when an attempt is made to delete an approach waypoint. Individual approach waypoints cannot be deleted, you must delete or replace the entire approach. Invalid Ent - (Invalid Entry) Appears when you attempt to enter data which is not a valid entry.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide Appendix C Scratchpad Messages Nrst - (No Nearest) Appears when the pilot selects a nearest list (APT, VOR, NDB, INT, USR, SUA, FSS or CTR), and there are no nearest items of that type within a 200 nm radius of the aircraft’s present position. No Such Wpt - (No Such Waypoint) Appears when there is no waypoint in the data- base corresponding to the entered identifier on the Supplemental...
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KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide APPENDIX D - ABBREVIATIONS STATE ABBREVIATIONS ABBREVIATION STATE Alaska Alabama Arkansas Arizona California Colorado Connecticut District of Columbia Delaware Florida Georgia Iowa Idaho Illinois Indiana Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Massachusetts Maryland Maine Michigan Minnesota Missouri Mississippi Montana North Carolina North Dakota Nebraska...
Appendix D Abbreviations STATE ABBREVIATIONS (Cont’d) CANADIAN PROVINCE ABBREVIATIONS ABBREVIATION NT & NU COUNTRY ABBREVIATIONS ABBREV. AFGHAN ALASKA ALBANI ALGERI ANGOLA ANGUIL Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Virginia Vermont Washington Wisconsin West Virginia Wyoming PROVINCE Alberta British Columbia...
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide COUNTRY ABBREVIATIONS (Cont’d) ANTARC ANTIGU ANTILL ARGENT ARMENI ASCENS AUSTRA AUSTRI AZERBA BAHAMA BAHRAI BAKER BANGLA BARBAD BELARU BELGIU BELIZE BENIN BERMUD BHUTAN BOLIVI BOSNIA BOTSWA BRAZIL BRUNE BULGAR BURKIN BURUND C AFRI C USA C VERD CAMBOD CAMERO CANADA...
Appendix D Abbreviations COUNTRY ABBREVIATIONS (Cont’d) CONGO COOK I COSTA CROATI CUBA CYPRES CZECHO DENMAR DJIBOU DOM RE DOMINI ECUADO EGYPT EL SAL EQ GUI ERITRE ESTONI ETHIOP FALKLA FIJI FINLAN FRANCE GABON GAMBIA GAZA GBRIT GERMAN GHANA GIBRAL GN BIS GREECE GREENL GRENAD...
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide COUNTRY ABBREVIATIONS (Cont’d) HONG K HUNGAR ICELAN IND OC INDIA INDONE IRAN IRAQ IRELAN ISRAEL ITALY IVORY JAMAIC JAPAN JOHNST JORDAN KAZ KY KAZ RU KAZ TA KENYA KIRIBA KITTS KOR PR KOREA KUWAIT LAOS LATVIA LEBANO LESOTH LIBER...
Appendix D Abbreviations COUNTRY ABBREVIATIONS (Cont’d) MALDIV MALI MALTA MARIAN MARSHA MELILL MEXICO MIDWAY MOLDOV MONSER MOROCC MOZAMB MRTIUS MRTNIA MW USA MYANMA NAMIBI NAURA NE USA NEPAL NETHER NEW ZE NEWCAL NICARA NIGER NIGERI NIUE I NORWAY NW USA OAKLAN OMAN P RICO...
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide COUNTRY ABBREVIATIONS (Cont’d) PORTUG QATAR ROMANI RUSSIA RWANDA S AFRI SAO TO SAUDI SC USA SE USA SENEGA SEYCHE SIERRA SINGAP SLOVAK SLOVEN SOLO I SOMALI SPAIN SRI LA STPIER SUDAN SURINA SW USA SWAZIL SWEDEN SWITZE SYRIA TAIWAN...
Appendix D Abbreviations COUNTRY ABBREVIATIONS (Cont’d) VENEZU VIETNA VINCEN VIR UK VIR US W SOMO WAKE I WALLIS YEMEN YUGOSL ZAIRE ZAMBIA ZIMBAB ARTCC ABBREVIATIONS ABBREVIATION ARTCC VENEZUELA VIETNAM ST. VINCENT VIRGIN ISLANDS (U.K.) VIRGIN ISLANDS (U.S.) AMERICAN/WESTERN SAMOA WAKE ISLAND WALLIS/FUTUNA ISLANDS YEMEN (ARAB REPUBLIC) YUGOSLAVIA...
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide ARTCC ABBREVIATIONS (Cont’d) ATHENS ATLANTA ASTANA ATYRAU AUCKLAND AYAGUS BAGHDAD BAHRAIN BAKU BALI BANGKOK BARCELONA BALKHASH BATAGAY BEIJING BELEM BERMUDA BIAK BISHKEK BLAGOVESCHENSK BELGRADE BLOEMFONTEIN BODO BOGOTA BOMBAY BORDEAUX BOSTON BEIRA BRINDISI BREMEN BRISBANE BERLIN BARNAUL BARRANQUILLA BRASILIA /UTA BEIRUT...
Appendix D Abbreviations ARTCC ABBREVIATIONS (Cont’d) BREST BUCHAREST BUDAPEST BUJUMBURA CAIRO CALCUTTA CAMPO GRANDE CENTRAL AMERICA CANARIES CAPE TOWN CASABLANCA CHAYBUKHA CHELYABINSK CHICAGO CHENNAI CHOKURDAKH CHERSKY CHITA CHULMAN CLEVELAND COCOS I COLOMBO COMODORO RIVADAVIA COPENHAGEN CORDOBA CURITIBA CHARDZHEV CURACAO DAKAR DAMASCUS DARWIN DASHKHOVUZ...
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide ARTCC ABBREVIATIONS (Cont’d) EDMONTON EMIRATES ENTEBBE EZEIZA FRANKFURT FT WORTH GABORONE GANDER DOMESTIC GENEVA GEORGETOWN GUANGZHOU GUAYAQUIL HANOI HARARE HAVANA HONG KONG HONIARA HOCHIMINH HONOLULU CERAP HOUSTON INDIANAPOLIS IRKUTSK ISLA DE PASCUA ISTANBUL JAKARTA JACKSONVILLE JEDDAH JOHANNESBURG KABUL KARAGANDA...
Appendix D Abbreviations ARTCC ABBREVIATIONS (Cont’d) KIGALI KINGSTON KIRENSK KISANGANI KOTA KINABALU KUALA LUMPUR KHANTY-MANSIYSK KINSHASA KZYL-ORDA KYZYLORDA KOLPASHEVO KOSTANAY KOTLAS KRASNOVODSK KARAKOL KRASNOYARSK KIROV CHISINAU KISHINAU KHARTOUM KUNMING KURGAN KUWAIT KYIV LAHORE LA PAZ LOS ANGELES LILONGWE LIMA LISBON LJUBLJANA LONDON LUANDA...
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide ARTCC ABBREVIATIONS (Cont’d) MARSEILLE MAURITIUS MAZATLAN MADRAS MELBOURNE MEMPHIS MENDOZA MERIDA MEXICO MAGDAGACHI MIAMI MILAN MINNEAPOLIS MIRNY MALMO MALTA MONCTON NORTHERN MANAUS MONTERREY MOGADISHU MONTREAL MOSCOW MURMANSK MYS SHMIDTA MYS KAMENNY MINSK MONTEVIDEO MUMBAI MUNICH MUREN MUSCAT NADI NAHA...
Appendix D Abbreviations ARTCC ABBREVIATIONS (Cont’d) NOVOSIBIRSK NUKUS NEW YORK NEW ZEALAND OAKLAND ODESSA OKHA OMSK ORENBURG OKHOTSK OSLO PUNTA ARENAS PANAMA PORT-AU-PRINCE PARIS PAVLODAR PORT ELIZABETH PECHORA PERM PENZA PETROPAVLOVSK PERTH PETERSBURG SAINT PETERSBURG SANKT PETERSBURG PEVEK PHNOM PENH PIARCO PORT MORESBY PUERTO MONTT...
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide ARTCC ABBREVIATIONS (Cont’d) REIMS ROBERTS ROCHAMBEAU ROME ROSTOV ROVANIEMI SAINSHAND SAMARA SANTIAGO SARAJEVO SCOTTISH SANTO DOMINGO SEATTLE SEMIPALATINSK SEYCHELLES SHANGHAI SHENYANG SHANNON SHANWICK SHYMKENT SIMFEROPOL SINGAPORE SAN JUAN SKOPJE SALT LAKE CITY SALEKHARD SANTA MARIA SAMARKAND SANAA SOFIA SONDRESTROM...
Appendix D Abbreviations ARTCC ABBREVIATIONS (Cont’d) SEYMCHAN TAEGU TAHITI TAIPEI TALLINN TAMPERE TARAZ TASHKENT TASHAUZ TBILISI TEHRAN TEL AVIV TIKSI TILICHIKI TIRANA TURKMENABAT TOKYO TORONTO TRIPOLI TRONDHEIM TURKMENBASHI TUNIS TURUKHANSK TYUMEN UJUNG PANDANG ULAANBAATAR UNDERHAAN URALSK URUMQI VANCOUVER VARNA VELIKIYE LUKI VIENNA VILNIUS VLADIVOSTOK...
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide ARTCC ABBREVIATIONS (Cont’d) OTHER ABBREVIATIONS USED ON KLN 94 PAGES CHAR CRSR DEGRD WASHINGTON WELLINGTON WINNIPEG WINDHOEK WUHAN YAKUTSK YANGON YEKATERINBURG YENISEYSK YEREVAN YUZHNO-SAKHALINSK ZAGREB ZHAMBYL ZHEZKAZGAN ZHIGANSK ZURICH ZYRYANKA Airport waypoint Aircraft Acquisition Active flight plan waypoints Adjust Alaska Daylight Time Alaska Standard Time...
Appendix D Abbreviations OTHER ABBREVIATIONS (Cont’d) FAILR IDENT INIT MAG VAR NAV A NAV D Desired track Duplicate East Eastern Daylight Time Elevation Enter Eastern Standard Time Estimated time of arrival Estimated time en route Failure of receiver Flight plan Feet per minute From Greenland Daylight Time...
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide OTHER ABBREVIATIONS (Cont’d) P.POS POSN PRES RCVR Present position Pacific Daylight Time Position Position Present Pressure Pacific Standard Time Published Power Radial Receiver Reference Required Reserve fuel South Supplemental waypoint Samoa Daylight Time Setup Signal-to-noise ratio Samoa Standard Time Supplemental Space vehicle...
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KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide APPENDIX E - LAT/LON CONVERSIONS The KLN 94 utilizes latitude and longitude expressed in degrees, minutes, and hundredths of a minute. You may occasionally see a document expressing latitude and longitude in degrees, minutes, and seconds. This table may be used to convert seconds to hundredths of a minute.
Appendix E Lat/Lon Conversions LAT/LON CONVERSIONS (Cont’d) SECONDS (“) HUNDREDTHS OF A MINUTE (‘) For example: 35° 46’ 24” is the same as 35° 46.40’ 32° 15’ 58” is the same as 32° 15.97’...
The complicated part is accounting for and correcting all the possible errors in the position. The GPS receiver is able to determine the time it takes a radio signal to travel from the satellite to the GPS antenna. Since this radio signal travels at the speed of light (approximately 186,000 statute miles per second), the time delay can very easily be used to determine the receiver’s distance...
Each of the 24 satellites transmits the almanac data for all satellites, so a GPS receiver has only to listen to one satellite in order to know which satellites are “visible” (in the sky) at that particular time.
RAIM prediction capability. GPS XPRESS™ CARD 8-CHANNEL RECEIVER The KLN 94 and KLN 94 use a Honeywell Bendix/King GPS receiver known as the GPS Xpress™ card. It was dubbed this way because it is identical in size to an everyday credit card, and its faster acquisition time than previous single-channel designs.
Appendix F GPS Primer • Improved position accuracy. • The ability of the GPS receiver to perform the RAIM calculations is enhanced without degrading position tracking.
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide APPENDIX G - OPERATIONAL COMPARISON: KLN 94 VS. KLN 89B If you are an experienced user of the KLN 89B GPS this appendix is for you. It identifies most of the significant operational enhancements of the KLN 94 compared to the KLN 89B.
Appendix G KLN 89B Operational Comparison • QuickTune™ Comm and Nav frequencies into KX 155A and KX 165A (section 3-15). Note: Additional wires must be installed between the KLN 94 and the KX 155A or KX 165A for QuickTune™ to be operational. •...
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide • “AUTO” is shown next to the map scale when automatic range scal- ing has been selected (section 184.108.40.206). • Added waypoints from the “nearest list” to the active flight plan way- points on the NAV 4 (map) scan list (section 220.127.116.11). •...
Appendix G KLN 89B Operational Comparison • Procedure turns and holding patterns associated with approaches, DPs, and STARs are displayed on the map (section 18.104.22.168). • New airport map icons now distinguish between airports having hard surface runways vs. soft surface runways and show the orien- tation of the longest runway if available (section 22.214.171.124).
Country ......... . .D-2 GPS receiver state ........5-22 Other abbreviations .
Index Alerting Altitude ..........5-6 Special Use Airspace (SUA) .
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide AUX 1 GPS status ........5-21 AUX 2 GPS status .
Index Cities on map display ........3-44 City of airport .........3-51 Clear button .
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide Data entry ......... . .3-14 Date and time .
Index Editing Flight plans ........4-5, 4-6 DP .
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide Frequencies, QuickTune™ ......3-70 Frequencies for airport communications ....3-55 FSS frequencies .
Index KA 92 antenna ........1-1 Kilometers .
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide OBS ..... .5-15, 6-18, 6-26, 6-29, 6-34, 6-45 Leg ..........5-14 Selecting Leg or OBS mode .
Index ORS (Operational Revision Status) ....Cover, 3-2 Outer markers (OM) ......2-3, 3-61, 3-62 Overzoom icon .
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide Scanning waypoint names ......3-23 Scratchpad messages ....... . .3-18 Screen organization .
Index Sunrise / Sunset ........5-31 Surface, runway .
KLN 94 Pilot’s Guide VOR 2 page .........3-61 VOR data Bearing and distance .
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