Owner’s Manual & Reference GPS 4 5 X L Personal Navigator ®...
GARMIN, GPS 45XL, Personal Navigator, AutoLocate™,TracBack™, and MultiTrac8™ are all trademarks of GARMIN Corporation and may not be used without the expressed permission of GARMIN. October 1996 Part #190-00123-00 Rev. C Printed in Taiwan.
Packing List Before getting started with your GPS receiver, check to see that your GARMIN GPS 45XL package includes the following items. If you are missing any parts, please contact your dealer immediately. Standard Package: •...
The GPS 45XL does not contain any user-serviceable parts. Repairs should only be made by an authorized GARMIN service center. Unauthorized repairs or modifications could void your warranty and your authority to oper- ate this device under Part 15 regulations.
Introduction Table of Contents SECTION ONE Introduction GPS Definitions/Navigation Basics ......2-4 Initializing the Receiver/External & DGPS Antennas ... . .5-8 SECTION TWO Getting Started Power On/Satellite Status Page .
Introduction Definitions The GPS 45XL is a powerful navigation tool that can guide you anywhere in the world. To better understand its operation and capabilities, it may be helpful to review the basic terms and concepts briefly explained below. Other navigation and GPS definitions used in the manual are defined in the appropriate reference sections of the manual.
Grid Coordinate system that projects the earth on a flat surface, using square zones for position measurements. UTM/UPS and Maidenhead formats are grid systems. Ground Speed The velocity you are traveling relative to a ground position. Latitude The north/south measurement of position perpendicular to the earth’ s polar axis.
Getting Started Navigation Basics The GPS 45XL provides steering guidance and naviga- tion information using degrees, a measurement measured in a clockwise direction from a north reference. North is described as 000º, east as 090º, south as 180º, and west as 270º.
To get the most out of your GPS receiver, be sure to read through the initialization and Getting-Started sections of this manual, and refer to the reference section for com- plete details on the GPS 45XL’...
“shaded” the receiver can sim- ply use an alternate satellite to maintain the position fix. Although a GPS receiver needs four satellites to provide a 3D fix, the GPS 45XL can maintain a 2D fix with only three satellites.
Once testing is complete, the welcome page will be replaced by the status page, with the EZinit prompt ready for you to select one of two initialization methods: •Select Country––allows you to initialize the receiver by selecting your present position from a list of coun- tries in the GPS 45XL’...
Getting Started EZinit, External & DGPS Antennas Beacon Receiver The GARMIN GBR 21 Beacon Receiver is the rec- ommended DPGS receiver for use with the GPS 45XL. Other RTCM 104 v. 2.0 receivers are compatible with the GPS 45XL, but...
Getting-Started Tour Now that your GPS receiver has been initialized, it’ s time to take a tour through its basic features and functions. The tour assumes that you have initialized the receiver and have not changed any of the factory settings (units of mea- sure, selectable fields, etc.).
Getting Started Sky View/ Position Page Once satellites have been found, hollow signal strength bars will be displayed while data is being collected. The hollow bars can be used to help determine if satellites are being shaded. Position Page In addition to displaying your position coord i n a t e s , the position page shows your track and speed over...
Marking a Position Now that you’ve acquired a position, let’s mark it as a waypoint for future reference. 1. Press the key to capture and hold your position. To mark a position, you must have obtained a 2D or 3D fix, or have the receiver in simulator mode. If you try to mark a position without a position fix, you will be alerted with a ‘No GPS Position’...
Getting Started Position Page/ Map Page Map Page The map page displays your present position as a dia- mond icon and provides a real time graphic ‘bre a d- crumb’ display of your track right on screen. The moving map’s default setting is track up orienta- tion.‘Track up’...
Going To a Waypoint Once you’ve stored a waypoint in memory, you can use the GPS 45XL to guide you to it by performing a simple GOTO. A GOTO is really nothing more than the receiver drawing a straight-line course from your present position to the destination you’ve selected.
Getting Started Steering Guidance Compass Page The GPS 45XL will also p rovide steering guidance with a compass page. Message Page Once you are one minute from the destination (based on your present speed and course), an arrival message will be appear on the mes- sage page.
Scrolling Through the Main Pages Now that you’ve arrived ‘HOME’, let’s take a minute to see how the GPS 45XL’ s main pages work together. The GPS 45XL features five main pages, which are linked together in a chain. You can quickly scroll through the pages in either d i rection using the 1.
Turning the Receiver Off You’ve now gone through the basic operation of your new GPS receiver and probably know a little more than you think about how it works. We encourage you to experiment with the GPS 45XL until it becomes an extension of your own navigation skills.
Satellite Status Page Status Battery Indicator Satellite Number The satellite status page displays the status of various receiver functions. The status information will help you understand what the GPS 45XL is doing at any given time, and tell you whether or not the receiver has calculated a position fix.
Reference Satellite Status Page A ‘Poor Coverage’ status will appear if the receiver has lost the satellites required to compute a fix. Make sure the intern a l antenna is not covered and has a clear view of the sky. If you travel more than 500 miles with the receiver off, you may have to reinitialize...
No other receiver functions are affect- ed by using Ni-Cad or lithium batteries. It’s always best to store your GPS receiver with the batteries installed to preserve the internal memory and data. The GPS 45XL features a rechargeable...
Reference Position Page The speed displayed on the position page may fluctuate at slow speeds (or when you’re standing still). To reset the trip odometer, highlight the trip field and p ress ENTER. Use the LEFT arrow key to clear the distance field and pre s s ENTER to confirm.
Marking and Saving Waypoints Knowing your present position is only part of any navi- gation equation. You also need to keep track of where you’ve been and where you are going. Waypoints serve as electronic markers that let you keep track of starting points, destinations, navaids and any other important position.
Reference Creating & Using Waypoints To select a waypoint sub- menu, highlight the desired option and press ENTER. Nearest Waypoints Page The compass heading (BRG) and distance (DST) to the nine nearest waypoints are updated continuously. Waypoint Submenus The GPS 45XL has three waypoint submenu pages that let you manage a large number of waypoints quickly and efficiently.
Waypoint List Page The waypoint list page provides you with a complete list of all waypoints currently stored in the GPS 45XL. The total number of used and empty waypoints is indicated above the waypoint list. From the waypoint list page, you can retrieve a waypoint definition page, delete all user- defined waypoints, or GOTO a selected waypoint.
Reference Creating & Using Waypoints Waypoint Definition Page Use the waypoint definition page to review, rename or delete stored waypoints and to create new waypoints manually. After selecting ,entry of a ‘NEW’ waypoint, an empty waypoint screen will appear. Note: you must enter a name for the waypoint or the highlight will not advance to the next field.
Reference Waypoints To create a new waypoint manually without knowing its position coordinates, you’ll need to enter its bearing and distance from an existing waypoint. The GPS 45XL will then calculate the position coordinates for you. To create a new waypoint by referencing a stored waypoint: 1.
Reference Creating & Using Waypoints The waypoint comments field will automatically assign the date and time of c reation to the waypoint comments field. You may enter a 16 character user comment at any time. To access the rename func- tion from the waypoint definition page, highlight the ‘RENAME?’prompt and...
To rename a stored waypoint: 1. Highlight the ‘RENAME?’ field and press 2. Enter the new waypoint name and press 3. Press the key to confirm your changes. To delete a stored waypoint: 1. Highlight the ‘DELETE?’ field and press 2.
Reference GOTO & MOB Navigation Select a destination way- point from the GOTO way- point list. Once the MOB mode has been activated, steering guidance will be provided by the compass or highway page. Activating another MOB will overwrite the pre- vious MOB waypoint.
TracBack Navigation The third method of navigating to a destination is by using the GPS 45XL’ s TracBack feature. The TracBack func- tion allows you to quickly and easily retrace your path using the track log automatically stored in the receiver’ s memory.
Reference TracBack Navigation The TracBack feature will navigate your track log back to the oldest point in the receiver’s memory. The track log will be divided into segments with tempo- r a ry waypoints to create a route back to the begin- ning of the track log.
Creating and Navigating Routes The last form of navigating to a destination with the GPS 45XL is by creating a user-defined route. The route navigation feature lets you plan and navigate a course from one place to another using a set of pre-defined waypoints. Routes are often used when it’s not practical, safe or possi- ble to navigate a direct course to a particular destination (e.g., through a body of water or impassable terrain).
Reference Route Navigation If you’re heading out with- out a planned route, the mark function can be used to quickly create a ro u t e back to your starting point. Create a series of waypoints along the way with the mark key and save them to an open route from the mark position page.
To create a route from the route definition page: 1. Highlight the route number field and press 2. Enter a route number and press the 3. Press to begin entry of a route comment. (Note that the default [first and last waypoint] comment will only appear if the comment field is blank.) 4.
Reference Route Navigation Clearing a route only removes the waypoints from the route selected. The way- points used will remain in the receiver’s memory. To activate a route, high- light the ‘ACT?’ prompt and press ENTER. Clearing Routes (continued) The clear route warning will appear, asking you to con- firm that you want to remove all waypoints from the route.
Active Route Page Once a route has been activated, the active route page will appear, displaying the waypoint sequence of your route with the estimated time enroute (ETE) at your present speed and distance to each waypoint. As long as you are navigating an active route, the active route page will become part of the main page sequence of the unit.
Reference Route Navigation Use the on-screen menu to select the desired editing function. You can skip ahead to any route waypoint by highlight- ing the desired waypoint and pressing the GOTO key. Editing Routes (continued) An on-screen menu of editing choices will appear, with options for reviewing, inserting, deleting or changing the waypoint field highlighted.
Selecting a User-Defined Navigation Page Once you’ve selected a GOTO destination or activated a MOB or route, the GPS 45XL will provide graphic steering guidance to the destination with one of two navigation pages: Highway Page •The highway page (the default navigation page) pro- vides a graphic highway that shows your movement relative to the desired course, with an emphasis on your crosstrack error,(the distance and direction you...
Reference Highway Page In this example, the high- way page indicates that you are off course to the right. Steer left to get back on course. Notice the emphasis of the highway page is on the desired course. If you get too far off course, a message box will appear to indicate what course to steer to get back on course...
Using the Compass Page The GPS 45XL’ s compass page provides graphic steering guidance to a destination waypoint. The bearing (BRG) and distance (DST) to the waypoint are displayed at the top of the page, right below the destination waypoint field. The distance displayed is always the straight-line distance from your present position to the destination waypoint.
Reference Moving Map Page Range Rings The GPS 45XL has on- screen range rings to help you estimate distances rela- tive to your present position. The value of each ring is determined by the current zoom scale, and is equal to 1/5 of the selected scale.
Zooming and Panning There are three main functions you can perform from the map page— zooming, pointing and panning. Each of these functions has its own ‘field’, which may be selected and activated for use. Whenever the map page first appears, the zoom field (at the top left) is always highlighted.
Reference Moving Map Page To stop panning, press the QUIT key. On-Screen Pointing The crosshair will ‘snap’ to waypoints displayed on the map, which allows you to quickly review or GOTO the selected waypoint right from the map page. To GOTO a waypoint highlighted in the map field: 1.
Using the Cursor to Mark and GOTO Waypoints During panning, the crosshair represents a target posi- tion right on the moving map, with the range and bearing to the target displayed at the top corners of the screen. You can also use the target crosshair to mark a new waypoint position or as a GOTO destination right from the map field.
Reference Menu Page Menu Page To select a submenu, use the UP and Down keys to high- light a menu option and press ENTER. Distance/Sun Calculation The GPS 45XL will calcu- late the sunrise and sunset times of any stored way- point or your present posi- tion.
System Setup The first setup page is the system setup page, which is used to select the operating mode, time offset and screen preferences. The GPS 45XL has three operating modes: • Normal Mode operates the unit at maximum perfor- mance, and provides a battery of life up to 12 hours on alkaline batteries.
Reference System Setup 12/24 Hour Clock To display the time in AM/PM format, select the 12 hour option from the ‘hours’ field. Screen Backlighting To get the longest battery life, keep the screen back- lighting at the default 15 second option. Time Format The time display shown on the system setup and posi- tion pages may be set to display the time in a 12-or 24-...
The position format may be set to display your position in various lat/lon or grid formats. Map Datum The GPS 45XL’ s default map datum is WGS 84. WARNING: Using the wrong map datum can seri- ously affect the accuracy of your GPS receiver.
Reference NAV & Map Setup Magnetic Heading To enter a user- d e f i n e d magnetic variation, select the ‘User Mag’ option and enter the desired direction and value. MapSetup Page The map orientation can be set to track up, north up, or desired track up.
Selecting Displayed Items on the Map Page The rest of the map setup page lets you specify what items are displayed or plotted on the map page. The first four plot items may be turned on or off by selecting ‘yes’ or ‘no’...
Reference Track Log Setup Track Log Page Turning off the track record- ing option will prevent you f rom using the Tr a c B a c k feature. To clear the track log, con- firm the ‘Yes?’ prompt. Track Log Setup (continued) To turn the track log on or off: 1.
The GRMN/GRMN setting is a proprietary format that lets you exchange information such as waypoints, routes and track logs between two GARMIN GPS devices or a PC. During data transfer, the number of packets being exchanged will be displayed on screen.
DGPS Interface (continued) The RTCM/NMEA selection controls the GARMIN GBR- 21 differential beacon receiver. Once a RTCM setting has been selected, the GPS 45XL will either automatically try to tune the last frequency and bit rate you selected or will switch to the default frequency of 304.0 kHz with a bit rate...
Navigation Simulator The GPS 45XL’ s simulator mode lets you practice all aspects of its operation without active satellite acquisition. You can also plan and practice trips, enter new waypoints and routes, and save them for use during normal operation. The simulator is activated from the system setup page, with speed and heading controlled from the position, compass or highway pages.
Try the unit again later, possibly in a different location. Read Only Mem has Failed—The permanent memory has failed and the unit is not opera- ble. Take your unit to an authorized GARMIN dealer for repairs. Received an Invalid WPT—A waypoint was received during upload transfer that has an invalid identifier.
Route Waypoint was Deleted—A route waypoint entered does not exist in the data- base and has been deleted from the route. RTCM Input has Failed—DGPS data being received has been lost. You are no longer receiving the beacon signal. Searching the Sky—The GPS 45XL is in searching the sky for almanac data or the unit is in AutoLocate mode.
Introduction Appendix B Map Datums Preface Adindan Afgooye AINELABD ‘70 Anna 1 Ast ‘65 ARC 1950 ARC 1960 Ascnsn Isld ‘58 Astro B4 Sorol Astro Bcn “E” Astro Dos 71/4 Astr Stn ‘52 Astrln Geod ‘66 Astrln Geod ‘84 Bellevue (IGN) Bermuda 1957 Bogata Observ Campo Inchspe...
Massawa Massawa- Eritrea (Ethiopia) Merchich Merchich- Morocco Midway Ast ‘61 Midway Astro ‘61- Midway Minna Minna- Nigeria NAD27 Alaska North American 1927- Alaska NAD27 Bahamas North American 1927- Bahamas (excluding San Salvador Island) NAD27 Canada North American 1927- Canada and Newfoundland NAD27 Canal Zone North Am.
Preface & Wiring repair, please take it to an authorized GARMIN service center. The yourself. To protect your GPS 45XL, keep it in its carrying case come into contact with the case. Clean the case and lens with a soft...
PGRMZ (altitude), PSLIB (beacon receiver control) DGPS corrections are accepted on RTCM-104 v. 2.0 format. The GARMIN GBR 21 is the recommended beacon receiver for use with the GPS 45XL. Other receivers with the correct RTCM format may be used, but may not correctly display status or allow tuning control.
Introduction Appendix D Accessories Preface 45XL, which are available from your local dealer or GARMIN direct. Orders may be placed Monday through Friday from 8AM-5PM CST by calling 1-800-800-1020, or by fax at 1-913- 397-8282. Name Address City Country Method of Payment...
Accessories ....60 Active Waypoints ....31 Active Route Page ....35 Acquiring Satellite Signals .
Preface Appendix E Index Navigation Basics ....4 Navigation Pages ... .37-39 Navigation Setup ....47 Navigation Units .
GARMIN warrants this product to be free from defects in materials and work- manship for one year from the date of purchase. GARMIN International, Inc. will at its sole option, repair or replace any components which fail in normal use. Such repairs or replacement will be made at no charge to the customer for parts or labor.
® © 1996 GARMINCorporation 1200 E. 151st Street, Olathe, KS USA 66062 GARMIN (Europe) LTD - Unit 5, The Quadrangle, Abbey Park Industrial Estate, Romsey, UK SO51 9AQ Part Number 190-00123-00 Rev. C...