Summary of Contents

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PLUS CFX9850G PLUS CFX9850GB PLUS CFX9850GC PLUS CFX9950GB PLUS User’s Guide http://world.casio.com/edu_e/...

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• {COLR} ... {graph color} • {GMEM} ... {graph memory save/recall} • {DRAW} ... {graph draw} indicates {COLR} is not supported by the fx9750G PLUS. CASIO ELECTRONICS CO., LTD. Unit 6, 1000 North Circular Road, London NW2 7JD, U.K. Important! Please keep your manual and all information handy for future reference.

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BEFORE USING THE CALCULATOR FOR THE FIRST TIME... Be sure to perform the following procedure to load batteries, reset the calculator, and adjust the contrast before trying to use the calculator for the first time. 1. Making sure that you do not accidently press the o key, attach the case to the calculator and then turn the calculator over.

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5. Press m. * The above shows the CFX9850 * The above shows the fx9750G (9950)G(B) PLUS screen. PLUS screen. • If the Main Menu shown above is not on the display, press the P button on the back of the calculator to perform memory reset.

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ABOUT THE COLOR DISPLAY The display uses three colors: orange, blue, and green, to make data easier to understand. • Main Menu • Display Color Adjustment • Graph Function Menu • Graph Display (Example 1) • Graph Display (Example 2) •...

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• Statistical Regression Graph Example • When you draw a graph or run a program, any comment text normally appears on the display in blue. You can, however, change the color of comment text to orange or green. Example: To draw a sine curve 1.

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KEYS Alpha Lock Normally, once you press a and then a key to input an alphabetic character, the key board reverts to its primary functions immediately. If you press ! and then a, the keyboard locks in alpha input until you press a again.

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KEY TABLE Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page...

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QuickStart Turning Power On And Off Using Modes Basic Calculations Replay Features Fraction Calculations Exponents Graph Functions Dual Graph Box Zoom Dynamic Graph Table Function...

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QuickStart Welcome to the world of graphing calculators. QuickStart is not a complete tutorial, but it takes you through many of the most common functions, from turning the power on, to specifying colors, and on to graphing complex equations. When you’re done, you’ll have mastered the basic operation of this calculator and will be ready to proceed with the rest of this user’s guide to learn the entire spectrum of functions available.

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QuickStart defc to highlight RUN and then 2. Use press This is the initial screen of the RUN mode, where you can perform manual calculations, and run programs. BASIC CALCULATIONS With manual calculations, you input formulas from left to right, just as they are written on paper.

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QuickStart 1. Press SET UP 2. Press to switch the set up display. cccc1 3. Press (Deg) to specify degrees as the angle unit. 4. Press to clear the menu. 5. Press to clear the unit. cf*sefw 6. Press REPLAY FEATURES With the replay feature, simply press to recall the last calculation that was performed.

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QuickStart FRACTION CALCULATIONS You can use the key to input fractions into calculations. The symbol “ { ” is used to separate the various parts of a fraction. Example: 1 1. Press b$bf$ 2. Press bg+dh$ Indicates 6 Converting a Mixed Fraction to an Improper Fraction While a mixed fraction is shown on the display, press to convert it to an improper fraction.

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QuickStart EXPONENTS Example: 1250 × 2.06 1. Press bcfa*c.ag 2. Press and the ^ indicator appears on the display. 3. Press . The ^5 on the display indicates that 5 is 4. Press an exponent. 5. Press...

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QuickStart GRAPH FUNCTIONS The graphing capabilities of this calculator makes it possible to draw complex graphs using either rectangular coordinates (horizontal axis: x ; vertical axis: y) or polar coordi nates (angle: θ ; distance from origin: r). Example 1: To graph Y = X(X + 1)(X – 2) 1.

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QuickStart 2. Press (ROOT). Press for other roots. Example 3: Determine the area bounded by the origin and the X = –1 root obtained for Y = X(X + 1)(X – 2) 1. Press (GSolv). 12345 2. Press (g). ∫ 3.

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QuickStart DUAL GRAPH With this function you can split the display between two areas and display two graphs on the same screen. Example: To draw the following two graphs and determine the points of intersection Y1 = X(X + 1)(X – 2) Y2 = X + 1.2 !Zcc1 1.

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QuickStart 3. Use , and to move the pointer again. As you do, a box appears on the display. Move the pointer so the box encloses the area you want to enlarge. 4. Press , and the enlarged area appears in the inactive (right side) screen.

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QuickStart 4. Press (VAR) to assign an initial value of 1 to coefficient A. 3456 bwdwbw 5. Press (RANG) to specify the range and increment of change in coefficient A. 6. Press 7. Press (DYNA) to start Dynamic Graph drawing. The graphs are drawn 10 times.

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QuickStart TABLE FUNCTION The Table Function makes it possible to generate a table of solutions as different values are assigned to the variables of a function. Example: To create a number table for the following function Y = X (X+1) (X–2) 1.

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Handling Precautions • Your calculator is made up of precision components. Never try to take it apart. • Avoid dropping your calculator and subjecting it to strong impact. • Do not store the calculator or leave it in areas exposed to high temperatures or humidity, or large amounts of dust.

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1 or 2 kbytes of memory free (unused) at all times. In no event shall CASIO Computer Co., Ltd. be liable to anyone for special, collateral, incidental, or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of the purchase or use of these materials.

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• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •...

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Contents Getting Acquainted — Read This First! ............. 1 1. Key Markings ....................... 2 2. Selecting Icons and Entering Modes ..............3 3. Display ......................... 8 4. Contrast Adjustment ................... 11 5. When you keep having problems............... 12 Chapter 1 Basic Operation ................13 Before Starting Calculations...

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Contents Chapter 7 Equation Calculations ..............99 Before Beginning an Equation Calculation ..........100 Linear Equations with Two to Six Unknowns ..........101 Quadratic and Cubic Equations ..............104 Solve Calculations ..................107 What to Do When an Error Occurs ............110 Chapter 8 Graphing ..................

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Contents Chapter 15 Table & Graph ................205 151 Before Using Table & Graph ..............206 152 Storing a Function and Generating a Numeric Table ........ 207 153 Editing and Deleting Functions ..............210 154 Editing Tables and Drawing Graphs ............211 155 Copying a Table Column to a List ..............

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Connecting Two Units ................400 212 Connecting the Unit with a Personal Computer ........401 213 Connecting the Unit with a CASIO Label Printer ........402 214 Before Performing a Data Communication Operation ....... 403 215 Performing a Data Transfer Operation ............404 216 Screen Send Function ................

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Contents xxvi...

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Getting Acquainted — Read This First! About this User’s Guide uFunction Keys and Menus • Many of the operations performed by this calculator can be executed by pressing function keys 1 through 6. The operation assigned to each function key changes according to the mode the calculator is in, and current operation assignments are indicated by function menus that appear at the bottom of the display.

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1. Key Markings Many of the calculator’s keys are used to perform more than one function. The functions marked on the keyboard are color coded to help you find the one you need quickly and easily. Function Key Operation The following describes the color coding used for key markings. Color Key Operation Orange...

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2. Selecting Icons and Entering Modes This section describes how to select an icon in the Main Menu to enter the mode you want. uTo select an icon 1. Press m to display the Main Menu. Currently selected icon * The above shows the CFX9850 GB PLUS screen.

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Selecting Icons and Entering Modes Icon Mode Name Description TABLE Use this mode to store functions, to generate a numeric table of different solutions as the values assigned to variables in a function change, and to draw graphs. RECURsion Use this mode to store recursion formulas, to generate a numeric table of different solutions as the values assigned to variables in a function change, and to draw graphs.

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Selecting Icons and Entering Modes 3 4 5 3. Use the f and c cursor keys to move the highlighting to the item whose setting you want to change. 4. Press the function key (1 to 6) that is marked with the setting you want to make.

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Selecting Icons and Entering Modes uCoord (graph pointer coordinate display) P.130 • {On}/{Off} ... {display on}/{display off} uGrid (graph gridline display) P.121 • {On}/{Off} ... {display on}/{display off} uAxes (graph axis display) P.121 • {On}/{Off} ... {display on}/{display off} uLabel (graph axis label display) P.121 •...

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Selecting Icons and Entering Modes uList File (list file specification) P.248 • {File 1} to {File 6} ... {specification of which list file to display while using the List function} uDual Screen (Dual Screen Mode status) The Dual Screen Mode settings you can make depends on whether you pressed !Z while in the GRAPH Mode, TABLE Mode, or RECUR Mode.

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Selecting Icons and Entering Modes 3. Display k About the Display Screen This calculator uses two types of display: a text display and a graphic display. The text display can show 21 columns and eight lines of characters, with the bottom line used for the function key menu, while the graph display uses an area that measures 127 (W) ×...

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Display • Direct Command Execution Example: Selecting executes the DRAW command. k Exponential Display The calculator normally displays values up to 10 digits long. Values that exceed this limit are automatically converted to and displayed in exponential format. You can specify one of two different ranges for automatic changeover to exponential display.

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Display k Special Display Formats This calculator uses special display formats to indicate fractions, hexadecimal values, and sexagesimal values. uFractions ..Indicates: 456 –––– uHexadecimal Values ..Indicates: ABCDEF12 , which (16) equals –1412567278 (10) uSexagesimal Values ..Indicates: 12° 34’ 56.78" •...

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4. Contrast Adjustment Adjust the contrast whenever objects on the display appear dim or difficult to see. uTo display the contrast adjustment screen Highlight the CONT icon in the Main Menu and then press w. CFX9850(9950)GB PLUS, fx9750G PLUS CFX9850G PLUS uTo adjust the contrast Press the e cursor key to make the display darker and the d cursor key to make it lighter.

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5. When you keep having problems… If you keep having problems when you are trying to perform operations, try the following before assuming that there is something wrong with the calculator. k Get the Calculator Back to its Original Mode Settings 1.

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Chapter Basic Operation Before Starting Calculations... Memory Option (OPTN) Menu Variable Data (VARS) Menu Program (PRGM) Menu...

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11 Before Starting Calculations... Before performing a calculation for the first time, you should use the set up screen to specify the angle unit and display format. k k k k k Setting the Angle Unit (Angle) 1. Display the set up screen and use the f and c keys to highlight “Angle”. 2.

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1  1 Before Starting Calculations... u u u u u To specify the number of significant digits (Sci) Example To specify three significant digits 2 (Sci) 4 (3) Press the function key that corresponds to the number of significant digits you want to specify ( = 0 to 9).

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1  1 Before Starting Calculations... k k k k k Inputting Calculations When you are ready to input a calculation, first press A to clear the display. Next, input your calculation formulas exactly as they are written, from left to right, and press w to obtain the result.

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1  1 Before Starting Calculations... ! Relational operator =, G , >, <, ≥, ≤ @ And (logical operator), and (bitwise operator) # Or (logical operator), or (bitwise operator), xor, xnor • When functions with the same priority are used in series, execution is per formed from right to left.

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1  1 Before Starting Calculations... k k k k k Stacks The unit employs memory blocks, called stacks , for storage of low priority values and commands. There is a 10level numeric value stack , a 26level command stack , and a 10level program subroutine stack . An error occurs if you perform a calculation so complex that it exceeds the capacity of available numeric value stack or command stack space, or if execution of a program subroutine exceeds the capacity of the subroutine stack.

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1  1 Before Starting Calculations... k k k k k Overflow and Errors Exceeding a specified input or calculation range, or attempting an illegal input causes an error message to appear on the display. Further operation of the calculator is impossible while an error message is displayed. The following events cause an error message to appear on the display.

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1  1 Before Starting Calculations... k k k k k Graphic Display and Text Display The unit uses both a graphic display and a text display. The graphic display is used for graphics, while the text display is used for calculations and instructions. The contents of each type of display are stored in independent memory areas.

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1  1 Before Starting Calculations... u u u u u To insert a step Example To change 2.36 to sin2.36 c.dgx ddddd • When you press ![ the insert location is indicated by the symbol ‘‘t’’. The next function or value you input is inserted at the location of ‘‘t’’. To abort the insert operation without inputting anything, move the cursor, press ![ again, or press d, e or w.

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12 Memory k k k k k Variables This calculator comes with 28 variables as standard. You can use variables to store values to be used inside of calculations. Variables are identified by single and θ . letter names, which are made up of the 26 letters of the alphabet, plus The maximum size of values that you can assign to variables is 15 digits for the mantissa and 2 digits for the exponent.

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1  2 Memory k k k k k Function Memory [OPTN][FMEM] Function memory is convenient for temporary storage of oftenused expressions. For longer term storage, we recommend that you use the GRAPH Mode for expressions and the PRGM Mode for programs. P.27 •...

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1  2 Memory u u u u u To delete a function Example To delete the contents of function memory number 1 K6(g)6(g)3(FMEM)A 1(STO) 1(f • Executing the store operation while the display is blank deletes the function in the function memory you specify.

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1  2 Memory 2. Press w again to display the memory status screen. Number of bytes still free 3. Use f and c to move the highlighting and view the amount of memory (in bytes) used for storage of each type of data. The following table shows all of the data types that appear on the memory status screen.

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1  2 Memory k k k k k Clearing Memory Contents Use the following procedure to clear data stored in memory. 1. In the memory status screen, use f and c to move the highlighting to the data type you want to clear. If the data type you select in step 1 allows deletion of specific data 2.

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13 Option (OPTN) Menu The option menu gives you access to scientific functions and features that are not marked on the calculator’s keyboard. The contents of the option menu differ according to the mode you are in when you press the K key. See the Command List at the back of this user’s guide for details on the option (OPTN) menu.

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14 Variable Data (VARS) Menu To recall variable data, press J to display the variable data menu. {VWIN}/{FACT}/{STAT}/{GRPH}/{DYNA} {TABL}/{RECR}/{EQUA}/{TVM} See the Command List at the back of this user’s guide for details on the variable data (VARS) menu. • Note that the EQUA and TVM items appear for function keys (3 and 4) only when you access the variable data menu from the RUN or PRGM Mode.

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1  4 Variable Data (VARS) Menu σ σ • { } ... population standard deviation of { data}/{ data} σ σ • { } ... sample standard deviation of { data}/{ data} • {minX}/{minY} ... minimum value of { data}/{ data} •...

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1  4 Variable Data (VARS) Menu k k k k k GRPH — Recalling Graph Functions Selecting {GRPH} from the VARS menu displays the graph function recall menu. P.156 • {Y}/{r} ... {rectangular coordinate or inequality function}/{polar coordinate function} •...

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1  4 Variable Data (VARS) Menu Example To recall the contents of the numeric table for the function – 2, while the table range is Start=0 and End=6, and pitch=1 4(Reslt)w k k k k k RECR — Recalling Recursion Formula, Table Range, and Table Content Data Selecting {RECR} from the VARS menu displays the recursion data recall menu.

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1  4 Variable Data (VARS) Menu • The table contents recalled by the above operation are stored automatically in Matrix Answer Memory (MatAns). • An error occurs if you perform the above operation when there is no function or recursion formula numeric table in memory.

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1  4 Variable Data (VARS) Menu • The coefficients and solutions recalled by the above operation are stored automatically in Matrix Answer Memory (MatAns). • The following conditions cause an error to be generated. — When there are no coefficients input for the equation —...

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15 Program (PRGM) Menu To display the program (PRGM) menu, first enter the RUN or PRGM Mode from the Main Menu and then press ! W. The following are the selections available in the program (PRGM) menu. • {COM} … {program command menu} •...

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Chapter Manual Calculations Basic Calculations Special Functions Function Calculations...

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21 Basic Calculations k k k k k Arithmetic Calculations • Enter arithmetic calculations as they are written, from left to right. • Use the  key to input a negative value. • Use the  key for subtraction • Calculations are performed internally with a 15digit mantissa. The result is rounded to a 10digit mantissa before it is displayed.

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2  1 Basic Calculations • Number of decimal place (Fix) and significant digit (Sci) settings normally remain in effect until you change them or until your change the exponential display range (Norm) setting. Note also, however, that Sci setting is automati P.323 cally initialized to Norm 1 whenever you enter the Financial Mode.

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2  1 Basic Calculations k k k k k Calculations Using Variables Example Operation Display 193.2aaAw 193.2 193.2 ÷ 23 = 8.4 aA/23w 193.2 ÷ 28 = 6.9 aA/28w...

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22 Special Functions k k k k k Answer Function The unit’s Answer Function automatically stores the last result you calculated by pressing w(unless the w key operation results in an error). The result is stored in the answer memory. u u u u u To use the contents of the answer memory in a calculation Example 123 + 456 = 579...

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2  2 Special Functions k k k k k Using the Replay Function The Replay Function automatically stores the last calculation performed into replay memory. You can recall the contents of the replay memory by pressing d or e. If you press e, the calculation appears with the cursor at the beginning.

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2  2 Special Functions k k k k k Making Corrections in the Original Calculation 14 ÷ 0 × 2.3 entered by mistake for 14 ÷ 10 × 2.3 Example Abe/a*c.dw Press d or e. Cursor is positioned automatically at the location of the cause of the error.

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2  2 Special Functions 6.9 × 123 = 848.7 Example 123 ÷ 3.2 = 38.4375 AbcdaaA!W6(g) 5(:)g.j*aA!W 5(^)aA/d.cw Intermediate result at point where “ ^ ” is used. • Note that the final result of a multistatement is always displayed, regardless of whether it ends with a display result command.

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23 Function Calculations k k k k k Function Menus This calculator includes five function menus that give you access to scientific functions that are not printed on the key panel. • The contents of the function menu differ according to the mode you entered from the Main Menu before you pressed the K key.

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2  3 Function Calculations u u u u u Angle Units, Coordinate Conversion, Sexagesimal Operations (ANGL) [OPTN][ANGL] ° • { }/{r}/{g} ... {degrees}/{radians}/{grads} for a specific input value ° ’ ”} ... {specifies degrees (hours), minutes, seconds when inputting a •...

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2  3 Function Calculations k k k k k Trigonometric and Inverse Trigonometric Functions • Be sure to set the angle unit before performing trigonometric function and inverse trigonometric function calculations. π (90° = ––– radians = 100 grads) •...

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2  3 Function Calculations k k k k k Logarithmic and Exponential Functions • Be sure to specify “Comp” for Calculation/binary, octal, decimal, hexadecimal mode. Example Operation Display log 1.23 (log 1.23) = 8.990511144 × 10 0.08990511144 –2 l1.23w 4.49980967 In 90 (log 90) = 4.49980967...

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2  3 Function Calculations k k k k k Other Functions • Be sure to specify “Comp” for Calculation/binary, octal, decimal, hexadecimal mode. Example Operation Display 3.65028154 = 3.65028154 !92+!95w = (–3) × (–3) = 9 (–3) (3)xw = –(3 × 3) = –9 –...

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2  3 Function Calculations k k k k k Coordinate Conversion u u u u u Rectangular Coordinates u u u u u Polar Coordinates • With polar coordinates, θ can be calculated and displayed within a range of –180°<...

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2  3 Function Calculations Example To calculate the possible number of different arrangements using 4 items selected from 10 items Formula Operation Display 10K6(g)3(PROB) = 5040 5040 Example To calculate the possible number of different combinations of 4 items selected from 10 items Formula Operation Display...

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2  3 Function Calculations k k k k k Engineering Notation Calculations P.44 Input engineering symbols using the engineering notation menu. • Be sure to specify “Comp” for Calculation/binary, octal, decimal, hexadecimal mode. Example Operation Display !Zccccc cccc4(Eng)J 999k (kilo) + 25k (kilo) 999K = 1.024M (mega) 6(g)6(g)1(ESYM)

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2  3 Function Calculations k k k k k Logical Operators (AND, OR, NOT) [OPTN][LOGIC] P.52 The logical operator menu provides a selection of logical operators. • {And}/{Or}/{Not} ... {logical AND}/{logical OR}/{logical NOT} • Be sure to specify “Comp” for Calculation/binary, octal, decimal, hexadecimal mode.

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2  3 Function Calculations About Logical Operations • A logical operation always produces either 0 or 1 as its result. • The following table shows all of possible results that can be produced by AND and OR operations. Value or Expression A Value or Expression B A AND B A OR B...

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Chapter Numerical Calculations Before Performing a Calculation Differential Calculations Quadratic Differential Calculations Integration Calculations Maximum/Minimum Value Calculations Summation (Σ) Calculations...

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31 Before Performing a Calculation The following describes the items that are available in the menus you use when performing Solve, differential/ quadratic differential, integration, maximum/ minimum value, and Σ calculations. P.27 When the option menu is on the display, press 4 (CALC) to display the function analysis menu.

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32 Differential Calculations [OPTN][CALC][d/dx] To perform differential calculations, first display the function analysis menu, and then input the values shown in the formula below. f(x) Increase/decrease of Point for which you want to determine the derivative d/dx ( f (x), a, Ax) ⇒ ––– f (a) The differentiation for this type of calculation is defined as: f (a + Ax) –...

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3  2 Differential Calculations This average, which is called the central difference , is expressed as: f (a + Ax) – f (a) f (a) – f (a – Ax) f '(a) = –– –––––––––– ––– + –––––––––– ––– f (a + Ax) –...

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3  2 Differential Calculations k k k k k Applications of Differential Calculations • Differentials can be added, subtracted, multiplied or divided with each other. ––– f (a) = f '(a), ––– g (a) = g'(a) Therefore: f '(a) + g'(a), f '(a) × g'(a), etc. •...

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33 Quadratic Differential Calculations [OPTN][CALC][d After displaying the function analysis menu, you can input quadratic differentials using either of the two following formats. f(x) Final boundary ( = 1 to 15) Differential coefficient point ––– ( f (x), a, n) ⇒ ––– f (a) Quadratic differential calculations produce an approximate differential value using the following second order differential formula, which is based on Newton's polynomial interpretation.

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3  3 Quadratic Differential Calculations Input 3 as point , which is the differential coefficient point. Input 6 as , which is final boundary. • In the function f(x), only X can be used as a variable in expressions. Other variables (A through Z, r, θ...

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34 Integration Calculations [OPTN][CALC][ ∫ dx] To perform integration calculations, first display the function analysis menu and then input the values in one of the formulas shown below. GaussKronrod Rule 4(∫dx) f(x) , Tolerance End point Start point ∫ ∫ ( f(x), a, tol) ⇒...

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3  4 Integration Calculations u u u u u To perform an integration calculation Example To perform the integration calculation for the function shown below, with a tolerance of “tol” = 1 ∫ + 3x + 4) dx f (x) Input the function ∫dx )cvx+dv+e,...

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3  4 Integration Calculations • Pressing A during calculation of an integral (while the cursor is not shown on the display) interrupts the calculation. • Always use radians (Rad Mode) as the angle unit when performing trigono metric integrations. •...

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35 Maximum/Minimum Value Calculations [OPTN][CALC][FMin]/[FMax] After displaying the function analysis menu, you can input maximum/minimum calculations using the formats below, and solve for the maximum and minimum of a function within interval < < u u u u u Minimum Value 6(g)1(FMin) f(x) , Precision ( = 1 to 9)

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3  5 Maximum/Minimum Value Calculations Example 2 To determine the maximum value for the interval defined by start point 0 and end point 3, with a precision of 6 for the y = –x function f(x) Input AK4(CALC)6(g)2(FMax) vx+cv+c, , b = Input the interval a,d,...

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36 Summation (Σ) Calculations [OPTN][CALC][Σ(] To perform Σ calculations, first display the function analysis menu, and then input the values shown in the formula below. α β 6(g)3(Σ() Distance between partitions Last term of sequence Initial term of sequence Variable used by sequence β...

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3  6 (Σ) Summation Calculations • You can use only one variable in the function for input sequence • Input integers only for the initial term of sequence and last term of sequence • Input of and the closing parentheses can be omitted. If you omit , the calculator automatically uses = 1.

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Chapter Complex Numbers This calculator is capable of performing the following operations using complex numbers. • Arithmetic operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division) • Calculation of the reciprocal, square root, and square of a complex number • Calculation of the absolute value and argument of a complex number •...

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41 Before Beginning a Complex Number Calculation Before beginning a complex number calculation, press K3 (CPLX) to display the complex number calculation menu. • {i} ... {imaginary unit i input} • {Abs}/{Arg} ... obtains {absolute value}/{argument} • {Conj} ... {obtains conjugate} •...

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42 Performing Complex Number Calculations The following examples show how to perform each of the complex number calculations available with this calculator. k k k k k Arithmetic Operations [OPTN][CPLX][i] Arithmetic operations are the same as those you use for manual calculations. You can even use parentheses and memory.

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4  2 Performing Complex Number Calculations AK3(CPLX)2(Abs) (d+e1( (Calculation of absolute value) AK3(CPLX)3(Arg) (d+e1( (Calculation of argument) • The result of the argument calculation differs in accordance with the current angle unit setting (degrees, radians, grads). k k k k k Conjugate Complex Numbers [OPTN][CPLX][Conj] a + bi A complex number of the form...

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4  2 Performing Complex Number Calculations k k k k k Complex Number Calculation Precautions • The input/output range of complex numbers is normally 10 digits for the mantissa and two digits for the exponent. • When a complex number has more than 21 digits, the real part and imaginary part are displayed on separate lines.

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Chapter Binary, Octal, Decimal, and Hexadecimal Calculations This calculator is capable of performing the following operations involving different number systems. • Number system conversion • Arithmetic operations • Negative values • Bitwise operations Before Beginning a Binary, Octal, Decimal, or Hexadecimal Calculation with Integers Selecting a Number System Arithmetic Operations...

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51 Before Beginning a Binary, Octal, Decimal, or Hexadecimal Calculation with Integers You can use the RUN Mode and binary, octal, decimal, and hexadecimal settings to perform calculations that involve binary, octal, decimal and hexadecimal values. You can also convert between number systems and perform bitwise operations. •...

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5  1 Before Beginning a Binary, Octal, Decimal, or Hexadecimal Calculation with Integers • The following are the calculation ranges for each of the number systems. Binary Values Positive: 0 < < 111111111111111 Negative: 1000000000000000 < < 1111111111111111 Octal Values Positive: 0 <...

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52 Selecting a Number System You can specify decimal, hexadecimal, binary, or octal as the default number system using the set up screen. After you press the function key that corresponds to the system you want to use, press w. u u u u u To convert a displayed value from one number system to another Example To convert 22...

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53 Arithmetic Operations Example 1 To calculate 10111 + 11010 !Z4(Bin)J Ababbb+ bbabaw × ABC Example 2 To input and execute 123 , when the default number system is decimal or hexadecimal !Z2(Dec)J A1(d~o)4(o)bcd* 2(h)ABCw P.74 !Z3(Hex)Jw...

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54 Negative Values and Bitwise Operations While binary, octal, decimal, or hexadecimal is set as the default number system, press 2 (LOG) to display a menu of negation and bitwise operators. • {Neg} ... {negation}* • {Not}/{and}/{or}/{xor}/{xnor} ... {NOT}* /{AND}/{OR}/{XOR}/{XNOR}* k k k k k Negative Values Example To determine the negative of 110010...

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Chapter Matrix Calculations 26 matrix memories (Mat A through Mat Z) plus a Matrix Answer Memory (MatAns), make it possible to perform the following matrix operations. • Addition, subtraction, multiplication • Scalar multiplication calculations • Determinant calculations • Matrix transposition •...

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61 Before Performing Matrix Calculations In the Main Menu, select the MAT icon to enter the Matrix Mode and display its initial screen. 2 (row) × 2 (column) matrix Not dimension preset • {DEL}/{DEL·A} ... deletes {a specific matrix}/{all matrices} •...

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6  1 Before Performing Matrix Calculations Specify the number of rows. Specify the number of columns. • All of the cells of a new matrix contain the value 0. • If “Mem ERROR” remains next to the matrix area name after you input the dimensions, it means there is not enough free memory to create the matrix you want.

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6  1 Before Performing Matrix Calculations k k k k k Deleting Matrices You can delete either a specific matrix or all matrices in memory. u u u u u To delete a specific matrix 1. While the MATRIX list is on the display, use f and c to highlight the matrix you want to delete.

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62 Matrix Cell Operations Use the following procedure to prepare a matrix for cell operations. 1. While the MATRIX list is on the display, use f and c to highlight the name of the matrix you want to use. 2. Press w and the function menu with the following items appears. •...

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6  2 Matrix Cell Operations u u u u u To calculate the product of a row Example To calculate the product of row 2 of the following matrix and the scalar 4 : Matrix A = 1(R·OP)2(×Rw) Input multiplier value. Specify row number.

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6  2 Matrix Cell Operations k k k k k Row Operations The following menu appears whenever you press 2 (ROW) while a recalled matrix is on the display. • {DEL} ... {delete row} • {INS} ... {insert row} •...

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6  2 Matrix Cell Operations u u u u u To add a row Example To add a new row below row 3 of the following matrix : Matrix A = 2(ROW)cc 3(ADD) k k k k k Column Operations The following menu appears whenever you press 3 (COL) while a recalled matrix is on the display.

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6  2 Matrix Cell Operations u u u u u To insert a column Example To insert a new column between columns 1 and 2 of the following matrix : Matrix A = 3(COL)e 2(INS) u u u u u To add a column Example To add a new column to the right of column 2 of the following matrix :...

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63 Modifying Matrices Using Matrix Commands [OPTN][MAT] u u u u u To display the matrix commands 1. From the Main Menu, select the RUN icon and press w. P.27 2. Press K to display the option menu. 3. Press 2 (MAT) to display the matrix operation menu. The following describes only the matrix command menu items that are used for creating matrices and inputting matrix data.

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6  3 Modifying Matrices Using Matrix Commands Matrix name • An error occurs if memory becomes full as you are inputting data. • You can also use the above format inside a program that inputs matrix data. u u u u u To input an identity matrix Use the matrix operation menu’s Identity command (1) to create an identity matrix.

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6  3 Modifying Matrices Using Matrix Commands k k k k k Modifying Matrices Using Matrix Commands You can also use matrix commands to assign values to and recall values from an existing matrix, to fill in all cells of an existing matrix with the same value, to combine two matrices into a single matrix, and to assign the contents of a matrix column to a list file.

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6  3 Modifying Matrices Using Matrix Commands Example 2 To combine the following two matrices : K2(MAT)5(Aug)1(Mat) aA,1(Mat)aBw • The two matrices you combine must have the same number of rows. An error occurs if you try to combine two matrices that have different numbers of rows. u u u u u To assign the contents of a matrix column to a list file Use the following format with the matrix operation menu’s Mat→List command (2) to specify a column and a list file.

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64 Matrix Calculations [OPTN][MAT] Use the matrix command menu to perform matrix calculation operations. u u u u u To display the matrix commands 1. From the Main Menu, select the RUN icon and press w. P.27 2. Press K to display the option menu. 3.

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6  4 Matrix Calculations • The two matrices must have the same dimensions in order to be added or subtracted. An error occurs if you try to add or subtract matrices of different dimensions. • For multiplication, the number of columns in Matrix 1 must match the number of rows in Matrix 2.

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6  4 Matrix Calculations Example Obtain the determinant for the following matrix : Matrix A = –1 –2 3(Det)1(Mat)aAw • Determinants can be obtained only for square matrices (same number of rows and columns). Trying to obtain a determinant for a matrix that is not square produces an error.

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6  4 Matrix Calculations k k k k k Matrix Inversion Matrix Mat A Mat Z MatAns Example To invert the following matrix : Matrix A = 1(Mat)aA!Xw • Only square matrices (same number of rows and columns) can be inverted. Trying to invert a matrix that is not square produces an error.

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6  4 Matrix Calculations k k k k k Squaring a Matrix Matrix Mat A Mat Z MatAns Example To square the following matrix : Matrix A = 1(Mat)aAxw k k k k k Raising a Matrix to a Power Matrix Natural number Mat A...

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6  4 Matrix Calculations Example To determine the absolute value of the following matrix : 1 –2 Matrix A = –3 K6(g)4(NUM)1(Abs) K2(MAT)1(Mat)aAw • Determinants and inverse matrices are calculated using the elimination method, so errors (such as dropped digits) may be generated. •...

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Chapter Equation Calculations Your graphic calculator can perform the following three types of calculations: • Linear equations with two to six unknowns • Highorder equations (quadratic, cubic) • Solve calculations Before Beginning an Equation Calculation Linear Equations with Two to Six Unknowns Quadratic and Cubic Equations Solve Calculations What to Do When an Error Occurs...

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71 Before Beginning an Equation Calculation Before beginning an equation calculation you have to first enter the correct mode, and you must also clear the equation memories of any data that might be left over from a previous calculation. k k k k k Entering an Equation Calculation Mode In the Main Menu, select the EQUA icon to enter the Equation Mode.

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72 Linear Equations with Two to Six Unknowns You can use the procedures described here to solve linear equations with unknowns that match the following formats: x + b y = c Two unknowns x + b y = c Six unknowns x + b y + c...

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7  2 Linear Equations with Two to Six Unknowns k k k k k Solving Linear Equations with Three Unknowns Example To solve the following linear equations for , and – 2 = –1 –5 = –7 1. While in the Linear Equation Mode (SIML), press 2 (3), because the linear equations being solved have three unknowns.

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7  2 Linear Equations with Two to Six Unknowns • Internal calculations are performed using a 15digit mantissa, but results are displayed using a 10digit mantissa and 2digit exponent. • This unit performs simultaneous linear equations by placing the coefficients inside of a matrix.

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73 Quadratic and Cubic Equations This calculator can also solve quadratic and cubic equations that match the following formats (when G G G G G • Quadratic: • Cubic: k k k k k Specifying the Degree of an Equation While in the Equation Mode, press 2 (POLY) and then specify the degree of the equation.

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7  3 Quadratic and Cubic Equations • Internal calculations are performed using a 15digit mantissa, but results are displayed using a 10digit mantissa and 2digit exponent. • An error occurs whenever the unit is unable to solve the equations. •...

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7  3 Quadratic and Cubic Equations k k k k k Changing Coefficients You can change a coefficient either before or after you register it by pressing w. u u u u u To change a coefficient before registering it with w Press the A key to clear the current value and then input another one.

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74 Solve Calculations You can determine the value of any variable you are using without having to solve the equation. Input the equation, and a table of variables appears on the display. Use the table to assign values to variables and then execute the calculation to obtain a solution and display the value of the unknown variable.

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7  4 Solve Calculations 3. Input the values. bew(H=14) aw(V=0) cw(T=2) j.iw (G=9.8) 4. Press f to move the highlighting to V = 0. 5. Press 6 (SOLV) to obtain the solution. Equation Solution • An error occurs if you input more than one equals sign. •...

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7  4 Solve Calculations • Solve uses Newton’s method to calculate approximations. The following can sometimes occur when this method is used. —Solutions may be impossible to obtain for certain initial estimated values. Should this happen, try inputting another value that you assume to be in the vicinity of the solution and perform the calculation again.

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75 What to Do When an Error Occurs u u u u u Error during coefficient value input Press the A key to clear the error and return to the value that was registered for the coefficient before you input the value that generated the error. Try inputting a new value again.

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Chapter Graphing A collection of versatile graphing tools plus a large 127 × 63dot display makes it easy to draw a variety of function graphs quickly and easily. This calculator is capable of drawing the following types of graphs. • Rectangular coordinate (Y =) graphs •...

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81 Before Trying to Draw a Graph k k k k k Entering the Graph Mode On the Main Menu, select the GRAPH icon and enter the GRAPH Mode. When you do, the Graph Function menu appears on the display. You can use this menu to store, edit, and recall functions and to draw their graphs.

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82 View Window (VWindow) Settings Use the View Window to specify the range of the and axes, and to set the spacing between the increments on each axis. You should always set the View Window parameters you want to use before drawing a graph. 1.

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8  2 View Window (VWindow) Settings The nearby illustration shows the meaning , θ ) or of each of these parameters. pitch ( X, Y ) 3. To exit the View Window, press J or ! Q. • Pressing w without inputting any value also exits the View Window. •...

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8  2 View Window (VWindow) Settings k k k k k Initializing and Standardizing the View Window u u u u u To initialize the View Window You can use either of the following two methods to initialize the View Window. Normal initialization Press !3 (VWindow) 1 (INIT) to initialize the View Window to the following settings.

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8  2 View Window (VWindow) Settings k k k k k View Window Memory You can store up to six sets of View Window settings in View Window memory for recall when you need them. u u u u u To store View Window settings Inputting View Window values and then pressing 4 (STO) 1 (V·W1) stores the View Window contents in View Window memory V·W1.

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83 Graph Function Operations You can store up to 20 functions in memory. Functions in memory can be edited, recalled, and graphed. k k k k k Specifying the Graph Type Before you can store a graph function in memory, you must first specify its graph type.

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8  3 Graph Function Operations u u u u u To store a parametric function Example To store the following functions in memory areas Xt3 and Yt3 : = 3 sin T = 3 cos T 3(TYPE)3(Parm) (Specifies parametric expression.) dsvw(Inputs and stores expression.) dcvw(Inputs and stores...

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8  3 Graph Function Operations k k k k k Editing Functions in Memory u u u u u To edit a function in memory Example To change the expression in memory area Y1 from – 5 – 3 e (Displays cursor.) eeeed(Changes contents.) w(Stores new graph function.)

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8  3 Graph Function Operations u u u u u To specify the draw/nondraw status of a graph Example To select the following functions for drawing : – 5 r2 = 5 sin3 θ Y1 = 2 Use the following View Window parameters. Xmin = –5 Ymin...

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8  3 Graph Function Operations • You can use the set up screen settings to alter the appearance of the graph screen as shown below. • Grid: On (Axes: On Label: Off) This setting causes dots to appear at the grid intersects on the display. •...

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8  3 Graph Function Operations 84 Graph Memory Graph memory lets you store up to six sets of graph function data and recall it later when you need it. A single save operation saves the following data in graph memory. •...

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85 Drawing Graphs Manually After you select the RUN icon in the Main Menu and enter the RUN Mode, you can draw graphs manually. First press ! 4 (Sketch) 5 (GRPH) to recall the Graph Command Menu, and then input the graph function. •...

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8  5 Drawing Graphs Manually u u u u u To graph using polar coordinates ( [Sketch][GRPH][r=] ( θ ). You can graph functions that can be expressed in the format = 2 sin3 θ Example To graph Use the following View Window parameters. T, θ...

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8  5 Drawing Graphs Manually u u u u u To graph parametric functions [Sketch][GRPH][Parm] You can graph parametric functions that can be expressed in the following format. (X, Y) = ( (T), (T)) Example To graph the following parametric functions: = 7 cos T –...

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8  5 Drawing Graphs Manually 2. Input the expression. !4(Sketch)1(Cls)w 5(GRPH)4(X = c)d 3. Press w to draw the graph. ≥ ≤ u u u u u To graph inequalities [Sketch][GRPH][Y>]/[Y<]/[Y ]/[Y You can graph inequalities that can be expressed in the following four formats. •...

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8  5 Drawing Graphs Manually u u u u u To draw an integration graph [Sketch][GRPH][G∫dx] You can graph an integration calculation performed using the function Example To graph the following, with a tolerance of “tol” = 1  4: ∫...

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86 Other Graphing Functions The functions described in this section tell you how to read the  and coordi nates at a given point, and how to zoom in and zoom out on a graph. • These functions can be used with rectangular coordinate, polar coordinate, parametric, X = constant, and inequality graphs only.

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8  6 Other Graphing Functions 1. After drawing the graphs, press 1 (Trace) to display the pointer in the center of the graph. • The pointer may not be visible on the graph when you press 1 (Trace). 2. Use d to move the pointer to the first intersection. coordinate values •...

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8  6 Other Graphing Functions • The following shows how the display of coordinates and the derivative changes according to the Graph Type setting. • Rectangular Coordinate Graph • Polar Coordinate Graph • Parametric Function Graph • X = Constant Graph •...

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8  6 Other Graphing Functions k k k k k Graphing in a Specific Range You can use the following syntax when inputting a graph to specify a start point and end point. <function> , ! [ <start point> , <end point> ! ] w Example To graph –...

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8  6 Other Graphing Functions 6(DRAW) (Draws graph.) ↓ ↓ • The function that is input using the above syntax can have only one variable. , θ , or T as the variable name. • You cannot use X, Y, •...

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8  6 Other Graphing Functions u u u u u To use box zoom [Zoom][BOX] With box zoom, you draw a box on the display to specify a portion of the graph, and then enlarge the contents of the box. Example To use box zoom to enlarge a portion of the graph + 5)

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8  6 Other Graphing Functions • To return to the original graph, press 2 (Zoom) 6 (g) 1 (ORIG). • Nothing happens if you try to locate the second corner at the same location or directly above the first corner. •...

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8  6 Other Graphing Functions 4. Press J to return to the graphs, and then press 3 (IN) to enlarge them. This enlarged screen makes it clear that the graphs of the two expressions are not tangential. Note that the above procedure can also be used to reduce the size of a graph (zoom out).

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8  6 Other Graphing Functions k k k k k Graph Range Adjustment Function [Zoom][SQR] This function makes the View Window range value the same as the range value. It is helpful when drawing circular graphs. = 5sin θ and then adjust the graph. Example To graph Use the following View Window parameters.

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8  6 Other Graphing Functions 2. Press 2 (Zoom) 6 (g). 3. Press 3 (RND) and then 1 (Trace). Use d to move the pointer to the other intersection. The rounded coordinate values for the pointer position appear on the screen. k k k k k Integer Function [Zoom][INTG] This function makes the dot width equal 1, converts axis values to integers, and...

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8  6 Other Graphing Functions k k k k k Notes on the Auto View Window, Graph Range Adjustment, Coordinate Rounding, Integer, and Zoom Functions • These functions can be used with all graphs. • These functions cannot be incorporated into programs. •...

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87 Picture Memory You can save up to six graphic image in picture memory for later recall. You can overdraw the graph on the screen with another graph stored in picture memory. u u u u u To store a graph in picture memory Pressing K1(PICT)1(STO)1(Pic1) stores the graph drawn on the display in picture memory Pic1.

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88 Graph Background You can use the set up screen to specify the memory contents of any picture memory area (Pict 1 through Pict 6) as the Background item. When you do, the contents of the corresponding memory area is used as the background of the graph screen.

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8  8 Graph Background Example 2 With a statistical histogram as the background, graph a normal distribution Recall the backgound graph. (Histogram) Graph the normal distribution. P.249 • See “18. Statistical Graphs and Calculations” for details on drawing a statistical graphs.

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Chapter Graph Solve You can use any of the following methods to analyze function graphs and approximate results. • Calculating the root • Determination of the local maximum value and local minimum value • Determination of the intercept • Determination of the intersection of two graphs •...

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91 Before Using Graph Solve After using the GRAPH Mode to draw the graph, press ! 5 (GSolv) to display a function menu that contains the following items. • {ROOT}/{MAX}/{MIN}/{YICPT}/{ISCT} ... {root}/{local maximum value}/{local minimum value}/{yintercept}/{intersections of two graphs} ∫ •...

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92 Analyzing a Function Graph The following two graphs are used for all of the examples in this section, except for the example for determining the points of intersection for two graphs. Memory location Y1 = Y2 = + 2) –...

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9  2 Analyzing a Function Graph Search for the next root to the right. • If there is no root to the right, nothing happens when you press e. • You can use d to move back to the left. •...

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9  2 Analyzing a Function Graph Specify the graph and determine the local minimum value. !5(GSolv) 3(MIN) cw • If there is more than one local maximum/minimum value, you can use d and e to move between them. • If there is only one graph, pressing 2 (MAX) / 3 (MIN) directly displays the local maximum/minimum value (selection of the graph is not required).

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9  2 Analyzing a Function Graph k k k k k Determining Points of Intersection for Two Graphs Example To draw the following three graphs and then determine the points of intersection for the Graph Y1 and Graph Y3. View Window: (A) Y1 = Y2 =...

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9  2 Analyzing a Function Graph k k k k k Determining a Coordinate ( for a given for a given Example To determine the coordinate for = 0.5 and the coordinate for y = 3.2 in the graph y = x (x + 2) (x – 2) View Window: (B) !5(GSolv)6(g)1(YCAL) Specify a graph.

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9  2 Analyzing a Function Graph • If there is more than one coordinate value for a given coordinate value or more than one coordinate value for a given coordinate value, use e and d to move between them. •...

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9  2 Analyzing a Function Graph Input the upper limit and determine the integral. e~e(Upper limit; = 0) • The lower limit must be less than the upper limit when specifying the integration range. • Note that the above operation can be performed on rectangular coordinate (Y=) graphs only.

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Chapter Sketch Function The sketch function lets you draw lines and graphs on an existing graph. • Note that Sketch function operation in the STAT, GRAPH, TABLE, RECUR and CONICS Modes is different from Sketch function operation in the RUN and PRGM Modes. 101 Before Using the Sketch Function 102 Graphing with the Sketch Function...

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101 Before Using the Sketch Function Press ! 4 (Sketch) to display the sketch menu. STAT, GRAPH, TABLE, RECUR, CONICS Mode P.166 • {Cls} ... {clears drawn line and point} P.155 • {Tang}/{Norm}/{Inv} ... {tangent}/{line normal to a curve}/{inverse graph} P.157 •...

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102 Graphing with the Sketch Function The sketch function lets you draw lines and plot points on a graph that is already on the screen. All the examples in this section that show operations in the STAT, GRAPH, TABLE, RECUR, and CONICS Modes are based on the assumption that the following function has already been graphed in the GRAPH Mode.

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10  2 Graphing with the Sketch Function u u u u u To draw a tangent in the RUN or PRGM Mode The following is the command syntax for drawing a tangent in these modes. Tangent <graph function>, < coordinate>...

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10  2 Graphing with the Sketch Function 3. Press w to draw the line. u u u u u To draw a line normal to a curve in the RUN or PRGM Mode The following is the syntax for drawing a line normal to a curve in these modes. Normal <graph function>, <...

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10  2 Graphing with the Sketch Function k k k k k Plotting Points [Sketch][PLOT] When plotting points on a graph, first display the sketch menu and then press 6 (g) 1 (PLOT) to display the plot menu. • {Plot} ... {plot a point} •...

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10  2 Graphing with the Sketch Function 1. After entering the RUN Mode, display the sketch menu and perform the following operation. !4(Sketch)6(g) 1(PLOT)1(Plot)c,c 2. Press w and the pointer appears on the display. Press w again to plot a point.

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10  2 Graphing with the Sketch Function u u u u u To turn plot points on and off in the RUN or PRGM Mode The following are the syntax for turning plot points on and off in these modes. •...

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10  2 Graphing with the Sketch Function 4. Display the sketch menu and then press 6 (g) 2 (LINE) 1 (Line) to draw a line to the second dot. u u u u u To draw a line between any two points in the STAT, GRAPH, TABLE, RECUR and CONICS Modes [Sketch][LINE][F·Line] Example...

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10  2 Graphing with the Sketch Function k k k k k Drawing a Circle [Sketch][Crcl] You can use the following procedures to draw a circle on a graph. u u u u u To draw a circle in the STAT, GRAPH, TABLE, RECUR and CONICS Modes Example To draw a circle with a radius of R = 1 centered at point (1, 0)

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10  2 Graphing with the Sketch Function k k k k k Drawing Vertical and Horizontal Lines [Sketch][Vert]/[Hztl] The procedures presented here draw vertical and horizontal lines that pass through a specific coordinate. u u u u u To draw vertical and horizontal lines in the STAT, GRAPH, TABLE, RECUR and CONICS Modes Example To draw a vertical line on the graph of...

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10  2 Graphing with the Sketch Function Example To draw on the graph of + 2)( – 2) 1. After drawing a graph, display the sketch menu and then press 6 (g) 6 (g) 1 (PEN) to display the pointer in the center of the screen. 2.

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10  2 Graphing with the Sketch Function u u u u u To insert text in the RUN or PRGM Mode The following is the syntax for inserting text in these modes. Text <line number>, <column number>, “<text>” • The line number can be specified within the range of 1 to 63, while the column number can be specified in the range of 1 to 127.

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10  2 Graphing with the Sketch Function u u u u u To check the on/off status of a pixel [Sketch][Test] While the sketch menu is on the screen, press 6 (g) 6 (g) 4 (Test) and then input the command shown below to check the status of the specified pixel. 1 is returned when the pixel is on, and 0 is returned when the pixel is off.

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Chapter Dual Graph Dual Graph lets you split the display between two different screens, which you can then use to draw different graphs at the same time. Dual Graph gives you valuable graph analysis capabilities. • You should be familiar with the contents of “83 Graph Function Operations”...

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111 Before Using Dual Graph 1. From the Main Menu, enter the GRAPH Mode. Next, display the set up screen and specify “Graph” for Dual Screen. 2. Press J. • For further details about the function key menu at the bottom of the display, see “81 Before Trying to Draw a Graph”.

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11  1 Before Using Dual Graph 112 Specifying the Left and Right View Window Parameters You can specify different View Window parameter for the left and right sides of the graph display. u u u u u To specify View Window parameters Press !3 (VWindow) to display the View Window parameter setting screen for the active (left side) graph.

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113 Drawing a Graph in the Active Screen You can draw graphs in the active screen. You can then copy or move the graph to the inactive screen. u u u u u Drawing a graph in the active screen Example To draw the graph of + 1) (...

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114 Displaying a Graph in the Inactive Screen There are two methods you can use to display a graph in the inactive screen. You can copy a graph from the active screen to the inactive screen, or you can move the graph from the active screen to the inactive screen.

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11  4 Displaying a Graph in the Inactive Screen k k k k k Switching the Contents of the Active and Inactive Screens Switch the screens. K2(SWAP) • Note that using 2 (SWAP) to switch the screens also switches their View Window parameters.

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11  4 Displaying a Graph in the Inactive Screen Swap the screens so the graph is on the inactive (right) screen. K2(SWAP) Select the function for the graph that you want in the nowempty active (left) screen. A1(SEL) Draw the graph. 6(DRAW) •...

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11  4 Displaying a Graph in the Inactive Screen k k k k k Other Graph Functions with Dual Graph After drawing a graph using Dual Graph, you can use the trace, zoom, sketch and scroll functions. Note, however, that these functions are available only for the P.128 active (left) graph.

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Chapter GraphtoTable With this function, the screen shows both a graph and a table. You can move a pointer around the graph and store its current coordinates inside the table whenever you want. This function is very useful for summarizing graph analysis results. •...

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121 Before Using GraphtoTable 1. In the Main Menu, select the GRAPH icon and enter the GRAPH Mode. Next, use the set up screen to set the Dual Screen item to “G to T”. 2. Press J and the GraphtoTable menu appears. •...

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122 Using GraphtoTable u u u u u To store graph pointer coordinates in a table • If the Derivative item in the set up screen is set to “On”, the derivative at the location of the trace pointer is also stored in the table. Example To store the points of intersection and the coordinates for the following graphs where X = 0:...

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12  2 Using GraphtoTable 6. Pressing A causes the highlighting to appear in the table. You can then use the cursor keys to move the highlighting around the table and check its values. Press A again to return the pointer to the graph screen.

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12  2 Using GraphtoTable k k k k k GraphtoTable Precautions • The only coordinates that can be saved in the table are those where the pointer can move to using trace and graph solve. • The only graph functions that can be used with a graph produced using the GraphtoTable are: trace, scroll, zoom, and graph solve (excluding integra tion calculations).

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Chapter Dynamic Graph The Dynamic Graph Mode of this calculator shows you realtime representations of changes in a graph as coefficients and terms are changed. It lets you see what happens to a graph when such changes are made. For example, you can see the graph change as illustrated here as the value of coefficient A changes in the formula 131...

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131 Before Using Dynamic Graph In the Main Menu, select the DYNA icon and enter the DYNA Mode. When you do the dynamic function list appears on the screen. Selected memory area Press c and f to move. • {SEL} ... {dynamic Graph draw/nondraw status} •...

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132 Storing, Editing, and Selecting Dynamic Graph Functions In addition to the seven builtin functions, you can input 20 of your own Dynamic Functions. Once a function is stored in memory, it can be edited and selected when needed for graphing. All of the procedures you need to use for storing, editing, and selecting Dynamic Graph functions are identical to those you use in the GRAPH Mode.

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133 Drawing a Dynamic Graph The following is the general procedure you should use to draw a Dynamic Graph. 1. Select or input a function. 2. Define the dynamic coefficient. • This is a coefficient whose value changes in order to produce the different graphs.

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13  3 Drawing a Dynamic Graph 2. Display the coefficient menu. 4(VAR) or w Function being graphed Coefficient whose value will change Coefficients in function • {SEL} ... {selects dynamic coefficient} • {RANG} ... {dynamic coefficient range settings} • {SPEED} ... {dynamic Graph drawing speed} •...

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13  3 Drawing a Dynamic Graph 5. Change the range settings. cw J • If you want to change the Dynamic Graph speed, press 3 (SPEED). 2 3 4 5 6 You can set the Dynamic Graph speed to any one of the following settings. P.188 Stop &...

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13  3 Drawing a Dynamic Graph → ← ↓↑ → ← The above sequence continues to repeat from 1 through 4. Graph is drawn 10 times. • While the message “One Moment Please!” is shown on the display, you can press A to interrupt drawing of the graph and return to the coefficient range setting display.

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13  3 Drawing a Dynamic Graph • Pressing A while the Dynamic Graph is being drawn changes to the drawing speed setting display. The draw operation is suspended at this time, and you can view the graph by pressing !6 (G ↔ T). •...

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13  3 Drawing a Dynamic Graph 2. Start drawing of the Dynamic Graph. 6(DYNA) ···→ ←··· • Pressing A while the Dynamic Graph is being drawn changes to the drawing speed setting display. The draw operation is suspended at this time, and you can view the graph by pressing !6 (G↔T).

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134 Using Dynamic Graph Memory You can store Dynamic Graph conditions and screen data in Dynamic Graph memory for later recall when you need it. This lets you save time, because you can recall the data and immediately begin a Dynamic Graph draw operation. Note that you can store one set of data in memory at any one time.

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13  3 Drawing a Dynamic Graph 135 Dynamic Graph Application Examples Example To use Dynamic Graph to graph the parabolas produced by balls thrown in the air at an initial velocity of 20m/second, at angles of 30, 45, and 60 degrees. (Angle: Deg) Use the following View Window parameters.

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Chapter Conic Section Graphs You can graph any one of the following types of conic sections using the calculator’s builtin functions. • Parabolic graph • Circle graph • Elliptical graph • Hyperbolic graph 141 Before Graphing a Conic Section 142 Graphing a Conic Section 143 Conic Section Graph Analysis...

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141 Before Graphing a Conic Section k k k k k Entering the CONICS Mode 1. In the Main Menu, select the CONICS icon and enter the CONICS Mode. When you do, the following built in function menu appears on the screen. 2.

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142 Graphing a Conic Section Example 1 To graph the circle (X – 1) + (Y – 1) Use the following View Window parameters. Xmin = –6.3 Ymin = –3.1 Xmax = 6.3 Ymax = 3.1 Xscale = 1 Yscale = 1 1.

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14  2 Graphing a Conic Section (X – 3) (Y – 1) Example 2 To graph the hyperbola –––––––––– – –––––––––– = 1 Use the following View Window parameters. Xmin = –8 Ymin = –10 Xmax = 12 Ymax = 10 Xscale = 1 Yscale = 1.

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14  2 Graphing a Conic Section • Conic section graphs can be drawn in blue only. • You cannot overwrite conic section graphs. • The calculator automatically clears the screen before drawing a new conic section graph. • You can use trace, scroll, zoom, or sketch after graphing a conic section. However, a conic section graph cannot be scrolled while using trace.

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14  2 Graphing a Conic Section • A hyperbola is the locus of points related to two given points F and F’ such that the difference in distances of each point from the two given points is constant. Points F and F’ are the “foci,” points A and A’ where the hyperbola intersects the xaxis are the “vertexes,”...

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143 Conic Section Graph Analysis You can determine approximations of the following analytical results using conic section graphs. • Focus/vertex calculation • Latus rectum calculation • Center/radius calculation • intercept calculation • Directrix/axis of symmetry drawing and analysis • Asymptote drawing and analysis After graphing a conic section, press 5 (GSolv) to display the Graph Analysis Menu.

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14  3 Conic Section Graph Analysis 5 (GSolv) 1 (FOCS) (Calculates the focus.) 5 (GSolv) 4 (VTX) (Calculates the vertex.) • When calculating two foci for an ellipse or hyperbolic graph, press e to calculate the second focus. Pressing d returns to the first focus. •...

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14  3 Conic Section Graph Analysis 5 (GSolv) 1 (CNTR) (Calculates the center.) 5 (GSolv) 2 (RADS) (Calculates the radius.) u u u u u To calculate the  and intercepts [GSolv][XIN]/[YIN] Example To determine the  and intercepts for the hyperbola (X –...

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14  3 Conic Section Graph Analysis u u u u u To draw and analyze the axis of symmetry and directrix [GSolv][SYM]/[DIR] Example To draw the axis of symmetry and directrix for the parabola X = 2(Y – 1) Use the following View Window parameters.

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14  3 Conic Section Graph Analysis • Certain View Window parameters can produce errors in values produced as graph analysis result. • The message ”Not Found” appears on the display when graph analysis is unable to produce a result. •...

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Chapter Table & Graph With Table & Graph, you can generate tables of discreet data from functions and recursion formulas, and then use the values for graphing. Because of this, Table & Graph makes it easy to grasp the nature of numeric tables and recursion formulas. 151 Before Using Table &...

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151 Before Using Table & Graph First select the TABLE icon on the Main Menu and then enter the TABLE Mode. When you do, the table function list appears on the display. • {SEL} ... {numeric table generation/nongeneration status} • {DEL} ... {function delete} •...

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152 Storing a Function and Generating a Numeric Table u u u u u To store a function Example To store the function – 2 in memory area Y1 Use f and c to move the highlighting in the TABLE Mode function list to the memory area where you want to store the function.

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15  2 Storing a Function and Generating a Numeric Table u u u u u To generate a table using a list 1. In the TABLE Mode, display the set up screen. 2. Highlight Variable and then press 2 (LIST) to display the list menu. 3.

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15  2 Storing a Function and Generating a Numeric Table You can use cursor keys to move the highlighting around the table for the following purposes. • To display the selected cell’s value at the bottom of the screen, using the calculator’s current number of decimal place, number of significant digit, and exponential display range settings.

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15  2 Storing a Function and Generating a Numeric Table 153 Editing and Deleting Functions u u u u u To edit a function Example To change the function in memory area Y1 from – 2 to – 5 Use f and c to move the highlighting in the TABLE Mode list to the function you want to edit.

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154 Editing Tables and Drawing Graphs You can use the table menu to perform any of the following operations once you generate a table. • Change the values of variable • Edit (delete, insert, and append) rows • Delete a table •...

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15  4 Editing Tables and Drawing Graphs k k k k k Row Operations The following menu appears whenever you press 3 (ROW) while the table menu is on the display. • {DEL} ... {delete row} • {INS} ... {insert row} •...

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15  4 Editing Tables and Drawing Graphs k k k k k Deleting a Table 1. Display the table you want to delete and then press 2 (DEL). 2. Press 1 (YES) to delete the table or 6 (NO) to abort the operation without deleting anything.

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15  4 Editing Tables and Drawing Graphs u u u u u To graph only a selected function Example To graph – 2, which is stored in memory area Y1, as a connect type graph. Use the following View Window parameters. Xmin Ymin –2...

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15  4 Editing Tables and Drawing Graphs u u u u u To graph a function using Dual Screen Selecting “T+G” for the Dual Screen item of the set up screen makes it possible to display both the graph and its numeric table of values. Example To graph –...

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155 Copying a Table Column to a List A simple operation lets you copy the contents of a numeric table column into a list. u u u u u To copy a table to a list Example To copy the contents of Column into List 1 K1(LIST)2(LMEM) 2 3 4 5 6...

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Chapter Recursion Table and Graph You can input two formulas for any of the three following types of recursion, which you can then use to generate a table and draw graphs. • General term of sequence { }, made up of •...

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161 Before Using the Recursion Table and Graph Function u u u u u To enter the RECUR Mode On the Main Menu, select the RECUR icon and enter the RECUR Mode. This causes the Recursion Menu to appear. Selected storage area Press f and c to move.

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162 Inputting a Recursion Formula and Generating a Table Example 1 To input + 1 and generate a table of values as the value of change from 1 to 6 Make = 1. 1. Specify the recursion formula type as linear recursion between two terms and then input the formula.

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16  2 Inputting a Recursion Formula and Generating a Table • Displayed cell values show positive integers up to six digits, and negative integers up to five digits (one digit used for negative sign). Exponential display can use up to three significant digits. •...

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16  2 Inputting a Recursion Formula and Generating a Table 4. Display the table of the recursion formula. At this time, a menu of table functions appears at the bottom of the screen. J6(TABL) Currently selected cell (up to six digits) Value in currently highlighted cell •...

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16  2 Inputting a Recursion Formula and Generating a Table u u u u u To specify the generation/nongeneration status of a formula Example To specify generation of a table for recursion formula + 1 while there are two formulas stored 1(SEL+C) 1(SEL) ...

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163 Editing Tables and Drawing Graphs You get a choice of four options for editing tables and drawing graphs. • Deletion of a recursion formula table • Drawing of a connect type graph • Drawing of a plot type graph •...

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16  3 Editing Tables and Drawing Graphs u u u u u To specify the color of the graph ({BLUE}/{ORNG}/{GRN}) The default color for a graph is blue. Use the following procedure to change the graph color to orange or green. 1.

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16  3 Editing Tables and Drawing Graphs + 1 with Σ Example 2 Draw a graph of on the vertical axis and on the horizontal axis, and with the points unconnected. Use the same View Window parameters as those provided in Example 1.

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16  3 Editing Tables and Drawing Graphs 2. Press w, and the pointer appears at the pointer start point ( Str = 0.01). • The Y value for the pointer start point is always 0. 3. Each press of w draws weblike lines on the display. ↓...

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16  3 Editing Tables and Drawing Graphs 2. Press w and then either f or c to make the pointer appear at the pointer start point ( Str = 0.02). • The Y value for the pointer start point is always 0. 3.

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16  3 Editing Tables and Drawing Graphs k k k k k Drawing a Recursion Formula Graph Using Dual Screen Selecting “T+G” for the Dual Screen item of the set up screen makes it possible to display both the graph and its numerical table of values. P.224 Example To draw the graph of...

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Chapter List Function A list is a kind of container that you can use to store multiple data items. This calculator lets you store up to six lists in a single file, and up to six files in memory. Stored lists can be used in arithmetic, statistical, and matrix calculations, and for graphing.

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List Data Linking Operation Graph List operation Example: List 1 + List 2 {1, 2, 3} + {4, 5, 6} List 1 + 3 List internal operations List graphing Y1=List 1X From a graph to a list ↓ Table data generated by GRAPH TO TABLE to a list LIST Copying the column of a...

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171 List Operations Select the LIST icon in the Main Menu and enter the LIST Mode to input data into a list and to manipulate list data. u u u u u To input values onebyone Use the cursor keys to move the highlighting to the list name or cell you want to select.

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17  1 List Operations u u u u u To batch input a series of values 1. Use the cursor keys to move the highlighting to another list. 2. Press !{, and then input the values you want, pressing , between each one.

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172 Editing and Rearranging Lists k k k k k Editing List Values u u u u u To change a cell value Use d or e to move the highlighting to the cell whose value you want to change. Input the new value and press w to replace the old data with the new one.

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17  2 Editing and Rearranging Lists u u u u u To insert a new cell 1. Use the cursor keys to move the highlighting to the location where you want to insert the new cell. 2. Press 5 (INS) to insert a new cell, which contains a value of 0, causing everything below it to be shifted down.

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17  2 Editing and Rearranging Lists 3. In response to the “Select List (L)” prompt, input the number of the list you want to sort. Here we will input 2 to specify sorting of List 2. Descending order Use the same procedure as that for the ascending order sort. The only difference is that you should press 2 (SRTD) in place of 1 (SRTA).

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17  2 Editing and Rearranging Lists Descending order Use the same procedure as that for the ascending order sort. The only difference is that you should press 2 (SRTD) in place of 1 (SRTA). • You can sort up to six lists at one time. •...

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173 Manipulating List Data List data can be used in arithmetic and function calculations. In addition, various list data manipulation functions makes manipulation of list data quick and easy. You can use list data manipulation functions in the RUN, STAT, MAT, LIST, TABLE, EQUA and PRGM Modes.

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17  3 Manipulating List Data Example To create five data items (each of which contains 0) in List 1 AfaK1(LIST) 3(Dim) 1(List) bw Use the following procedure to specify the number of data rows and columns, the matrix name in the assignment statement, and to create a matrix. !{<number of row >...

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17  3 Manipulating List Data Example To input the number sequence 1 , 11 into a list Use the following settings. Variable: Ending value: 11 Starting value: 1 Pitch: 5 AK1(LIST)5(Seq)v x,v,b,bb,f)w Specifying an ending value of 12, 13, 14, or 15 produces the same result as shown above since they are less than the value produced by the next increment (16).

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17  3 Manipulating List Data u u u u u To find which of two lists contains the greatest value [OPTN][LIST][Max] Use the same procedure as that for the smallest value, except press 2 (Max) in place of 1 (Min). •...

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17  3 Manipulating List Data u u u u u To calculate the median of values of specified frequency [OPTN][LIST][Med] This procedure uses two lists: one that contains values and one that contains the number of occurrences of each value. The frequency of the data in Cell 1 of the first list is indicated by the value in Cell 1 of the second list, etc.

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17  3 Manipulating List Data Example To calculate the cumulative frequency of each value in List 1 (2, 3, 6, 5, 4) AK1(LIST)6(g)6(g) 3(Cuml)6(g)1(List)bw 2+3= 2+3+6= 2+3+6+5= 2+3+6+5+4= u u u u u To calculate the percentage represented by each value [OPTN][LIST][%] K1(LIST)6(g)6(g)4(%)6(g)1(List)<list number 16>w •...

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17  3 Manipulating List Data • You can specify the location of the new list (List 1 through List 6) with a statement like: A List 1 → List 2. You cannot specify another memory or ListAns as the destination of the A List operation. An error also occurs if you specify a A List as the destination of the results of another A List operation.

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174 Arithmetic Calculations Using Lists You can perform arithmetic calculations using either two lists or one list and a numeric value. ListAns Memory Calculation results are List List − List × stored in ListAns Memory. Numeric Value Numeric Value ÷ k k k k k Error Messages •...

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17  4 Arithmetic Calculations Using Lists Example 1 To input the list: 56, 82, 64 !{fg,ic, ge!} Example 2 To multiply List 3 by the list K1(LIST)1(List)d*!{g,a,e!}w The resulting list is stored in ListAns Memory. u u u u u To assign the contents of one list to another list Use a to assign the contents of one list to another list.

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17  4 Arithmetic Calculations Using Lists k k k k k Recalling List Contents Example To recall the contents of List 1 K1(LIST)1(List)bw • The above operation displays the contents of the list you specify and stores them in ListAns Memory, which allows you to use the ListAns Memory contents in a calculation.

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17  4 Arithmetic Calculations Using Lists –0.158 The resulting list 0.8268 is stored in ListAns Memory. –8E–3 In place of the 1 (List) d operation in the above procedure, you could input !{ eb,gf,cc!}. Example 2 To use List 1 and List 2 to perform List 1 List 2...

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175 Switching Between List Files You can store up to six lists (List 1 to List 6) in each file (File 1 to File 6). A simple operation lets you switch between list files. u u u u u To switch between list files In the Main Menu, select the LIST icon and enter the LIST Mode.

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Chapter Statistical Graphs and Calculations This chapter describes how to input statistical data into lists, how to calculate the mean, maximum and other statistical values, how to perform various statistical tests, how to determine the confi dence interval, and how to produce a distribution of statistical data.

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181 Before Performing Statistical Calculations In the Main Menu, select the STAT icon to enter the STAT Mode and display the statistical data lists. Use the statistical data lists to input data and to perform statistical calculations. Use f, c, d and e to move the highlighting around the lists.

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182 PairedVariable Statistical Calculation Examples Once you input data, you can use it to produce a graph and check for tendencies. You can also use a variety of different regression calculations to analyze the data. Example To input the following two data groups and perform statistical calculations {0.5, 1.2, 2.4, 4.0, 5.2} {–2.1, 0.3, 1.5, 2.0, 2.4}...

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18  2 PairedVariable Statistical Calculation Examples While the statistical data list is on the display, perform the following procedure. !Z2(Man) J(Returns to previous menu.) • It is often difficult to spot the relationship between two sets of data (such as height and shoe size) by simply looking at the numbers.

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18  2 PairedVariable Statistical Calculation Examples • Note that the StatGraph1 setting is for Graph 1 (GPH1 of the graph menu), StatGraph2 is for Graph 2, and StatGraph3 is for Graph 3. 2. Use the cursor keys to move the highlighting to the graph whose status you want to change, and press the applicable function key to change the status.

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18  2 PairedVariable Statistical Calculation Examples u u u u u To display the general graph settings screen [GRPH][SET] Pressing 6 (SET) displays the general graph settings screen. • The settings shown here are examples only. The settings on your general graph settings screen may differ.

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18  2 PairedVariable Statistical Calculation Examples u u u u u Graph Color (graph color specification) • {Blue}/{Orng}/{Grn} ... {blue}/{orange}/{green} u u u u u Outliers (outliers specification) • {On}/{Off} ... {display}/{do not display} MedBox outliers k k k k k Drawing an Line Graph P.254 Paired data items can be used to plot a scatter diagram.

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18  2 PairedVariable Statistical Calculation Examples k k k k k Displaying Statistical Calculation Results Whenever you perform a regression calculation, the regression formula parameter (such as in the linear regression ) calculation results appear on the display. You can use these to obtain statistical calculation results. Regression parameters are calculated as soon as you press a function key to select a regression type while a graph is on the display.

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18  3 Calculating and Graphing SingleVariable Statistical Data 183 Calculating and Graphing SingleVariable Statistical Data Singlevariable data is data with only a single variable. If you are calculating the average height of the members of a class for example, there is only one variable (height).

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18  3 Calculating and Graphing SingleVariable Statistical Data To plot the data that falls outside the box, first specify “MedBox” as the graph type. Then, on the same screen you use to specify the graph type, turn the outliers item “On”, and draw the graph.

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18  3 Calculating and Graphing SingleVariable Statistical Data k k k k k Broken Line Graph P.254 A broken line graph is formed by plotting the data in one list against the frequency (Graph Type) of each data item in another list and connecting the points with straight lines. (Brkn) Calling up the graph menu from the statistical data list, pressing 6 (SET), changing the settings to drawing of a broken line graph, and then drawing a graph...

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18  3 Calculating and Graphing SingleVariable Statistical Data minX ....minimum Q1 ....first quartile Med ....median Q3 ....third quartile .... σ – data mean – population standard deviation .... σ data mean + population standard deviation maxX ....

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184 Calculating and Graphing PairedVariable Statistical Data Under “Plotting a Scatter Diagram,” we displayed a scatter diagram and then performed a logarithmic regression calculation. Let’s use the same procedure to look at the various regression functions. k k k k k Linear Regression Graph P.254 Linear regression plots a straight line that passes close to as many data points as possible, and returns values for the slope and...

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18  4 Calculating and Graphing PairedVariable Statistical Data 6(DRAW) a ..MedMed graph slope b ..MedMed graph intercept k k k k k Quadratic/Cubic/Quartic Regression Graph P.254 A quadratic/cubic/quartic regression graph represents connection of the data points of a scatter diagram. It actually is a scattering of so many points that are close enough together to be connected.

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18  4 Calculating and Graphing PairedVariable Statistical Data k k k k k Logarithmic Regression Graph P.254 Logarithmic regression expresses as a logarithmic function of . The standard × In logarithmic regression formula is , so if we say that X = In , the formula corresponds to linear regression formula 6(g)1(Log)

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18  4 Calculating and Graphing PairedVariable Statistical Data k k k k k Power Regression Graph P.254 Exponential regression expresses as a proportion of the power of . The × standard power regression formula is , so if we take the logarithm of both ×...

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18  4 Calculating and Graphing PairedVariable Statistical Data Gas bills, for example, tend to be higher during the winter when heater use is more frequent. Periodic data, such as gas usage, is suitable for application of sine regression. Example To perform sine regression using the gas usage data shown below List 1 (Month Data)

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18  4 Calculating and Graphing PairedVariable Statistical Data 1 + ae –bx 6(g)6(g)1(Lgst) 6(DRAW) Example Imagine a country that started out with a television diffusion rate of 0.3% in 1966, which grew rapidly until diffusion reached virtual saturation in 1980. Use the paired statistical data shown below, which tracks the annual change in the diffusion rate, to perform logistic regression.

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18  4 Calculating and Graphing PairedVariable Statistical Data Draw a logistic regression graph based on the parameters obtained from the analytical results. 6(DRAW) k k k k k Residual Calculation Actual plot points ( coordinates) and regression model distance can be calcu lated during regression calculations.

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18  4 Calculating and Graphing PairedVariable Statistical Data • Use c to scroll the list so you can view the items that run off the bottom of the screen...... mean of List data Σ ....sum of List data Σ...

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18  4 Calculating and Graphing PairedVariable Statistical Data k k k k k Multiple Graphs You can draw more than one graph on the same display by using the procedure P.252 under “Changing Graph Parameters” to set the graph draw (On)/nondraw (Off) status of two or all three of the graphs to draw “On”, and then pressing 6 (DRAW).

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18  5 Performing Statistical Calculations 185 Performing Statistical Calculations All of the statistical calculations up to this point were performed after displaying a graph. The following procedures can be used to perform statistical calculations alone. u u u u u To specify statistical calculation data lists You have to input the statistical data for the calculation you want to perform and specify where it is located before you start a calculation.

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18  5 Performing Statistical Calculations Now you can use the cursor keys to view the characteristics of the variables. For details on the meanings of these statistical values, see “Displaying Single P.259 Variable Statistical Results”. k k k k k PairedVariable Statistical Calculations In the previous examples from “Linear Regression Graph”...

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18  5 Performing Statistical Calculations k k k k k Estimated Value Calculation ( , ) After drawing a regression graph with the STAT Mode, you can use the RUN Mode to calculate estimated values for the regression graph's parameters.

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18  5 Performing Statistical Calculations k k k k k Normal Probability Distribution Calculation and Graphing You can calculate and graph normal probability distributions for singlevariable statistics. u u u u u Normal probability distribution calculations Use the RUN Mode to perform normal probability distribution calculations. Press K in the RUN Mode to display the option number and then press 6 (g) 3 (PROB) 6 (g) to display a function menu, which contains the following items.

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18  5 Performing Statistical Calculations 2. Use the STAT Mode to perform the singlevariable statistical calculations. 2(CALC)6(SET) 1(List1)c3(List2)J1(1VAR) 3. Press m to display the Main Menu, and then enter the RUN Mode. Next, press K to display the option menu and then 6 (g) 3 (PROB) 6 (g). •...

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18  5 Performing Statistical Calculations k k k k k Normal Probability Graphing You can graph a normal probability distribution with Graph Y = in the Sketch Mode. Example To graph normal probability P(0.5) Perform the following operation in the RUN Mode. !4(Sketch)1(Cls)w 5(GRPH)1(Y=)K6(g)3(PROB) 6(g)1(P()a.f)w...

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186 Tests Test provides a variety of different standardizationbased tests. They make it possible to test whether or not a sample accurately represents the population when the standard deviation of a population (such as the entire population of a country) is known from previous tests. testing is used for market research and public opinion research, that need to be performed repeatedly.

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18  6 Tests 2Sample Test tests the hypothesis that there will be no change in the result for a population when a result of a sample is composed of multiple factors and one or more of the factors is removed. It could be used, for example, to test the carcino genic effects of multiple suspected factors such as tobacco use, alcohol, vitamin deficiency, high coffee intake, inactivity, poor living habits, etc.

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18  6 Tests The following shows the meaning of each item in the case of list data specifica tion. Data ....data type µ ..... population mean value test conditions (“G µ ” specifies twotail test, “< µ ” specifies lower onetail test, “> µ ”...

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18  6 Tests Perform the following key operations from the statistical result screen. J(To data input screen) cccccc(To Execute line) 6(DRAW) u u u u u 2Sample Z Test This test is used when the sample standard deviations for two populations are known to test the hypothesis.

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18  6 Tests The following shows the meaning of parameter data specification items that are different from list data specification..... sample 1 mean ....sample 1 size (positive integer) ....sample 2 mean ....sample 2 size (positive integer) Example To perform a 2Sample Test when two lists of data are input...

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18  6 Tests u u u u u 1Prop Z Test This test is used to test for an unknown proportion of successes. The 1Prop Test is applied to the normal distribution. : expected sample proportion – p : sample size (1–...

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18  6 Tests The following key operations can be used to draw a graph. cccc 6(DRAW) u u u u u 2Prop Z Test This test is used to compare the proportion of successes. The 2Prop Test is applied to the normal distribution. : sample 1 data value –...

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18  6 Tests 3(>)c ccfw daaw cdaw daaw 1(CALC) > ....direction of test ...... value ..... pvalue ˆ p ....estimated proportion of population 1 ˆ p ....estimated proportion of population 2 ˆ p ..... estimated sample proportion ....

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18  6 Tests The following shows the meaning of each item in the case of list data specification. Data ....data type µ ..... population mean value test conditions (“G µ ” specifies two tail test, “< µ ” specifies lower onetail test, “> µ ”...

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18  6 Tests u u u u u 2Sample t Test 2Sample Test compares the population means when the population standard deviations are unknown. The 2Sample Test is applied to distribution. The following applies when pooling is in effect. –...

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18  6 Tests The following shows the meaning of each item in the case of list data specifica tion. Data ....data type µ ....sample mean value test conditions (“G µ ” specifies twotail test, “< µ ” specifies onetail test where sample 1 is smaller than sample 2, “>...

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18  6 Tests µ G µ ....direction of test ...... value ..... pvalue ....degrees of freedom ....sample 1 mean ....sample 2 mean σ ....sample 1 standard deviation σ ....sample 2 standard deviation ....sample 1 size ....

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18  6 Tests The following shows the meaning of each item in the case of list data specifica tion. β & ρ ....pvalue test conditions (“G 0” specifies twotail test, “< 0” specifies lower onetail test, “> 0” specifies upper onetail test.) XList ....

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18  6 Tests k k k k k Other Tests u u u u u χ Test χ Test sets up a number of independent groups and tests hypotheses related to the proportion of the sample included in each group. The χ Test is applied to dichotomous variables (variable with two possible values, such as yes/no).

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18  6 Tests χ ....χ value ..... pvalue ....degrees of freedom Expected ..expected counts (Result is always stored in MatAns.) The following key operations can be used to display the graph. 6(DRAW) u u u u u 2Sample F Test 2Sample Test tests the hypothesis that when a sample result is composed of multiple factors, the population result will be unchanged when one or some of the...

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18  6 Tests The following shows the meaning of parameter data specification items that are different from list data specification. σ σ ....sample 1 standard deviation ( > 0) ....sample 1 size (positive integer) σ σ ....sample 2 standard deviation ( >...

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18  6 Tests u u u u u Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) ANOVA tests the hypothesis that when there are multiple samples, the means of the populations of the samples are all equal. : number of populations : mean of each list σ...

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18  6 Tests 2(3)c 1(List1)c 2(List2)c 3(List3)c 1(CALC) ..... value ..... pvalue σ ....pooled sample standard deviation ....factor degrees of freedom ....factor sum of squares ....factor mean squares ....error degrees of freedom ....error sum of squares ....

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18  8 Confidence Interval 187 Confidence Interval A confidence interval is a range (interval) that includes a statistical value, usually the population mean. A confidence interval that is too broad makes it difficult to get an idea of where the population value (true value) is located.

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18  7 Confidence Interval k k k k k Z Confidence Interval You can use the following menu to select from the different types of confidence interval. • {1S}/{2S}/{1P}/{2P} ... {1Sample}/{2Sample}/{1Prop}/{2Prop} Interval u u u u u 1Sample Z Interval 1Sample Interval calculates the confidence interval for an unknown population mean when the population standard deviation is known.

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18  7 Confidence Interval Example To calculate the 1Sample Interval for one list of data For this example, we will obtain the Interval for the data {11.2, 10.9, 12.5, 11.3, 11.7}, when CLevel = 0.95 (95% confi dence level) and σ = 3. 1(List)c a.jfw 1(List1)c1(1)c1(CALC)

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18  7 Confidence Interval σ ....population standard deviation of sample 1 ( σ > 0) σ ....population standard deviation of sample 2 ( σ > 0) List1 ....list whose contents you want to use as sample 1 data List2 ....

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18  7 Confidence Interval u u u u u 1Prop Z Interval 1Prop Interval uses the number of data to calculate the confidence interval for an unknown proportion of successes. α The following is the confidence interval. The value 100 (1 – ) % is the confidence level.

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18  7 Confidence Interval u u u u u 2Prop Z Interval 2Prop Z Interval uses the number of data items to calculate the confidence interval for the defference between the proportion of successes in two populations. α The following is the confidence interval. The value 100 (1 – ) % is the confidence level.

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18  7 Confidence Interval ˆ p ....estimated sample propotion for sample 1 ˆ p ....estimated sample propotion for sample 2 ....sample 1 size ....sample 2 size k k k k k t Confidence Interval You can use the following menu to select from two types of confidence interval.

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18  7 Confidence Interval Example To calculate the 1Sample Interval for one list of data For this example, we will obtain the 1Sample Interval for data = {11.2, 10.9, 12.5, 11.3, 11.7} when CLevel = 0.95. 1(List)c a.jfw 1(List1)c 1(1)c 1(CALC) Left ....

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18  7 Confidence Interval Perform the following key operations from the statistical data list. 4(INTR) 2(2S) The following shows the meaning of each item in the case of list data specification. Data ....data type CLevel ... confidence level (0 < CLevel < 1) List1 ....

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18  7 Confidence Interval Example To calculate the 2Sample Interval when two lists of data are input For this example, we will obtain the 2Sample Interval for data 1 = {55, 54, 51, 55, 53, 53, 54, 53} and data 2 = {55.5, 52.3, 51.8, 57.2, 56.5} without pooling when CLevel = 0.95.

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188 Distribution There is a variety of different types of distribution, but the most wellknown is “normal distribution,” which is essential for performing statistical calculations. Normal distribution is a symmetrical distribution centered on the greatest occur rences of mean data (highest frequency), with the frequency decreasing as you move away from the center.

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18  8 Distribution k k k k k Normal Distribution You can use the following menu to select from the different types of calculation. • {Npd}/{Ncd}/{InvN} ... {normal probability density}/{normal distribution probability}/{inverse cumulative normal distribution} calculation u u u u u Normal probability density Normal probability density calculates the probability density of normal distribution from a specified value.

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18  8 Distribution Perform the following key operations to display a graph. 6(DRAW) u u u u u Normal distribution probability Normal distribution probability calculates the probability of normal distribution data falling between two specific values. : lower boundary ∫...

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18  8 Distribution • This calculator performs the above calculation using the following: ∞ = 1E99, –∞ = –1E99 u u u u u Inverse cumulative normal distribution Inverse cumulative normal distribution calculates a value that represents the location within a normal distribution for a specific cumulative probability. ∫...

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18  8 Distribution k k k k k Studentt Distribution You can use the following menu to select from the different types of Student distribution. • {tpd}/{tcd} ... {Student probability density}/{Student distribution probability} calculation u u u u u Studentt probability density Student probability density calculates probability density from a specified...

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18  8 Distribution Perform the following key operation to display a graph. 6(DRAW) u u u u u Studentt distribution probability Student distribution probability calculates the probability of distribution data falling between two specific values. : lower boundary df + 1 ∫...

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18  8 Distribution k k k k k Chisquare Distribution You can use the following menu to select from the different types of chisquare distribution. • {Cpd}/{Ccd} ... {χ probability density}/{χ distribution probability} calculation u u u u u χ probability density χ...

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18  8 Distribution Perform the following key operations to display a graph. 6(DRAW) u u u u u χ distribution probability χ distribution probability calculates the probability of χ distribution data falling between two specific values. ∫ : lower boundary –1 –...

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18  8 Distribution k k k k k F Distribution You can use the following menu to select from the different types of distribution. • {Fpd}/{Fcd} ... { probability density}/{ distribution probability} calculation u u u u u F probability density probability density calculates the probability density function for the F distribution at a specified value.

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18  8 Distribution u u u u u F distribution probability distribution probability calculates the probability of distribution data falling between two specific values. : lower boundary n + d ∫ Γ n + d : upper boundary – –1 Γ...

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18  8 Distribution u u u u u Binomial probability Binomial probability calculates a probability at specified value for the discrete binomial distribution with the specified number of trials and probability of success on each trial. n) p = 0, 1, ·······, : success probability f (x) = (1–p)

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18  8 Distribution u u u u u Binomial cumulative density Binomial cumulative density calculates a cumulative probability at specified value for the discrete binomial distribution with the specified number of trials and probability of success on each trial. Perform the following key operations from the statistical data list.

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18  8 Distribution k k k k k Poisson Distribution You can use the following menu to select from the different types of Poisson distribution. • {Ppd}/{Pcd} ... {Poisson probability}/{Poisson cumulative density} calculation u u u u u Poisson probability Poisson probability calculates a probability at specified value for the discrete Poisson distribution with the specified mean.

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18  8 Distribution u u u u u Poisson cumulative density Poisson cumulative density calculates a cumulative probability at specified value for the discrete Poisson distribution with the specified mean. Perform the following key operations from the statistical data list. 5(DIST) 6(g) 1(POISN)

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18  8 Distribution u u u u u Geometric probability Geometric probability calculates a probability at specified value, the number of the trial on which the first success occurs, for the discrete geometric distribution with the specified probability of success. = 1, 2, 3, ···) f (x) = p(1–...

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18  8 Distribution u u u u u Geometric cumulative density Geometric cumulative density calculates a cumulative probability at specified value, the number of the trial on which the first success occurs, for the discrete geometric distribution with the specified probability of success. Perform the following key operations from the statistical data list.

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Chapter Financial Calculations 191 Before Performing Financial Calculations 192 Simple Interest Calculations 193 Compound Interest Calculations 194 Investment Appraisal 195 Amortization of a Loan 196 Conversion between Percentage Interest Rate and Effective Interest Rate 197 Cost, Selling Price, Margin Calculations 198 Day/Date Calculations...

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191 Before Performing Financial Calculations The Financial Mode provides you with the tools to perform the following types of financial calculations. • Simple interest • Compound interest • Investment appraisal (Cash Flow) • Amortization • Interest rate conversion (annual percentage rate and effective interest rate) •...

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19  1 Before Performing Financial Calculations • Drawing a financial graph while the Label item is turned on, displays the label CASH for the vertical axis (deposits, withdrawals), and TIME for the horizontal axis (frequency). • The number of display digits applied in the Financial Mode is different from the number of digits used in other modes.

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192 Simple Interest Calculations This calculator uses the following formulas to calculate simple interest. SI' = n × PV × i 365day Mode : interest : number of interest SI' = n × PV × i periods 360day Mode : principal : annual interest : principal plus interest SI = –SI'...

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19  2 Simple Interest Calculations Now you can perform the following key operations to return to the input screen and then display the principal plus interest. 1(REPT) (Returns to the input screen) You can also press 6 to draw a cash flow graph. 6(GRPH) The left side is , while the right side is...

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193 Compound Interest Calculations This calculator uses the following standard formulas to calculate compound interest. u u u u u Formula I (1+ i × S)[(1+ i) –1] PV+PMT × + FV (1+ i) i(1+ i) Here: α β : present value PV= –(PMT ×...

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19  3 Compound Interest Calculations PV + FV PMT = – PV + FV n = – • A deposit is indicated by a plus sign (+), while a withdrawal is indicated by a minus sign (–). u u u u u Converting between the nominal interest rate and effective interest rate The nominal interest rate ( % value input by user) is converted to an effective...

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19  3 Compound Interest Calculations ....payment for each installment (payment in case of loan; deposit in case of savings) ....future value (unpaid balance in case of loan; principal plus interest in case of savings) ....installment periods per year ....

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19  3 Compound Interest Calculations Now you can press 6 to draw a cash flow graph. 6(GRPH) The left side is , while the right side is . The upper part of the graph is positive (+), while the bottom part is negative (–). u u u u u Installment savings Input Condition: Future value is greater than the total of payments.

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19  3 Compound Interest Calculations Example Calculate the interest rate required to repay a $2,300 balance on a loan in two years paying back $100 per month, when interest is compounded monthly. Perform the following key operations from the input screen. = 2 ×...

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19  3 Compound Interest Calculations k k k k k Savings u u u u u Future value Example Calculate the future value after 7.6 years for a principal of $500 and an interest rate of 6%, compounded annually. Perform the following key operations from the input screen.

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19  3 Compound Interest Calculations Perform the following key operations from the input screen. = 10.) baw(Input = –6,000) gaaaw( = 0) = 10,000) baaaaw( bcw(Monthly compounding) u u u u u Compound interest period Example Calculate the amount of time required to increase an initial investment of $5,000 to a total of $10,000 at an annual rate of 4%, compounded monthly.

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19  3 Compound Interest Calculations Perform the following key operations from the input screen. = 5 × 12.) f*bcw(Input = 6.0%) = 0) cfaw bcw(Monthly installments) (Monthly compounding) Specifying “Begin” for Payment in the set up screen changes to calculation of installments at the beginning of each month.

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19  3 Compound Interest Calculations u u u u u Number of installments Example Calculate the number of monthly $84 installments required to accumulate a total of $6,000 at an annual interest rate of 6%, compounded annually. In the set up screen, specify “End” for Payment and then press J. Perform the following key operations from the input screen.

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19  3 Compound Interest Calculations Perform the following key operations from the input screen. = 1 × 12.) b*bcw(Input e.fw = –1,000) baaaw( = –500) faaw( bcw(Monthly installments) (Monthly compounding) u u u u u Borrowing power Example Calculate how much can be borrowed on a 15year loan at a 7.5% annual interest rate, compounded monthly, if a payment of $450 per month can be made.

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19  3 Compound Interest Calculations u u u u u Number of installments Example Calculate the number of years it will take to repay a $60,000 loan borrowed at 5.5%, compounded monthly, with monthly installments of $840. In the set up screen, specify “End” for Payment and then press J. Perform the following key operations from the input screen.

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194 Investment Appraisal This calculator uses the discounted cash flow (DCF) method to perform invest ment appraisal by totalling cash flow for a fixed period. This calculator can perform the following four types of investment appraisal. • Net present value ( •...

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19  4 Investment Appraisal u u u u u PBP PBP is the value of when NPV > 0 (when investment can be recovered). Press 3 (CASH) from the initial screen 1 to display the following input screen for investment appraisal.

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19  4 Investment Appraisal Perform the following key operations from the input screen. % = 11) bbw( 6(List)2(List2) Now you can press 6 to draw a cash flow graph. 6(GRPH) Pressing !1 (TRCE) activates trace, which can be used to look up the following values.

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19  4 Investment Appraisal On the Main Menu, select the LIST icon to enter the LIST Mode and perform the following key operations. ee(List 3) baaaaw caaaw ceaaw ccaaw caaaw biaa+daaaw Return to the Main Menu by pressing m. Select the TVM icon to enter the Financial Mode, and then press 3 (CASH).

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19  4 Investment Appraisal 195 Amortization of a Loan This calculator can be used to calculate the principal and interest portion of a monthly installment, the remaining principal, and amount of principal and interest repaid up to any point. Amount of single payment (Number of payments) : Interest portion of installment PM1 (...

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19  5 Amortization of a Loan The following calculation is performed after conversion from the nominal interest rate to the effective interest rate, and the result is used for all subsequent calculations. i = I%'÷100 Press 4 ( ) from the initial screen 1 to display the following input screen for amortization.

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19  5 Amortization of a Loan Perform the following key operations from the input screen. = 15 × 12.) bf*bcw (Input g.fw beaaaaw ( = 140,000) aw ( = 0) bcw(Monthly installments) cw(Semiannual compounding) Pressing 4( ) displays the amortization input screen. Input 24 for PM1 and 49 for PM2.

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19  5 Amortization of a Loan Calculate Σ from installment 24 to 49. 1 (REPT) 4 (Σ Calculate Σ 1 (REPT) 5 (Σ Now you can press 6 to draw a cash flow graph. 6(GRPH) • Trace can be activated following the calculation. Pressing e displays when = 1.

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196 Conversion between Percentage Interest Rate and Effective Interest Rate Press 5 (CNVT) in the Financial 1 screen to display the following input screen for interest rate conversion. n ...... number of compoundings % ....interest rate • {' ' ' ' ' EFF}/{' ' ' ' ' APR} ... {annual percentage rate to effective interest rate}/{effective interest rate to annual percentage rate} conversion k k k k k Converting the Annual Percentage Rate (APR) to the Effective Interest Rate (EFF)

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19  6 Conversion between Percentage Interest Rate and Effective Interest Rate Example Calculate the annual percentage rate for an account paying an effective interest rate of 12.55%, compounded quarterly. In the set up screen, specify “Norm1” for Display and then press J. Perform the following key operations from the input screen.

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197 Cost, Selling Price, Margin Calculations Cost, selling price, or margin can be calculated by inputting the other two values. CST = SEL 1– SEL = 1– ×100 MAR(%) = 1– Press 1 (COST) from the initial screen 2 to display the following input screen. Cst ....

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19  7 Cost, Selling Price, Margin Calculations k k k k k Selling Price Example Calculate the selling price for a cost of $1,200 and a margin of 45%. Perform the following key operations from the input screen. bcaaw(Cst = 1,200) efw(Mrg = 45) 2(SEL) k k k k k Margin...

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198 Day/Date Calculations You can calculate the number of days between two dates, or you can determine what date comes a specific number of days before or after another date. Press 2 (DAYS) from the initial screen 2 to display the following input screen for day/date calculation.

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19  8 Day/Date Calculations Perform the following key operations from the input screen. i.aibjghw (d1 = August 8, 1967) h.bfbjhaw (d2 = July 15,1970) 1(PRD) Prd ....number of days Example Determine the date that is 1,000 days after June 1, 1997. Note that the attempting to perform the following calculation while the 360day year is in effect causes an error.

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Chapter Programming 201 Before Programming 202 Programming Examples 203 Debugging a Program 204 Calculating the Number of Bytes Used by a Program 205 Secret Function 206 Searching for a File 207 Searching for Data Inside a Program 208 Editing File Names and Program Contents 209 Deleting a Program 2010...

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201 Before Programming The programming function helps to make complex, oftenrepeated calculations quick and easy. Commands and calculations are executed sequentially, just like the manual calculation multistatements. Multiple programs can be stored under file names for easy recall and editing. File Name File Name File Name...

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202 Programming Examples Example 1 To calculate the surface area and volume of three regular octahedrons of the dimensions shown in the table below Store the calculation formula under the file name OCTA. Length of One Side (A) Surface Area (S) Volume (V) 7 cm 10 cm...

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20  2 Programming Examples • Use 1 (RUN) to input a program for general calculations (a program to be executed in the COMP Mode). For programs that involve number system specifications, use 2 (BASE). Note that programs input after pressing 2 (BASE) are indicated by to the right of the file name.

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20 2 Programming Examples • Pressing 6 (SYBL) displays a menu of symbols ( ’, ”, ~, * , /, # ) that can be input into a program. • Pressing ! Z displays a menu of commands that can be used to change set up screen settings inside a program.

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20 2 Programming Examples The following shows examples of how to actually use the ? and ^ commands. !W4(?)aaA6(g)5(:) c*!9d*aAx 6(g)5(^) !9c/d*aAMd !Q or JJ u u u u u To run a program 1. While the program list is on the display, use f and c to highlight the name of the program you want to run.

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20 2 Programming Examples · · · · · · · · · · · · • Pressing w while the program’s final result is on the display reexecutes the program. P.378 • You can also run a program while in the RUN Mode by inputting: Prog ”<file name>”...

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203 Debugging a Program A problem in a program that keeps the program from running correctly is called a “bug,” and the process of eliminating such problems is called “debugging.” Either of the following symptoms indicates that your program contains bugs and that debugging is required.

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204 Calculating the Number of Bytes Used by a Program There are two types of commands: 1byte* commands and 2byte* commands. * A byte is a unit of memory that can be used for storage of data. • Examples of 1byte commands: sin, cos, tan, log, (, ), A, B, C, 1, 2, etc. •...

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To register a password Example To create a program file under the name AREA and protect it with the password CASIO 1. While the program list is on the display, press 3 (NEW) and input the file name of the new program file.

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20 5 Secret Function 2. Press 2 (EDIT). 3. Input the password and press w to recall the program. • The message “Mismatch” appears if you input the wrong password.

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206 Searching for a File There are three different methods for searching for a specific file name. u u u u u To find a file using scroll search Example To use scroll search to recall the program named OCTA 1.

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20 6 Searching for a File 2. Press w to search. • All files whose file names start with the characters you input are recalled. • If there is no program whose file name starts with the characters you input, the message “Not Found”...

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207 Searching for Data Inside a Program Example To search for the letter “A” inside the program named OCTA 1. Recall the program. 2. Press 3 (SRC) and input the data you want to search for. 3(SRC) • You cannot specify the newline symbol (_) or display command (^) for the search data.

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208 Editing File Names and Program Contents u u u u u To edit a file name Example To change the name of a file from TRIANGLE to ANGLE 1. While the program list is on the display, use f and c to move the highlight ing to the file whose name you want to edit and then press 6 (g) 2 (REN).

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20  8 Editing File Names and Program Contents Use TETRA as the file name. Length of One Side (A) Surface Area (S) Volume (V) 7 cm 10 cm 15 cm The following are the formulas used for calculating surface area S and volume V of a regular tetrahedron for which the length of one side is known.

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20 8 Editing File Names and Program Contents cd![bc Let’s try running the program. Length of One Side (A) Surface Area (S) Volume (V) 7 cm 84.87048957 cm 40.42293766 cm 10 cm 173.2050808 cm 117.8511302 cm 15 cm 389.7114317 cm 397.7475644 cm 1 (EXE) or w (Value of A)

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209 Deleting a Program There are two methods for deletion of a file name and its program. u u u u u To delete a specific program 1. While the program list is on the display, use f and c to move the highlight ing to the name of the program you want to delete.

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2010 Useful Program Commands In addition to calculation commands, this calculator also includes a variety of relational and jump commands that can be used to create programs that make repeat calculations quick and easy. Program Menu Press ! W to display the program menu. •...

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20 10 Useful Program Commands k k k k k DISP (display command menu) Selecting {DISP} from the program menu displays the following function menu items. u {Stat}/{Grph}/{Dyna} ... {statistical graph}/{graph}/{Dynamic Graph} draw u {FTbl} ... {Table & Graph command menu} The following are the items that appear in the above menu.

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2011 Command Reference k k k k k Command Index Break ..................378 ClrGraph ................382 ClrList ..................382 ClrText ................... 382 DispFTbl, DispRTbl ............. 383 Do~LpWhile ................377 DrawDyna ................383 DrawFTGCon, DrawFTGPlt ..........383 DrawGraph ................383 DrawRCon, DrawRPlt ............384 DrawRΣCon, DrawRΣPlt .............

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20 11 Command Reference The following are conventions that are used in this section when describing the various commands. Boldface Text ..... Actual commands and other items that always must be input are shown in boldface. {Curly Brackets} ..Curly brackets are used to enclose a number of items, one of which must be selected when using a command.

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20 11 Command Reference : (Multistatement Command) Function: Connects two statements for sequential execution without stopping. Description: 1. Unlike the output command (^), statements connected with the multi statement command are executed nonstop. 2. The multistatement command can be used to link two calculation expressions or two commands.

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20 11 Command Reference If~Then~IfEnd Function: The Thenstatement is executed only when the Ifcondition is true (non zero). The IfEndstatement is always executed: after the Thenstatement is executed or directly after the Ifcondition when the Ifcondition is false (0). Syntax: <condition>...

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20 11 Command Reference If~Then~Else~IfEnd Function: The Thenstatement is executed only when the Ifcondition is true (nonzero). The Elsestatement is executed when the Ifcondition is false (0). The IfEndstatement is always executed following either the Thenstatement or Elsestatement. Syntax: <condition> Then <statement>...

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20 11 Command Reference Parameters: • control variable name: A to Z • starting value: value or expression that produces a value (i.e. sin , A, etc.) • ending value: value or expression that produces a value (i.e. sin , A, etc.) Description: 1.

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20 11 Command Reference 3. Making the starting value less than the ending value and specifying a positive step value causes the control variable to be incremented with each execution. Making the starting value greater than the ending value and specifying a negative step value causes the control variable to be decremented with each execution.

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20 11 Command Reference 2. Since the condition comes after the Whilestatement, the condition is tested (checked) before the commands inside the loop are executed. Example: 10 → A_ While A > 0_ A – 1 → A_ ”GOOD”_ WhileEnd k k k k k Program Control Commands (CTL) Break Function: This command breaks execution of a loop and continues from the next...

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20 11 Command Reference Main Routine Subroutines Prog ”D” Prog ”C” Prog ”E” Prog ”I” Prog ”J” Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 4. Calling up a subroutine causes it to be executed from the beginning. After execution of the subroutine is complete, execution returns to the main routine, continuing from the statement following the Prog command.

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20 11 Command Reference Example: For 2 → I To 10_ If I = 5_ Then ”STOP” : Stop_ IfEnd_ Next This program counts from 2 to 10. When the count reaches 5, however, it terminates execution and displays the message “STOP.” k k k k k Jump Commands (JUMP) Function: This command is a count jump that decrements the value of a control variable by 1, and then jumps if the current value of the variable is zero.

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20 11 Command Reference 2. This command can be used to loop back to the beginning of a program or to jump to any location within the program. 3. This command can be used in combination with conditional jumps and count jumps.

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20 11 Command Reference Parameters: , θ ), numeric constant, variable expression left side/right side: variable (A to Z, (such as: A × 2) , >, <, ≥, ≤ P.387 relational operator: =, G G G G G Description: 1. The conditional jump compares the contents of two variables or the results of two expressions, and a decision is made whether or not to execute the jump based on the results of the comparison.

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20 11 Command Reference k k k k k Display Commands (DISP) DispFTbl, DispRTbl Function: These commands display numeric tables. Syntax: DispFTbl_ DispRTbl_ Description: 1. These commands generate numeric tables during program execution in accordance with conditions defined within the program. 2.

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20 11 Command Reference DrawRCon, DrawRPlt Function: These commands graph recursion expressions, with ) as the vertical axis and as the horizontal axis. Syntax: DrawRCon_ DrawRPlt_ Description: 1. These commands graph recursion expressions, with ) as the vertical axis as the horizontal axis, in accordance with conditions defined within the program.

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20 11 Command Reference Description: 1. This command graphs convergence/divergence of a recursion expression (WEB graph). 2. Omitting the number of lines specification automatically specifies the default value 30. k k k k k Input/Output Commands (I/O) Getkey Function: This command returns the code that corresponds to the last key pressed.

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(1, 7) → ← (21, 7) Example: Cls_ Locate 7, 1, ”CASIO CFX” This program displays the text “CASIO CFX” in the center of the screen. • In some cases, the ClrText command should be executed before running the above program.

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20 11 Command Reference Send ( Function: This command sends data to an external device. Syntax: Send (<data>) Description: 1. This command sends data to an external device. 2. The following types of data can be sent by this command. •...

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2012 Text Display You can include text in a program by simply enclosing it between double quotation marks. Such text appears on the display during program execution, which means you can add labels to input prompts and results. Program Display ? →...

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2013 Using Calculator Functions in Programs k k k k k Using Matrix Row Operations in a Program P.80 These commands let you manipulate the rows of a matrix in a program. • For this type of program, be sure to use the MAT Mode to input the matrix, and then switch to the PRGM Mode to input the program.

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20 13 Using Calculator Functions in Programs u u u u u To calculate a scalar multiplication and add the results to another row (` ` ` Row+) Example 3 To calculate the product of Row 2 of the matrix in Example 1 and the scalar 4, then add the result to row 3 The following is the syntax to use for this program.

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20 13 Using Calculator Functions in Programs Y = Type_ 4431 + 4X + 80” → Y1_ ”X ^ 4 – X ^ 3– 24X J41JJ G SelOn 1_ 4411J Orange G1_ DrawGraph !W622 Executing this program produces the result shown here.

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20 13 Using Calculator Functions in Programs k k k k k Using Table & Graph Functions in a Program P.206 Table & Graph functions in a program can generate numeric tables and perform graphing operations. The following shows various types of syntax you need to use when programming with Table &...

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20 13 Using Calculator Functions in Programs k k k k k Using Recursion Table & Graph Functions in a Program P.218 Incorporating Recursion Table & Graph functions in a program lets you generate numeric tables and perform graphing operations. The following shows various types of syntax you need to use when programming with Recursion Table &...

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20 13 Using Calculator Functions in Programs Executing this program produces the results shown here. Numeric Table Recursion graph k k k k k Using List Sort Functions in a Program P.234 These functions let you sort data in lists into ascending or descending order. •...

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20 13 Using Calculator Functions in Programs k k k k k Using Statistical Calculations and Graphs in a Program P.250 Including statistical calculations and graphing operations into program lets you calculate and graph statistical data. u u u u u To set conditions and draw a statistical graph Following “StatGraph”, you must specify the following graph conditions: •...

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20 13 Using Calculator Functions in Programs • The following is a typical graph condition specification for a regression graph. SGph1 DrawOn, Linear, List1, List2, List3, Blue _ The same format can be used for the following types of graphs, by simply replacing “Linear”...

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20 13 Using Calculator Functions in Programs k k k k k Performing Statistical Calculations • Singlevariable statistical calculation 1Variable List 1, List 2 Frequency data (Frequency) x axis data (XList) 4161 • Pairedvariable statistical calculation 2Variable List 1, List 2, List 3 Frequency data (Frequency) y axis data (YList) x axis data (XList)

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20 13 Using Calculator Functions in Programs • Sine regression statistical calculation SinReg List 1, List 2 axis data (YList) axis data (XList) • Logistic regression statistical calculation LogisticReg List 1, List 2 axis data (YList) axis data (XList)

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CASIO FA123 Interface Unit. This chapter also contains information on how to use the optional SB62 cable to connect to a CASIO Label Printer to transfer screen data for printing. 211...

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211 Connecting Two Units The following procedure describes how to connect two units with an optional SB 62 connecting cable for transfer of programs between them. u u u u u To connect two units 1. Check to make sure that the power of both units is off. 2.

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Computer To transfer data between the unit and a personal computer, you must connect them through a separately available CASIO FA123 connection cable. For details on operation, the types of computer that can be connected, and hardware limitations, see the user’s manual that comes with the FA123.

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213 Connecting the Unit with a CASIO Label Printer After you connect the unit to a CASIO Label Printer with an optional SB62 cable, you can use the Label Printer to print screen shot data from the unit. See the user’s guide that comes with your Label Printer for details on how to perform this...

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214 Before Performing a Data Communication Operation In the Main Menu, select the LINK icon and enter the LINK Mode. The following data communication main menu appears on the display. P.408 Image Set: ..Indicates the status of the graphic image send features. Off: Graphic images not sent.

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215 Performing a Data Transfer Operation Connect the two units and then perform the following procedures. Receiving unit To set up the calculator to receive data, press 2 (RECV) while the data commu nication main menu is displayed. The calculator enters a data receive standby mode and waits for data to arrive. Actual data receive starts as soon as data is sent from the sending unit.

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21  5 Performing a Data Transfer Operation • {SEL} ... {selects data item where cursor is located} • {TRAN} ... {sends selected data items} Use the f and c cursor keys to move the cursor to the data item you want to select and press 1 (SEL) to select it.

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21  5 Performing a Data Transfer Operation Data item name • {YES} ... {replaces the receiving unit’s existing data with the new data} • {NO} ... {skips to next data item} With password check: If a file is password protected, a message appears asking for input of the password.

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21  5 Performing a Data Transfer Operation The following shows what the displays of the sending and receiving units look like after the data communication operation is complete. Sending Unit Receiving Unit Press A to return to the data communication main menu. u u u u u To send backup data This operation allows you to send all memory contents, including mode settings.

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To send the screen P.402 1. Connect the unit to a personal computer or to a CASIO Label Printer. P.403 2. In the data communication main menu, press 6 (IMGE) and the following display appears.

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217 Data Communications Precautions Note the following precautions whenever you perform data communications. • An error occurs whenever you try to send data to a receiving unit that is not yet standing by to receive data. When this happens, press A to clear the error and try again, after setting up the receiving unit to receive data.

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Chapter Program Library 1 Prime Factor Analysis 2 Greatest Common Measure Test Value 4 Circle and Tangents 5 Rotating a Figure Before using the Program Library • Be sure to check how many bytes of unused memory is remain ing before attempting to perform any programming. •...

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PROGRAM SHEET Program for Prime Factor Analysis Description Produces prime factors of arbitrary positive integers For 1 < < 10 Prime numbers are produced from the lowest value first. “END” is displayed at the end of the program. (Overview) is divided by 2 and by all successive odd numbers ( = 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, ..) to check for divisibility.

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Line Program File name → " " Goto ÷ → ⇒ Goto ÷ ⇒ → Frac Goto → ⇒ ⇒ ÷ Goto Frac Goto → Goto ÷ × ⇒ Goto – Goto ÷ → Goto " " Goto...

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PROGRAM SHEET Program for Greatest Common Measure Description Euclidean general division is used to determine the greatest common measure for two interers For  ,   < 10 , positive values are taken as < 10 (Overview) = max ,  = min ( , ...

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Line Program File name → → " " " " → → ⇒ < Goto → → → ÷ × → C (–) – ⇒ Goto → → Goto Goto a, n b, n...

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PROGRAM SHEET Program for Test Value Description The mean (sample mean) and sample standard deviation can be used to obtain a test value. (x – m) : mean of data σ : sample standard deviation of data –1 n– : number of data items : hypothetical population standard deviation (normally represented by µ...

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Line Program File name → List lVar List → " " ÷ σ ÷ → – n– " " Goto • distribution table The values in the top row of the table show the probability (twosided probability) that the absolute value of is greater than the table values for a given degree of freedom.

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PROGRAM SHEET Program for Circle and Tangents Description Formula for circle: Formula for tangent line passing (x',y') through point A ( – – represents the slope of the tangent line With this program, slope and intercept – ) are obtained for lines drawn from point A ( ) and are tangent to a circle with a radius of .

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Line Program File name Prog " " " → " Prog " " " → " → " " Plot → – → – – –1 – Graph Y= " " " " – " ⇒ ⇒ → " → ⇒...

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Line Program ⇒ Prog " " Goto ⇒ – Graph Y= – Graph Y= Goto – Graph Y= Prog " " Prog " " Goto " " File name View (–) (–) Window File name – Graph Y= (–) – Graph Y=...

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Program for Circle and Tangents Step Key Operation Display...

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Program for Circle and Tangents Step Key Operation Display...

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Program for Circle and Tangents Step Key Operation Display...

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Program for Circle and Tangents Step Key Operation Display...

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PROGRAM SHEET Program for Rotating a Figure Description Formula for coordinate transfor mation: ) → ( cos θ – sin θ sin θ + cos θ Graphing of rotation of any geometric figure by θ degrees. Example To rotate by 45° the triangle defined by points A (2, 0.5), B (6, 0.5), and C (5, 1.5) Notes •...

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Line Program File name View (–) (–) Window " → " → " " Plot → → " → " → " " Plot → → " → " → " " Plot → → Line Plot Line Plot Line →...

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Program for Rotating a Figure Step Key Operation Display...

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Program for Rotating a Figure Step Key Operation Display (Locate the pointer at X = 5) Continue, repeating from step 8.

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Appendix Appendix A Resetting the Calculator Appendix B Power Supply Appendix C Error Message Table Appendix D Input Ranges Appendix E Specifications...

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Appendix A Resetting the Calculator Warning! The procedure described here clears all memory contents. Never perform this operation unless you want to totally clear the memory of the calculator. If you need the data currently stored in memory, be sure to write it down somewhere before performing the RESET operation.

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Appendix A Resetting the Calculator • If the calculator stops operating correctly for some reason, use a thin, pointed object to press the P button on the back of the P button calculator. This should make the RESET screen appear on the display. Perform the procedure to complete the RESET operation.

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Appendix B Power Supply This calculator is powered by four AAAsize (LR03 (AM4) or R03 (UM4)) batteries. In addition, it uses a single CR2032 lithium battery as a back up power supply for the memory. If the following message appears on the display, immediately turn off the calculator and replace batteries.

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Appendix B Power Supply (Should a battery leak, clean out the battery compartment of the calculator immediately, taking care to avoid letting the battery fluid come into direct contact with your skin.) Keep batteries out of the reach of small children. If swallowed, consult with a physician immediately.

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Appendix B Power Supply • Power supplied by memory back up battery while the main power supply batteries are removed for replacement retains memory contents. • Do not leave the calculator without main power supply batteries loaded for long periods. Doing so can cause deletion of data stored in memory. •...

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Appendix B Power Supply 6. Wipe off the surfaces of a new battery with a soft, dry cloth. Load it into the calculator so that its positive (+) side is facing up. BACK UP 7. Install the memory protection battery cover onto the calculator and secure it in place with the screw.

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Appendix C Error Message Table Message Meaning Countermeasure Syn ERROR 1 Calculation formula contains an 1 Use d or e to display the error. point where the error was generated and correct it. 2 Formula in a program contains 2 Use d or e to display the point an error.

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Appendix C Error Message Table Message Meaning Countermeasure Stk ERROR • Execution of calculations that • Simplify the formulas to keep exceed the capacity of the stacks within 10 levels for the stack for numeric values or numeric values and 26 levels stack for commands.

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Appendix D Input Ranges Internal Function Input ranges Accuracy Notes digits As a rule, However, for tan  < 9 × (10 (DEG)  )° accuracy is 90(2 +1):DEG G G G G G  < 5 × 10 πrad (RAD)  15 digits ±1 at the...

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Appendix D Input Ranges Internal Function Input ranges Accuracy Notes digits  < 1 × 10 However, for tan θ : As a rule, (DEG)  θ  < 9 × (10  θ  )° accuracy is 90(2 +1):DEG G G G G G 15 digits , θ...

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Appendix D Input Ranges Function Input ranges Binary, Values fall within following ranges after conversion: octal, DEC: –2147483648 < < 2147483647 decimal, BIN: 1000000000000000 < hexadecimal < 1111111111111111 (negative) calculation 0 < < 0111111111111111 (0, positive) OCT: 20000000000 < < 37777777777 (negative) 0 <...

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Appendix E Specifications Variables: 28 Calculation range: ±1 × 10 to ±9.999999999 × 10 and 0. Internal operations use 15digit mantissa. –99 Exponential display range: Norm 1: 10 >  ,   > 10 –2 Norm 2: 10 >  ,   >...

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Appendix E Specifications Data Communications Functions: Program contents and file names; function memory data; matrix memory data; list data; variable data; Table & Graph data; graph functions; equation calculation coefficients Method: Startstop (asynchronous), halfduplex Transmission speed (BPS): 9600 bits/second Parity: none Bit length: 8 bits Stop bit: Send: 3 bits...

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Index Built in function ......123, 194 Symbols AList ............242 Σ calculation ..........65 Calculation execution indicator ....10 Σ display ..........7, 224 Calculation priority sequence ....16 χ Test ..........276, 289 Carriage return ........373 Cell ............233 Center ............

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Index Cubic equation ........104 Ellipse ............ 197 Cubic regression ........262 Eng ............15 Cumulative frequency ......241 Engineering notation ....15, 44, 50 EQUA Mode ........... 100 Error message ........436 Errors ............19 Data communications ......399 Estimated values ........

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Index Graph drawing type ......5, 128 Inverse trigonometric function ....45 Graph function display ....... 6, 187 Investment appraisal ......337 Graph function menu ......112 Graph gridlines ........6, 121 Graph memory ........122 Jump commands ........380 GRAPH Mode ......

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Index Making corrections ........41 Normal distribution curve ....... 258 Margin ............ 348 Normal probability graphing ....275 MAT Mode ..........80 Normal probability plot ......255 Matrix answer memory ......80 Normal probability distribution calculations ........273 Matrix arithmetic operation ...... 92 Normalized variate .........

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Index Poisson distribution ....... 316 RUN Mode ..........4 Polar coordinate function ......117 Population standard deviation ....259 Power regression graph ......264 Sample standard deviation ....259 PRGM Mode .......... 352 Savings .......... 328, 331 Principal ..........331 Scalar multiplication .........

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Index intercepts ..........147 confidence interval ....... 300 Test ..........276, 283 Table & graph ........205 Table generation and graph draw confidence interval ......295 settings ........7, 208 Test ..........276, 277 TABLE Mode .......... 206 oom ............. 132 Table range ..........

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Command Index Break ..................378 ClrGraph ................382 ClrList ..................382 ClrText ................... 382 DispFTbl, DispRTbl ............. 383 Do~LpWhile ................377 DrawDyna ................383 DrawFTGCon, DrawFTGPlt ..........383 DrawGraph ................383 DrawRCon, DrawRPlt ............384 DrawRΣCon, DrawRΣPlt ............. 384 DrawStat ................384 DrawWeb ................

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Key Index combined with Primary Function combined with ! Turns trace function on/off. Trace Selects 1st function menu item. Turns zoom function on. Zoom Selects 2nd function menu item. Displays View Window parameter VWindow input screen. Select 3rd function menu item. Displays sketch menu.

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Key Index combined with Primary Function combined with ! Moves cursor to right. Scrolls screen. Press after EXE to display calculation from beginning. Allows input of variable X, θ , and Enters letter A. Press before entering value to Press before entering Enters letter B.

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Key Index combined with Primary Function combined with ! Allows insertion of Deletes character at current characters at cursor cursor location. location. Turns power on. Turns power off. Clears the display. Enters number 4. Enters letter P. Enters number 5. Enters letter Q.

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Program Mode Command List [ SETUP ] key [ VARS ] key RECR FORM Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Command Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Command ANGL VWIN Xmin Xmax scal Xscl COOR CoordOn Ymin CoordOff Ymax TEST RANG Strt R_Start...

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[ PRGM ] key [ SHIFT ] key [ F4 ]( MENU ) key SortA( LIST SrtA Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Command Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Command Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Command SrtD SortD( ZOOM Fact Factor_...

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[ F6 ]( SYBL ) key [ ALPHA ] key [ OPTN ] key PROB Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Command Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Command Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Command LIST List List_ " "...

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Connector FA123 Power Graphic Unit to PC for IBM/Macintosh Machine Declaration of Conformity Model Number: fx9750G PLUS/CFX9850G PLUS/CFX9850GB PLUS/CFX9950GB PLUS Trade Name: CASIO COMPUTER CO., LTD. Responsible party: CASIO, INC. Address: 570 MT. PLEASANT AVENUE, DOVER, NEW JERSEY 07801 Telephone number: 9733615400 This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules.

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CASIO COMPUTER CO., LTD. 62, Honmachi 1chome Shibuyaku, Tokyo 1518543, Japan...
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